卫生类

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 New U. S. Plan for Disease PreventionUrging Americans to take responsibility for their health,Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson on Tuesday launched a$15 million program to try to encourage communities to do more to prevent chronic diseases like heart disease,cancer and diabetes(糖尿病).The initiative highlights the costs of chronic diseases—the leading causes of death in the United States—and outlines ways that people can prevent them,including better diet and in-creased exercise.“In the United States today,7 of 10 deaths and the vast majority of serious illness,disability and health care costs are caused by chronic diseases,”the Health and Human Services Depart-ment said in a statement.The causes are often behavioral—smoking,poor eating habits and a lack of exercise.“I am convinced that preventing disease by promoting better health is a smart policy choice for our future,”Thompson told a conference held to launch the initiative.“Our current health care system is not structured to deal with the rising costs of treating dis-eases that are largely preventable through changes in our lifestyle choices.”Thompson said heart disease and strokes will cost the country more than $351 billion in 2003.“These leading causes of death for men and women are largely preventable,yet we as a na- tion are not taking the steps necessary for us to lead healthier,longer lives,”he said.The $15 million is designed to go to communities to promote prevention,pushing for chan-ges as simple as building sidewalks to encourage people to walk more.Daily exercise such as walking can prevent and even reverse heart disease and diabetes,and prevent cancer and strokes.The money will also go to community organizations,clinics and nutritionists who are being en-couraged to work together to educate people at risk of diabetes about what they can do to prevent it and encourage more cancer screening.The American Cancer Society estimates that half of all cancers can be caught by screening, including Pap tests(巴氏试验)for cervical cancer(宫颈癌), mammograms for breast cancer, colonoscopies(结肠镜检查), and prostate(前列腺的)checks.If such cancers were all caught by early screening,the group estimates that the survival rate for cancer would rise to 95 percent.
[多选题]共用题干 Relieving the Pain"Exercise may be the best treatment of chronic pain,"say doctors at a new clinic for dealing with pain. "People with chronic pain need to stop lying around,go out more,and start exercising."The instinctive reaction to acute pain is to stop moving and to try to protect the source of pain. But it seems that this is often not productive,especially in the case of back pain. Back pain,after headaches and tiredness,has become the third most common reason for people to visit their doctors.Painful backs now account for millions of days off work.Lumbar(腰部的)pains are partly the price humans pay for taking their forelimbs off the ground, but they are made worse by a sedentary(久坐不动的)lifestyle. Lack of exercise slowly decreases the flexibility and strength of muscles,so that it is more difficult to take pressure off the site of pain.Exercise is essential. It releases endorphins(内啡肽),the body's "feel-good" chemicals, which are natural painkillers. In fact, these are so important that researchers are now looking for drugs that can maintain a comfortable level of endorphins in the body.Most people who go to a family doctor complaining of pain are prescribed pain-killing drugs rather than exercise.Since finding the cause of backache is not so easy,doctors frequently do not know the precise cause of the discomfort,and as the pain continues,sufferers end up taking stronger doses or a series of different drugs."It's crazy,"says Dr. Brasseur,a therapist at the International Association for the Study of Pain. "Some of them are taking different drugs prescribed by different doctors.I've just seen a patient who was taking two drugs which turned out to be the same thing under different names."A generation of new pain clinics now operates on the basis that drugs are best avoided.Once patients have undergone the initial physical and psychological check up,their medication is cut down as much as possible.Taking patients off drugs also prepares them for physical activity.In some pain一 relief clinics,patients begin the day with muscle contraction and relaxation exercises, followed by an hour on exercise bikes. Later in the day,they practice tai chi(太极),self-defense,and deepthought. This compares with an average of two-and-a-half hours' physiotherapy(理疗)a week in a traditional hospital program."The idea is to strengthen and to increase long一lasting energy,flexibility,and confidence," explains Bill Wiles,a consultant pain doctor in Liverpool."Patients undergoing this therapy get back to work and resume healthy active lifestyles much sooner than those subjected to more conservative treatment." Doctors often use drugs such as endorphins to treat patients.
[多选题]共用题干 Relieving the Pain"Exercise may be the best treatment of chronic pain,"say doctors at a new clinic for dealing with pain. "People with chronic pain need to stop lying around,go out more,and start exercising."The instinctive reaction to acute pain is to stop moving and to try to protect the source of pain. But it seems that this is often not productive,especially in the case of back pain. Back pain,after headaches and tiredness,has become the third most common reason for people to visit their doctors.Painful backs now account for millions of days off work.Lumbar(腰部的)pains are partly the price humans pay for taking their forelimbs off the ground, but they are made worse by a sedentary(久坐不动的)lifestyle. Lack of exercise slowly decreases the flexibility and strength of muscles,so that it is more difficult to take pressure off the site of pain.Exercise is essential. It releases endorphins(内啡肽),the body's "feel-good" chemicals, which are natural painkillers. In fact, these are so important that researchers are now looking for drugs that can maintain a comfortable level of endorphins in the body.Most people who go to a family doctor complaining of pain are prescribed pain-killing drugs rather than exercise.Since finding the cause of backache is not so easy,doctors frequently do not know the precise cause of the discomfort,and as the pain continues,sufferers end up taking stronger doses or a series of different drugs."It's crazy,"says Dr. Brasseur,a therapist at the International Association for the Study of Pain. "Some of them are taking different drugs prescribed by different doctors.I've just seen a patient who was taking two drugs which turned out to be the same thing under different names."A generation of new pain clinics now operates on the basis that drugs are best avoided.Once patients have undergone the initial physical and psychological check up,their medication is cut down as much as possible.Taking patients off drugs also prepares them for physical activity.In some pain一 relief clinics,patients begin the day with muscle contraction and relaxation exercises, followed by an hour on exercise bikes. Later in the day,they practice tai chi(太极),self-defense,and deepthought. This compares with an average of two-and-a-half hours' physiotherapy(理疗)a week in a traditional hospital program."The idea is to strengthen and to increase long一lasting energy,flexibility,and confidence," explains Bill Wiles,a consultant pain doctor in Liverpool."Patients undergoing this therapy get back to work and resume healthy active lifestyles much sooner than those subjected to more conservative treatment." Headaches are partly caused by lack of exercise.
[多选题]共用题干 Parkinson's Disease1 Parkinson's disease affects the way you move.It happens when there is a problem with certain nerve cells in the brain. Normally , these nerve cells make an important chemical called dopamine(多巴胺). Dopamine sends signals to the part of your brain that controls movement.It lets your muscles move smoothly and do what you want them to do.When you have Parkinson's,these nerve cells break down.Then you nolonger have enough dopamine,and you have trouble moving the way you want to.2 No one knows for sure what makes these nerve cells break down.But scientists are doing a lot of research to look for the answer. They are studying many possible causes,including aging and poisons in the environment.Abnormal genes seem to lead to Parkinson's disease in some people.But so far,there is not enough proof to show that it is always inherited.3 Tremor(颤抖)may be the first symptom you notice.It is one of the most common signs of the disease,although not everyone has it.Tremor often starts in just one arm or leg or only on one side of the body.It may be worse when you are awake but not moving the affected arm or leg.It may get better when you move the limb or when you are asleep.In time,Parkinson's affects muscles all through your body,so it can lead to problems like trouble swallowing or constipation(便秘).In the later stages of the disease,a person with Parkinson's may have a fixed or blank expression,trouble" speaking,and other problems.Some people also have a decrease in mental skills.4 At this time,there is no cure for Parkinson's disease.But there are several types of medicines that can control the symptoms and make the disease easier to live with.You may not even need treatment if your symptoms are mild.Your doctor may wait to prescribe medicines until your symptoms start to get in the way of your daily life.Your doctor will adjust your medicines as your symptoms get worse.You may need to take several medicines to get the best results.
[多选题]共用题干 Nurse!I Want My MummyWhen a child is ill in hospital,a parent's first reaction is to be________(51)them.Most hospitals now allow parents to sleep________(52)with their child,providing a bed or sofa on the ward.But until the 1970s this _________ (53) was not only frowned upon(不被赞同)—it was actively discouraged.Staff worried that the children would be______(54)when their parents left,and so there was a blanket(通用的)ban.A concerned nurse,Pamela Hawthorn,disagreed and her study"Nurse,I Want My Mummy!"published in 1974,_________ (55 ) the face of paediatric(儿科的)nursing.Martin Johnson,a professor of nursing at the University of Salford,said that the work of_________(56) like Pamela had changed the face of patient care."Pamela's study was done against the__________(57)of a lively debate in paediatrics and psychology as to the degree women should spend with children in the outside world and the degree to which they should be allowed to visit children in__________(58).""The idea was that if mum came to__________(59)a small child in hospital the child would be upset and inconsolable(无法安慰的)for hours.""Yet the nurse noticed that if mum did not come at_________(60)the child stayed in a relatively stable state but they might be depressed.""Of course we know now that they had almost given up hope__________(61)mum was ever comingback.""To avoid a little bit of pain they said that no one should visit.""But children were alone and depressed,so Hawthorn said parents should be__________(62)to visit." Dr. Peter Carter,chief executive and general secretary of the Royal College of Nursing,said her _________( 63 ) had been seminal(开创性的)."Her research put an end to the__________(64)when parents handed their children over to strangers at the door of the hospital ward.""As a result of her work,parents are now recognized as partners in care and are offered the opportunity to stay with their children while they are in hospital,__________(65)has dramatically improved both parents'and children's experience of care." _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 The Meaning of Dreams1 Dreams play an important role in our lives.If they can be correctly interpreted,we can come to understand ourselves better. Here,we look at four common dreams and what they potentially symbolize.2 I can see their laughing faces…laughing at me. But they aren't as smart. If they were,they'd be up.here flying with me!This dream has both positive and negative connotations(涵义).On the positive side,the dream may express a strong desire to travel and get away from everyday routine.It can also be interpreted as a powerful desire to achieve.On the other hand,this dream can mean the person has a problem or is afraid of something and they wish to escape. The dream could represent an inferiority complex(自卑情 结),which the dreamer attempts to escape from by putting themselves up above others.3 I'm moving fast now,but it's still behind me. Doesn 't matter how fast I go. I still can 't escape. Although this is a traditional symbol of health and vitality(生命力)like the first one,it can also suggest the dreamer is trying to escape from danger. Usually,fear is the dominant emotion.By running hard,the dreamer can possibly escape the threat.However,they can also stumble or worse still stop moving altogether. This makes the fear even more terrifying.One possible interpretation suggests that the person is under pressure in their everyday life.4 I'm sweating and my heart is beating. I'm trapped in my own bed. In this dream,the person is often standing on a high,exposed place such as on the top of a tower,or on the edge of a cliff. The overwhelming(强烈的)feeling changes from anxiety to a loss of control. There is nothing to stop the person, and the feeling as they go over the edge can be horrifyingly real.Fortunately,just before hitting the ground, the dreamer awakens with a sense of enormous relief. This dream suggests that the dreamer is afraid of losing control and has a fear of failure or even death.5 The wind is pushing me and I slip. There 's nothing I can do…nothing I can hold on to. This symbol is associated with fear:suddenly the dreamer loses all power of movement.They try hard to move their arms and legs,but they simply cannot.Frozen in a terrifying situation with no escape,they become more andmore terrified as the seconds go by.Another frequent context for this dream is failing to do something in public,often something which you are normally very good at,such as your job.Not only is this extremely embarrassing,but it also shows a deep-seated phobia(恐惧)of losing a job and a livelihood. If a person dreams of failing to do something in public,he may__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Cell Phones: Hang Up or Keep Talking?Millions of people are using cell phones today.In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one.In many countries,cell phones are very popular with young people.They find that the phones are more than a means of communication一having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected.The explosions around the world in mobile phone use make some health professionals worried.Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones.In England,there has been a serious debate about this issue.Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas.They say that there is no proof that mobile phones are bad for your health.On the other hand,why do some medical studies show changes in the brain cells of some people who use mobile phones?Signs of change in the tissues of the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning equipment. In one case,a traveling salesman had to retire at a young age because of serious memory loss.He couldn't remember even simple tasks.He would often forget the name of his own son.This man used to talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day,every day of his working week,for a couple of years. His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use,but his employer's doctor didn't agree.What is it that makes mobile phones potentially harmful?The answer is radiation.High-tech machines can detect very small amounts of radiation from mobile phones.Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation,but they say the amount is too small to worry about.As the discussion about their safety continues,it appears that it's best to use mobile phones less often. Use your regular phone if you want to talk for a long time.Use your mobile phone only when you really need it. Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient,especially in emergencies.In the future,mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health.So for now,it's wise not to use your mobile phone too often. The salesman retired young because__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Sprained(扭伤)AnkleOne of the most common injuries teenagers and adults experience is a sprained ankle.A sprain occurs when the ligaments(韧带)of a joint are twisted(扭伤)and possibly torn. Ligaments are bands of fibers that hold the bones of a joint in position.A sprain can occur from a sudden twisting at the joint,or a stretching or tearing of the fibers of the ligaments. The injured area usually swells(肿胀)and becomes black and blue. Stepping off the sidewalk at the wrong angle or having one foot land in a hole while walking or running can leave you rolling on the ground in pain with an ankle on fire!If you cannot walk without experiencing intense pain,you must seek medical help.If the pain is manageable,and you can walk,here are three words to help you remember how to treat yourself:● Elevate(抬高)●Cool● Bandage(打绷带)As soon as there is injury to that ligament,there will be a certain amount of bleeding under the skin. Once the blood poois around the damaged blood vessels,swelling occurs.The pressure from the swelling results in additional stress and tenderness to the region.In order to reduce the degree of swelling,lie down as soon as possible and keep the ankle elevated so that it is actually higher than your heart. Next,to reduce blood distribution and keep bleeding(流血)to a minimum , apply a cold pack. After 20 minutes , take thepack off,wait half an hour,and then reapply.This can be done several times a day for a total of three days.Never leave a cold pack on for more than 20 minutes at a time.Reducing the temperature in that area for an extended period of time signals the body to increase blood flow to raise the body temperature!Therefore, one accidentally triggers(引起)more blood distribution to the affected area by leaving a cold pack on for too long!Finally,bandage the ankle.Be careful not to wind it too tightly;doing so can restrict blood flow and cause harm to the entire foot. The word "it" in Paragraph 2(Line 5)refers to__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Organic Food:Why?1 Europe is now the biggest market for organic food in the world,expanding by 25 percent a year over the past 10 years.So what is the attraction of organic food for some people?The really important thing is that organic sounds more"natural".Eating organic is a way of defining oneself as natural,good,caring, different from the junk-food-eating masses.2 Unlike conventional farming,the organic approach means farming with natural,rather than man- made , fertilisers and pesticides. Techniques such as crop rotation(轮种)improve soil quality and helporganic farmers compensate for the absence of man-made chemicals.As a method of food production,organic is,however,inefficient in its use of labour and land;there are severe limits to how much food can be pro- duced.Also,the environmental benefits of not using artificial fertilisers are tiny compared with the amount of carbon dioxide emitted(排放)by transporting food.3 Organic farming is often claimed to be safer than conventional farming. Yet studies into organic farming worldwide continue to reject this claim.An extensive review by the UK Food Standards Agency foundthat there was no statistically significant difference between organic and conventional crops.Even where re-sults indicated there was evidence of a difference,the reviewers found no sign that these differences would have any noticeable effect on health.4 The simplistic claim that organic food is more nutritious than conventional food was always likely to be misleading. Food is a natural product,and the health value of different foods will vary for a number of rea-sons,including freshness,the way the food is cooked,the type of soil it is grown in,the amount of sunlight and rain crops have received,and so on.Likewise,the flavour of a carrot has less to do with whether it was fertilised with manure(粪便)or something out of a plastic sack than with the variety of carrot and how long ago it was dug up.5 The notion that organic food is safer than"normal"food is also contradicted by the fact that many of our most common foods are full of natural toxins(毒素).As one research expert says : " People think that the more natural something is,the better it is for them.That is simply not the case.In fact,it is the opposite that is true:the closer a plant is to its natural state,the more likely it is that it will poison you.Naturally, many plants do not want to be eaten,so we have spent 10,000 years developing agriculture and breeding out harmful traits from crops." Paragraph 4________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇DNA FingerprintingDNA is the genetic material found within the cell nuclei of all living things. In mammals(哺乳动物) the strands of DNA are grouped into structures called chromosomes(染色体).With the exception of identicaltwins,the complete DNA of each individual is unique.DNA fingerprinting is sometimes called DNA typing. It is a method of identification that compares bits of DNA.A DAN fingerprint is constructed by first drawing out a DNA sample from body tissue or fluid such as hair , blood,or saliva(唾液).The sample is then segmented using enzymes(酶),and the segments are arranged by size.The segments are marked with probes and exposed on X-ray film,where they form a pat- tern of black bars一the DNA fingerprint.If the DNA fingerprints produced from two different samples match, the two samples probably came from the same person.DNA fingerprinting was first developed as an identification technique in 1985.Originally used to detect the presence of genetic diseases,it soon came to be used in criminal investigations and legal affairs.The first criminal conviction based on DNA evidence in the United States occurred in 1988.In criminal investiga- tions,DNA fingerprints derived from evidence collected at the crime scene are compared to the DNA finger- prints of suspects.Generally,courts have accepted the reliability of DNA testing and admitted DNA test re- sults into evidence.However,DNA fingerprinting is controversial in a number of areas:the accuracy of the results,the cost of testing,and the possible misuse of the technique.The accuracy of DNA fingerprinting has been challenged for several reasons. First,because DNA segmentsrather than complete DNA strands are"fingerprinted";a DNA fingerprint may not be unique;large-scale research to confirm the uniqueness of DNA fingerprinting.test results has not been conducted.In addition, DNA fingerprinting is often done in private laboratories that may not follow uniform testing standards and quality controls.Also,since human beings must interpret the test,human error could lead to false results.DNA fingerprinting is expensive.Suspects who are unable to provide their own DNA to experts may not be able to successfully defend themselves against charges based on DNA evidence.Widespread use of DNA testing for identification purposes may lead to the establishment of a DNA fingerprint database. DNA fingerprinting was first used in________.
[单选题]Inquest told of hospital err A HOSPITAL err left a dying man on the wrong ward f two days asdeep vein thrombosis (DVT) ravaged his body, an inquest heard. Stephen MelvinNewbold suffered massive brain damage when a blood clot fmed in his veins.Now his families are considering legal action against Yk Hospital, sayingthat his death was “untimely unnecessary”. Mr Newbold, a 52-year-old maintenance wker, went to Yk Hospitalon November 3 complaining of a swollen right foot. He should have been sent toa surgical ward he would have been treated with1 Fragmin, a drug whichcounters the effects of DVT. However, hospital staff wrongly admitted him to2an thopedic ward, he stayed f two days, befe finally beingtransferred to the care of a consultant vascular surgeon. Twenty-four hourslater, on November 6, docts decided they would have to operate to remove hisleg below the knee. The operation went ahead on November 10, but two days later MrNewbold suffered a cardiac arrest. A scan revealed he had had a pulmonaryembolism, a condition related to DVT. Mr Newbold suffered brain damage diedin the hospital on November 16. Giving evidence, the surgeon said he could not explain why MrNewbold had been admitted to an thopedic ward it was not policy toadminister Fragmin. He did not know why his medical team had not given MrNewbold the drug later. Yk coner Donald Coverdale said, “From November 3until the day of the operation, no Fragmin was given to Mr Newbold. If he hadbeen admitted to a consultant vascular surgeon’s care from day one,it is clear that Fragmin would have been prescribed. Fragmin reduces the riskof DVT, but does not eliminate it. It is impossible to say whether Mr Newboldwould have suffered this DVT if he had received the Fragmin.” He recded averdict of death by misadventure. Kim Daniells, Mr Newbold’s family’s lawyer,said, “The family hope that the hospital will learn from the errs, that no other families will have to suffer in the future.” A spokeswoman f Yk Hospital’s NHS Trust said, “We wouldlike to extend our sincere sympathies to the family of Stephen Newbold duringthis difficult time.”   词汇: ward n.病房 vein n.血管 thrombosis n.血栓 clot n.凝块 maintenance n.维修,维护 Fragmin n.法安明(又名片段化蛋白) staff n.员工;职工 consultant n.顾问,咨询,会诊医师 surgeon n.心血管外科顾问 knee n.膝盖 embolism n.栓塞;栓塞形成 verdict n.裁决 misadventure n.灾难,不幸遭遇,意外事故 sympathy n.同情   注释: 1.be treated with...被用......药物进行治疗 2.be admitted to...被收容至,被移送至(本文中是“被送至病房”)   练习: 1.The patient was admitted with an injured foot.
[多选题]共用题干 Scientists Develop Ways of Detecting Heart AttackGerman researchers have come up with a new generation of defibrillators(除颤器)and early-warning software aimed at offering heart patients greater________ (51)from sudden death from cardiac arrest(心脏 停搏).In Germany alone,around 100,000 people die annually________(52)a result of cardiac arrest and many of these cases are caused by disruption to the heart's rhythm.Those most at________(53)are pa- tients who have already suffered a heart attack,and for years the use of defibrillators has proved useful in ________(54)life-threatening disruptions to heart rhythms and correcting them automatically by intervening within seconds.These devices________(55)on a range of functions,such as that of pacemaker(起 搏器).Heart specialists at Freiburg's University Clinic have now achieved a breakthrough with an implanted defibrillator________(56 ) of generating a six-channel electrocardiogram ( EGG,心电图)within the body. This integrated system allows _________( 57 ) diagnosis of severe blood-flow problems and a pending(即将发 生的)heart attack. It will be implanted in _________( 58 ) for the first time this year. Meanwhile , research- ers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Mathematics in Kaiserslautern have developed new computer soft- ware that________(59)the evaluation of EGG data more precise.The overwhelming majority of patients at risk will not have an implanted defibrillator and must for this ________(60)undergo regular EGGs."Many of the current programs only take into________(61)a line-ar correlation of the data. We are,however,making use in a non-linear process________(62)reveals the chaotic patterns of heart beats as an open and complex system,"Hagen Knaf says,"In this way changes in the heart________(63)over time can be monitored and individual variations in patients taken into ac-count."An old study of EGG data,based upon 600 patients who had________(64)a subsequent heart attack,enabled the researchers to compare risks and to show that the new software evaluates the________(65)considerably better. _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 Scientists Develop Ways of Detecting Heart AttackGerman researchers have come up with a new generation of defibrillators(除颤器)and early-warning software aimed at offering heart patients greater________ (51)from sudden death from cardiac arrest(心脏 停搏).In Germany alone,around 100,000 people die annually________(52)a result of cardiac arrest and many of these cases are caused by disruption to the heart's rhythm.Those most at________(53)are pa- tients who have already suffered a heart attack,and for years the use of defibrillators has proved useful in ________(54)life-threatening disruptions to heart rhythms and correcting them automatically by intervening within seconds.These devices________(55)on a range of functions,such as that of pacemaker(起 搏器).Heart specialists at Freiburg's University Clinic have now achieved a breakthrough with an implanted defibrillator________(56 ) of generating a six-channel electrocardiogram ( EGG,心电图)within the body. This integrated system allows _________( 57 ) diagnosis of severe blood-flow problems and a pending(即将发 生的)heart attack. It will be implanted in _________( 58 ) for the first time this year. Meanwhile , research- ers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Mathematics in Kaiserslautern have developed new computer soft- ware that________(59)the evaluation of EGG data more precise.The overwhelming majority of patients at risk will not have an implanted defibrillator and must for this ________(60)undergo regular EGGs."Many of the current programs only take into________(61)a line-ar correlation of the data. We are,however,making use in a non-linear process________(62)reveals the chaotic patterns of heart beats as an open and complex system,"Hagen Knaf says,"In this way changes in the heart________(63)over time can be monitored and individual variations in patients taken into ac-count."An old study of EGG data,based upon 600 patients who had________(64)a subsequent heart attack,enabled the researchers to compare risks and to show that the new software evaluates the________(65)considerably better. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 One-third of Parents Lack Facts about Child DevelopmentOne-third of parents of babies have a surprisingly low knowledge of child development,in-cluding basic concepts about what their children should know or how they should act,a new study finds.For instance,the study found that many parents don't know that 1 -year-olds can't tell the difference between right and wrong,and often don't cooperate or share when playing with other children.The results are surprising because the parents who took part in the survey had young chil-dren,said lead author Dr. Heather Paradis,a pediatric fellow at the University of Rochester Med- ical Center in New York.“They were watching or had just watched their kids go through this de-velopment,and they were probably the most knowledgeable of anybody.”Paradis and her colleagues examined the results of a survey of parents—98 .6 percent of whom were mothers—of more than 10,000 9-month-old babies.As part of the survey,the parents were asked 11 questions designed to test their knowledge of a baby's development.The researchers also examined what the parents said about their interactions with their chil- dren,and watched videotapes of how the parents taught new things to their kids.One-third of those surveyed incorrectly answered four or more of the questions .Even when the researchers ad-justed the statistics to account for such factors as education levels and income,those parents were still less likely to enjoy“healthy interactions”with their children.A lack of proper understanding of a child's development can cause assorted problems,Para- dis said. For example,she said,a mother might expect an 18-month-old child to sit still for a doctor's appointment,even though children that age are normally curious and like to wander around.“A mom could misinterpret a child's normal curiosity as intentionally being defiant,and could respond with harsh discipline,withdrawal of affection and repetition of that pattern over time,”Paradis said.“That could hinder the child's potential for full growth and development.” The findings were to be presented Sunday at the Pediatric Academic Societies' meeting in Honolulu.One solution,Paradis said,is for pediatricians to take a more active role in educating new parents.“By improving knowledge of child development among all parents,not just those who are at highest risk,there's an opportunity to enhance parent-child interaction,”she said.“It can ul-timately lead to better parenting.” The parents surveyed were asked 11 questions on child development.
[多选题]共用题干 Food Safety and Foodborne illnessFood safety is an increasingly important public health issue.Governments all over the world are intensifying their efforts to_______(51)food safety.These efforts are in response to an increasing number of food safety problems and__________(52)consumer concerns.Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases , usually either infectious or toxic(有毒的)in nature,caused by agents that__________(53)the body through the ingestion(摄取)of food. Every person is__________(54) risk of foodborne illnesses.Foodborne diseases are a widespread and growing public health__________(55),both in developed and developing countries.The global incidence of foodborne diseases is difficult to___________(56),but it has been reported that in 2005 alone 8 million people died from diarrhoeal(腹泻)diseases. A great proportion of these _________ ( 57 ) can be attributed to contamination(污染)of food and drinking water. Additionally, diarrhoea is a _________( 58 ) cause of malnutrition(营养不良)in infants and young children.In industrialized countries,the percentage of the population suffering from foodborne diseases each year has been__________(59)to be 10 up to 30%.In the United States of America,for example,around 76 million cases of foodborne diseases,resulting_(60)325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths,are estimated to occur each year._________( 61 ) less well documented , developing countries bear the brunt(首当其冲)of the problem due to the presence of a wide_________(62)of foodborne diseases,including those caused by parasites (寄生虫).The high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in many developing countries suggests major ________(63)food safety problems.In partnership with other stakeholders,WHO is developing___________(64)that will further promote the safety of food.These policies___________(65)the entire food chain from production to consumption and willmake use of different types of expertise(专长). _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Acceptance of Chronic IllnessHolding on to hope may not make patients happier as they deal with chronic illnesses or diseases. accorcting to a new study by University of Michigan Health System researchers."Hope is an important part of happiness,"said Peter A. Ubel, M. D. director of the U-M Center forBehavioral and Decision Sciences in Medicine and one of the authors of the happily hopeless study,"but there's a dark side of hope.Sometimes,if hope makes people put off getting on with their life,it can get in the way of happiness."The results showed that people do not adapt well to situations if they are believed to be short-term.Ubel and his co-authors一both from U-M and Carnegie Mellon University一studied patients who had new colostomies:their colons were removed and they had to have bowel movements in a pouch that lay outside their body.At the time they received their colostomy,some patients were told that the colostomy was reversible一that they would undergo a second operation to reconnect their bowels after several months.Others were told that the colostomy was permanent and that they would never have normal bowel function again.The second group一the one without hope一reported being happier over the next six months than those with reversible colostomies."We think they were happier because they got on with their life.They realized the cards they were dealt, and recognized that they had no choice but to play with those cards,"said Ubel,who is also a professor in the Department of Internal Medicine."The other group was waiting for their colostomy to be reversed,"he added."They contrasted their current life with the life they hoped to lead,and didn't make the best of their current situation.""Hopeful messages may not be in the best interests of the patient and may interfere with the patient's emotional adaptation,"Ubel said."I don't think we should take hope away.But I think we have to be careful about building up people's hope so much that they put off living their life." One group of the patients was happier because_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Preventing Child MaltreatmentChild maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long consequences.There are no reliable global estimates for the prevalence of child maltreatment.Data for many countries,especially low and middle income countries,are lacking.Child maltreatment is complex and difficult to study.Current estimates vary widely depending on the country and the method of research used.Nonetheless,international studies reveal that approximately 20% of women and 5-10% of men report being sexually abused as children,while 25-50% of all children report being physically abused.Additionally,many children are subject to emotional abuse(sometimes referred to as psychological abuse).Every year,there are an estimated 31 ,000 homicide deaths in children under 15.This number underestimates the true extent of the problem,as a significant proportion of deaths due to child maltreatment are incorrectly attributed to falls,bums and drowning.Child maltreatment causes suffering to children and families and can have long-term consequences. Maltreatment causes stress that is associated with disruption in early brain development. Extreme stress can impair the development of the nervous and immune systems.Consequently,as adults,maltreated children are at increased risk for behavioural,physical and mental health problems.Via the behavioural and mental health consequences,maltreatment can contribute to heart disease,cancer,suicide,and sexually transmitted infections.Beyond the health consequences of child maltreatment,there is an economic impact,including costs of hospitalization,mental health treatment,child welfare,and longer-term health costs.A number of risk factors for child maltreatment have been identified.These risk factors are not present in all social and cultural contexts,but provide an overview when attempting to understand the causes of child maltreatment.It is important to emphasize that children are the victims and are never to blame for maltreatment. A number of characteristics of an individual child may increase the likelihood of being maltreated,such as being either under four years old or an adolescent,being unwanted,or failing to fulfill the expectations of parents and having special needs,crying persistently or having abnormal physical features. We can infer from the passage that__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Scientists Develop Ways of Detecting Heart AttackGerman researchers have come up with a new generation of defibrillators(除颤器)and early-warning software aimed at offering heart patients greater________ (51)from sudden death from cardiac arrest(心脏 停搏).In Germany alone,around 100,000 people die annually________(52)a result of cardiac arrest and many of these cases are caused by disruption to the heart's rhythm.Those most at________(53)are pa- tients who have already suffered a heart attack,and for years the use of defibrillators has proved useful in ________(54)life-threatening disruptions to heart rhythms and correcting them automatically by intervening within seconds.These devices________(55)on a range of functions,such as that of pacemaker(起 搏器).Heart specialists at Freiburg's University Clinic have now achieved a breakthrough with an implanted defibrillator________(56 ) of generating a six-channel electrocardiogram ( EGG,心电图)within the body. This integrated system allows _________( 57 ) diagnosis of severe blood-flow problems and a pending(即将发 生的)heart attack. It will be implanted in _________( 58 ) for the first time this year. Meanwhile , research- ers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Mathematics in Kaiserslautern have developed new computer soft- ware that________(59)the evaluation of EGG data more precise.The overwhelming majority of patients at risk will not have an implanted defibrillator and must for this ________(60)undergo regular EGGs."Many of the current programs only take into________(61)a line-ar correlation of the data. We are,however,making use in a non-linear process________(62)reveals the chaotic patterns of heart beats as an open and complex system,"Hagen Knaf says,"In this way changes in the heart________(63)over time can be monitored and individual variations in patients taken into ac-count."An old study of EGG data,based upon 600 patients who had________(64)a subsequent heart attack,enabled the researchers to compare risks and to show that the new software evaluates the________(65)considerably better. _________(55)
[单选题]Inquest told of hospital err A HOSPITAL err left a dying man on the wrong ward f two days asdeep vein thrombosis (DVT) ravaged his body, an inquest heard. Stephen MelvinNewbold suffered massive brain damage when a blood clot fmed in his veins.Now his families are considering legal action against Yk Hospital, sayingthat his death was “untimely unnecessary”. Mr Newbold, a 52-year-old maintenance wker, went to Yk Hospitalon November 3 complaining of a swollen right foot. He should have been sent toa surgical ward he would have been treated with1 Fragmin, a drug whichcounters the effects of DVT. However, hospital staff wrongly admitted him to2an thopedic ward, he stayed f two days, befe finally beingtransferred to the care of a consultant vascular surgeon. Twenty-four hourslater, on November 6, docts decided they would have to operate to remove hisleg below the knee. The operation went ahead on November 10, but two days later MrNewbold suffered a cardiac arrest. A scan revealed he had had a pulmonaryembolism, a condition related to DVT. Mr Newbold suffered brain damage diedin the hospital on November 16. Giving evidence, the surgeon said he could not explain why MrNewbold had been admitted to an thopedic ward it was not policy toadminister Fragmin. He did not know why his medical team had not given MrNewbold the drug later. Yk coner Donald Coverdale said, “From November 3until the day of the operation, no Fragmin was given to Mr Newbold. If he hadbeen admitted to a consultant vascular surgeon’s care from day one,it is clear that Fragmin would have been prescribed. Fragmin reduces the riskof DVT, but does not eliminate it. It is impossible to say whether Mr Newboldwould have suffered this DVT if he had received the Fragmin.” He recded averdict of death by misadventure. Kim Daniells, Mr Newbold’s family’s lawyer,said, “The family hope that the hospital will learn from the errs, that no other families will have to suffer in the future.” A spokeswoman f Yk Hospital’s NHS Trust said, “We wouldlike to extend our sincere sympathies to the family of Stephen Newbold duringthis difficult time.”   词汇: ward n.病房 vein n.血管 thrombosis n.血栓 clot n.凝块 maintenance n.维修,维护 Fragmin n.法安明(又名片段化蛋白) staff n.员工;职工 consultant n.顾问,咨询,会诊医师 surgeon n.心血管外科顾问 knee n.膝盖 embolism n.栓塞;栓塞形成 verdict n.裁决 misadventure n.灾难,不幸遭遇,意外事故 sympathy n.同情   注释: 1.be treated with...被用......药物进行治疗 2.be admitted to...被收容至,被移送至(本文中是“被送至病房”)   练习: 6.It was decided that the patient’s death had been anaccident.
[多选题]共用题干 Scientists Develop Ways of Detecting Heart AttackGerman researchers have come up with a new generation of defibrillators(除颤器)and early-warning software aimed at offering heart patients greater________ (51)from sudden death from cardiac arrest(心脏 停搏).In Germany alone,around 100,000 people die annually________(52)a result of cardiac arrest and many of these cases are caused by disruption to the heart's rhythm.Those most at________(53)are pa- tients who have already suffered a heart attack,and for years the use of defibrillators has proved useful in ________(54)life-threatening disruptions to heart rhythms and correcting them automatically by intervening within seconds.These devices________(55)on a range of functions,such as that of pacemaker(起 搏器).Heart specialists at Freiburg's University Clinic have now achieved a breakthrough with an implanted defibrillator________(56 ) of generating a six-channel electrocardiogram ( EGG,心电图)within the body. This integrated system allows _________( 57 ) diagnosis of severe blood-flow problems and a pending(即将发 生的)heart attack. It will be implanted in _________( 58 ) for the first time this year. Meanwhile , research- ers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Mathematics in Kaiserslautern have developed new computer soft- ware that________(59)the evaluation of EGG data more precise.The overwhelming majority of patients at risk will not have an implanted defibrillator and must for this ________(60)undergo regular EGGs."Many of the current programs only take into________(61)a line-ar correlation of the data. We are,however,making use in a non-linear process________(62)reveals the chaotic patterns of heart beats as an open and complex system,"Hagen Knaf says,"In this way changes in the heart________(63)over time can be monitored and individual variations in patients taken into ac-count."An old study of EGG data,based upon 600 patients who had________(64)a subsequent heart attack,enabled the researchers to compare risks and to show that the new software evaluates the________(65)considerably better. _________(58)
[多选题]共用题干 Eating Potatoes Gives Your Immune System a BoostEating potatoes is not only good for bowel health,but also for the whole immune system,espe- cially when they come in the form of a potato salad or eaten cold.In a study on an animal model, researchers in Spain found that pigs fed large_________(51)of raw potato starch(RPS)not on-ly had a healthier bowel,but also decreased levels of white blood cells,________(52)as leuco- cytes and lymphocytes in their blood.White blood cells are produced as a_________(53)of in-fEammation or disease,generally when the body is challenged.The general down-regulation of leucocytes observed by the Spanish researchers suggests an overall beneficial effect,a generally more_________(54)body.The reduction in leucocyte levels was about 15 percent.Lower lymphocyte levels are also indicative of_________(55)levels of in-flammation,but the observed reduction in both lymphocyte density_________(56)lymphocyte apoptosis is surprising.In_________(57)was the longest study of its kind,pigs were fed RPS over 14 weeks to _________(58)the effect of starch on bowel health.“The use of raw potato starch in this experi-ment is_________(59)to simulate the effects of a diet high in resistant starch,”said study leader Jose Francisco Perez at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona,Spain.Humans do not eat_________(60)potatoes,but they do eat a lot of foods that contain resist-ant starch,such as cold boiled potatoes,legumes,grains,green bananas,pasta and cereals.About 10 percent of the starch eaten by human is resistant starch—starch that is not_________(61)in the small intestine and so is shunted into the large intestine where it ferments.Starch consumption is thought to reduce the_________(62)of large bowel cancer and may also have an effect on irritable bowel syndrome(IBS).Immunology expert Lena Ohman' s team_________(63)found that the overall lymphocyte levels do not vary for IBS patients,but that lymphocytes are transferred from the peripheral blood to the gut,which support the hypothesis of lBS being_________(64)least partially an inflammato- ry disorder. She says the decrease in lymphocytes observed by the Spanish is therefore interest-ing,and a diet of resistant starch may be worth_________(65)in lBS patients.Ohman is cur-rently at the Department of Internal Medicine,Goteborg University,Sweden.The study is pub-lished in the Journal Chemistry and Industry,the magazine of the SCI. 63._________
[多选题]共用题干 Relieving the Pain"Exercise may be the best treatment of chronic pain,"say doctors at a new clinic for dealing with pain. "People with chronic pain need to stop lying around,go out more,and start exercising."The instinctive reaction to acute pain is to stop moving and to try to protect the source of pain. But it seems that this is often not productive,especially in the case of back pain. Back pain,after headaches and tiredness,has become the third most common reason for people to visit their doctors.Painful backs now account for millions of days off work.Lumbar(腰部的)pains are partly the price humans pay for taking their forelimbs off the ground, but they are made worse by a sedentary(久坐不动的)lifestyle. Lack of exercise slowly decreases the flexibility and strength of muscles,so that it is more difficult to take pressure off the site of pain.Exercise is essential. It releases endorphins(内啡肽),the body's "feel-good" chemicals, which are natural painkillers. In fact, these are so important that researchers are now looking for drugs that can maintain a comfortable level of endorphins in the body.Most people who go to a family doctor complaining of pain are prescribed pain-killing drugs rather than exercise.Since finding the cause of backache is not so easy,doctors frequently do not know the precise cause of the discomfort,and as the pain continues,sufferers end up taking stronger doses or a series of different drugs."It's crazy,"says Dr. Brasseur,a therapist at the International Association for the Study of Pain. "Some of them are taking different drugs prescribed by different doctors.I've just seen a patient who was taking two drugs which turned out to be the same thing under different names."A generation of new pain clinics now operates on the basis that drugs are best avoided.Once patients have undergone the initial physical and psychological check up,their medication is cut down as much as possible.Taking patients off drugs also prepares them for physical activity.In some pain一 relief clinics,patients begin the day with muscle contraction and relaxation exercises, followed by an hour on exercise bikes. Later in the day,they practice tai chi(太极),self-defense,and deepthought. This compares with an average of two-and-a-half hours' physiotherapy(理疗)a week in a traditional hospital program."The idea is to strengthen and to increase long一lasting energy,flexibility,and confidence," explains Bill Wiles,a consultant pain doctor in Liverpool."Patients undergoing this therapy get back to work and resume healthy active lifestyles much sooner than those subjected to more conservative treatment." To treat pain,patients should stop moving around.
[单选题]Tracking Down HIV   In the summer of 1980, a patient had a strange purplish spot removedfrom below his ear. It was Kaposi’s sarcoma, a rarefm of skin cancer. This patient also had lymph node swelling exhaustion.In November 1980, a Los Angeles immunologist examined a young man who haddiseases linked to immune system malfunctions. The doct had a T-cell counttaken of the patient’s blood. T-cells are a type of white blood cell that playsa key role1 in immune responses. The patient had no helper T-cells.   By the end of 1980, 55 Americans were diagnosed with infectionsrelated to immune system breakdown; four had died. A year later the death tollwas 74. Intravenous drug users had T-cell abnmalities. People who hadreceived blood transfusions showed symptoms of immune system breakdown. By July1982, 471 cases of the disease, now called Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome(AIDS), had been repted; 184 people had died.   In April 1984, American virologist Dr. Robert Gallo isolated thepathogen, disease producer, responsible f2 AIDS. He called it HTLV-III. InParis, Dr. Luc Montagnier identified a virus he called LAV. An internationalpanel of scientists determined that both men had found the same virus. Itbecame known as Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Blood banks began screeningf HTV in 1985, but by then about 29,000 people had been infected throughblood transfusions. Some 12,000 hemophiliacs had contracted HIV throughblood-clotting products. By 1995, 477,900 Americans had AIDS; 295,500 had died.   In 1996, researchers announced drugs that reduced HIV in infectedpeople. Today scientists are testing vaccines believe that if HIV can besuppressed, then perhaps it can be eradicated3, but it is still a race againsttime.   词汇:   spot n. 地点,斑点,斑块,青春痘   lymph n. 淋巴结   sarcoma n. 肿瘤,肉瘤,恶性毒瘤   exhaustion n. 衰竭,耗尽,精疲力竭   immunologist n. 免疫学家   malfunction n. 故障,失灵,疾病   count n. 计数,计算   infection n. 传染病,感染   breakdown n. 故障,衰弱,崩溃   toll n. 代价,死亡人数   intravenous drug n. 静脉注射药物   abnmalities n. (abnmality的复数形式)畸形,异常情况   blood transfusion n. 输血   symptom n. 症状   virologist n. 病毒学家   virus n. 病毒   panel n. 座谈小组,仪表板   hemophiliac n. 血友病患者   vaccine n. 疫苗   注释:   1.play a key role...扮演一个关键角色,有至关重要的作用   2.be responsible f...对……负责,是……的原因   3.can be eradicated可以被根除的   练习: 3.The final paragraph leads the reader to see that scientists ____.
[单选题]Sauna【桑拿浴】   Ceremonial(仪式性的)bathing has existed for thousands of years and has many forms, one of which is the sauna. The Finns have perfected the steam bath, or sauna, which may be taken, usually in an enclosed room, by pouring water over hot rocks or as a dry heat bath._____(46)Dry heat and steam baths had advocates in ancient Rome and pre-Columbian Americans used sweat lodges.   The earliest saunas were probably underground caves heated by a fire that naturally filled with smoke as chimney making was unknown at that time. A fire kept in a fire-pit would heat the rock walls of the cave. After reaching full heat, the smoke was let out of the cave and the stones would retain heat for several hours._____(47)Today most saunas use electric stoves, although gas and wood-burning stoves are available.   Saunas are relaxing and stress relieving. Those with muscle aches or arthritis(关节炎)may find that the heat relaxes muscles and relieves pain and inflammation(炎症). Asthma(气喘)patients find that the heat enlarges air passageways of the lung and facilitates breathing. Saunas do not cure the common cold but they may help to alleviate congestion(阻塞)arid speed recovery time._____(48)The sauna could be considered to follow the old saying "feed a cold, starve a fever". The regular use of a sauna may decrease the likelihood of getting a cold in the first place.   Sauna is good for your skin as the blood flow to the skin increases and sweating occurs. Adults sweat about 2 lbs of water per hour on average in a sauna. A good sweat removes dirt and grime from pores and gives the skin a healthy glow. The loss in water weight is temporary as the body's physiological mechanisms will quickly restore proper volumes._____(49)Heart rate may increase from 72 beats per minute on average to 100-150 beats per minute.   A normal heart can handle these stresses but those with heart trouble wishing to begin to use a sauna should seek a doctor's advice. The elderly and those with diabetes should check with their doctor prior to beginning to take saunas._____(50)Indeed, everyone just starting out should take short sessions at first to become accustomed to this type of bath. 文章(21~25) _____
[多选题]共用题干 Eating Potatoes Gives Your Immune System a BoostEating potatoes is not only good for bowel health,but also for the whole immune system,espe- cially when they come in the form of a potato salad or eaten cold.In a study on an animal model, researchers in Spain found that pigs fed large_________(51)of raw potato starch(RPS)not on-ly had a healthier bowel,but also decreased levels of white blood cells,________(52)as leuco- cytes and lymphocytes in their blood.White blood cells are produced as a_________(53)of in-fEammation or disease,generally when the body is challenged.The general down-regulation of leucocytes observed by the Spanish researchers suggests an overall beneficial effect,a generally more_________(54)body.The reduction in leucocyte levels was about 15 percent.Lower lymphocyte levels are also indicative of_________(55)levels of in-flammation,but the observed reduction in both lymphocyte density_________(56)lymphocyte apoptosis is surprising.In_________(57)was the longest study of its kind,pigs were fed RPS over 14 weeks to _________(58)the effect of starch on bowel health.“The use of raw potato starch in this experi-ment is_________(59)to simulate the effects of a diet high in resistant starch,”said study leader Jose Francisco Perez at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona,Spain.Humans do not eat_________(60)potatoes,but they do eat a lot of foods that contain resist-ant starch,such as cold boiled potatoes,legumes,grains,green bananas,pasta and cereals.About 10 percent of the starch eaten by human is resistant starch—starch that is not_________(61)in the small intestine and so is shunted into the large intestine where it ferments.Starch consumption is thought to reduce the_________(62)of large bowel cancer and may also have an effect on irritable bowel syndrome(IBS).Immunology expert Lena Ohman' s team_________(63)found that the overall lymphocyte levels do not vary for IBS patients,but that lymphocytes are transferred from the peripheral blood to the gut,which support the hypothesis of lBS being_________(64)least partially an inflammato- ry disorder. She says the decrease in lymphocytes observed by the Spanish is therefore interest-ing,and a diet of resistant starch may be worth_________(65)in lBS patients.Ohman is cur-rently at the Department of Internal Medicine,Goteborg University,Sweden.The study is pub-lished in the Journal Chemistry and Industry,the magazine of the SCI. 65._________
[多选题]共用题干 Dangers Await Babies with AltitudeWomen who live in the world's highest communities tend to give birth to underweight babies, a new study suggests.These babies may grow into adults with a high risk of heart disease and strokes.Research has hinted that newborns in mountain communities are lighter than average.But it wasn't clear whether this is due to reduced oxygen levels at high altitude or because their mothers are under-nourished—many people who live at high altitudes are relatively poor compared witf those living lower down.To find out more,Dino Giussani and his team at Cambridge University studied the records of 400 births in Bolivia during 1997 and 1998.The babies were born in both rich and poor areas of two cities:La Paz and Santa Cruz.La Paz is the highest city in the world,at 3 .65 kilometers above sea level,while Santa Cruz is much lower,at 0 .44 kilometers.Sure enough,Giussani found that the average birthweight of babies in La Paz was significantly lower than in Santa Cruz.This was true in both high and low-income families.Even babies borr to poor families in Santa Cruz were heavier on average than babies born to wealthy families in lofty La Paz.“We were very surprised by this result,”says Giussani.The results suggest that babies born at high altitude are deprived of oxygen before birth. “This may trigger the release or suppression of hormones that regulate growth of the unborn child,”says Giussani.His team also found that high-altitude babies tended to have relatively larger heads compared with their bodies.This is probably because a fetus starved of oxygen will send oxygenated blood to the brain in preference to the rest of the body.Giussani wants to find out if such babies have a higher risk of disease in later life.People born in La Paz might be prone to heart trouble in adulthood,for example.Low birthweight is a risk factor for coronary heart disease .And newborns with a high ratio of head size to body weight are often predisposed to high blood pressure and strokes in later life. The results of the study indicate the reason for the birth of underweight babies is_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇DNA FingerprintingDNA is the genetic material found within the cell nuclei of all living things. In mammals(哺乳动物) the strands of DNA are grouped into structures called chromosomes(染色体).With the exception of identicaltwins,the complete DNA of each individual is unique.DNA fingerprinting is sometimes called DNA typing. It is a method of identification that compares bits of DNA.A DAN fingerprint is constructed by first drawing out a DNA sample from body tissue or fluid such as hair , blood,or saliva(唾液).The sample is then segmented using enzymes(酶),and the segments are arranged by size.The segments are marked with probes and exposed on X-ray film,where they form a pat- tern of black bars一the DNA fingerprint.If the DNA fingerprints produced from two different samples match, the two samples probably came from the same person.DNA fingerprinting was first developed as an identification technique in 1985.Originally used to detect the presence of genetic diseases,it soon came to be used in criminal investigations and legal affairs.The first criminal conviction based on DNA evidence in the United States occurred in 1988.In criminal investiga- tions,DNA fingerprints derived from evidence collected at the crime scene are compared to the DNA finger- prints of suspects.Generally,courts have accepted the reliability of DNA testing and admitted DNA test re- sults into evidence.However,DNA fingerprinting is controversial in a number of areas:the accuracy of the results,the cost of testing,and the possible misuse of the technique.The accuracy of DNA fingerprinting has been challenged for several reasons. First,because DNA segmentsrather than complete DNA strands are"fingerprinted";a DNA fingerprint may not be unique;large-scale research to confirm the uniqueness of DNA fingerprinting.test results has not been conducted.In addition, DNA fingerprinting is often done in private laboratories that may not follow uniform testing standards and quality controls.Also,since human beings must interpret the test,human error could lead to false results.DNA fingerprinting is expensive.Suspects who are unable to provide their own DNA to experts may not be able to successfully defend themselves against charges based on DNA evidence.Widespread use of DNA testing for identification purposes may lead to the establishment of a DNA fingerprint database. DNA fingerprinting is a technique of________.
[单选题]Inquest told of hospital err A HOSPITAL err left a dying man on the wrong ward f two days asdeep vein thrombosis (DVT) ravaged his body, an inquest heard. Stephen MelvinNewbold suffered massive brain damage when a blood clot fmed in his veins.Now his families are considering legal action against Yk Hospital, sayingthat his death was “untimely unnecessary”. Mr Newbold, a 52-year-old maintenance wker, went to Yk Hospitalon November 3 complaining of a swollen right foot. He should have been sent toa surgical ward he would have been treated with1 Fragmin, a drug whichcounters the effects of DVT. However, hospital staff wrongly admitted him to2an thopedic ward, he stayed f two days, befe finally beingtransferred to the care of a consultant vascular surgeon. Twenty-four hourslater, on November 6, docts decided they would have to operate to remove hisleg below the knee. The operation went ahead on November 10, but two days later MrNewbold suffered a cardiac arrest. A scan revealed he had had a pulmonaryembolism, a condition related to DVT. Mr Newbold suffered brain damage diedin the hospital on November 16. Giving evidence, the surgeon said he could not explain why MrNewbold had been admitted to an thopedic ward it was not policy toadminister Fragmin. He did not know why his medical team had not given MrNewbold the drug later. Yk coner Donald Coverdale said, “From November 3until the day of the operation, no Fragmin was given to Mr Newbold. If he hadbeen admitted to a consultant vascular surgeon’s care from day one,it is clear that Fragmin would have been prescribed. Fragmin reduces the riskof DVT, but does not eliminate it. It is impossible to say whether Mr Newboldwould have suffered this DVT if he had received the Fragmin.” He recded averdict of death by misadventure. Kim Daniells, Mr Newbold’s family’s lawyer,said, “The family hope that the hospital will learn from the errs, that no other families will have to suffer in the future.” A spokeswoman f Yk Hospital’s NHS Trust said, “We wouldlike to extend our sincere sympathies to the family of Stephen Newbold duringthis difficult time.”   词汇: ward n.病房 vein n.血管 thrombosis n.血栓 clot n.凝块 maintenance n.维修,维护 Fragmin n.法安明(又名片段化蛋白) staff n.员工;职工 consultant n.顾问,咨询,会诊医师 surgeon n.心血管外科顾问 knee n.膝盖 embolism n.栓塞;栓塞形成 verdict n.裁决 misadventure n.灾难,不幸遭遇,意外事故 sympathy n.同情   注释: 1.be treated with...被用......药物进行治疗 2.be admitted to...被收容至,被移送至(本文中是“被送至病房”)   练习: 4.The patient died befe he could be operated on.
[多选题]共用题干 Scientists Develop Ways of Detecting Heart AttackGerman researchers have come up with a new generation of defibrillators(除颤器)and early-warning software aimed at offering heart patients greater________ (51)from sudden death from cardiac arrest(心脏 停搏).In Germany alone,around 100,000 people die annually________(52)a result of cardiac arrest and many of these cases are caused by disruption to the heart's rhythm.Those most at________(53)are pa- tients who have already suffered a heart attack,and for years the use of defibrillators has proved useful in ________(54)life-threatening disruptions to heart rhythms and correcting them automatically by intervening within seconds.These devices________(55)on a range of functions,such as that of pacemaker(起 搏器).Heart specialists at Freiburg's University Clinic have now achieved a breakthrough with an implanted defibrillator________(56 ) of generating a six-channel electrocardiogram ( EGG,心电图)within the body. This integrated system allows _________( 57 ) diagnosis of severe blood-flow problems and a pending(即将发 生的)heart attack. It will be implanted in _________( 58 ) for the first time this year. Meanwhile , research- ers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Mathematics in Kaiserslautern have developed new computer soft- ware that________(59)the evaluation of EGG data more precise.The overwhelming majority of patients at risk will not have an implanted defibrillator and must for this ________(60)undergo regular EGGs."Many of the current programs only take into________(61)a line-ar correlation of the data. We are,however,making use in a non-linear process________(62)reveals the chaotic patterns of heart beats as an open and complex system,"Hagen Knaf says,"In this way changes in the heart________(63)over time can be monitored and individual variations in patients taken into ac-count."An old study of EGG data,based upon 600 patients who had________(64)a subsequent heart attack,enabled the researchers to compare risks and to show that the new software evaluates the________(65)considerably better. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 Toads are Arthritic and in PainArthritis(关节炎)is an illness that can cause pain and swelling in your bones. Toads(蟾蛛),a big problem in the north of Australia,are suffering from painful arthritis in their legs and backbone,a new study has shown. The toads that jump the fastest are more likely to be larger and to have longer legs.________(46)The large yellow toads,native to South and Central America,were introduced into the north-eastern Australian state of Queensland in 1935 in an attempt to stop beetles and other insects from destroying sugar- cane crops.Now up to 200 million of the poisonous toads exist in the country,and they are rapidly spreading through the state of Northern Territory at a rate of up to 60 km a year. The toads can now be found across more than one million square kilometres.________(47)A Venezuelan poison virus was tried in the 1990s but had to be abandoned after it was found to also kill native frog species.The toads have severely affected ecosystems in Australia.Animals,and sometimes pets,that eat the toads die immediately from their poison,and the toads themselves eat anything they can fit inside their mouth.________(48)A co-author of the new study,Rick Shine,a professor at the University of Sydney,says that little atten-tion has been given to the problems that toads face.Rick and his colleagues studied nearly 500 toads from Queensland and the Northern Territory and found that those in the latter state were very different.They were active,sprinting down roads and breeding quickly.According to the results of the study,the fastest toads travel nearly one kilometre a night.________(49) But speed and strength come at a price一arthritis of the legs and backbone due to constant pressure placed on them.In laboratory tests,the researchers found that after about 15 minutes of hopping,arthritic toads would travel less distance with each hop(跳跃)._________ ( 50 ) These toads are so programmed to move, apparently,that even when in pain the toads travelled as fast and as far as the healthy ones,continuing their constant march across the landscape. ________(50)
[多选题]共用题干 The Meaning of Dreams1 Dreams play an important role in our lives.If they can be correctly interpreted,we can come to understand ourselves better. Here,we look at four common dreams and what they potentially symbolize.2 I can see their laughing faces…laughing at me. But they aren't as smart. If they were,they'd be up.here flying with me!This dream has both positive and negative connotations(涵义).On the positive side,the dream may express a strong desire to travel and get away from everyday routine.It can also be interpreted as a powerful desire to achieve.On the other hand,this dream can mean the person has a problem or is afraid of something and they wish to escape. The dream could represent an inferiority complex(自卑情 结),which the dreamer attempts to escape from by putting themselves up above others.3 I'm moving fast now,but it's still behind me. Doesn 't matter how fast I go. I still can 't escape. Although this is a traditional symbol of health and vitality(生命力)like the first one,it can also suggest the dreamer is trying to escape from danger. Usually,fear is the dominant emotion.By running hard,the dreamer can possibly escape the threat.However,they can also stumble or worse still stop moving altogether. This makes the fear even more terrifying.One possible interpretation suggests that the person is under pressure in their everyday life.4 I'm sweating and my heart is beating. I'm trapped in my own bed. In this dream,the person is often standing on a high,exposed place such as on the top of a tower,or on the edge of a cliff. The overwhelming(强烈的)feeling changes from anxiety to a loss of control. There is nothing to stop the person, and the feeling as they go over the edge can be horrifyingly real.Fortunately,just before hitting the ground, the dreamer awakens with a sense of enormous relief. This dream suggests that the dreamer is afraid of losing control and has a fear of failure or even death.5 The wind is pushing me and I slip. There 's nothing I can do…nothing I can hold on to. This symbol is associated with fear:suddenly the dreamer loses all power of movement.They try hard to move their arms and legs,but they simply cannot.Frozen in a terrifying situation with no escape,they become more andmore terrified as the seconds go by.Another frequent context for this dream is failing to do something in public,often something which you are normally very good at,such as your job.Not only is this extremely embarrassing,but it also shows a deep-seated phobia(恐惧)of losing a job and a livelihood. Paragraph 3________
[多选题]共用题干 Scientists Develop Ways of Detecting Heart AttackGerman researchers have come up with a new generation of defibrillators(除颤器)and early-warning software aimed at offering heart patients greater________ (51)from sudden death from cardiac arrest(心脏 停搏).In Germany alone,around 100,000 people die annually________(52)a result of cardiac arrest and many of these cases are caused by disruption to the heart's rhythm.Those most at________(53)are pa- tients who have already suffered a heart attack,and for years the use of defibrillators has proved useful in ________(54)life-threatening disruptions to heart rhythms and correcting them automatically by intervening within seconds.These devices________(55)on a range of functions,such as that of pacemaker(起 搏器).Heart specialists at Freiburg's University Clinic have now achieved a breakthrough with an implanted defibrillator________(56 ) of generating a six-channel electrocardiogram ( EGG,心电图)within the body. This integrated system allows _________( 57 ) diagnosis of severe blood-flow problems and a pending(即将发 生的)heart attack. It will be implanted in _________( 58 ) for the first time this year. Meanwhile , research- ers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Mathematics in Kaiserslautern have developed new computer soft- ware that________(59)the evaluation of EGG data more precise.The overwhelming majority of patients at risk will not have an implanted defibrillator and must for this ________(60)undergo regular EGGs."Many of the current programs only take into________(61)a line-ar correlation of the data. We are,however,making use in a non-linear process________(62)reveals the chaotic patterns of heart beats as an open and complex system,"Hagen Knaf says,"In this way changes in the heart________(63)over time can be monitored and individual variations in patients taken into ac-count."An old study of EGG data,based upon 600 patients who had________(64)a subsequent heart attack,enabled the researchers to compare risks and to show that the new software evaluates the________(65)considerably better. _________(65)
[多选题]共用题干 Food Safety and Foodborne illnessFood safety is an increasingly important public health issue.Governments all over the world are intensifying their efforts to_______(51)food safety.These efforts are in response to an increasing number of food safety problems and__________(52)consumer concerns.Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases , usually either infectious or toxic(有毒的)in nature,caused by agents that__________(53)the body through the ingestion(摄取)of food. Every person is__________(54) risk of foodborne illnesses.Foodborne diseases are a widespread and growing public health__________(55),both in developed and developing countries.The global incidence of foodborne diseases is difficult to___________(56),but it has been reported that in 2005 alone 8 million people died from diarrhoeal(腹泻)diseases. A great proportion of these _________ ( 57 ) can be attributed to contamination(污染)of food and drinking water. Additionally, diarrhoea is a _________( 58 ) cause of malnutrition(营养不良)in infants and young children.In industrialized countries,the percentage of the population suffering from foodborne diseases each year has been__________(59)to be 10 up to 30%.In the United States of America,for example,around 76 million cases of foodborne diseases,resulting_(60)325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths,are estimated to occur each year._________( 61 ) less well documented , developing countries bear the brunt(首当其冲)of the problem due to the presence of a wide_________(62)of foodborne diseases,including those caused by parasites (寄生虫).The high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in many developing countries suggests major ________(63)food safety problems.In partnership with other stakeholders,WHO is developing___________(64)that will further promote the safety of food.These policies___________(65)the entire food chain from production to consumption and willmake use of different types of expertise(专长). _________(60)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Why Don ' t Babies Talk Like Adults?Over the past half-century,scientists have settled on two reasonable theories related to babytalk.One states that a young child's brain needs time to master language,in the same way that it does to master other abilities such as physical movement. The second theory states that a child's vocabulary level is the key fac-tor. According to this theory,some key steps have to occur in a logical sequence before sentence formation occurs.Children's mathematical knowledge develops in the same way.In 2007,researchers at Harvard University,who were studying the two theories,found a clever way to test them.More than 20,000 internationally adopted children enter the U.S.each year. Many of them no lon- ger hear their birth language after they arrive,and they must learn English more or less the same way infants do一that is,by listening and by trial and error. International adoptees don't take classes or use a dictionary when they are learning their new tongue and most of them don't have a well-developed first language.All of these factors make them an ideal population in which to test these competing hypotheses about how language is learned.Neuroscientists Jesse Snedeker,Joy Geren and Carissa Shafto studied the language development of 27 children adopted from China between the ages of two and five years.These children began learning English at an older age than US natives and had more mature brains with which to tackle the task.Even so,just as with American-born infants,their first English sentences consisted of single words and were largely bereft(缺 乏的)of function words , word endings and verbs. The adoptees then went through the same stages as typical American-born children,though at a faster clip.The adoptees and native children started combining words in sentences when their vocabulary reached the same sizes,further suggesting that what matters is not how old you are or how mature your brain is,but the number of words you know.This finding一that having more mature brains did not help the adoptees avoid the toddler-talk stage一 suggests that babies speak in babytalk not because they have baby brains,but because they have only just started learning and need time to gain enough vocabulary to be able to expand their conversations.Before long,the one-word stage will give way to the two-word stage and so on. Learning how to chat like an adult is a gradual process.But this potential answer also raises an even older and more difficult question.Adult immigrants who learn a second language rarely achieve the same proficiency in a foreign language as the average child raised as a native speaker. Researchers have long suspected there is a"critical period"for language development,after which it cannot proceed with full success to fluency.Yet we still do not understand this critical period or know why it ends. What does the Harvard finding show?
[多选题]共用题干 Food Safety and Foodborne illnessFood safety is an increasingly important public health issue.Governments all over the world are intensifying their efforts to_______(51)food safety.These efforts are in response to an increasing number of food safety problems and__________(52)consumer concerns.Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases , usually either infectious or toxic(有毒的)in nature,caused by agents that__________(53)the body through the ingestion(摄取)of food. Every person is__________(54) risk of foodborne illnesses.Foodborne diseases are a widespread and growing public health__________(55),both in developed and developing countries.The global incidence of foodborne diseases is difficult to___________(56),but it has been reported that in 2005 alone 8 million people died from diarrhoeal(腹泻)diseases. A great proportion of these _________ ( 57 ) can be attributed to contamination(污染)of food and drinking water. Additionally, diarrhoea is a _________( 58 ) cause of malnutrition(营养不良)in infants and young children.In industrialized countries,the percentage of the population suffering from foodborne diseases each year has been__________(59)to be 10 up to 30%.In the United States of America,for example,around 76 million cases of foodborne diseases,resulting_(60)325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths,are estimated to occur each year._________( 61 ) less well documented , developing countries bear the brunt(首当其冲)of the problem due to the presence of a wide_________(62)of foodborne diseases,including those caused by parasites (寄生虫).The high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in many developing countries suggests major ________(63)food safety problems.In partnership with other stakeholders,WHO is developing___________(64)that will further promote the safety of food.These policies___________(65)the entire food chain from production to consumption and willmake use of different types of expertise(专长). _________(57)