考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The World ' s Best-Selling MedicineSince ancient times,people all over the world have used willow to stop pain.The willow tree contains salicylic acid(水杨酸).This stops pain,but there is one problem. Salicylic acid also hurts the stomach. In1853,a French scientist made a mixture from willow that did not hurt the stomach.However,his mixture was difficult to make,and he did not try to produce or sell it.In 1897,in Germany,Felix Hoffmann also made a mixture with salicylic acid.He tried it himself first and then gave it to his father because his father was old and in a lot of pain.His father's pain went away, and the mixture did not hurt his stomach.Hoffmann worked for Bayer,a German company.He showed his new drug to his manager,who tested the drug and found that it worked well.Bayer decided to make the drug. They called it aspirin and put the Bayer name on every pill.Aspirin was an immediate success.Almost everyone has pain of some kind,so aspirin answered a true need.Aspirin was cheap,easy to take,and effective.It also lowered fevers.Aspirin was a wonder drug.At first,Bayer sold the drug through doctors,who then sold it to their patients.In 1915,the company started to sell aspirin in drugstores. In the United States , Bayer had a patent(专利权)on the drug. Other companies could make similar products and sell them in other countries,but only Bayer could make and sell aspirin in the United States.In time,Bayer could no longer own the name aspirin in the United States. Other companies could make it there,too.However,Bayer aspirin was the most well known,and for many years,it was the market leader.By the 1950s,new painkillers were on the market.Aspirin was no.longer the only way to treat pain and reduce fever. Bayer and other companies looked for other drugs to make.However,in the l970s they got a surprise.Doctors noticed that patients who were taking aspirin had fewer heart attacks than other people.A British researcher named John Vane found the reason aspirin helped to prevent heart attacks.In 1982,he won the Nobel Prize for his research.Doctors started to tell some of their patients to take aspirin every day to pre- vent heart attacks.It has made life better for the many people who take it.It has also made a lot of money for companies like Bayer that produce and sell it! Why was Felix Hoffmann looking for a painkiller?
[多选题]共用题干 ExerciseWhether or not exercise adds to the length of life,it is common experience that a certain amount of regular exercise_______(51)health and contributes a feeling of well-being. Furthermore,exercise________(52)involves play and recreation(娱乐),and relieves nervous tension and mental fatigue in so__________(53),is not only pleasant but beneficial.How much and what kind of exercise one should_________(54)merits careful consideration.The grow- ing child and the normal young man and young woman thrill(兴奋) with strenuous(剧烈的)sports. Theyfatigue to the__________(55)of exhaustion but recover promptly with a period of rest.But not so with thoseof middle age and beyond. For them moderation is_________(56)vital importance.Just how much exercise a person of a given age can safely take is a question hard to__________(57).In- dividual variability is too great to permit generalization.A game of tennis may be perfectly safe for one per- son of forty but folly(愚蠢)for another. The safe_________(58)for exercise depends on the condition of the heart,the condition of the muscles,the_________(59)of exercise,and the regularity with which it is taken. Two general suggestions,however,will__________(60)as sound advice for anyone.The first is thatthe___________(61)of the heart and general health should be determined periodically by careful,thorough physical examinations. The other is that exercise should be kept__________(62)the point of physical exhaustion.What type of exercise one should___________( 63)depends upon one's physical condition.Young people can safely enjoy competitive sports,but most older persons do better to limit themselves to less strenuous ___________(64).Walking,swimming and skating are among the sports that one can enjoy and safely ___________(65)in throughout life.Regularity is important if one is to get the most enjoyment and benefit out of exercise. _________(52)
[多选题]共用题干 Skin CancerMelanoma(黑素瘤),the deadliest kind of skin cancer,is now the most common cancer in__________(51) British women,the country's leading cancer organization said Wednesday.Skin cancer has__________(52) cervical(子宫颈的)cancer as the top cancer striking women in their 20s,according to the latest data from Cancer Research United Kingdom.The trend is particularly_________(53)since younger people are not generally those most susceptible (易患的)to melanoma. Rates of skin cancer are _________( 54 ) highest in people over age 75.But experts worry that increasing numbers of younger people being diagnosed with skin cancer could be the_________(55)of a dangerous trend.Women in their 20s make_________(56)a small percentage of all patients diagnosed with melanoma in Britain,but nearly a third of all cases occur in people younger than 50.Based on current numbers,Cancer Research UK predicts that melanoma will become the fourth _________(57)common cancer for men and women of all ages by 2024,and that cases will jump from about 9,000 a year to more than 15,500.Cancer experts_________(58)the rising number of skin cancer cases largely to the surge in people using tanning salons."Spending time on sun beds is just as_________(59)as staying out too long in the sun,"said Caroline Cerny of Cancer Research UK. The organization is starting a SunSmart_________(60)to warn Britons of the dangers of being too bronzed."The intensity of ultraviolet rays in some sun beds can be more than 10_________(61)stronger than themid-day sun,"Cerny said.In the United States,several states require parental approval________(62)minors can use tanning salons.Wisconsin bans people 16 and________(63)from using tanning beds,and others ban children under 14.At least 29 states have regulations governing minors'use of tanning salons.In the U.K.,Scottish politicians passed legislation banning those under 1 8 from using tanning beds, though it hasn't yet been implemented.There are no plans for________(64)in the rest of the U.K.The World Health Organization has previously recommended that tanning beds be regulated because of their potential to damage DNA in the skin.Experts said most deadly skin cancers could be________(65)if people took the proper precautions when in the sun and avoided tanning beds. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 Pandemic(大面积流行的)H1N1 2009The most active areas of pandemic influenza transmission currently are in central and eastern Europe. Focal(集中的)increases in rates during recent weeks were _________( 5 1 ) in at least two eastern Europeancountries. A high intensity of respiratory(呼吸的)disease activity with concurrent(同时存在的)circulation of pandemic influenza still_________(52)in parts of southern and eastern Europe,_________(53)in Greece, Poland,and Ukraine.In Western Europe,influenza transmission remains_________(54)and widespread,but overall disease activity has peaked. All influenza viruses in Western Europe were pandemic H1N1 2009._________(55),very small numbers of seasonal influenza viruses covering less than 1%of all influenza viruses found,were reported in Russia. In_________(56),limited available data indicate that active,high intensity transmission is occurring in Northern African countries_________(57)the Mediterranean coast.In Central Asia,limited data_________(58)that influenza virus circulation remains active,but transmis-sion may have recently peaked in some places.In West Asia,Israel,Iran,and Iraq also appear to have passed their_________(59)period of transmission within the past month though both areas continue to have some active transmission and levels of respiratory disease activity have not yet_________(60)to baseline levels.In East Asia,influenza transmission remains active but appears to be_________(61)overall. Slight increases in ILI were reported in Mongolia after weeks of declining activity following a large peak of activity_________(62)one month ago.In North America,influenza transmission_________(63)widespread but has declined quickly in all countries.In the tropical regions of Central and South America and the Caribbean,influenza transmission re- mains geographically widespread but overall disease_________(64)has been declining or remains unchanged in most parts,_________(65)for focal increases in respiratory disease activity in a few countries. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and Learning Medicine AwardTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a Series of medical______(51)for their enzyme(酶)research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have______(52)the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were______(53) out in 1901.The last female winner was U.S.researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who______(54)the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible______(55)are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who______(56)up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors(核激素受体).As usual,the award committee is giving no______(57)about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who______(58)dynamite(炸药),established the prizes in his will in the ______(59)of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to______(60)winners,but medicine winners are typically______(61)for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall , secretary of the medicine prize committee , said the 10 million kronor(瑞典克朗)prize encourages______(62)research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists."Individual researchers probably don't______(63)at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they,re______(64)work,"Jornvall told the Associated Press-They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life______(65)." 58._________
[单选题]Medicine Award Kicks off Nobel Prize Announcements【诺贝尔奖的公布从医学奖开始】   Two scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday, kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.   Australian-born U. S. citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a series of medical honors for their enzyme research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.   Only seven women have won the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were handed out in 1901. The last female winner was U. S. researcher Linda Buck in 2004, who shared the prize with Richard Axel.   Among the pair's possible rivals are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen, who opened up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors.   As usual, the award committee is giving no hints about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.   Alfred Nobel, the Swede who invented dynamite, established the prizes in his will in the categories of medicine, physics, chemistry,, literature and peace. The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.   Nobel left few instructions on how to select winners, but medicine winners are typically awarded for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.   Hans Jornvall, secretary of the medicine prize committee, said the 10 million kronor ( US $1.3 million. prize encourages groundbreaking research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists.   "Individual researchers probably don't look at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they're at work," Jornvall told The Associated Press. "They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life functions."   In 2006, Blackburn, of the University of California, San Francisco, and Greider, of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, shared the Lasker prize for basic medical research with Jack Szostak of Harvard Medical School. Their work set the stage for research suggesting that cancer cells use telomerase to sustain their uncontrolled growth. 文章(31~35)Who is NOT a likely candidate for this year's Nobel Prize in medicine?
[单选题]Scientists Develop Ways of Detecting Heart Attack【科学家探索发现心脏病的方法】   German researchers have __ 1 __ a new generation of defibrillators and early-warning software aimed at offering heart patients greater protection __ 2 __ sudden death from cardiac arrest.   In Germany alone around 100,000 people die annually as a result of cardiac arrest and many of these cases __ 3 __ by disruption to the heart’s rhythm. Those most at risk are patients who have __ 4 __ suffered a heart attack, and for years the use of defibrillators has proved useful in diagnosing __ 5 __ disruption to heart rhythms and correcting them automatically by intervening within seconds. These devices __ 6__ a range of functions, such as that of pacemaker.   Heart specialists at Freiburg’s University Clinic have now achieved a breakthrough with an implanted defibrillator __ 7 __ of generating a six-channel electrocardiogram (ECG. within the body. This integrated system allows early diagnosis of __ 8__ blood-flow problems and a pending heart attack. It will be implanted in patients for the first time this year. Meanwhile, researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Mathematics in Kaiserslautern have developed new computer software that renders of ECG data __ 9 __ .   The overwhelming __ 10 __ of patients at risk will not have an implanted defibrillator and must for this reason undergo regular ECGs. “Many of the current programs only __ 11__ into account a linear correlation of the data. We are, however, making use __ 12__ a non-linear process that reveals the chaotic patterns of heart beats as an open and complex system,” Hagen Knaf says, “__ 13 __ changes in the heart beats over time can be monitored and individual variations in patients taken into account.” An old study of ECG data, based __ 14__ 600 patients who had suffered a subsequent heart attack, enabled the researchers to compare risks and to show __ 15 __ the new software evaluates the data considerably better. 文章(16~30)
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and Learning Medicine AwardTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a Series of medical______(51)for their enzyme(酶)research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have______(52)the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were______(53) out in 1901.The last female winner was U.S.researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who______(54)the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible______(55)are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who______(56)up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors(核激素受体).As usual,the award committee is giving no______(57)about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who______(58)dynamite(炸药),established the prizes in his will in the ______(59)of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to______(60)winners,but medicine winners are typically______(61)for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall , secretary of the medicine prize committee , said the 10 million kronor(瑞典克朗)prize encourages______(62)research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists."Individual researchers probably don't______(63)at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they,re______(64)work,"Jornvall told the Associated Press-They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life______(65)." 61._________
[多选题]共用题干 The Worker 's Role in ManagementTraditionally,it has been the workers'role to work and management's role to manage.Managers have planned and directed the firm's operations with little thought of consulting the labor force.Managers have rarely felt compelled(被迫的)to obtain the workers ' opinions or to explain their decisions to their employees.At most,companies have provided"suggestion boxes"in which workers could place ideas for improving procedures.In recent years,however,many management specialists have been arguing that workers are more than sellers of labor-they have a vital stake in the company and may be able to make significant contributions to its management.Furthermore,major company decisions profoundly affect workers and their dependents.This isparticularly true of plant closings,which may put thousands on the unemployment lines.Should workers, then,play a stronger role in management?Workers should have a role in management.At the very least,the labor force should be informed of major policy decisions(A common complaint among rank-and-file workers is the lack of information about company policies and actions).Between 1980 and 1985 about five million workers were the victims of plant closings and permanent layoffs(失业),often with no warning.At least 90 days'notice ought to be given in such instances so that workers have time to adjust.Management should consult workers before closing a plant,because the workers might be able to suggest ways of improving productivity and reducing costs and might be willing to make concessions that will help keep the plant operating.It should become a general practice to include workers in some managerial decision making.There ought to be representatives of the workers on the firm's board of directors or other major policymaking groups.If rank-and-file workers are given a voice in the planning and management of the work flow,they will help to make improvements,their morale will rise,and their productivity will increase.As a further incentive,they must be given a share in the company's profits.This can be done through employee stock-ownership plans,bonuses,or rewards for efficiency and productivity.Finally,when a plant can no longer operate at a profit,the workers should be given the opportunity to purchase the plant and run it themselves. According to the passage,what happened between 1980 and 1985?
[多选题]共用题干 ExerciseWhether or not exercise adds to the length of life,it is common experience that a certain amount of regular exercise_______(51)health and contributes a feeling of well-being. Furthermore,exercise________(52)involves play and recreation(娱乐),and relieves nervous tension and mental fatigue in so__________(53),is not only pleasant but beneficial.How much and what kind of exercise one should_________(54)merits careful consideration.The grow- ing child and the normal young man and young woman thrill(兴奋) with strenuous(剧烈的)sports. Theyfatigue to the__________(55)of exhaustion but recover promptly with a period of rest.But not so with thoseof middle age and beyond. For them moderation is_________(56)vital importance.Just how much exercise a person of a given age can safely take is a question hard to__________(57).In- dividual variability is too great to permit generalization.A game of tennis may be perfectly safe for one per- son of forty but folly(愚蠢)for another. The safe_________(58)for exercise depends on the condition of the heart,the condition of the muscles,the_________(59)of exercise,and the regularity with which it is taken. Two general suggestions,however,will__________(60)as sound advice for anyone.The first is thatthe___________(61)of the heart and general health should be determined periodically by careful,thorough physical examinations. The other is that exercise should be kept__________(62)the point of physical exhaustion.What type of exercise one should___________( 63)depends upon one's physical condition.Young people can safely enjoy competitive sports,but most older persons do better to limit themselves to less strenuous ___________(64).Walking,swimming and skating are among the sports that one can enjoy and safely ___________(65)in throughout life.Regularity is important if one is to get the most enjoyment and benefit out of exercise. _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 Pandemic(大面积流行的)H1N1 2009The most active areas of pandemic influenza transmission currently are in central and eastern Europe. Focal(集中的)increases in rates during recent weeks were _________( 5 1 ) in at least two eastern Europeancountries. A high intensity of respiratory(呼吸的)disease activity with concurrent(同时存在的)circulation of pandemic influenza still_________(52)in parts of southern and eastern Europe,_________(53)in Greece, Poland,and Ukraine.In Western Europe,influenza transmission remains_________(54)and widespread,but overall disease activity has peaked. All influenza viruses in Western Europe were pandemic H1N1 2009._________(55),very small numbers of seasonal influenza viruses covering less than 1%of all influenza viruses found,were reported in Russia. In_________(56),limited available data indicate that active,high intensity transmission is occurring in Northern African countries_________(57)the Mediterranean coast.In Central Asia,limited data_________(58)that influenza virus circulation remains active,but transmis-sion may have recently peaked in some places.In West Asia,Israel,Iran,and Iraq also appear to have passed their_________(59)period of transmission within the past month though both areas continue to have some active transmission and levels of respiratory disease activity have not yet_________(60)to baseline levels.In East Asia,influenza transmission remains active but appears to be_________(61)overall. Slight increases in ILI were reported in Mongolia after weeks of declining activity following a large peak of activity_________(62)one month ago.In North America,influenza transmission_________(63)widespread but has declined quickly in all countries.In the tropical regions of Central and South America and the Caribbean,influenza transmission re- mains geographically widespread but overall disease_________(64)has been declining or remains unchanged in most parts,_________(65)for focal increases in respiratory disease activity in a few countries. _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 ExerciseWhether or not exercise adds to the length of life,it is common experience that a certain amount of regular exercise_______(51)health and contributes a feeling of well-being. Furthermore,exercise________(52)involves play and recreation(娱乐),and relieves nervous tension and mental fatigue in so__________(53),is not only pleasant but beneficial.How much and what kind of exercise one should_________(54)merits careful consideration.The grow- ing child and the normal young man and young woman thrill(兴奋) with strenuous(剧烈的)sports. Theyfatigue to the__________(55)of exhaustion but recover promptly with a period of rest.But not so with thoseof middle age and beyond. For them moderation is_________(56)vital importance.Just how much exercise a person of a given age can safely take is a question hard to__________(57).In- dividual variability is too great to permit generalization.A game of tennis may be perfectly safe for one per- son of forty but folly(愚蠢)for another. The safe_________(58)for exercise depends on the condition of the heart,the condition of the muscles,the_________(59)of exercise,and the regularity with which it is taken. Two general suggestions,however,will__________(60)as sound advice for anyone.The first is thatthe___________(61)of the heart and general health should be determined periodically by careful,thorough physical examinations. The other is that exercise should be kept__________(62)the point of physical exhaustion.What type of exercise one should___________( 63)depends upon one's physical condition.Young people can safely enjoy competitive sports,but most older persons do better to limit themselves to less strenuous ___________(64).Walking,swimming and skating are among the sports that one can enjoy and safely ___________(65)in throughout life.Regularity is important if one is to get the most enjoyment and benefit out of exercise. _________(59)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇CT Scans and Lung CancerSmall or slow-growing nodules(小结节)discovered on a lung scan are unlikely to develop into tumors over the next two years,researchers reported on Wednesday.The findings,reported in the New England Journal of Medicine,could help doctors decide when to do more aggressive testing for lung cancer. They could also help patients avoid unnecessarily aggressive andpotentially harmful testing when lesions(损伤)are found.Lung cancer,the biggest cancer killer in the United States and globally,is often not diagnosed until it has spread. It kills 159,000 people a year in the United States alone.The work is part of a larger effort to develop guidelines to help doctors decide what to do when such growths,often discovered by accident,appear in a scan.High-tech(高技术的)X-rays called CT scans can detect tumors一but they see all sorts of other blobs (模糊的一团)that are not tumors , and often the only way to tell the difference is to take a biopsy(活检), a dangerous procedure.At the moment,routine lung cancer screening is considered impractical because of its high cost and because too many healthy people are called back for further testing.Good guidelines could help make lung cancer screening practical,Dr. Rob van Kiaveren of the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam,the Netherlands,who led the new study,said in a telephone interview.The team looked at 7,557 people at high risk for lung cancer because they were current or former smokers. All received multidetector(多层螺旋)CT scans that measured the size of any suspicious-looking nodules.Volunteers who had nodules over 9.7 mm in width,or had growth of 4. 6 mm that grew fast enough to more than double in volume every 400 days,were sent for further testing. Of the 196 people who fell into that category, 70 were found to have lung cancer;10 additional cases were found years later.But of the 7 ,361 who tested negative during screening,only 20 lung cancer cases later developed.In a second round of screening done one year after the first,1.8 percent were sent to the doctor because they had a nodule that was large or fast-growing. More than half turned out to have lung cancer.The result means that if the screening test says you don't have lung cancer,you probably don't,the re- searchers said."The chances of finding lung cancer one or two years after a negative first-round test were 1 in 1,000 and 3 in 1,000 respectively,"they concluded. Which is probably NOT true of lung cancer?
[多选题]共用题干 One-third of Parents Lack Facts about Child DevelopmentOne-third of parents of babies have a surprisingly low knowledge of child development,in-cluding basic concepts about what their children should know or how they should act,a new study finds.For instance,the study found that many parents don't know that 1 -year-olds can't tell the difference between right and wrong,and often don't cooperate or share when playing with other children.The results are surprising because the parents who took part in the survey had young chil- dren,said lead author Dr. Heather Paradis,a pediatric fellow at the University of Rochester Med-ical Center in New York.“They were watching or had just watched their kids go through this de-velopment,and they were probably the most knowledgeable of anybody.”Paradis and her colleagues examined the results of a survey of parents—98 .6 percent of whom were mothers—of more than 10,000 9-month-old babies. As part of the survey,the parents were asked 1 1 questions designed to test their knowledge of a baby's development.The researchers also examined what the parents said about their interactions with their chil- dren,and watched videotapes of how the parents taught new things to their kids.One-third of those surveyed incorrectly answered four or more of the questions.Even when the researchers ad-justed the statistics to account for such factors as education levels and income,those parents were still less likely to enjoy“healthy interactions”with their children.A lack of proper understanding of a child's development can cause assorted problems,Para-dis said. For example,she said,a mother might expect an 18-month-old child to sit still for a doctor's appointment,even though children that age are normally curious and like to wander around.“A mom could misinterpret a child's normal curiosity as intentionally being defiant,and could respond with harsh discipline,withdrawal of affection and repetition of that pattern over time,”Paradis said.“That could hinder the child's potential for full growth and development.”The findings were to be presented Sunday at the Pediatric Academic Societies' meeting in Honolulu.One solution,Paradis said,is for pediatricians to take a more active role in educating new parents.“By improving knowledge of child development among all parents,not just those who are at highest risk,there's an opportunity to enhance parent-child interaction,”she said.“It can ul-timately lead to better parenting.” Parent-child interaction can in no way be improved.
[多选题]共用题干 Owls and Larks(猫头鹰与云雀)1 In this article,we look at the importance of sleep for learning. Most healthy adults need eight or more hours of sleep.But why do we need sleep in the first place?We need sleep for the brain to get a chance to rebuild memories stored during the day and associate these with previously learned things.If this process is interrupted by,say,the sound of an alarm clock,it may not be as effective.So if your sleep is cut short by the alarm clock,how damaging is it?The truth is that it's difficult to predict,as so much depends on how much sleep your body actually needs on that particular occasion.2 The popular belief that people are naturally either larks(early risers)or owls is false.The reason why people tend to be one or the other has more to do with lifestyle,age,and personality.Many people who appear to be early birds may have just become so through habit,for example,parents with very young chil-dren.Teenagers can have difficulty falling asleep until late at night and then they naturally have problems getting up the following morning.3 The main reason why owls are owls is that they tend to spend their time over a book,movie,or corn- puter game till the early hours of the morning.They enjoy the quiet of the night when they can pursue their passion.On the other hand,larks can make better use of early morning hours where they can study in quiet at the time when their brains are most refreshed.So which is better for learning一an owl's or a lark's lifestyle? The simple truth is that it is more complex than simply being one or the other. Leading a well-balanced life in terms of work and play and sleeping enough to bring maximum refreshment is probably the secret.4 As for naps , experts on insomnia(失眠)argue against taking naps , as these may keep people up at night. If your nap lasts only five minutes to haff an hour and does not affect your ability to fall asleep in the night,it will probably help you be more alert in evening hours.However,if you are having problems getting to sleep at night , it's not only naps that you should avoid. Try not to drink a lot of alcohol , take nicotine(尼古 丁),do mentally intense activities like preparing for exams or doing exercise in the evening. Some peopleswear that drinking coffee never stops them from sleeping like a log,whereas others will never go near the stuff for fear of being awake all night.However,the best advice for most is to avoid it in the evening,and if you drink coffee before a nap,remember you are likely to awaken as soon as the caffeine starts kicking in. Sleep helps brain to________.
[多选题]共用题干 Ebola Outbreak1. You are likely aware that several countries in West Africa are battling an Ebola outbreak.Eb-ola is a dangerous and often lethal viral infection.Scientists believe that humans contracted the vi-rus by eating the meat of rare animals.It is now believed that bats are the primary carries of the virus。2. To date,there are only three major countries in West Africa experiencing a major outbreak: Sierra Leone,Liberia and Guinea. However,other countries such as Nigeria have reported con-firmed cases of Ebola within their borders.3. Unless you recently visited one of the three affected West countries you risk of contracting the virus is virtually zero.Unlike other recent airborne virus outbreaks like SARS,the Ebola virus can only be spread through direct contact with an infected person.Specifically,Ebola is spread through contact with body fluids .Though the virus is transmittable,only an infected person exhib-iting symptoms is communicable.4. The signs and symptoms of Ebola are non-specific and patients typically exhibit them after a week of contracting the virus.Symptoms may appear as early as two days or as late as three weeks after initial infection.Symptoms include disgust,weakness and stomach pain.More uncommon symptoms include chest pain,bleeding and sore throat.5.Ebola is devastating because of its ability to attack and replicate in every organ of the body. This causes an overstimulation of the body's inflammatory response,causing the flu-like symp- toms. The virus also causes bleeding and impairs the body's normal clotting mechanism(凝血机制),making bleeding even more severe .Loss of blood volume and decreased organ perfusion(器官灌注)ultimately lead to organ failure and death.6. The current outbreak is the deadliest viral outbreak in over 35 years.While diseases such as the malaria(疟疾)are far more communicable,Ebola is one of the world's most fatal viral infec- tions .Ebola's fatality rate exceeds that of SARS. The symptoms of the patients after being infected may first appear________.
[多选题]共用题干 Parkinson's Disease1 Parkinson's disease affects the way you move.It happens when there is a problem with certain nerve cells in the brain. Normally , these nerve cells make an important chemical called dopamine(多巴胺). Dopa-mine sends signals to the part of your brain that controls movement.It lets your muscles move smoothly and do what you want them to do.When you have Parkinson's,these nerve cells break down.Then you no longerhave enough dopamine,and you have trouble moving the way you want to.2 No one knows for sure what makes these nerve cells break down.But scientists are doing a lot of re-search to look for the answer. They are studying many possible causes,including aging and poisons in the en- vironment.Abnormal genes seem to lead to Parkinson's disease in some people.But so far,there is not enough proof to show that it is always inherited.3 Tremor(颤抖)may be the first symptom you notice.It is one of the most common signs of the disease,although not everyone has it.Tremor often starts in just one arm or leg or only on one side of the body.It may be worse when you are awake but not moving the affected arm or leg. It may get better when you move the limb or when you are asleep.In time,Parkinson's affects muscles all through your body,so it can lead to problems like trouble swallowing or constipation(便秘).In the later stages of the disease , a person with Parkinson's may have a fixed or blank expression,trouble speaking,and other problems.Some people also have a decrease in mental skills.4 At this time,there is no cure for Parkinson's disease.But there are several types of medicines that can control the symptoms and make the disease easier to live with.You may not even need treatment if your symptoms are mild.Your doctor may wait to prescribe medicines until your symptoms start to get in the way of your daily life.Your doctor will adjust your medicines as your symptoms get worse.You may need to take several medicines to get the best results. A person with Parkinson's has to learn to live with the disease,__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Ebola Outbreak1. You are likely aware that several countries in West Africa are battling an Ebola outbreak.Eb-ola is a dangerous and often lethal viral infection.Scientists believe that humans contracted the vi-rus by eating the meat of rare animals.It is now believed that bats are the primary carries of the virus。2. To date,there are only three major countries in West Africa experiencing a major outbreak: Sierra Leone,Liberia and Guinea. However,other countries such as Nigeria have reported con-firmed cases of Ebola within their borders.3. Unless you recently visited one of the three affected West countries you risk of contracting the virus is virtually zero.Unlike other recent airborne virus outbreaks like SARS,the Ebola virus can only be spread through direct contact with an infected person.Specifically,Ebola is spread through contact with body fluids .Though the virus is transmittable,only an infected person exhib-iting symptoms is communicable.4. The signs and symptoms of Ebola are non-specific and patients typically exhibit them after a week of contracting the virus.Symptoms may appear as early as two days or as late as three weeks after initial infection.Symptoms include disgust,weakness and stomach pain.More uncommon symptoms include chest pain,bleeding and sore throat.5.Ebola is devastating because of its ability to attack and replicate in every organ of the body. This causes an overstimulation of the body's inflammatory response,causing the flu-like symp- toms. The virus also causes bleeding and impairs the body's normal clotting mechanism(凝血机制),making bleeding even more severe .Loss of blood volume and decreased organ perfusion(器官灌注)ultimately lead to organ failure and death.6. The current outbreak is the deadliest viral outbreak in over 35 years.While diseases such as the malaria(疟疾)are far more communicable,Ebola is one of the world's most fatal viral infec- tions .Ebola's fatality rate exceeds that of SARS. paragraph 4_______
[多选题]共用题干 Relieving the Pain"Exercise may be the best treatment of chronic pain,"say doctors at a new clinic for dealing with pain. "People with chronic pain need to stop lying around,go out more,and start exercising."The instinctive reac-tion to acute pain is to stop moving and to try to protect the source of pain.But it seems that this is often not productive,especially in the case of back pain.Back pain,after headaches and tiredness,has become the third most common reason for people to visit their doctors.Painful backs now account for millions of days offwork.Lumbar(腰部的)pains are partly the price humans pay for taking their forelimbs off the ground , but they are made worse by a sedentary(久坐不动的)lifestyle. Lack of exercise slowly decreases the flexibility and strength of muscles,so that it is more difficult to take pressure off the site of pain.Exercise is essential. It releases endorphins(内啡肤),the body's " feel-good " chemicals , which are natural painkillers. In fact, these are so important that researchers are now looking for drugs that can maintain a comfortable level of en- dorphins in the body.Most people who go to a family doctor complaining of pain are prescribed pain-killing drugs rather than exercise.Since finding the cause of backache is not so easy,doctors frequently do not know the precise cause of the discomfort,and as the pain continues,sufferers end up taking stronger doses or a series of different drugs."It's crazy,"says Dr. Brasseur,a therapist at the International Association for the Study of Pain. "Some of them are taking different drugs prescribed by different doctors.I've just seen a patient who was tak- ing two drugs which turned out to be the same thing under different names."A generation of new pain clinics now operates on the basis that drugs are best avoided.Once patients have undergone the initial physical and psychological check up,their medication is cut down as much as pos- sible.Taking patients off drugs also prepares them for physical activity.In some pain-relief clinics,patients begin the day with muscle contraction and relaxation exercises,fol- lowed by an hour on exercise bikes. Later in the day , they practice tai chi(太极),self-defense , and deep thought. This compares with an average of two-and-a-half hours' physiotherapy(理疗)a week in a traditional hospital program."The idea is to strengthen and to increase long-lasting energy,flexibility,and confidence," explains Bill Wiles,a consultant pain doctor in Liverpool."Patients undergoing this therapy get back to work and resume healthy active lifestyles much sooner than those subjected to more conservative treatment." Headaches are partly caused by lack of exercise.
[多选题]共用题干 Skin CancerMelanoma(黑素瘤),the deadliest kind of skin cancer,is now the most common cancer in__________(51) British women,the country's leading cancer organization said Wednesday.Skin cancer has__________(52) cervical(子宫颈的)cancer as the top cancer striking women in their 20s,according to the latest data from Cancer Research United Kingdom.The trend is particularly_________(53)since younger people are not generally those most susceptible (易患的)to melanoma. Rates of skin cancer are _________( 54 ) highest in people over age 75.But experts worry that increasing numbers of younger people being diagnosed with skin cancer could be the_________(55)of a dangerous trend.Women in their 20s make_________(56)a small percentage of all patients diagnosed with melanoma in Britain,but nearly a third of all cases occur in people younger than 50.Based on current numbers,Cancer Research UK predicts that melanoma will become the fourth _________(57)common cancer for men and women of all ages by 2024,and that cases will jump from about 9,000 a year to more than 15,500.Cancer experts_________(58)the rising number of skin cancer cases largely to the surge in people using tanning salons."Spending time on sun beds is just as_________(59)as staying out too long in the sun,"said Caroline Cerny of Cancer Research UK. The organization is starting a SunSmart_________(60)to warn Britons of the dangers of being too bronzed."The intensity of ultraviolet rays in some sun beds can be more than 10_________(61)stronger than themid-day sun,"Cerny said.In the United States,several states require parental approval________(62)minors can use tanning salons.Wisconsin bans people 16 and________(63)from using tanning beds,and others ban children under 14.At least 29 states have regulations governing minors'use of tanning salons.In the U.K.,Scottish politicians passed legislation banning those under 1 8 from using tanning beds, though it hasn't yet been implemented.There are no plans for________(64)in the rest of the U.K.The World Health Organization has previously recommended that tanning beds be regulated because of their potential to damage DNA in the skin.Experts said most deadly skin cancers could be________(65)if people took the proper precautions when in the sun and avoided tanning beds. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 Pandemic(大面积流行的)H1N1 2009The most active areas of pandemic influenza transmission currently are in central and eastern Europe. Focal(集中的)increases in rates during recent weeks were _________( 5 1 ) in at least two eastern Europeancountries. A high intensity of respiratory(呼吸的)disease activity with concurrent(同时存在的)circulation of pandemic influenza still_________(52)in parts of southern and eastern Europe,_________(53)in Greece, Poland,and Ukraine.In Western Europe,influenza transmission remains_________(54)and widespread,but overall disease activity has peaked. All influenza viruses in Western Europe were pandemic H1N1 2009._________(55),very small numbers of seasonal influenza viruses covering less than 1%of all influenza viruses found,were reported in Russia. In_________(56),limited available data indicate that active,high intensity transmission is occurring in Northern African countries_________(57)the Mediterranean coast.In Central Asia,limited data_________(58)that influenza virus circulation remains active,but transmis-sion may have recently peaked in some places.In West Asia,Israel,Iran,and Iraq also appear to have passed their_________(59)period of transmission within the past month though both areas continue to have some active transmission and levels of respiratory disease activity have not yet_________(60)to baseline levels.In East Asia,influenza transmission remains active but appears to be_________(61)overall. Slight increases in ILI were reported in Mongolia after weeks of declining activity following a large peak of activity_________(62)one month ago.In North America,influenza transmission_________(63)widespread but has declined quickly in all countries.In the tropical regions of Central and South America and the Caribbean,influenza transmission re- mains geographically widespread but overall disease_________(64)has been declining or remains unchanged in most parts,_________(65)for focal increases in respiratory disease activity in a few countries. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 Stage FrightFall down as you come onstage.That's an odd trick.Not recommended.But it saved the pi-anist Vladimir Felts man when he was a teenager back in Moscow.The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance panic,Mr. Felts man said, “All my fright was_______(51).I already fell .What else could happen?”Today,music schools are addressing the problem of anxiety in classes that_______(52) with performance techniques and career preparation.There are a variety of strategies that musici- ans can learn to_______(53)stage fright and its symptoms:icy fingers,shaky limbs,racing heart,blank mind.Teachers and psychologists offer wide-ranging advice,from basics like learning pieces inside out,_______(54)mental discipline,such as visualizing a performance and taking steps to re- lax .Don't_______(55)that you're jittery,they urge;some excitement is natural,even necessa- ry for dynamic playing.And play in public often,simply for the experience.Psychotherapist Diane Nichols suggests some_______(56)for the moments before perform-ance,“Take two deep abdominal breaths,open up your shoulders,then smile,”she says.“And not one of these‘please don't kill me'smiles .Then_______(57)three friendly faces in the au- dience,people you would communicate with and make music to,and make eye contact with them.”She doesn't want performers to think of the audience_______(58)a judge.Extreme demands by mentors or parents are often at the_______(59)of stage fright,says Dorothy Delay,a well-known violin teacher. She tells other teachers to demand only what their students are able to achieve.When Lynn Harrell was 20,he became the principal cellist of the Cleveland Orchestra,and he suffered extreme stage fright.“There were times when I got so_______(60)I was sure the audience could see my chest responding to the throbbing. It was just total panic.I came to a _______(61)where I thought,If I have to go through this to play music,I think I'm going to look for another job.” Recovery,he said,involved developing humility—recognizing that_______(62)his talent,he was fallible,and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster.It is not only young artists who suffer,of course .The legendary pianist Vladimir Horowitz's nerves were famous.The great tenor Franco Corelli is another example.“They had to push him on stage,”Soprano Renata Scotto recalled._______(63),success can make things worse.“In the beginning of your career,when you're scared to death,nobody knows who you are,and they don't have any_______(64),”So-prano June Anderson said.“There's_______(65)to lose .Later on,when you're known,peo-pie are coming to see you,and they have certain expectations.You have a lot to lose.”Anderson added,“I never stop being nervous until I've sung my last note.” 65._________
[多选题]共用题干 Ear BreakthroughNew research published in the journal Current Biology has added significantly to understand-ing of how the ear works,giving hope to millions of deaf and hard of hearing people.The latest research,conducted by Dr. T. Albet,a Deafness Research UK research fel-low at the UCL Ear Institute,together with scientists at the University of Cologne,shows that fruit flies have ears which mechanically amplify sound signals in a remarkably similar way to the senso- ry(感觉的)cells found in the inner ear of vertebrates(脊椎动物)including humans. The finding means that the wealth of genetic techniques already available to study the fruit fly can now be used to target how the ear works.Dr. Albert says.“The biophysical parallels between the ways both fruit flies and humans convert sound into nerve signals are truly amazing.We may be allowed to hope that these mecha- nistic(机械学的)similarities extend further down to the genes and molecules that bring about hearing.But even if it finally should turn out that hearing in fruit flies relies on different mole-cules than does hearing in humans,the little fruit fly can help us find answers to some key ques-tions of hearing research and -what is sometimes even more important -will surely help us ask the right questions.”The work is welcomed by Deafness Research UK,the country's only medical research charity for deaf people.Vivienne Michael,chief executive of Deafness Research UK.says,“This is an important advance that paves the way toward a clear understanding of the genetics of deafness.The charity will continue to support culling-edge(尖端的)research through its Fellowship programme at the UCI.Ear institute and at other top research centres in the UK to achieve our goal of secu-ring audial improvements in the prevention,diagnosis and treatment of all forms of hearing impair-ment.”There are nine million deaf and hard of hearing people in the UK and in most cases deafness results from loss of sensory cells in the inner ear known as“hair” cells.The cells can be damaged and lost through ageing,noise,genetic defects and certain drugs and,because the cells don't re- generate,the result is progressive— and irreversible—hearing loss .Damage to these cells can al-so lead to tinnitus(耳鸣),which affects around five million people in the UK. Quite a number of genetic techniques have been used_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Ebola Outbreak1. You are likely aware that several countries in West Africa are battling an Ebola outbreak.Eb-ola is a dangerous and often lethal viral infection.Scientists believe that humans contracted the vi-rus by eating the meat of rare animals.It is now believed that bats are the primary carries of the virus。2. To date,there are only three major countries in West Africa experiencing a major outbreak: Sierra Leone,Liberia and Guinea. However,other countries such as Nigeria have reported con-firmed cases of Ebola within their borders.3. Unless you recently visited one of the three affected West countries you risk of contracting the virus is virtually zero.Unlike other recent airborne virus outbreaks like SARS,the Ebola virus can only be spread through direct contact with an infected person.Specifically,Ebola is spread through contact with body fluids .Though the virus is transmittable,only an infected person exhib-iting symptoms is communicable.4. The signs and symptoms of Ebola are non-specific and patients typically exhibit them after a week of contracting the virus.Symptoms may appear as early as two days or as late as three weeks after initial infection.Symptoms include disgust,weakness and stomach pain.More uncommon symptoms include chest pain,bleeding and sore throat.5.Ebola is devastating because of its ability to attack and replicate in every organ of the body. This causes an overstimulation of the body's inflammatory response,causing the flu-like symp- toms. The virus also causes bleeding and impairs the body's normal clotting mechanism(凝血机制),making bleeding even more severe .Loss of blood volume and decreased organ perfusion(器官灌注)ultimately lead to organ failure and death.6. The current outbreak is the deadliest viral outbreak in over 35 years.While diseases such as the malaria(疟疾)are far more communicable,Ebola is one of the world's most fatal viral infec- tions .Ebola's fatality rate exceeds that of SARS. The initial Ebola outbreak was found in
[多选题]共用题干 Hypertension Drugs Found to Cut Risk of StrokeAustralian doctors declared Monday that a cocktail of simple antihypertensive drugs can lower the risk of patients suffering a repeat stroke by more than a third.This is the result of their research.______(46)Strokes kill 5 million people a year,and more than 15 million suffer non-fatal strokes that of-ten leave them with useless limbs,slurred speech and other serious disabilities._______(47)An international six-year study of 6,100 patients directed from Sydney University found that by taking two blood pressure-lowering drugs,the risk of secondary strokes can be reduced by up to 40 percent.Even taking one of the commonly available drugs can cut the risk by a third,the study said .The drugs are the diuretic indapamide and the ACE inhibitor perindopril,better known by its brand name Coversyl._______(48)They even found that the risk of another stroke could be cut by three quarters among the one-in-ten patients who had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage,the worst type of stroke,where there is direct bleeding into the brain,_______(49)“If most of those patients were able to get access to this treatment,it would result in maybe the avoidance of haff a million strokes a year,”the professor told Australia's ABC Radio._______(50)“What we have shown for the first time is that it does not really matter what your blood pressure is;if you have had a stroke,then lowering blood pressure will produce large benefits,to begin with—even for people whose blood pressure is average or below average,”he said.McMahon said the Milan gathering had heralded the research as a“major breakthrough in the care of patients with strokes—perhaps the biggest step forward that we have made in the last cou-ple of decades”. ______(49)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The IcemanOn a September day in 1991,two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy.High up on a mountain pass,they found the body of a man lying on the ice.At that height(10,499 feet,or 3,200 meters),the ice is usually permanent, but 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice had melted more than usual so the body had come to the surface.It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架)was in perfect condition , except for a wound in the head.There were still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes.The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots. Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮)and a holder for arrows.Who was this man? How and when had he died? Everybody had a different answer to these ques- tions.Some people thought that it was from this century,perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War I,since several soldiers had already been found in the area.A Swiss woman believed it might be her father,who had died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found.The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older,maybe even a thousand years old.With modern dating techniques,the scientists soon learned that the iceman was about 5,300 years old.Born in about 3300 B.C.,he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe.At first scientists thought he was probably a hunter who had died from an accident in the high mountains.More recent evidence,however, tells a different story.A new kind of X-ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. It left only a tinyhole in his skin,but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He certainly died from this wound,and not from the wound on the back of his head.This means that he was probably in some kind of a battle.It might have been part of a larger war,or he might have been fighting bandits.He might even have been a bandit himself.By studying his clothes and tools,scientists have already learned a great deal from the iceman about the times he lived in.We may never know the full story of how he died,but he has given us important clues to the history of those distant times. The word"bandits"in Paragraph 4 could be best replaced by__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Aromatherapy(芳香疗法)1 Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine which is based on the use of very concentrated"es-sential"oils from the flowers,leaves,bark,branches or roots of plants which are considered to have healing properties.In aromatherapy these powerful oils are mixed with other oils , such as almond(杏仁)oil, or they are diluted(稀释)with water.These solutions(溶液剂)can be rubbed on the skin,sprayed in the air, or applied as a compress(敷药).2 Many people have aromatherapy massages(按摩),and depending on the treatment a person is having, the aromatherapist will massage the oil into the hands or shoulders.The massage is smooth and flowing,as it is designed to create a sense of relaxation and calm.The sessions are tailored to the individual's health and mood at the time,so every session is unique.3 Practitioners of aromatherapy believe that the aroma of the"essential"oils directly stimulates the brain or that the oils are absorbed through the skin into the bloodstream,where they can affect the whole body and promote healing.Other claims in support of aromatherapy are that it aids digestion,improves the functioning of respiratory system,reduces muscular aches and pains,and promotes muscle relaxation and tone.It has also been argued that aromatherapy can improve circulation,lower blood pressure,and help combat insomnia(失眠)and other stress-related disorders such as tension headaches , anxiety , and mild depression.4 However,while aromatherapy may have real effects that promote a sense of well-being,some tradi- tional medicine practitioners remain doubtful about its powers.While research has confirmed that aroma-therapy does have some positive short-term effects on most people,it also suggests that aromatherapy is not an actual science or medicine that should be used to treat illness.Furthermore,not all aromatherapy is considered beneficial to health.There are precautions which should be taken before having aromatherapy because some oils can have negative effects on people with certain medical conditions.The study of aroma-therapy is relatively new and unexplored.More research needs to be conducted to make scientific conclusions about its use and effects. Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Immune FunctionsThe immune system is equal in complexity to the combined intricacies of the brain and nervous system. The success of the immune system in defending the body relies on a dynamic regulatory communication net- work consisting of millions and millions of cells.Organized into sets and subsets,these cells pass information back and forth like clouds of bees flying around a hive(蜂巢).The result is a sensitive system of checks and balances that produces an immune response that is prompt,appropriate,effective,and self-limiting.At the heart of the immune system is the ability to distinguish between self and nonself. When immune defenders encounter cells or organisms carrying foreign or nonself molecules,the immune troops move quicklyto eliminate the intruders(人侵者).Virtually every body cell carries distinctive molecules that identify it as self. The body's immune defenses do not normally attack tissues that carry a self-marker. Rather,immune cells and other body cells coexist peaceably in a state known as self-tolerance.When a normally functioning immune system attacks a nonself molecule,the system has the ability to"remember"the specifics of the foreign body.Upon subsequent encounters with the same species of molecules,the immune system reacts accordingly. With the possible exception of antibodies(抗体)passed during lactation(授乳期), this so called immune system memory is not inherited.Despite the occurrence of a virus in your family,your immune system must"learn"from experience with the many millions of distinctive nonseif molecules in the sea of microbes(微生物)in which we live. Learning entails producing the appropriate molecules and cells to match up with and counteract each nonseif invader.Any substance capable of triggering an immune response is called an antigen(抗原).Antigens are not to be confused with illergens(过敏原),which are most often harmless substances that provoke the immune system to set off the inappropriate and harmful response known as allergy.An antigen can be a virus,a bacte-rium,or even a portion or product of one of these organisms.Tissues or cells from another individual also act as antigens,because the immune system recognizes transplanted tissues as foreign,it rejects them.The body will even reject nourishing proteins unless they are first broken down by the digestive system into their primary,nonantigenic building blocks.An antigen announces its foreignness by means of intricate and charac- teristic shapes called epitopes(抗原表位), which protrude(突出)from its surface. Most antigens , even the simplest microbes,carry several different kinds of epitopes on their surface;some may even carry several hundreds.Some epitopes will be more effective than others at stimulating an immune response.Only in abnormal situations does the immune system wrongly identify self as nonself and execute a misdirected immune attack. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of this passage?
[多选题]共用题干 Stage FrightFall down as you come onstage.That's an odd trick.Not recommended.But it saved the pi-anist Vladimir Felts man when he was a teenager back in Moscow.The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance panic,Mr. Felts man said, “All my fright was_______(51).I already fell .What else could happen?”Today,music schools are addressing the problem of anxiety in classes that_______(52) with performance techniques and career preparation.There are a variety of strategies that musici- ans can learn to_______(53)stage fright and its symptoms:icy fingers,shaky limbs,racing heart,blank mind.Teachers and psychologists offer wide-ranging advice,from basics like learning pieces inside out,_______(54)mental discipline,such as visualizing a performance and taking steps to re- lax .Don't_______(55)that you're jittery,they urge;some excitement is natural,even necessa- ry for dynamic playing.And play in public often,simply for the experience.Psychotherapist Diane Nichols suggests some_______(56)for the moments before perform-ance,“Take two deep abdominal breaths,open up your shoulders,then smile,”she says.“And not one of these‘please don't kill me'smiles .Then_______(57)three friendly faces in the au- dience,people you would communicate with and make music to,and make eye contact with them.”She doesn't want performers to think of the audience_______(58)a judge.Extreme demands by mentors or parents are often at the_______(59)of stage fright,says Dorothy Delay,a well-known violin teacher. She tells other teachers to demand only what their students are able to achieve.When Lynn Harrell was 20,he became the principal cellist of the Cleveland Orchestra,and he suffered extreme stage fright.“There were times when I got so_______(60)I was sure the audience could see my chest responding to the throbbing. It was just total panic.I came to a _______(61)where I thought,If I have to go through this to play music,I think I'm going to look for another job.” Recovery,he said,involved developing humility—recognizing that_______(62)his talent,he was fallible,and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster.It is not only young artists who suffer,of course .The legendary pianist Vladimir Horowitz's nerves were famous.The great tenor Franco Corelli is another example.“They had to push him on stage,”Soprano Renata Scotto recalled._______(63),success can make things worse.“In the beginning of your career,when you're scared to death,nobody knows who you are,and they don't have any_______(64),”So-prano June Anderson said.“There's_______(65)to lose .Later on,when you're known,peo-pie are coming to see you,and they have certain expectations.You have a lot to lose.”Anderson added,“I never stop being nervous until I've sung my last note.” 63._________
[多选题]共用题干 Retirement Brings Most a Big Health BoostThe self-reported health of the newly retired improves so much that most feel eight years younger,a new European study suggests.This happy news was true of almost everyone except a small minority一only 2 percent一who had experi- enced"ideal"conditions in their working life,anyway."The results really say three things:that work puts an extra burden on the health of older workers,that the effects of this extra burden are largely relieved by retirement and,finally,that both the extra burden and the relief are larger when working conditions are poor,"said Hugo Westerlund,lead author of a study pub- lished online Nov. 9 in The Lancet(柳叶刀)." This indicates that there is need to provide opportunities for older workers to decrease the demands in their work out of concern for their health and well-being."But of course,added Westerlund,who is head of epidemiology at the Stress Research Institute at Stockholm University in Sweden,"not all older workers suffer from poor perceived health.Many are indeed remarkably healthy and fit for work.But sooner or later,everyone has to slow down because of old age catch-ing up."Last week,the same group of researchers reported that workers slept better after retirement than before. "Sleep improves at retirement,which suggests that sleeping could be a mediator between work and perception of poor health,"Westerlund said.This study looked at what the same 15,000 French workers,and most of them had to say about their own health up to seven years pre-retirement and up to seven years post-retirement.As participants got closer to retirement age,their perception of their own health declined,but went upagain during the first year of retirement.Those who reported being in poorer health declined from 19.2 percent in the year prior to retirement to 14.3 percent by the end of the first year after retiring. According to the researchers,that means post-retire- ment levels of poor health fell to levels last seen eight years previously.The changes were seen in both men and women,across different occupations,and lasted through the first seven years of not punching the clock.Workers who felt worse before retirement and had lower working conditions reported greater improve- ments as soon as they retired,the team found. Europe is aging faster than most other parts of the globe.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Do Patients Trust Doctors Too Much?Earlier this year,the American College of Surgeons,the national scientific and educational organizationof surgeons,conducted a nationwide survey that found that the average patient devotes an hour or less to re- searching his or her surgery or surgeon.While prospective patients worry about the costs or complications of an operation,they don't necessarily look for information that would address their concerns.In fact,more than a third of patients who had an operation in the last five years never reviewed the cre- dentials of the surgeon who operated.Patients are more likely to spend time researching a job change(on average,about 10 hours)or a new car(8 hours)than the operation they are about to submit to or the surgeon who wields(支配)the knife. And many patients are satisfied with the answers they receive from their sur -geons or primary care doctors,whoever those individuals happen to be.I felt curious about the survey,so I called Dr. Thomas Russell,executive director of the American College of Surgeons."There is a tendency for patients not to get particularly involved and not to feel com-pelled to look into their surgery or surgeons,"he told me.There are consequences to that kind of blind trust."Today,medicine and surgery are really team sports,"Dr. Russell continued,"and the patient,as the ultimate decision-maker,is the most important mem- ber of the team.Mistakes can happen,and patients have to be educated and must understand what isgoing on."In other words,a healthy doctor-patient relationship does not simply entail good bedside manners and re-sponsible office management on the part of the doctor. It also requires that patients come to the relationshipeducated about their doctors,their illnesses and their treatment."If we are truly going to reform the health care system in the U.S.,"Dr. Russell said,"everybody hasto participate actively and must educate themselves.That means doctors,nurses,other health careprofessionals , lawyers , pharmaceutical(制药的)companies , and insurance companies. But most of all , it means the patient."Trust is important. But as Sir Francis Bacon,who was among the first to understand the importance of gathering data in science,once observed,knowledge is power. According to the author,patients should spend more time__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and Learning Medicine AwardTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a Series of medical______(51)for their enzyme(酶)research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have______(52)the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were______(53) out in 1901.The last female winner was U.S.researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who______(54)the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible______(55)are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who______(56)up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors(核激素受体).As usual,the award committee is giving no______(57)about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who______(58)dynamite(炸药),established the prizes in his will in the ______(59)of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to______(60)winners,but medicine winners are typically______(61)for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall , secretary of the medicine prize committee , said the 10 million kronor(瑞典克朗)prize encourages______(62)research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists."Individual researchers probably don't______(63)at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they,re______(64)work,"Jornvall told the Associated Press-They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life______(65)." 55._________
[多选题]共用题干 The Worker 's Role in ManagementTraditionally,it has been the workers'role to work and management's role to manage.Managers have planned and directed the firm's operations with little thought of consulting the labor force.Managers have rarely felt compelled(被迫的)to obtain the workers ' opinions or to explain their decisions to their employees.At most,companies have provided"suggestion boxes"in which workers could place ideas for improving procedures.In recent years,however,many management specialists have been arguing that workers are more than sellers of labor-they have a vital stake in the company and may be able to make significant contributions to its management.Furthermore,major company decisions profoundly affect workers and their dependents.This isparticularly true of plant closings,which may put thousands on the unemployment lines.Should workers, then,play a stronger role in management?Workers should have a role in management.At the very least,the labor force should be informed of major policy decisions(A common complaint among rank-and-file workers is the lack of information about company policies and actions).Between 1980 and 1985 about five million workers were the victims of plant closings and permanent layoffs(失业),often with no warning.At least 90 days'notice ought to be given in such instances so that workers have time to adjust.Management should consult workers before closing a plant,because the workers might be able to suggest ways of improving productivity and reducing costs and might be willing to make concessions that will help keep the plant operating.It should become a general practice to include workers in some managerial decision making.There ought to be representatives of the workers on the firm's board of directors or other major policymaking groups.If rank-and-file workers are given a voice in the planning and management of the work flow,they will help to make improvements,their morale will rise,and their productivity will increase.As a further incentive,they must be given a share in the company's profits.This can be done through employee stock-ownership plans,bonuses,or rewards for efficiency and productivity.Finally,when a plant can no longer operate at a profit,the workers should be given the opportunity to purchase the plant and run it themselves. The word"rank-and-file" in Paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to______.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The IcemanOn a September day in 1991,two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy.High up on a mountain pass,they found the body of a man lying on the ice.At that height(10,499 feet,or 3,200 meters),the ice is usually permanent, but 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice had melted more than usual so the body had come to the surface.It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架)was in perfect condition , except for a wound in the head.There were still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes.The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots. Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮)and a holder for arrows.Who was this man? How and when had he died? Everybody had a different answer to these ques- tions.Some people thought that it was from this century,perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War I,since several soldiers had already been found in the area.A Swiss woman believed it might be her father,who had died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found.The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older,maybe even a thousand years old.With modern dating techniques,the scientists soon learned that the iceman was about 5,300 years old.Born in about 3300 B.C.,he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe.At first scientists thought he was probably a hunter who had died from an accident in the high mountains.More recent evidence,however, tells a different story.A new kind of X-ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. It left only a tinyhole in his skin,but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He certainly died from this wound,and not from the wound on the back of his head.This means that he was probably in some kind of a battle.It might have been part of a larger war,or he might have been fighting bandits.He might even have been a bandit himself.By studying his clothes and tools,scientists have already learned a great deal from the iceman about the times he lived in.We may never know the full story of how he died,but he has given us important clues to the history of those distant times. All the following are assumptions once made about the iceman EXCEPT__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Do Patients Trust Doctors Too Much?Earlier this year,the American College of Surgeons,the national scientific and educational organizationof surgeons,conducted a nationwide survey that found that the average patient devotes an hour or less to re- searching his or her surgery or surgeon.While prospective patients worry about the costs or complications of an operation,they don't necessarily look for information that would address their concerns.In fact,more than a third of patients who had an operation in the last five years never reviewed the cre- dentials of the surgeon who operated.Patients are more likely to spend time researching a job change(on average,about 10 hours)or a new car(8 hours)than the operation they are about to submit to or the surgeon who wields(支配)the knife. And many patients are satisfied with the answers they receive from their sur -geons or primary care doctors,whoever those individuals happen to be.I felt curious about the survey,so I called Dr. Thomas Russell,executive director of the American College of Surgeons."There is a tendency for patients not to get particularly involved and not to feel com-pelled to look into their surgery or surgeons,"he told me.There are consequences to that kind of blind trust."Today,medicine and surgery are really team sports,"Dr. Russell continued,"and the patient,as the ultimate decision-maker,is the most important mem- ber of the team.Mistakes can happen,and patients have to be educated and must understand what isgoing on."In other words,a healthy doctor-patient relationship does not simply entail good bedside manners and re-sponsible office management on the part of the doctor. It also requires that patients come to the relationshipeducated about their doctors,their illnesses and their treatment."If we are truly going to reform the health care system in the U.S.,"Dr. Russell said,"everybody hasto participate actively and must educate themselves.That means doctors,nurses,other health careprofessionals , lawyers , pharmaceutical(制药的)companies , and insurance companies. But most of all , it means the patient."Trust is important. But as Sir Francis Bacon,who was among the first to understand the importance of gathering data in science,once observed,knowledge is power. Nowadays patients seem to have__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Parkinson's Disease1 Parkinson's disease affects the way you move.It happens when there is a problem with certain nerve cells in the brain. Normally , these nerve cells make an important chemical called dopamine(多巴胺). Dopa-mine sends signals to the part of your brain that controls movement.It lets your muscles move smoothly and do what you want them to do.When you have Parkinson's,these nerve cells break down.Then you no longerhave enough dopamine,and you have trouble moving the way you want to.2 No one knows for sure what makes these nerve cells break down.But scientists are doing a lot of re-search to look for the answer. They are studying many possible causes,including aging and poisons in the en- vironment.Abnormal genes seem to lead to Parkinson's disease in some people.But so far,there is not enough proof to show that it is always inherited.3 Tremor(颤抖)may be the first symptom you notice.It is one of the most common signs of the disease,although not everyone has it.Tremor often starts in just one arm or leg or only on one side of the body.It may be worse when you are awake but not moving the affected arm or leg. It may get better when you move the limb or when you are asleep.In time,Parkinson's affects muscles all through your body,so it can lead to problems like trouble swallowing or constipation(便秘).In the later stages of the disease , a person with Parkinson's may have a fixed or blank expression,trouble speaking,and other problems.Some people also have a decrease in mental skills.4 At this time,there is no cure for Parkinson's disease.But there are several types of medicines that can control the symptoms and make the disease easier to live with.You may not even need treatment if your symptoms are mild.Your doctor may wait to prescribe medicines until your symptoms start to get in the way of your daily life.Your doctor will adjust your medicines as your symptoms get worse.You may need to take several medicines to get the best results. One of the most common signs of Parkinson's is tremor,__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Stage FrightFall down as you come onstage.That's an odd trick.Not recommended.But it saved the pi-anist Vladimir Felts man when he was a teenager back in Moscow.The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance panic,Mr. Felts man said, “All my fright was_______(51).I already fell .What else could happen?”Today,music schools are addressing the problem of anxiety in classes that_______(52) with performance techniques and career preparation.There are a variety of strategies that musici- ans can learn to_______(53)stage fright and its symptoms:icy fingers,shaky limbs,racing heart,blank mind.Teachers and psychologists offer wide-ranging advice,from basics like learning pieces inside out,_______(54)mental discipline,such as visualizing a performance and taking steps to re- lax .Don't_______(55)that you're jittery,they urge;some excitement is natural,even necessa- ry for dynamic playing.And play in public often,simply for the experience.Psychotherapist Diane Nichols suggests some_______(56)for the moments before perform-ance,“Take two deep abdominal breaths,open up your shoulders,then smile,”she says.“And not one of these‘please don't kill me'smiles .Then_______(57)three friendly faces in the au- dience,people you would communicate with and make music to,and make eye contact with them.”She doesn't want performers to think of the audience_______(58)a judge.Extreme demands by mentors or parents are often at the_______(59)of stage fright,says Dorothy Delay,a well-known violin teacher. She tells other teachers to demand only what their students are able to achieve.When Lynn Harrell was 20,he became the principal cellist of the Cleveland Orchestra,and he suffered extreme stage fright.“There were times when I got so_______(60)I was sure the audience could see my chest responding to the throbbing. It was just total panic.I came to a _______(61)where I thought,If I have to go through this to play music,I think I'm going to look for another job.” Recovery,he said,involved developing humility—recognizing that_______(62)his talent,he was fallible,and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster.It is not only young artists who suffer,of course .The legendary pianist Vladimir Horowitz's nerves were famous.The great tenor Franco Corelli is another example.“They had to push him on stage,”Soprano Renata Scotto recalled._______(63),success can make things worse.“In the beginning of your career,when you're scared to death,nobody knows who you are,and they don't have any_______(64),”So-prano June Anderson said.“There's_______(65)to lose .Later on,when you're known,peo-pie are coming to see you,and they have certain expectations.You have a lot to lose.”Anderson added,“I never stop being nervous until I've sung my last note.” 52._________
[多选题]共用题干 Ear BreakthroughNew research published in the journal Current Biology has added significantly to understand-ing of how the ear works,giving hope to millions of deaf and hard of hearing people.The latest research,conducted by Dr. T. Albet,a Deafness Research UK research fel-low at the UCL Ear Institute,together with scientists at the University of Cologne,shows that fruit flies have ears which mechanically amplify sound signals in a remarkably similar way to the senso- ry(感觉的)cells found in the inner ear of vertebrates(脊椎动物)including humans. The finding means that the wealth of genetic techniques already available to study the fruit fly can now be used to target how the ear works.Dr. Albert says.“The biophysical parallels between the ways both fruit flies and humans convert sound into nerve signals are truly amazing.We may be allowed to hope that these mecha- nistic(机械学的)similarities extend further down to the genes and molecules that bring about hearing.But even if it finally should turn out that hearing in fruit flies relies on different mole-cules than does hearing in humans,the little fruit fly can help us find answers to some key ques-tions of hearing research and -what is sometimes even more important -will surely help us ask the right questions.”The work is welcomed by Deafness Research UK,the country's only medical research charity for deaf people.Vivienne Michael,chief executive of Deafness Research UK.says,“This is an important advance that paves the way toward a clear understanding of the genetics of deafness.The charity will continue to support culling-edge(尖端的)research through its Fellowship programme at the UCI.Ear institute and at other top research centres in the UK to achieve our goal of secu-ring audial improvements in the prevention,diagnosis and treatment of all forms of hearing impair-ment.”There are nine million deaf and hard of hearing people in the UK and in most cases deafness results from loss of sensory cells in the inner ear known as“hair” cells.The cells can be damaged and lost through ageing,noise,genetic defects and certain drugs and,because the cells don't re- generate,the result is progressive— and irreversible—hearing loss .Damage to these cells can al-so lead to tinnitus(耳鸣),which affects around five million people in the UK. A person who is hard of hearing is______.
[多选题]共用题干 Young Adults Who Exercise Get Higher IQ ScoresYoung adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more likely to go on to university,reveals a major new study carried out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)The study involved 1 .2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born be-tween 1950 and 1976 .The research group analyzed the results of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.The study shows a clear link between good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test. The strongest links are for logical thinking and verbal comprehension.But it is only fitness that plays a role in the results for the IQ test,and not strength.“Being fit means that you also have good heart and lung capacity and that your brain gets plenty of oxygen,”says Michael Nilsson, professor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital. “This may be one of the reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness,but not with muscular strength .We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important.”By analyzing data for twins,the researchers have been able to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that explain the link between fitness and higher IQ.“We have also shown that those youngsters who improve their physical fitness between the ages of 15 and 18 increase their cognitive performance,”says Maria Aberg,researcher at the Sahl-grenska Academy and physician at Aby health centre.“This being the case,physical education is a subject that has an important place in schools,and is an absolute must if we want to do well in maths and other theoretical subjects.”The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests during national service with the socio-economic status of the men later in life.Those who were fit at 18 were more likely to go into higher education,and many secured more qualified jobs. The researchers in this study come from_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Relieving the Pain"Exercise may be the best treatment of chronic pain,"say doctors at a new clinic for dealing with pain. "People with chronic pain need to stop lying around,go out more,and start exercising."The instinctive reac-tion to acute pain is to stop moving and to try to protect the source of pain.But it seems that this is often not productive,especially in the case of back pain.Back pain,after headaches and tiredness,has become the third most common reason for people to visit their doctors.Painful backs now account for millions of days offwork.Lumbar(腰部的)pains are partly the price humans pay for taking their forelimbs off the ground , but they are made worse by a sedentary(久坐不动的)lifestyle. Lack of exercise slowly decreases the flexibility and strength of muscles,so that it is more difficult to take pressure off the site of pain.Exercise is essential. It releases endorphins(内啡肤),the body's " feel-good " chemicals , which are natural painkillers. In fact, these are so important that researchers are now looking for drugs that can maintain a comfortable level of en- dorphins in the body.Most people who go to a family doctor complaining of pain are prescribed pain-killing drugs rather than exercise.Since finding the cause of backache is not so easy,doctors frequently do not know the precise cause of the discomfort,and as the pain continues,sufferers end up taking stronger doses or a series of different drugs."It's crazy,"says Dr. Brasseur,a therapist at the International Association for the Study of Pain. "Some of them are taking different drugs prescribed by different doctors.I've just seen a patient who was tak- ing two drugs which turned out to be the same thing under different names."A generation of new pain clinics now operates on the basis that drugs are best avoided.Once patients have undergone the initial physical and psychological check up,their medication is cut down as much as pos- sible.Taking patients off drugs also prepares them for physical activity.In some pain-relief clinics,patients begin the day with muscle contraction and relaxation exercises,fol- lowed by an hour on exercise bikes. Later in the day , they practice tai chi(太极),self-defense , and deep thought. This compares with an average of two-and-a-half hours' physiotherapy(理疗)a week in a traditional hospital program."The idea is to strengthen and to increase long-lasting energy,flexibility,and confidence," explains Bill Wiles,a consultant pain doctor in Liverpool."Patients undergoing this therapy get back to work and resume healthy active lifestyles much sooner than those subjected to more conservative treatment." Doctors often use drugs such as endorphins to treat patients.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇CT Scans and Lung CancerSmall or slow-growing nodules(小结节)discovered on a lung scan are unlikely to develop into tumors over the next two years,researchers reported on Wednesday.The findings,reported in the New England Journal of Medicine,could help doctors decide when to do more aggressive testing for lung cancer. They could also help patients avoid unnecessarily aggressive andpotentially harmful testing when lesions(损伤)are found.Lung cancer,the biggest cancer killer in the United States and globally,is often not diagnosed until it has spread. It kills 159,000 people a year in the United States alone.The work is part of a larger effort to develop guidelines to help doctors decide what to do when such growths,often discovered by accident,appear in a scan.High-tech(高技术的)X-rays called CT scans can detect tumors一but they see all sorts of other blobs (模糊的一团)that are not tumors , and often the only way to tell the difference is to take a biopsy(活检), a dangerous procedure.At the moment,routine lung cancer screening is considered impractical because of its high cost and because too many healthy people are called back for further testing.Good guidelines could help make lung cancer screening practical,Dr. Rob van Kiaveren of the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam,the Netherlands,who led the new study,said in a telephone interview.The team looked at 7,557 people at high risk for lung cancer because they were current or former smokers. All received multidetector(多层螺旋)CT scans that measured the size of any suspicious-looking nodules.Volunteers who had nodules over 9.7 mm in width,or had growth of 4. 6 mm that grew fast enough to more than double in volume every 400 days,were sent for further testing. Of the 196 people who fell into that category, 70 were found to have lung cancer;10 additional cases were found years later.But of the 7 ,361 who tested negative during screening,only 20 lung cancer cases later developed.In a second round of screening done one year after the first,1.8 percent were sent to the doctor because they had a nodule that was large or fast-growing. More than half turned out to have lung cancer.The result means that if the screening test says you don't have lung cancer,you probably don't,the re- searchers said."The chances of finding lung cancer one or two years after a negative first-round test were 1 in 1,000 and 3 in 1,000 respectively,"they concluded. According to the passage,good guidelines for lung cancer screening__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The IcemanOn a September day in 1991,two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy.High up on a mountain pass,they found the body of a man lying on the ice.At that height(10,499 feet,or 3,200 meters),the ice is usually permanent, but 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice had melted more than usual so the body had come to the surface.It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架)was in perfect condition , except for a wound in the head.There were still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes.The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots. Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮)and a holder for arrows.Who was this man? How and when had he died? Everybody had a different answer to these ques- tions.Some people thought that it was from this century,perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War I,since several soldiers had already been found in the area.A Swiss woman believed it might be her father,who had died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found.The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older,maybe even a thousand years old.With modern dating techniques,the scientists soon learned that the iceman was about 5,300 years old.Born in about 3300 B.C.,he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe.At first scientists thought he was probably a hunter who had died from an accident in the high mountains.More recent evidence,however, tells a different story.A new kind of X-ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. It left only a tinyhole in his skin,but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He certainly died from this wound,and not from the wound on the back of his head.This means that he was probably in some kind of a battle.It might have been part of a larger war,or he might have been fighting bandits.He might even have been a bandit himself.By studying his clothes and tools,scientists have already learned a great deal from the iceman about the times he lived in.We may never know the full story of how he died,but he has given us important clues to the history of those distant times. The body of the Iceman was found in the mountains mainly because__________.
[多选题]共用题干 The Day a Language DiedWhen Carios Westez died at the age of 76,a language died,too.Westez,more commonly known asRed Thunder Cloud,was the last speaker of the Native American language,Catawba.Anyone who wants to hear various songs of the Catawba can contact the Smithsonian Institution in Washington,D.C.,where,back in the 1940s,Red Thunder Cloud recorded a series of songs for future generations.______(46)They are all that is left of the Catawba language.The language that.people used to speak is gone forever.We are all aware of the damage that modern industry can do to the world's ecology(生态).However, few people are aware of the impact that widely spoken languages have on other languages and ways of life. English has spread all over the world.Chinese,Spanish,Russian,and Hindi have become powerful langua- ges,as well.______(47)When this happens,hundreds of languages that are spoken by only a few peo- pie die out.Scholars believe there are about 6,000 languages around the world,but more than half of them could die out within the next 100 years.There are many examples.Araki is a native language of the island of Vanuatu,located in the Pacific Ocean.It is spoken by only a few older adults,so like Catawba,Araki will soon disappear.Many languages of Ethiopia will have the same fate because each one has only a few speakers.______(48)In the Americas,100 languages,each of which has fewer than 300 speakers,also are dying out.Red Thunder Cloud was one of the first to recognize the threat of language death and to try to do some-thing about it.He was not actually born into the Catawba.tribe,and the language was not his mother tongue.______(49)The songs he sang for the Smithsonian Institution helped to make Native American music popular.Now he is gone,and the language is dead.What does it mean when a language disappears?When a plant or insect or animal species dies,it is easy to understand what we've lost and to appreciate what this means for the balance of the natural world.However,language is only a product of the mind.To be the last remaining speaker of a language,like Red Thunder Cloud,must be a lonely destiny,almost as strange and terrible as being the last surviving member of a dying species.______(50) ______(47)
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and Learning Medicine AwardTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a Series of medical______(51)for their enzyme(酶)research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have______(52)the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were______(53) out in 1901.The last female winner was U.S.researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who______(54)the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible______(55)are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who______(56)up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors(核激素受体).As usual,the award committee is giving no______(57)about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who______(58)dynamite(炸药),established the prizes in his will in the ______(59)of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to______(60)winners,but medicine winners are typically______(61)for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall , secretary of the medicine prize committee , said the 10 million kronor(瑞典克朗)prize encourages______(62)research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists."Individual researchers probably don't______(63)at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they,re______(64)work,"Jornvall told the Associated Press-They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life______(65)." 57._________
[多选题]共用题干 Mt. Desert IslandThe coast of the State of Maine is one of the most irregular in the world.A straight line running from the southernmost coastal city to the northernmost coastal city would measure about 225 miles.If you followed the coastline between these points,you would travel more than ten times as far. This irregularity is the result of what is called a drowned coastline._________(46)At that time,the whole area that is now Maine was part of a mountain range that towered above the sea. As the glacier(冰川)descended , however , it expendedenormous force on those mountains,and they sank into the sea.As the mountains sank,ocean water charged over the lowest parts of the remaining land,forming a seriesof twisting inlets and lagoons(咸水湖).The highest parts of the former mountain range,nearest the shore, remained as islands._________(47)Marine fossils found here were 225 feet above sea level,indicating thelevel of the shoreline prior to the glacier.The 2,500-mile-long rocky coastline of Maine keeps watch over nearly two thousand islands. Many of these islands are tiny and uninhabited,but many are home to thriving communities.Mt. Desert Island is one of the largest,most beautiful of the Maine coast islands.Measuring 16 miles by 12 miles.Mt.Desert was essentially formed as two distinct islands._________(48)For years,Mt. Desert Island,particularly its major settlement,Bar Harbor,afforded summer homes for the wealthy.Recently though,Bar Harbor has become a rapidly growing arts community as well.But,the best part of the island is the unspoiled forest land known as Acadia National Park.Because the island sits on the boundary line between the temperate(温带)and sub-Arctic zones , the island supports the plants and ani- mals of both zones as well as beach , inland , and alpine(高山的)plants. _________( 49 ) The establishment of Acadia National Park in 1916 means that this natural reserve will be perpetually available to all people,not just the wealthy.Visitors to Acadia may receive nature instruction from the park naturalists as well as enjoy camping,cycling,and boating. Or they may choose to spend time at the archeological museum,learning about the Stone Age inhabitants of the island.The best view on Mt.Desert Island is from the top of Cadillac Mountain._________(50)From the sum- mit,you can gaze back toward the mainland or out over the Atlantic Ocean and contemplate the beauty created by a retreating glacier. _________(50)
[多选题]共用题干 Skin CancerMelanoma(黑素瘤),the deadliest kind of skin cancer,is now the most common cancer in__________(51) British women,the country's leading cancer organization said Wednesday.Skin cancer has__________(52) cervical(子宫颈的)cancer as the top cancer striking women in their 20s,according to the latest data from Cancer Research United Kingdom.The trend is particularly_________(53)since younger people are not generally those most susceptible (易患的)to melanoma. Rates of skin cancer are _________( 54 ) highest in people over age 75.But experts worry that increasing numbers of younger people being diagnosed with skin cancer could be the_________(55)of a dangerous trend.Women in their 20s make_________(56)a small percentage of all patients diagnosed with melanoma in Britain,but nearly a third of all cases occur in people younger than 50.Based on current numbers,Cancer Research UK predicts that melanoma will become the fourth _________(57)common cancer for men and women of all ages by 2024,and that cases will jump from about 9,000 a year to more than 15,500.Cancer experts_________(58)the rising number of skin cancer cases largely to the surge in people using tanning salons."Spending time on sun beds is just as_________(59)as staying out too long in the sun,"said Caroline Cerny of Cancer Research UK. The organization is starting a SunSmart_________(60)to warn Britons of the dangers of being too bronzed."The intensity of ultraviolet rays in some sun beds can be more than 10_________(61)stronger than themid-day sun,"Cerny said.In the United States,several states require parental approval________(62)minors can use tanning salons.Wisconsin bans people 16 and________(63)from using tanning beds,and others ban children under 14.At least 29 states have regulations governing minors'use of tanning salons.In the U.K.,Scottish politicians passed legislation banning those under 1 8 from using tanning beds, though it hasn't yet been implemented.There are no plans for________(64)in the rest of the U.K.The World Health Organization has previously recommended that tanning beds be regulated because of their potential to damage DNA in the skin.Experts said most deadly skin cancers could be________(65)if people took the proper precautions when in the sun and avoided tanning beds. _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 Pandemic(大面积流行的)H1N1 2009The most active areas of pandemic influenza transmission currently are in central and eastern Europe. Focal(集中的)increases in rates during recent weeks were _________( 5 1 ) in at least two eastern Europeancountries. A high intensity of respiratory(呼吸的)disease activity with concurrent(同时存在的)circulation of pandemic influenza still_________(52)in parts of southern and eastern Europe,_________(53)in Greece, Poland,and Ukraine.In Western Europe,influenza transmission remains_________(54)and widespread,but overall disease activity has peaked. All influenza viruses in Western Europe were pandemic H1N1 2009._________(55),very small numbers of seasonal influenza viruses covering less than 1%of all influenza viruses found,were reported in Russia. In_________(56),limited available data indicate that active,high intensity transmission is occurring in Northern African countries_________(57)the Mediterranean coast.In Central Asia,limited data_________(58)that influenza virus circulation remains active,but transmis-sion may have recently peaked in some places.In West Asia,Israel,Iran,and Iraq also appear to have passed their_________(59)period of transmission within the past month though both areas continue to have some active transmission and levels of respiratory disease activity have not yet_________(60)to baseline levels.In East Asia,influenza transmission remains active but appears to be_________(61)overall. Slight increases in ILI were reported in Mongolia after weeks of declining activity following a large peak of activity_________(62)one month ago.In North America,influenza transmission_________(63)widespread but has declined quickly in all countries.In the tropical regions of Central and South America and the Caribbean,influenza transmission re- mains geographically widespread but overall disease_________(64)has been declining or remains unchanged in most parts,_________(65)for focal increases in respiratory disease activity in a few countries. _________(52)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇On the Trail of The Honey BadgerOn a recent field trip to the Kalahari Desert,a team of researchers learnt a lot more about honey badgers(灌).The team employed a local wildlife expert,Kitso Khama,to help them locate and follow the badgers across the desert. Their main aim was to study the badgers'movements and behaviour as discreetly (谨慎地)as possible,without frightening them away or causing them to change their natural behaviour. They also planned to trap a few and study them close up before releasing them. In view of the animal's repu- tation,this was something that even Khama was reluctant to do."The problem with honey badgers is they are naturally curious animals,especially when they see some- thing new,"he says."That,combined with their unpredictable nature,can be a dangerous mixture.If they sense you have food,for example,they won't be shy about coming right up to you for something to eat. They're actually quite sociable creatures around humans,but as soon as they feel they might be in danger', they can become extremely vicious(凶恶的).Fortunately this is rare , but it does happen."The research confirmed many things that were already known.As expected,honey badgers ate any creatures they could catch and kill.Even poisonous snakes,feared and avoided by most other animals,were not safe from them.The researchers were surprised,however,by the animal's fondness for local melons, probably because of their high water content.Previously researchers thought that the animal got all of its liquid requirements from its prey(猎物).The team also learnt that,contrary to previous research findings, the badgers occasionally formed loose family groups.They were also able to confirm certain results from pre- vious research,including the fact that female badgers never socialised with each other.Following some of the male badgers was a challenge,since they can cover large distances in a short space of time.Some hunting territories cover more than 500 square kilometres.Although they seem happy to share these territories with other males,there are occasional fights over an important food source,and male badgers can be as aggressive towards each other as they are towards other species.As the badgers became accustomed to the presence of people,it gave the team the chance to get up close to them without being the subject of the animals'curiosity一or their sudden aggression.The badgers' eating patterns,which had been disrupted,returned to normal.It also allowed the team to observe more closely some of the other creatures that form working associations with the honey badger,as these seemed to adopt the badgers'relaxed attitude when near humans. Why did the wildlife experts visit the Kalahari Desert?