卫生类

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 The Mind-Body ConnectionsNorman Cousins was a famous American magazine editor. In 1964,he returned from an overseas trip and then became very ill.In the hospital,he had a terrible pain and couldn't move his body.Doctors told him he had a serious disease called ankylosing spondylitis(强直性脊柱炎)and said he had only 1 chance in 500 of surviving. They gave him powerful drugs,but his condition only got worse.Cousins had read about a theory that negative emotions can harm your health.He believed that positive emotions were good for one's health,and he decided to try an experiment.He would fill his days with good feelings and laughter and see if that might improve his condition.He left the hospital and moved into a hotel room.There,he got a large supply of funny TV programs and copies of old Marx Brothers movies and cartoons.He also hired a nurse to read funny stories to him.His plan was to spend the whole day laughing and thinking about happy things.On his first night in the hotel,Cousins found that laughing at the movies helped his body produce chemicals that reduced pain.For the first time in weeks,he could sleep comfortably for a few hours.Every time the pain came back,he watched anotherfunny movie and laughed until he felt better.Over time,Cousins was able to measure changes in his body with blood tests.He found that the harmful chemicals in his body decreased at least 5 percent every time he watched a funny movie.After a short time, he was able to stop taking all of his medications.Finally his condition improved so much that he could go back to work.Cousins later wrote a book about how laughter and happiness helped him to survive a deadly illness. Many people didn't believe his story and said that his doctors were wrong about his disease.But since then, research has found that emotions do have a strong effect on physical health,and experiments found that laughter can help to reduce pain.Scientists today are working to understand the ways that our minds affect our bodies. Movies were better than funny stories for stopping pain.
[多选题]共用题干 The Tough Grass That Sweetens Our LivesSugar cane was once a wild grass that grew in New Guinea and was used by local people for roofing their houses and fencing their gardens. Gradually a different variety evolved which contained sucrose(蔗糖) and was chewed on for its sweet taste.Over time,sugar cane became a highly valuable commercial plant,grown throughout the world.___________(46)Sugar became a vital ingredient in all kinds of things , from confectionery(糖果点心)to medicine, and,as the demand for sugar grew,the industry became larger and more profitable.________(47)Many crops withered(枯萎)and died,despite growers'attempts to save them,and there were fears that the health of the plant would continue to deteriorate.In the 1960s,scientists working in Barbados looked for ways to make the commercial species stronger and more able to resist disease.They experimented with breeding programmes,mixing genes from the wild species of sugar cane,which tends to be tougher,with genes from the more delicate,commercial type. ________(48)This sugar cane is not yet ready to be sold commercially,but when this happens,it is expected to be incredibly profitable for the industry.__________(49)Brazil,which produces one quarter of the world's sugar,has coordinated an interna-tional project under Professor Paulo Arrudo of the Universidade Estaudual de Campinas in Sao Paulo.Teamsof experts have worked with him to discover more about which parts of the genetic structure of the plant are important for the production of sugar and its overall health.Despite all the research,however,we still do not fully understand how the genes act in sugar cane._________(50)This gene is particularly exciting because it makes the plant resistant to rust,a disease which probably originated in India,but is now capable of infecting sugar cane across the world.Scientists believe they will eventually be able to grow a plant which cannot be destroyed by rust. _________(46)
[多选题]共用题干 ‘Feed Me Better'When British TV chef Jamie Oliver launched his‘Feed Me Better'campaign in 2004 in schools in the Greenwich area of London with the aim of improving the diet of British schoolchildren,some people were skeptical about the impact it would have.Oliver's highly-publicized television campaign to improve school lunches led to dramatic changes in the meals offered to pupils in the Greenwich schools.In order to achieve his aim Oliver needed to show schools how to swap(交换)cheap processed meals , which were high in saturated fat(饱和脂肪),salt , and sugar , for healthier options.Now,research at the Institute for Social and Economic Research(ISER)has shown that Oliver's experiment did not only help pupils eat more healthily,it also resulted in them performing better at school in English and Science and in helping schools reduce their rates of absenteeism(缺勤).The ISER study, carried out by Michele Belol and Jonathan James,showed"substantial"positive effects,with the performance of 1 1 -year-old pupils eating Oliver's meals improving by up to 8% in Science and by as much as 6% in English.In addition,the number of children having authorized absences for sickness since 2004 showed a 14% decrease.The ISER study analysed the academic test results of more than 13,000 children in Greenwich between 2002 and 2007 to evaluate the impact of Oliver's healthier meals on school performance.Pupils who sat exams in 2006-2007 had been on the new diet for at least 12 months,and the researchers found that the number of pupils reaching higher levels of achievement had clearly risen.The study also compared the results of the schools in Greenwich with those of pupils of the same age in seven other London areas who did not eat the meals created by Oliver.The researchers were surprised by the speed of improvements in the Greenwich pupils.They could find no other explanation for the results except for the healthier and more nutritious meals created by Oliver.Commenting on ISER's findings,Oliver said he felt the research proved that he was right in his decision to remove fatty processed food and replace it with nutrient-rich(营养的)foods such as coconut (椰子),fish, and broccoli(花椰菜).He commented that “we could see that it made them calmer and therefore able to learn”. The healthier diet has helped schoolchildren improve academically.
[多选题]共用题干 ‘Feed Me Better'When British TV chef Jamie Oliver launched his‘Feed Me Better'campaign in 2004 in schools in the Greenwich area of London with the aim of improving the diet of British schoolchildren,some people were skeptical about the impact it would have.Oliver's highly-publicized television campaign to improve school lunches led to dramatic changes in the meals offered to pupils in the Greenwich schools.In order to achieve his aim Oliver needed to show schools how to swap(交换)cheap processed meals , which were high in saturated fat(饱和脂肪),salt , and sugar , for healthier options.Now,research at the Institute for Social and Economic Research(ISER)has shown that Oliver's experiment did not only help pupils eat more healthily,it also resulted in them performing better at school in English and Science and in helping schools reduce their rates of absenteeism(缺勤).The ISER study, carried out by Michele Belol and Jonathan James,showed"substantial"positive effects,with the performance of 1 1 -year-old pupils eating Oliver's meals improving by up to 8% in Science and by as much as 6% in English.In addition,the number of children having authorized absences for sickness since 2004 showed a 14% decrease.The ISER study analysed the academic test results of more than 13,000 children in Greenwich between 2002 and 2007 to evaluate the impact of Oliver's healthier meals on school performance.Pupils who sat exams in 2006-2007 had been on the new diet for at least 12 months,and the researchers found that the number of pupils reaching higher levels of achievement had clearly risen.The study also compared the results of the schools in Greenwich with those of pupils of the same age in seven other London areas who did not eat the meals created by Oliver.The researchers were surprised by the speed of improvements in the Greenwich pupils.They could find no other explanation for the results except for the healthier and more nutritious meals created by Oliver.Commenting on ISER's findings,Oliver said he felt the research proved that he was right in his decision to remove fatty processed food and replace it with nutrient-rich(营养的)foods such as coconut (椰子),fish, and broccoli(花椰菜).He commented that “we could see that it made them calmer and therefore able to learn”. The ISER did not do a comparative study on the impact of the new diet.
[多选题]共用题干 The Day a Language DiedWhen Carios Westez died at the age of 76,a language died,too.Westez,more commonly known asRed Thunder Cloud,was the last speaker of the Native American language,Catawba.Anyone who wants to hear various songs of the Catawba can contact the Smithsonian Institution in Washington,D.C.,where,back in the 1940s,Red Thunder Cloud recorded a series of songs for future generations.______(46)They are all that is left of the Catawba language.The language that.people used to speak is gone forever.We are all aware of the damage that modern industry can do to the world's ecology(生态).However, few people are aware of the impact that widely spoken languages have on other languages and ways of life. English has spread all over the world.Chinese,Spanish,Russian,and Hindi have become powerful langua- ges,as well.______(47)When this happens,hundreds of languages that are spoken by only a few peo- pie die out.Scholars believe there are about 6,000 languages around the world,but more than half of them could die out within the next 100 years.There are many examples.Araki is a native language of the island of Vanuatu,located in the Pacific Ocean.It is spoken by only a few older adults,so like Catawba,Araki will soon disappear.Many languages of Ethiopia will have the same fate because each one has only a few speakers.______(48)In the Americas,100 languages,each of which has fewer than 300 speakers,also are dying out.Red Thunder Cloud was one of the first to recognize the threat of language death and to try to do some-thing about it.He was not actually born into the Catawba.tribe,and the language was not his mother tongue.______(49)The songs he sang for the Smithsonian Institution helped to make Native American music popular.Now he is gone,and the language is dead.What does it mean when a language disappears?When a plant or insect or animal species dies,it is easy to understand what we've lost and to appreciate what this means for the balance of the natural world.However,language is only a product of the mind.To be the last remaining speaker of a language,like Red Thunder Cloud,must be a lonely destiny,almost as strange and terrible as being the last surviving member of a dying species.______(50) ______(46)
[多选题]共用题干 ExerciseWhether or not exercise adds to the length of life,it is common experience that a certain amount of regular exercise_______(51)health and contributes a feeling of well-being. Furthermore,exercise________(52)involves play and recreation(娱乐),and relieves nervous tension and mental fatigue in so__________(53),is not only pleasant but beneficial.How much and what kind of exercise one should_________(54)merits careful consideration.The grow- ing child and the normal young man and young woman thrill(兴奋) with strenuous(剧烈的)sports. Theyfatigue to the__________(55)of exhaustion but recover promptly with a period of rest.But not so with thoseof middle age and beyond. For them moderation is_________(56)vital importance.Just how much exercise a person of a given age can safely take is a question hard to__________(57).In- dividual variability is too great to permit generalization.A game of tennis may be perfectly safe for one per- son of forty but folly(愚蠢)for another. The safe_________(58)for exercise depends on the condition of the heart,the condition of the muscles,the_________(59)of exercise,and the regularity with which it is taken. Two general suggestions,however,will__________(60)as sound advice for anyone.The first is thatthe___________(61)of the heart and general health should be determined periodically by careful,thorough physical examinations. The other is that exercise should be kept__________(62)the point of physical exhaustion.What type of exercise one should___________( 63)depends upon one's physical condition.Young people can safely enjoy competitive sports,but most older persons do better to limit themselves to less strenuous ___________(64).Walking,swimming and skating are among the sports that one can enjoy and safely ___________(65)in throughout life.Regularity is important if one is to get the most enjoyment and benefit out of exercise. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 Multiple Sclerosis(多发性硬化症)1 Multiple Sclerosis ( MS) is a disease in which the patient ' s immune(免疫的)system attacks the central nervous system.This can lead to numerous physical and mental symptoms,as the disease affects the transmission of electrical signals between the body and the brain.However,the human body,being a flexi-ble,adaptable system,can compensate for some level of damage,so a person with MS can look and feel fine even though the disease is present.2 MS patients can have one of two main varieties of the disease : the relapsing form(复发型)and theprimary progressive form.In the relapsing form,the disease progresses in a series of jumps;at times it is in remission(减轻),which means that a person's normal functions return for a period of time before the sys-tem goes into relapse and the disease again becomes more active.This is the most common form of MS; 80%~90% of people have this form of the disease when they are first diagnosed. The relapse-remission cycle can continue for many years.Eventually,however,loss of physical and cognitive functions starts to take place and the remissions become less frequent.3 In the primary progressive form of MS,there are no remissions and a continual but steady loss of physical and cognitive functions takes place.This condition affects about 10%~15% of sufferers atdiagnosis.4 The expected course of the disease,or prognosis(预后),depends on many variables:the subtype of the disease,the patient's individual characteristics and the initial symptoms.Life expectancy of patients, however,is often nearly the same as that of an unaffected person一provided that a reasonable standard of care is received.In some cases a near-normal life span is possible.5 The cause of the disease is unclear ; it seems that some people have a genetic susceptibility(易感 性),which is triggered by some unknown environmental factor. Onset(发作)of the disease usually occurs in young adults between the age of 20 and 40.It is more common in women than men;however,it has also been diagnosed in young children and in elderly people. An MS patient can feel fine for years without being affected much by_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Voice Your Opinion一Change is Needed in Youth SportsEverywhere you look, you see kids bouncing a basketball or waving a tennis racquet(网球拍).And these kids are getting younger and younger. In some countries,children can compete on basketball, baseball,and volleyball teams starting at age nine._________(46)And swimming and gymnastics classes begin at age four,to prepare children for competition.It's true that a few of these kids will develop into highly skilled athletes and may even become members of the national Olympic teams._________(47)This emphasis on competition in sports is having serious negative effects.Children who get involved in competitive sports at a young age often grow tired of their sport. Many parents pressure their kids to choose one sport and devote all their time to it._______(48)But 66 percent of the young athletes wanted to play more than one sport一for fun.Another problem is the pressure imposed by over-competitive parents and coaches.Children are not naturally competitive.In fact,a recent study by Paulo David found that most children don't even understandthe idea of competition until they are seven years old. ________(49)The third,and biggest,problem for young athletes is the lack of time to do their homework,have fun, be with friends一in short,time to be kids.When they are forced to spend every afternoon at sports practice, they often start to hate their chosen sport.A research found that 70 percent of kids who take part in competitive sports before the age of twelve quit before they turn eighteen.__________(50)Excessive competitive sports take away all the enjoyment.Need to remember the purpose of youth sports一to give kids a chance to have developing,strong, healthy bodies. __________(47)
[多选题]共用题干 Multiple Sclerosis(多发性硬化症)1 Multiple Sclerosis ( MS) is a disease in which the patient ' s immune(免疫的)system attacks the central nervous system.This can lead to numerous physical and mental symptoms,as the disease affects the transmission of electrical signals between the body and the brain.However,the human body,being a flexible,adaptable system,can compensate for some level of damage,so a person with MS can look and feel fine even though the disease is present.2 MS patients can have one of two main varieties of the disease:the relapsing form(复发型)and the primary progressive form.In the relapsing form,the disease progresses in a series of jumps;at times it is in remission(减轻),which meatis that a person's normal functions return for a period of time before the system goes into relapse and the disease again becomes more active.This is the most common form of MS;80%~90% of people have this form of the disease when they are first diagnosed.The relapse一remission cycle can continue for many years.Eventually,however,loss of physical and cognitive functions starts to take place and the remissions become less frequent.3 In the primary progressive form of MS,there are no remissions and a continual but steady loss of physical and cognitive functions takes place. This condition affects about 10%~15% of sufferers at diagnosis.4 The expected course of the disease,or prognosis(预后),depends on many variables:the subtype of the disease,the patient's individual characteristics and the initial symptoms.Life expectancy of patients, however,is often nearly the same as that of an unaffected person一provided that a reasonable standard of care is received.In some cases a near一normal life span is possible.5 The cause of the disease is unclear ; it seems that some people have a genetic susceptibility(易感 性),which is triggered by some unknown environmental factor. Onset(发作)of the disease usually occurs in young adults between the age of 20 and 40.It is more common in women than men;however,it has also been diagnosed in young children and in elderly people. Paragraph 1________
[多选题]共用题干 The Mysteries of NazcaIn the desert of Peru,300 kilometers from Lima,one of the most unusual artworks in the world has mystified(迷惑)people for decades._________(46 ) But from high above,these marks are huge images of birds,fish,seashells,all beautifully carved into the earth.The Nazca lines are so difficult to see from the ground that they weren't discovered until the 1930s, when pilots spotted them while flying over the area. In all,there are about 70 different human and animal figures on the plain,along with 900 triangles,circles,and lines.Researchers have figured out that the lines are at least 1,500 years old,but their purpose is still a mystery._________(47)However,it would probably be very tricky to land a spaceship in the middle ofpictures of dogs and monkeys.In the 1940s,an American explorer named Paul Kosok suggested that the drawings are a chronicle(己 录)of the movement of the stars and planets._________(48)Later,an astronomer tested his theory with a computer,but he couldn't find any relation between the lines and movements in space.Another explanation is that the lines may have been made for religious reasons.British researcher Tony Morrison investigated the customs of people in the Andes Mountain and learned that they sometimes pray by the side of the road.It's possible that in the past,the lines of Nazca were created for a similar purpose. _________(49)But the local people have never constructed anything this big.Recently,two other scientists,David Johnson and Steve Mabee,have speculated that lines could have been related to water. Nazca is one of the driest places in the world and receives only 2cm of rain every year. While Johnson was searching for ancient water sources in the area,he noticed that some waterways built by ancient people were connected with the lines.Johnson believes that the Nazca lines are a giant map of the underground water in the area._________(50) _________(50)
[多选题]共用题干 Organic Food:Why?1 Europe is now the biggest market for organic food in the world,expanding by 25 percent a year over the past 10 years.So what is the attraction of organic food for some people?The really important thing is that organic sounds more"natural".Eating organic is a way of defining oneself as natural,good,caring, different from the junk-food-eating masses.2 Unlike conventional farming,the organic approach means farming with natural,rather than man- made , fertilisers and pesticides. Techniques such as crop rotation(轮种)improve soil quality and help organic farmers compensate for the absence of man-made chemicals.As a method of food production,organic is,however,inefficient in its use of labour and land;there are severe limits to how much food can be pro- duced.Also,the environmental benefits of not using artificial fertilisers are tiny compared with the amount of carbon dioxide emitted(排放)by transporting food.3 Organic farming is often claimed to be safer than conventional farming. Yet studies into organic farming worldwide continue to reject this claim.An extensive review by the UK Food Standards Agency found that there was no statistically significant difference between organic and conventional crops.Even where re- sults indicated there was evidence of a difference,the reviewers found no sign that these differences wouldhave any noticeable effect on health.4 The simplistic claim that organic food is more nutritious than conventional food was always likely to be misleading. Food is a natural product,and the health value of different foods will vary for a number of rea- sons,including freshness,the way the food is cooked,the type of soil it is grown in,the amount of sunlight and rain crops have received,and so'on.Likewise,the flavour of a carrot has less to do with whether it was fertilised with manure(粪便)or something out of a plastic sack than with the variety of carrot and how long ago it was dug up.5 The notion that organic food is safer than"normal"food is also contradicted by the fact that many of our most common foods are full of natural toxins(毒素).As one research expert says: "People think that the more natural something is,the better it is for them.That is simply not the case.In fact,it is the opposite that is true:the closer a plant is to its natural state,the more likely it is that it will poison you.Naturally, many plants do not want to be eaten,so we have spent 10,000 years developing agriculture and breeding out harmful traits from crops." Paragraph 2________
[多选题]共用题干 Tiny InvadersThe human body is truly amazing. It allows us to sense the world around us,to do work and have fun, and to move from place to place.In fact,the human body does its work so well that most people don't think about it very much一until they get sick.The germs(致病菌)that make people sick are everywhere. You can ' t see them , but they ' re there. They're sitting on your desk.They're hiding on your computer's keyboard.They're even in the air that you are breathing. There are two types of germs : viruses and bacteria(细菌).Viruses are germs that can only live inside animals or plants. Viruses cause illnesses such as flu and measles(麻疹).Bacteria are tiny creatures.Some bacteria are good.They can help your stomach break down food.Other bacteria aren't so good. They can make you sick. Bacteria can cause sore throats(喉痛)and ear infections.How can you stop these tiny invaders from making you sick?Your skin is the first defense against germs.You can prevent some illnesses simply by washing,with soap and water. But germs can still enter the body through small cuts in the skin or through the mouth,eyes,and nose.Once germs are inside your body, your immune(免疫的)system tries to protect you. It looks for and destroys germs.How does it do that?Special cells patrol your body.Some of these cells actually eat germs! Other cells make antibodies.An antibody sticks to a germ.There is a different antibody for each kind of germ. Some antibodies keep germs from making you sick.Others help your body find and kill germs.After a germ is destroyed,the antibodies stay in your body.They protect you if the same kind of germ comes back. That way you will not get the same illness twice.You can keep your body healthy by eating a nutritious(有营养的)diet to make your immune system strong. You can also help your immune system fight germs by getting vaccinated(接种).Vaccines are medicines.They contain germs that have been killed or weakened.The dead germs can't make you sick. Instead,they cause your body to make antibodies.If the same germ ever shows up again,then your antibodies attack it. All bacteria cause illnesses.
[多选题]共用题干 Tiny InvadersThe human body is truly amazing. It allows us to sense the world around us,to do work and have fun, and to move from place to place.In fact,the human body does its work so well that most people don't think about it very much一until they get sick.The germs(致病菌)that make people sick are everywhere. You can ' t see them , but they ' re there. They're sitting on your desk.They're hiding on your computer's keyboard.They're even in the air that you are breathing. There are two types of germs : viruses and bacteria(细菌).Viruses are germs that can only live inside animals or plants. Viruses cause illnesses such as flu and measles(麻疹).Bacteria are tiny creatures.Some bacteria are good.They can help your stomach break down food.Other bacteria aren't so good. They can make you sick. Bacteria can cause sore throats(喉痛)and ear infections.How can you stop these tiny invaders from making you sick?Your skin is the first defense against germs.You can prevent some illnesses simply by washing,with soap and water. But germs can still enter the body through small cuts in the skin or through the mouth,eyes,and nose.Once germs are inside your body, your immune(免疫的)system tries to protect you. It looks for and destroys germs.How does it do that?Special cells patrol your body.Some of these cells actually eat germs! Other cells make antibodies.An antibody sticks to a germ.There is a different antibody for each kind of germ. Some antibodies keep germs from making you sick.Others help your body find and kill germs.After a germ is destroyed,the antibodies stay in your body.They protect you if the same kind of germ comes back. That way you will not get the same illness twice.You can keep your body healthy by eating a nutritious(有营养的)diet to make your immune system strong. You can also help your immune system fight germs by getting vaccinated(接种).Vaccines are medicines.They contain germs that have been killed or weakened.The dead germs can't make you sick. Instead,they cause your body to make antibodies.If the same germ ever shows up again,then your antibodies attack it. Vaccines can make you sick.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Genetic EngineeringGenetic engineering began when the DNA molecule(分子),the most basic unit of life, was first described in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick.An understanding of DNA led to the altering of normal cell reproduction.Experiments with altering human cells began in 1970.In one of the first experiments,patients were injected with a virus that would produce a life-saving enzyme,but their bodies would not accept it.In 1980 patients with a rare but fatal blood disease were injected with a purified gene that was cloned through DNA technology.Another failure.Genetic engineering got a legal boost(激励)in 1980. The U. S. Supreme Court said that a patent could be granted on a genetically engineered " oil-eating" bacterium(细菌).This bacterium would help clean up oil spills.The ruling encouraged companies to invent new life forms,and three important medical products were quickly developed.1.Human interferon(干扰素)一a possible solution to some cancers and viral diseases. A newly engineered bacterium produced human interferon as a by-product. This new product reduced the cost of interferon.2. Human growth hormone(荷尔蒙)一for children whose bodies do not grow to normal height. An expensive growth hormone was previously produced from human cadavers,but by changing the genetic make-up of the single-cell bacterium E.coli,and affordable growth hormone could be produced.3. Human insulin (胰岛素)一for the treatment of diabetes. People with diabetes used to rely on a beef-or-pork-basedproduct until 1982.Now insulin can be manufactured by genetically altered bacteria.Advances in genetic engineering have continued,though they constantly must be weighed against the safety of procedures.There is clearly much more to discover. Tn the last paragraph,the word"weighed"has the closest meaning with__________.
[单选题]Deforestation and Desertification(沙漠化)   The Sahel zone lies between the Sahara desert and the fertile savannahs(热带大草原)of northern Nigeria and South Sudan. The word sahel comes from Arabic and means marginal or transitional ,and this is a good description of the semi-arid(半干旱) lands, which occupy much of the Western African countries of Mail, Mauritania, Niger ,and Chad.   Unfortunately, over the last century the Sahara desert has steadily crept southwards eating into once productive Sahel lands. United Nations surveys show that over 70 percent of the dry land in agriculture use in Africa has deteriorate dover the last 30 years. Droughts have become more severe, the most recent lasting over twenty years in parts of the Sahel region. The same process of desertification is taking place across southern Africa as the Kalahari desert advances into Botswana and parts of South Africa.   One of the major causes of this desert advance is poor agricultural land use, driven by the pressures of increasing population. Overgrazing一 keeping too many farm animals on the land一means that grasses and other plants cannot recover, and scarce water supplies are exhausted. Over cultivation一 trying to grow too many crops on poor land一 results in the soil becoming even less fertile and drier, and beginning to break up. Soil erosion (侵蚀) follows, and the land turns into desert.   Another cause of desertification is loss of tree cover. Trees are cut down for use as fuel and to clear land for agricultural use. Tree roots help to bind the soil together, to conserve moisture, and to provide a habitat for her plants and animals. When trees are cut down, the soil begins to dry and loosen, wind and rain erosion increase, other plant species die, and eventually the fertile top soil may be almost entirely lost, leaving only bare rock and dust.   The effects of loss of topsoil and increased drought are irreversible. They are, however, preventable. Careful conservation of tree cover and sustainable agricultural land use have been shown to halt deterioration of soils and lessen the effects of shortage of rainfall. One project in Kita in south-west Malifunded by UNDP has involved local communities in sustainable management offorest, while at the same time providing a viable(有活力的)agricultural economy. This may be a model for similar projects in other West African countries. 文章{1~5) The Sahel zone is an area which _____.
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and Learning Medicine AwardTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a Series of medical______(51)for their enzyme(酶)research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have______(52)the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were______(53) out in 1901.The last female winner was U.S.researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who______(54)the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible______(55)are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who______(56)up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors(核激素受体).As usual,the award committee is giving no______(57)about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who______(58)dynamite(炸药),established the prizes in his will in the ______(59)of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to______(60)winners,but medicine winners are typically______(61)for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall , secretary of the medicine prize committee , said the 10 million kronor(瑞典克朗)prize encourages______(62)research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists."Individual researchers probably don't______(63)at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they,re______(64)work,"Jornvall told the Associated Press-They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life______(65)." 55._________
[多选题]共用题干 ExerciseWhether or not exercise adds to the length of life,it is common experience that a certain amount of regular exercise_______(51)health and contributes a feeling of well-being. Furthermore,exercise________(52)involves play and recreation(娱乐),and relieves nervous tension and mental fatigue in so__________(53),is not only pleasant but beneficial.How much and what kind of exercise one should_________(54)merits careful consideration.The grow- ing child and the normal young man and young woman thrill(兴奋) with strenuous(剧烈的)sports. Theyfatigue to the__________(55)of exhaustion but recover promptly with a period of rest.But not so with thoseof middle age and beyond. For them moderation is_________(56)vital importance.Just how much exercise a person of a given age can safely take is a question hard to__________(57).In- dividual variability is too great to permit generalization.A game of tennis may be perfectly safe for one per- son of forty but folly(愚蠢)for another. The safe_________(58)for exercise depends on the condition of the heart,the condition of the muscles,the_________(59)of exercise,and the regularity with which it is taken. Two general suggestions,however,will__________(60)as sound advice for anyone.The first is thatthe___________(61)of the heart and general health should be determined periodically by careful,thorough physical examinations. The other is that exercise should be kept__________(62)the point of physical exhaustion.What type of exercise one should___________( 63)depends upon one's physical condition.Young people can safely enjoy competitive sports,but most older persons do better to limit themselves to less strenuous ___________(64).Walking,swimming and skating are among the sports that one can enjoy and safely ___________(65)in throughout life.Regularity is important if one is to get the most enjoyment and benefit out of exercise. _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 The Mysteries of NazcaIn the desert of Peru,300 kilometers from Lima,one of the most unusual artworks in the world has mystified(迷惑)people for decades._________(46 ) But from high above,these marks are huge images of birds,fish,seashells,all beautifully carved into the earth.The Nazca lines are so difficult to see from the ground that they weren't discovered until the 1930s, when pilots spotted them while flying over the area. In all,there are about 70 different human and animal figures on the plain,along with 900 triangles,circles,and lines.Researchers have figured out that the lines are at least 1,500 years old,but their purpose is still a mystery._________(47)However,it would probably be very tricky to land a spaceship in the middle ofpictures of dogs and monkeys.In the 1940s,an American explorer named Paul Kosok suggested that the drawings are a chronicle(己 录)of the movement of the stars and planets._________(48)Later,an astronomer tested his theory with a computer,but he couldn't find any relation between the lines and movements in space.Another explanation is that the lines may have been made for religious reasons.British researcher Tony Morrison investigated the customs of people in the Andes Mountain and learned that they sometimes pray by the side of the road.It's possible that in the past,the lines of Nazca were created for a similar purpose. _________(49)But the local people have never constructed anything this big.Recently,two other scientists,David Johnson and Steve Mabee,have speculated that lines could have been related to water. Nazca is one of the driest places in the world and receives only 2cm of rain every year. While Johnson was searching for ancient water sources in the area,he noticed that some waterways built by ancient people were connected with the lines.Johnson believes that the Nazca lines are a giant map of the underground water in the area._________(50) _________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇On the Trail of The Honey BadgerOn a recent field trip to the Kalahari Desert,a team of researchers learnt a lot more about honey badgers(灌).The team employed a local wildlife expert,Kitso Khama,to help them locate and follow the badgers across the desert. Their main aim was to study the badgers'movements and behaviour as discreetly (谨慎地)as possible,without frightening them away or causing them to change their natural behaviour. They also planned to trap a few and study them close up before releasing them. In view of the animal's repu- tation,this was something that even Khama was reluctant to do."The problem with honey badgers is they are naturally curious animals,especially when they see some- thing new,"he says."That,combined with their unpredictable nature,can be a dangerous mixture.If they sense you have food,for example,they won't be shy about coming right up to you for something to eat. They're actually quite sociable creatures around humans,but as soon as they feel they might be in danger', they can become extremely vicious(凶恶的).Fortunately this is rare , but it does happen."The research confirmed many things that were already known.As expected,honey badgers ate any creatures they could catch and kill.Even poisonous snakes,feared and avoided by most other animals,were not safe from them.The researchers were surprised,however,by the animal's fondness for local melons, probably because of their high water content.Previously researchers thought that the animal got all of its liquid requirements from its prey(猎物).The team also learnt that,contrary to previous research findings, the badgers occasionally formed loose family groups.They were also able to confirm certain results from pre- vious research,including the fact that female badgers never socialised with each other.Following some of the male badgers was a challenge,since they can cover large distances in a short space of time.Some hunting territories cover more than 500 square kilometres.Although they seem happy to share these territories with other males,there are occasional fights over an important food source,and male badgers can be as aggressive towards each other as they are towards other species.As the badgers became accustomed to the presence of people,it gave the team the chance to get up close to them without being the subject of the animals'curiosity一or their sudden aggression.The badgers' eating patterns,which had been disrupted,returned to normal.It also allowed the team to observe more closely some of the other creatures that form working associations with the honey badger,as these seemed to adopt the badgers'relaxed attitude when near humans. Which of the following is a typical feature of male badgers?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Gross National HappinessIn the last century,new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries.However,one country resisted these changes.High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia,the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however,was a poor country.People died at a young age.Most of its people could not read,and they did not know much about the outside world.Then,in 1972,a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck decided to help Bhutan to become modern,but without losing its traditions.King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas.He saw that most countries measured their progress by their Gross National Product(GNP).The GNP measures products and money. When the number of products sold increases,people say the country is making progress.King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan.He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness.If the people's happiness increased,the king could say that Bhutan was making progress.To decide if people were happier,he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness.People are happier if they have health care, education,and jobs.They are happier when they live in a healthy,protected environment. They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs.Finally,people are happier when they have agood,stable government.Now there is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan.People are healthier and are living longer. More people are educated and employed.Twenty-five percent of the land has become national parks,and the country has almost no pollution.The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs.Bhutan has also become a democracy.In 2008,King Wangchuck gave his power to his son.Although the country still had a king,it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time.Finally,Bhutan has connected to the rest of the world through television and internet.Bhutan is a symbol for social progress.Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH.These countries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness.They want to create new policies that take care of their people,cultures,and land.Brazil may be the next country to use the principles of GNH.Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration.Brazil is a large country with a diverse population.If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil,perhaps the rest of the world will follow. A country shows its progress with GNP by_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Aromatherapy(芳香疗法)1 Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine which is based on the use of very concentrated"es-sential"oils from the flowers,leaves,bark,branches or roots of plants which are considered to have healing properties.In aromatherapy these powerful oils are mixed with other oils , such as almond(杏仁)oil, or they are diluted(稀释)with water.These solutions(溶液剂)can be rubbed on the skin,sprayed in the air, or applied as a compress(敷药).2 Many people have aromatherapy massages(按摩),and depending on the treatment a person is having, the aromatherapist will massage the oil into the hands or shoulders.The massage is smooth and flowing,as it is designed to create a sense of relaxation and calm.The sessions are tailored to the individual's health and mood at the time,so every session is unique.3 Practitioners of aromatherapy believe that the aroma of the"essential"oils directly stimulates the brain or that the oils are absorbed through the skin into the bloodstream,where they can affect the whole body and promote healing.Other claims in support of aromatherapy are that it aids digestion,improves the functioning of respiratory system,reduces muscular aches and pains,and promotes muscle relaxation and tone.It has also been argued that aromatherapy can improve circulation,lower blood pressure,and help combat insomnia(失眠)and other stress-related disorders such as tension headaches , anxiety , and mild depression.4 However,while aromatherapy may have real effects that promote a sense of well-being,some tradi- tional medicine practitioners remain doubtful about its powers.While research has confirmed that aroma-therapy does have some positive short-term effects on most people,it also suggests that aromatherapy is not an actual science or medicine that should be used to treat illness.Furthermore,not all aromatherapy is considered beneficial to health.There are precautions which should be taken before having aromatherapy because some oils can have negative effects on people with certain medical conditions.The study of aroma-therapy is relatively new and unexplored.More research needs to be conducted to make scientific conclusions about its use and effects. The use and benefits of aromatherapy need to______.
[多选题]共用题干 Approaches to Understanding Intelligences It pays to be smart, but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician, but you might not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psy- chologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on all tests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelligent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believesthat all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelli- gences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelli- gences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured, other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathe- matical , spatial , musical , interpersonal , intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic. According to Gardner,schools should______.
[多选题]共用题干 Obesity(肥胖)in the Western WorldObesity is rapidly becoming a new problem of the western world,delegates agreed at the 1 1 th European Conference on the issue in Vienna Wednesday to Saturday.According to statements before the opening of the conference-of 2,000 specialists from more than 50 countries-1.2 billion people worldwide are overweight, and 250 million are obese.Professor Bernhard Ludvik of Vienna General Hospital said:"Obesity is a chronic illness.In Germany, 20 per cent of the people are already affected,but in Japan only one per cent."But he said that there was hope for sufferers thanks to the new scientific discoveries and medication.Professor Friedrich Hopichier of Salzberg said:"We are living in the new age(but)with the metabolism (新陈代谢)of a stone-age man."" I have just been to the United States.It is really terrible.A pizza shop is spnnglng up on every corner.We have been overrun by fast food and Coca-Cola-ization."Many of the experts stressed that obesity was a potential killer.Hopichier said:"Eighty percent of all diabetics are obese,also fifty per cent of all patients with high blood pressure and fifty per cent with adipose (脂肪的)tissue complaints." " Ten per cent more weight means thirteen per cent more risk of heart disease. Reducing one's weight by ten per cent leads to thirteen per cent lower blood pressure."Another expert Hermann Toplak said that the state health services should improve their financing of preventive programs."Though the health insurance pays for surgery(such as reducing the size of the stomach) when the bodymass index is more than 40.That is equivalent to a weight of 1 1 6 kilograms for a height of 1.70 meters.One should start earlier."Ludvik said that prevention shoald begin in school."Child obesity(fat deposits)correlates(与……相关)with the time which children spend in front of TV sets."The consequences were only apparent later on.No more than fifteen per cent of obese people lived to the average life expectancy for their population group. Hermann Toplak suggested that more money should be spent on______.
[多选题]共用题干 Multiple Sclerosis(多发性硬化症)1 Multiple Sclerosis ( MS) is a disease in which the patient ' s immune(免疫的)system attacks the central nervous system.This can lead to numerous physical and mental symptoms,as the disease affects the transmission of electrical signals between the body and the brain.However,the human body,being a flexi-ble,adaptable system,can compensate for some level of damage,so a person with MS can look and feel fine even though the disease is present.2 MS patients can have one of two main varieties of the disease : the relapsing form(复发型)and theprimary progressive form.In the relapsing form,the disease progresses in a series of jumps;at times it is in remission(减轻),which means that a person's normal functions return for a period of time before the sys-tem goes into relapse and the disease again becomes more active.This is the most common form of MS; 80%~90% of people have this form of the disease when they are first diagnosed. The relapse-remission cycle can continue for many years.Eventually,however,loss of physical and cognitive functions starts to take place and the remissions become less frequent.3 In the primary progressive form of MS,there are no remissions and a continual but steady loss of physical and cognitive functions takes place.This condition affects about 10%~15% of sufferers atdiagnosis.4 The expected course of the disease,or prognosis(预后),depends on many variables:the subtype of the disease,the patient's individual characteristics and the initial symptoms.Life expectancy of patients, however,is often nearly the same as that of an unaffected person一provided that a reasonable standard of care is received.In some cases a near-normal life span is possible.5 The cause of the disease is unclear ; it seems that some people have a genetic susceptibility(易感 性),which is triggered by some unknown environmental factor. Onset(发作)of the disease usually occurs in young adults between the age of 20 and 40.It is more common in women than men;however,it has also been diagnosed in young children and in elderly people. MS affects the communication of nerve cells between the body and__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Aromatherapy(芳香疗法)1 Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine which is based on the use of very concentrated"es-sential"oils from the flowers,leaves,bark,branches or roots of plants which are considered to have healing properties.In aromatherapy these powerful oils are mixed with other oils , such as almond(杏仁)oil, or they are diluted(稀释)with water.These solutions(溶液剂)can be rubbed on the skin,sprayed in the air, or applied as a compress(敷药).2 Many people have aromatherapy massages(按摩),and depending on the treatment a person is having, the aromatherapist will massage the oil into the hands or shoulders.The massage is smooth and flowing,as it is designed to create a sense of relaxation and calm.The sessions are tailored to the individual's health and mood at the time,so every session is unique.3 Practitioners of aromatherapy believe that the aroma of the"essential"oils directly stimulates the brain or that the oils are absorbed through the skin into the bloodstream,where they can affect the whole body and promote healing.Other claims in support of aromatherapy are that it aids digestion,improves the functioning of respiratory system,reduces muscular aches and pains,and promotes muscle relaxation and tone.It has also been argued that aromatherapy can improve circulation,lower blood pressure,and help combat insomnia(失眠)and other stress-related disorders such as tension headaches , anxiety , and mild depression.4 However,while aromatherapy may have real effects that promote a sense of well-being,some tradi- tional medicine practitioners remain doubtful about its powers.While research has confirmed that aroma-therapy does have some positive short-term effects on most people,it also suggests that aromatherapy is not an actual science or medicine that should be used to treat illness.Furthermore,not all aromatherapy is considered beneficial to health.There are precautions which should be taken before having aromatherapy because some oils can have negative effects on people with certain medical conditions.The study of aroma-therapy is relatively new and unexplored.More research needs to be conducted to make scientific conclusions about its use and effects. Paragraph 3______
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Around 45%of the UK's carbon dioxide emissions come from the energy people use every day-at home and when they travel.In order to generate that energy,fossil fuels(coal oil,and gas)are burnt,and these produce greenhouse gases-in particular carbon dioxide(CO2).Car emissions are a major problem, but the truth is that more CO2 comes from the energy used at home.The average household creates aroundfive and a half tonnes of CO2 a year,and it is the same CO2 that is changing the climate and damaging the environment.CO2 and various other gases wrap the earth in an invisible blanket helping to prevent heat from escaping.Without this greenhouse effect,the average temperature on Earth would be around-18℃, compared with the current average of around+15℃.The composition of this blanket of gases has remained relatively constant for many thousands of years.However,since the industrial revolution began around 200 years ago,people have been burning increasing amounts of fossil fuels,thus releasing more CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the process.This has increased the heating effect of the blanket,trapping more of the sun's energy inside the Earth's atmosphere in turn the Earth's temperature has increased more rapidly in a shorter period of time than it has for thousands of years.In 2008,the total UK CO2 emissions were 533 million tonnes.27%(144 million tonnes)of those emissions came from the energy used to heat,light,and power homes.Transport emissions caused by passenger cars,buses and motorcycles accounted for a further 16%(87 million tonnes)of the UK's CO2 emissions.These figures show that a significant amount of CO2 results from ordinary citizens carbon footprint in their daily activities and lifestyle.The effects of climate change can be seen all around us.Weather patterns are becoming more and more fractured and uncertain,and over the last century trends in warm weather have become increasingly common.In the UK in the last 40 years,winters have grown warmer,with much heavier rainfall.One of the clearest shifts over the last 200 years is towards summers that are hotter and drier,causing pervasive(普遍的)water shortages.Recent years have been the hottest since records began and during August 2003,the hottest ever outdoor temperature in the UK was recorded-38.5℃. The results of climate change in the UK can be seen in______.
[多选题]共用题干 More About Alzheimer's DiseaseScientists have developed skin tests that may be used in the future to identify people with Alzheimer's disease and may ultimately allow physicians to predict_______(51)is at risk of getting this neurological disorder.The only current means of_____(52)the disease in a living patient is a long and expensive series of tests that eliminate every other cause of dementia(痴呆)."Since Alois Alzheimer described the_____(53)nearly a century ago,people have been trying to find a way to_____(54)diagnose it in its early stages,"said Patricia Grady,acting director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda,Maryland."This discovery,if_____(55),could prove a big step forward in our efforts to deal with and understand the disease."Alzheimer ' 5 is the single greatest _________ ( 56 ) of mental deterioration(退化)in older people, affecting between 2.5 million and 4 million people in the United States_____(57).The devastating disorder gradually destroys memory and the ability to function,and eventually causes death.There is currently no known______(58)for the disease.Researches______(59)that the skin cells of Alzheimer's patients have defects that interfere with their ability to regulate the flow of potassium(钾)in and out of the cells.The fact that the cell defects are present in the skin suggests that Alzheimer's______(60)from physiological changes throughout the body,and that dementia may be the first noticeable effect of these changes as the defects______(61)the cells in the brain,scientists said.The flow of potassium is especially______(62)in cells responsible for memory formation.The scientists also found two other defects that affect the cells'supply, of calcium(钙),another critical element.One test developed by researches calls______(63)growing skin cells in a laboratory culture and then testing them with an electrical detector to determine if the microscopic tunnels that_______(64)the flow of potassium are open.Open potassium channels create a unique electrical signature.A spokesman for the Alzheimer's Association said that if the validity of the diagnostic test can be proven it would be an important______(65),but cautioned that other promising tests for Alzheimer's have been disappointing. _________64
[多选题]共用题干 ExerciseWhether or not exercise adds to the length of life,it is common experience that a certain amount of regular exercise_______(51)health and contributes a feeling of well-being. Furthermore,exercise________(52)involves play and recreation(娱乐),and relieves nervous tension and mental fatigue in so__________(53),is not only pleasant but beneficial.How much and what kind of exercise one should_________(54)merits careful consideration.The grow- ing child and the normal young man and young woman thrill(兴奋) with strenuous(剧烈的)sports. Theyfatigue to the__________(55)of exhaustion but recover promptly with a period of rest.But not so with thoseof middle age and beyond. For them moderation is_________(56)vital importance.Just how much exercise a person of a given age can safely take is a question hard to__________(57).In- dividual variability is too great to permit generalization.A game of tennis may be perfectly safe for one per- son of forty but folly(愚蠢)for another. The safe_________(58)for exercise depends on the condition of the heart,the condition of the muscles,the_________(59)of exercise,and the regularity with which it is taken. Two general suggestions,however,will__________(60)as sound advice for anyone.The first is thatthe___________(61)of the heart and general health should be determined periodically by careful,thorough physical examinations. The other is that exercise should be kept__________(62)the point of physical exhaustion.What type of exercise one should___________( 63)depends upon one's physical condition.Young people can safely enjoy competitive sports,but most older persons do better to limit themselves to less strenuous ___________(64).Walking,swimming and skating are among the sports that one can enjoy and safely ___________(65)in throughout life.Regularity is important if one is to get the most enjoyment and benefit out of exercise. _________(60)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Gross National HappinessIn the last century,new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries.However,one country resisted these changes.High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia,the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however,was a poor country.People died at a young age.Most of its people could not read,and they did not know much about the outside world.Then,in 1972,a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck decided to help Bhutan to become modern,but without losing its traditions.King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas.He saw that most countries measured their progressby their Gross National Product(GNP).The GNP measures products and money.When the number of products sold increases,people say the country is making progress.King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan.He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness.If the people's happiness increased,the king could say that Bhutan was making progress.To decide if people were happier,he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness.People are happier if they have health care, education,and jobs.They are happier when they live in a healthy,protected environment.They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs.Finally,people are happier when they have a good,stable government.Now there is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan.People are healthier and are living longer. More people are educated and employed.Twenty-five percent of the land has become national parks,and the country has almost no pollution.The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs.Bhutan has also become a democracy.In 2008,King Wangchuck gave his power to his son.Although the country still had a king,it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time.Finally,Bhutan has connected to the rest of the world through television and internet.Bhutan is a symbol for social progress.Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH.These countries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness.They want to create new policies that takecare of their people,cultures,and land.Brazil may be the next country to use the principles of GNH.Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration.Brazil is a large country with a diverse population.If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil,perhaps the rest of the world will follow. Apart from modernizing Bhutan,what else did Wangchuck want to do for Bhutan?
[多选题]共用题干 Some Schooling on BackpacksAccording to the U.S.Consumer Product Safety Commission,5,900 kids were treated at hospital emergency rooms , clinics , and doctors ' offices last year for sprains(扭伤)and strains caused by backpacks.Such injuries are so widespread that more than 70 percent of physicians'surveyed by the American Academy of Orthopedic(整形外科的)Surgeons listed backpacks as a potential clinical problem for children.How do you avoid such problems? Choose bags that have wide , padded straps(有垫的背带)and a belt.That will help transfer some of the weight from the back and shoulders to the hips.You should also tighten both straps firmly,so the pack rests about 2 inches above your waist.Also,remember to pack your bag with the heaviest items closest to your back and to bend both knees when you pick it up.How much should you stuff into your pack?That depends on your size and strength,but a general rule is not to exceed 20 percent of your body weight.So if a child weighs 100 pounds,the backpack and its load should not be more than 20 pounds.One hint : Make frequent trips to your locker(储物柜)to exchange books between classes.Backpacks with wheels let you pull the weight along the ground,but they have problems too.Many are larger than the average shoulder bag,so students are tempted to carry more than they would in a conventional pack.Roller bags often don't fit into a locker.They can also lead to tripping and falls in crowded halls.Whatever you use,10 or 15 minutes of stretching and back strengthening is a good idea. A 10-15 minutes'exercise will help you bear a heavier backpack.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Gross National HappinessIn the last century,new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries.However,one country resisted these changes.High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia,the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however,was a poor country.People died at a young age.Most of its people could not read,and they did not know much about the outside world.Then,in 1972,a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck decided to help Bhutan to become modern,but without losing its traditions.King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas.He saw that most countries measured their progress by their Gross National Product(GNP).The GNP measures products and money. When the number of products sold increases,people say the country is making progress.King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan.He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness.If the people's happiness increased,the king could say that Bhutan was making progress.To decide if people were happier,he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness.People are happier if they have health care, education,and jobs.They are happier when they live in a healthy,protected environment. They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs.Finally,people are happier when they have agood,stable government.Now there is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan.People are healthier and are living longer. More people are educated and employed.Twenty-five percent of the land has become national parks,and the country has almost no pollution.The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs.Bhutan has also become a democracy.In 2008,King Wangchuck gave his power to his son.Although the country still had a king,it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time.Finally,Bhutan has connected to the rest of the world through television and internet.Bhutan is a symbol for social progress.Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH.These countries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness.They want to create new policies that take care of their people,cultures,and land.Brazil may be the next country to use the principles of GNH.Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration.Brazil is a large country with a diverse population.If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil,perhaps the rest of the world will follow. Apart from modernizing Bhutan,what else did Wangchuck want to do for Bhutan?
[多选题]共用题干 The Day a Language DiedWhen Carios Westez died at the age of 76,a language died,too.Westez,more commonly known asRed Thunder Cloud,was the last speaker of the Native American language,Catawba.Anyone who wants to hear various songs of the Catawba can contact the Smithsonian Institution in Washington,D.C.,where,back in the 1940s,Red Thunder Cloud recorded a series of songs for future generations.______(46)They are all that is left of the Catawba language.The language that.people used to speak is gone forever.We are all aware of the damage that modern industry can do to the world's ecology(生态).However, few people are aware of the impact that widely spoken languages have on other languages and ways of life. English has spread all over the world.Chinese,Spanish,Russian,and Hindi have become powerful langua- ges,as well.______(47)When this happens,hundreds of languages that are spoken by only a few peo- pie die out.Scholars believe there are about 6,000 languages around the world,but more than half of them could die out within the next 100 years.There are many examples.Araki is a native language of the island of Vanuatu,located in the Pacific Ocean.It is spoken by only a few older adults,so like Catawba,Araki will soon disappear.Many languages of Ethiopia will have the same fate because each one has only a few speakers.______(48)In the Americas,100 languages,each of which has fewer than 300 speakers,also are dying out.Red Thunder Cloud was one of the first to recognize the threat of language death and to try to do some-thing about it.He was not actually born into the Catawba.tribe,and the language was not his mother tongue.______(49)The songs he sang for the Smithsonian Institution helped to make Native American music popular.Now he is gone,and the language is dead.What does it mean when a language disappears?When a plant or insect or animal species dies,it is easy to understand what we've lost and to appreciate what this means for the balance of the natural world.However,language is only a product of the mind.To be the last remaining speaker of a language,like Red Thunder Cloud,must be a lonely destiny,almost as strange and terrible as being the last surviving member of a dying species.______(50) ______(48)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Genetic EngineeringGenetic engineering began when the DNA molecule(分子),the most basic unit of life, was first described in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick.An understanding of DNA led to the altering of normal cell reproduction.Experiments with altering human cells began in 1970.In one of the first experiments,patients were injected with a virus that would produce a life-saving enzyme,but their bodies would not accept it.In 1980 patients with a rare but fatal blood disease were injected with a purified gene that was cloned through DNA technology.Another failure.Genetic engineering got a legal boost(激励)in 1980. The U. S. Supreme Court said that a patent could be granted on a genetically engineered " oil-eating" bacterium(细菌).This bacterium would help clean up oil spills.The ruling encouraged companies to invent new life forms,and three important medical products were quickly developed.1.Human interferon(干扰素)一a possible solution to some cancers and viral diseases. A newly engineered bacterium produced human interferon as a by-product. This new product reduced the cost of interferon.2. Human growth hormone(荷尔蒙)一for children whose bodies do not grow to normal height. An expensive growth hormone was previously produced from human cadavers,but by changing the genetic make-up of the single-cell bacterium E.coli,and affordable growth hormone could be produced.3. Human insulin (胰岛素)一for the treatment of diabetes. People with diabetes used to rely on a beef-or-pork-basedproduct until 1982.Now insulin can be manufactured by genetically altered bacteria.Advances in genetic engineering have continued,though they constantly must be weighed against the safety of procedures.There is clearly much more to discover. In this passage,the three genetically engineered medical products are presented__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Some Schooling on BackpacksAccording to the U.S.Consumer Product Safety Commission,5,900 kids were treated at hospital emergency rooms , clinics , and doctors ' offices last year for sprains(扭伤)and strains caused by backpacks.Such injuries are so widespread that more than 70 percent of physicians'surveyed by the American Academy of Orthopedic(整形外科的)Surgeons listed backpacks as a potential clinical problem for children.How do you avoid such problems? Choose bags that have wide , padded straps(有垫的背带)and a belt.That will help transfer some of the weight from the back and shoulders to the hips.You should also tighten both straps firmly,so the pack rests about 2 inches above your waist.Also,remember to pack your bag with the heaviest items closest to your back and to bend both knees when you pick it up.How much should you stuff into your pack?That depends on your size and strength,but a general rule is not to exceed 20 percent of your body weight.So if a child weighs 100 pounds,the backpack and its load should not be more than 20 pounds.One hint : Make frequent trips to your locker(储物柜)to exchange books between classes.Backpacks with wheels let you pull the weight along the ground,but they have problems too.Many are larger than the average shoulder bag,so students are tempted to carry more than they would in a conventional pack.Roller bags often don't fit into a locker.They can also lead to tripping and falls in crowded halls.Whatever you use,10 or 15 minutes of stretching and back strengthening is a good idea. About six thousand American kids were injured by carrying backpacks last year.