职称英语

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 Climate Change Poses Major Risks for Unprepared CitiesA new examination of urban policies has been carried out recently by Patricia Romero Lankao. She is a so- ciologist specializing in climate change and_____________(51) development. She warns that many of the world'5 fast-growing urban areas,especially in developing countries,will likely suffer from the_____________(52)of changing climate. Her work also concludes that most cities are failing to_____________(53)emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. These gases are known to affect the atmosphere."Climate change is a deeply local issue and poses profound_____________ (54) to the growing cities of the world,"says Romero Lankao. "But too few cities are developing effective strategies to protect their residents."Cities are_____________(55)sources of greenhouse gases.And urban populations are likely to be among those most severely affected by future climate change.Lankao's findings highlight ways in which city-resi- dents are particularly vulnerable,and suggest policy interventions that could offer immediate and longer-term ____________ (56).The locations and dense construction patterns of cities often place their populations at greater _____________(57)for natural disasters.Potential threats associated with climate include storm surges and pro- longed hot weather. Storm surges can flood coastal areas and prolonged hot weather can heat_____________(58) paved cities more than surrounding areas. The impacts of such natural events can be more_____________(59)in an urban environment. For example,a prolonged heat wave can increase existing levels of air pollution,causing widespread health problems.Poorer neighborhoods that may_____________(60)basic facilities such as drinking water or a dependable network of roads,are especially vulnerable to natural disasters.Many residents in poorer countries live in substandard housing_____________(61)access to reliable drinking water,roads and basic services.Local governments,therefore,should take measures to_____________(62)their residents."Unfortunately, they tend to move towards rhetoric_____________(63)meaningful responses,"Romero Lankao writes,"They don't impose construction standards that could reduce heating and air conditioning_____________(64).They don't em- phasize mass transit and reduce automobile use.In fact,many local governments are taking a hands-off ap- proach."_____________(65),she urges them to change their idle policies and to take strong steps to prevent the harmful effects of climate change on cities. _________(52)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Gross National HappinessIn the last century,new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries.However,one country resisted these changes.High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia,the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however,was a poor country.People died at a young age.Most of its people could not read,and they did notknow much about the outside world.Then,in 1972,a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck de- cided to help Bhutan to become modern,but without losing its traditions.King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas.He saw that most countries measured their progress by their Gross National Product(GNP).The GNP measures products and money. When the number of products sold increases,people say the country is making progress.King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan.He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness.If the people's happiness increased,the king could say that Bhutan was making progress.To decide if people were happier,he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness.People are happier if they have health care,education,and jobs.They are happier when they live in a healthy,protected environment.They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs.Finally,people are happier when they have agood,stable government.Now there is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan.People are healthier and are living longer. More people are educated and employed.Twenty-five percent of the land has become national parks,and the country has almost no pollution.The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs.Bhutan has also become a democracy.In 2008,King Wangchuck gave his power to, his son.Although the country still had a king,it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time.Finally,Bhutan has connected to the rest of theworld through television and internet.Bhutan is a symbol for social progress.Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH.Thesecountries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness.They want to create new policies that take care of their people,cultures,and land.Brazil may be the next country to use the principles of GNH.Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNI as a source of inspiration.Brazil is a large country with a diverse population.If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil,perhaps the rest of the world will follow. Apart from modernizing Bhutan,what else did Wangchuck want to do for Bhutan?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Pool WatchSwimmers can drown in busy swimming pools when lifeguards fail to notice that they are in trouble.The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents says that on average 15 people drown in British pools each year,but many more suffer major injury after getting into difficulties.Now a French company has developed an artificial intelligence system called Poseidon that sounds the alarm when it sees someone in danger ofdrowning.When a swimmer sinks towards the bottom of the pool,the new system sends an alarm signal to a pool- side monitoring station and a lifeguard's pager."In trials at a pool in Ancenis,near Nantes,it saved a life within just a few months,"says Alistair McQuade,a spokesman for its maker,Poseidon Technologies.Poseidon keeps watch through a network of underwater and overheard video cameras.Al software analy- ses the images to work out swimmers trajectories(轨道,轨线).To do this reliably,it has to tell the difference between a swimmer and the shadow of someone being cast onto the bottom or side of the pool."The under- water environment is a very dynamic one,with many shadows and reflections dancing around."says McQuade.The software does this by"projecting"a shape in its field of view onto an image of the far wall of the pool.It does the same with an image from another camera viewing the shape from a different angle.If the two projections are in the same position,the shape is identified as a shadow and is ignored.But if they are different.the shape is a swimmer and so the system follows its trajectory.To pick out potential drowning victims,anyone in the water who starts to descend slowly is added to the software's "pre-alert"list,says McQuade.Swimmers who then stay immobile on the pool bottom for 5 seconds or more are considered in danger of drowning.Poseidon double-checks that the image really is of a swimmer,not a shadow,by seeing whether it obscures the pool's floor texture when viewed from overhead. If so,it alerts the lifeguard,showing the swimmer's location on a poolside screen.The first full-scale Poseidon system will be officially opened next week at a pool in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire.One man who is impressed with the idea is Travor Baylis,inventor of the clockwork ra- dio.Baylis runs a company that installs swimming pools一and he was once an underwater escapologist(表演 脱身术的人)with a circus. " I say full marks to them if this works and can save lives , " he says. But h"adds that any local authority spending £30,000一plus a on Poseidon system ought to be investing similar amounts in teaching children to swim. The word"considered"in Paragraph 5 could be best replaced by________.
[多选题]共用题干 SemcoAt 21,Ricardo Semler became boss of his father's business in Brazil,Semco,which sold parts for ships. Semler Junior worked like a madman,from 7:30 a. m.until midnight every day.One afternoon,while touring a factory in New York,he collapsed.The doctor who treated him said,"There's nothing wrong with you.But if you continue like this,you'll find a new home in our hospital." Semler got the message.He changed the way he worked.In fact,he changed the way his employees worked too.He let his workers take more responsibility so that they would be the ones worrying when things went wrong. He allowed them to set their own salaries,and he cut all the jobs he thought were unnecessary,like re-- ceptionists and secretaries._______________ (46)"Everyone at Semco,even top managers,meets guests in recep- tion,does the photocopying,sends faxes,types letters and dials the phone."He completely reorganized the office:instead of walls,they have plants at Semco,so bosses can't shut themselves away from everyone else._______________ (47)As for uniforms,some people wear suits and others wear T-shirts.Semler says,"We have a sales manager named Rubin Agater who sits there reading the newspaper hour after hour. He doesn't even pretend to be busy.But when a Semco pump on the other side of the world fails and millions of gallons of oil are about to spill into the sea,Rubin springs into action.______________(48) That's when he earns his salary. No one cares if he doesn't look busy the rest of the time."Semco has flexible working hours;the employees decide when they need to arrive at work.The employees also evaluate their bosses twice a year.______________ (49)It sounds perfect,but does it work?The answer is in the numbers:in the last six years,Semco's revenues have gone from$35 million to $212 million.The company has grown from eight hundred employees to 3,000.Why?Semler says it's because of"peer pressure".Peer pressure makes employees work hard for everyone else._______________ (50)In other words,Ricardo Semler treats his workers like adults and expects them to act like adults.And they do. __________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Night of the Living AntsWhen an ant dies,other ants move the dead insect out of the nest.This behavior is interesting to scien-tists,who wonder how ants know for sure一and so soon一that another ant is dead.Dong-Hwan Choe,a scientist at the University of California,found that Argentine ants have a chemical on the outside of their bodies that signals to other ants,"I'm dead一take me away."But there's a twist to Choe's discovery. These ants behave a little bit like zombies(僵尸).Choe says that the living ants一not just the dead ones一have this death chemicals. In other words,while an ant crawls around,perhaps in a picnic or home,it's telling other ants that it's dead.What keeps ants from hauling away the living dead? Choe found that Argentine ants have two additional chemicals on their bodies,and these tell nearby ants something like,"Wait一I'm not dead yet."So Choe's research turned up two sets of chemical signals in ants:one says,"I'm dead,"the other set says,"I'm not dead yet."Other scientists have tried to figure out how ants know when another ant is dead.If an ant is knockedunconscious,other ants leave it alone until it wakes up.That means ants know that unmoving ants can still be alive.Choe suspects that when an Argentine ant dies,the chemical that says"Wait一I'm not dead yet"quickly goes away. Once that chemical is gone,only the one that says"I'm dead"is left."It's because the dead ant no longer smells like a living ant that it gets carried to the graveyard(墓地),not because its body releases new,unique chemicals after death,"said Choe.When other ants detect the"dead"chemical without the"not dead yet" chemical,they haul away the body. This was Choe's hypothesis(假设).To test his hypothesis,Choe and his team put different chemicals on Argentine ant pupae(蛹).When the scientists used the"I'm dead"chemical,other ants quickly hauled the treated pupae away.When the sci-entists used the"Wait一I'm not dead yet"chemical,other ants left the treated pupae alone.Choe believes this behavior shows that the" not dead yet" chemical overrides(优先于)the" dead" chemical when picked up by adult ants.And that when an ant dies,the"not dead yet"chemical fades away.Other nearby ants then de-tect the remaining"dead"chemical and remove the body from the nest. Which of the following statements is NOT true of ants?
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇“Life Form Found" on Saturn ' s TitanScientists say they have discovered hints of alien life on the Saturn'5 moon.The discovery of a sort of life was announced after researchers at the US space agency,NASA,analyzed data from spacecraft Cassini, which pointed to the existence of methane-based form of life on Saturn's biggest moon.Scientists have reportedly discovered clues showing primitive alien beings are"breathing"in Titan's dense atmosphere filled with hydrogen.They argue that hydrogen gets absorbed before hitting Titan's planet-like surface covered with methane lakes and rivers.This,they say,points to the existence of some"bugs"consuming the hydrogen at the surface of the moon less than half the size of the Earth."We suggested hydrogen consumption because it's the obvious gas for life to consume on Titan,similar to the way we consume oxygen on Earth,"says NASA scientist Chris McKay."If these signs do turn out to be a sign of life,it would be doubly exciting because it would represent a second form of life independent from water-based life on Earth."To date,scientists have not yet detected this form of life anywhere,though there are liquid-water-based microorganisms on Earth that grow well on methane or produce it as a waste product. On Titan,wheretemperatures are around minus 17 Kelvin(minus 290 degrees Farenheit),a methane-based organism would have to use a substance that is liquid as its medium for living processes,but not water itself. Water is frozen solid on Titan'5 surface and much too cold to support life as we know it.Scientists had expected the Sun'5 interactions with chemicals in the atmosphere to produce a coating of acetylene on Titan'5 surface.But Cassini detected no acetylene on the surface.The absence of detectable acetylene on the Titan's surface can very well have a non-biological explana-tion,said Mark Allen,a principal investigator of the NASA Titan team."Scientific conservatism suggests that a biological explanation should be the last choice after all non- biological explanations are addressed,"Allen said."We have a lot of work to do to rule out possible non-bio- logical explanations.It is more likely that a chemical process,without biology,can explain these results." It can be inferred from Mark Allen's address that_____________.
[单选题]Tracking Down HIV   In the summer of 1980, a patient had a strange purplish spot removedfrom below his ear. It was Kaposi’s sarcoma, a rarefm of skin cancer. This patient also had lymph node swelling exhaustion.In November 1980, a Los Angeles immunologist examined a young man who haddiseases linked to immune system malfunctions. The doct had a T-cell counttaken of the patient’s blood. T-cells are a type of white blood cell that playsa key role1 in immune responses. The patient had no helper T-cells.   By the end of 1980, 55 Americans were diagnosed with infectionsrelated to immune system breakdown; four had died. A year later the death tollwas 74. Intravenous drug users had T-cell abnmalities. People who hadreceived blood transfusions showed symptoms of immune system breakdown. By July1982, 471 cases of the disease, now called Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome(AIDS), had been repted; 184 people had died.   In April 1984, American virologist Dr. Robert Gallo isolated thepathogen, disease producer, responsible f2 AIDS. He called it HTLV-III. InParis, Dr. Luc Montagnier identified a virus he called LAV. An internationalpanel of scientists determined that both men had found the same virus. Itbecame known as Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Blood banks began screeningf HTV in 1985, but by then about 29,000 people had been infected throughblood transfusions. Some 12,000 hemophiliacs had contracted HIV throughblood-clotting products. By 1995, 477,900 Americans had AIDS; 295,500 had died.   In 1996, researchers announced drugs that reduced HIV in infectedpeople. Today scientists are testing vaccines believe that if HIV can besuppressed, then perhaps it can be eradicated3, but it is still a race againsttime.   词汇:   spot n. 地点,斑点,斑块,青春痘   lymph n. 淋巴结   sarcoma n. 肿瘤,肉瘤,恶性毒瘤   exhaustion n. 衰竭,耗尽,精疲力竭   immunologist n. 免疫学家   malfunction n. 故障,失灵,疾病   count n. 计数,计算   infection n. 传染病,感染   breakdown n. 故障,衰弱,崩溃   toll n. 代价,死亡人数   intravenous drug n. 静脉注射药物   abnmalities n. (abnmality的复数形式)畸形,异常情况   blood transfusion n. 输血   symptom n. 症状   virologist n. 病毒学家   virus n. 病毒   panel n. 座谈小组,仪表板   hemophiliac n. 血友病患者   vaccine n. 疫苗   注释:   1.play a key role...扮演一个关键角色,有至关重要的作用   2.be responsible f...对……负责,是……的原因   3.can be eradicated可以被根除的   练习: 3.The final paragraph leads the reader to see that scientists ____.
[单选题]第二十二篇 RealWld Robots   When you think of a robot, do you envision ashiny, metallic device having the same general shape as a human being,perfming humanlike functions, responding to your questions in a monotonevoice accentuated by high-pitched tones beeps? This is the way many of usimagine a robot, but in the real wld, a robot is not humanoid at all. Insteada robot often is a voiceless, box-shaped machine that efficiently carries outrepetitive dangerous functions usually perfmed by humans. Today’s robot is me than an automatic machine that perfms one taskagain again. A modern robot is programmed with varying degrees ofartificial intelligence—that is, a robot contains acomputer program that tells it how to perfm tasks associated with human intelligence,such as reasoning, drawing conclusions, learning from past experience.   A robot does not possess a human shape fthe simple reason that a two-legged robot has great difficulty remainingbalanced. A robot does, however, move from place to place on wheels axlesthat roll rotate. A robot even has limbs that swivel move incombination with ts mots. To find its way in its surroundings1, arobot utilizes various built-in senss. Antennae attached to the robot’s base detect anything they bump into. If the robot starts to teeteras it moves on an incline, a gyroscope a pendulum inside it senses thevertical differential. To determine its distance from an object how quicklyit will reach the object,the robot bounces beams oflaser light ultrasonic sound waves off obstructions in its path2. These other senss constantly feed infmation to the computer, which then analyzesthe infmation crects adjusts the robot’sactions. As science technology advance, the robot too will progress in itsfunctions use of artificial-intelligence programs.   词汇:   envision v. 想象,预想   device n. 装置   accentuate v. 强调,重读   artificial intelligence n. 人工智能   limb n. 臂   antennae n. 天线   incline v. 倾斜   pendulum n. 钟摆   ultrasonic adj. 超声的   metallic adj. 金属的   monotone n. 单调的   humanoid adj. 像人的   axle n. 轮轴   rotate v. 旋转   swivel n. 旋转   teeter v. 摇晃   gyroscope n. 陀螺仪,回转仪   vertical n. 直立的   注释:   1.To find its way in its surroundings...:为了在周围找到路……   2.the robot bounces beams of laser light ultrasonic sound waves off obstructions in its path:机器人发射激光束和超声波,反射到障碍物上(以此来探知路径)。  练习: 4.The writer begins the passage by comparing
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇“Life Form Found" on Saturn ' s TitanScientists say they have discovered hints of alien life on the Saturn'5 moon.The discovery of a sort of life was announced after researchers at the US space agency,NASA,analyzed data from spacecraft Cassini, which pointed to the existence of methane-based form of life on Saturn's biggest moon.Scientists have reportedly discovered clues showing primitive alien beings are"breathing"in Titan's dense atmosphere filled with hydrogen.They argue that hydrogen gets absorbed before hitting Titan's planet-like surface covered with methane lakes and rivers.This,they say,points to the existence of some"bugs"consuming the hydrogen at the surface of the moon less than half the size of the Earth."We suggested hydrogen consumption because it's the obvious gas for life to consume on Titan,similar to the way we consume oxygen on Earth,"says NASA scientist Chris McKay."If these signs do turn out to be a sign of life,it would be doubly exciting because it would represent a second form of life independent from water-based life on Earth."To date,scientists have not yet detected this form of life anywhere,though there are liquid-water-based microorganisms on Earth that grow well on methane or produce it as a waste product. On Titan,wheretemperatures are around minus 17 Kelvin(minus 290 degrees Farenheit),a methane-based organism would have to use a substance that is liquid as its medium for living processes,but not water itself. Water is frozen solid on Titan'5 surface and much too cold to support life as we know it.Scientists had expected the Sun'5 interactions with chemicals in the atmosphere to produce a coating of acetylene on Titan'5 surface.But Cassini detected no acetylene on the surface.The absence of detectable acetylene on the Titan's surface can very well have a non-biological explana-tion,said Mark Allen,a principal investigator of the NASA Titan team."Scientific conservatism suggests that a biological explanation should be the last choice after all non- biological explanations are addressed,"Allen said."We have a lot of work to do to rule out possible non-bio- logical explanations.It is more likely that a chemical process,without biology,can explain these results." The expression"this form of life"in Paragraph 5 refer to_____________.
[多选题]共用题干 Learn About Noble Gases(惰性气体)1 Have you ever ridden on a balloon?Many tourist spots offer balloon rides in order for people to see the beauty of a place from above.A balloon contains a noble gas called helium(氦).Formerly,balloons con- tamned hydrogen but hydrogen is very flammable and dangerous when uncontrolled.Therefore,people shiftedto helium,which is safer. Helium is safe because it has the properties of the noble gases.2 People once believed that noble gases couldn't chemically react at all.For this reason,they were called inert gases(隋性气体).They were also listed under Group 0 in the old periodic table because scien- tists believed that the gases have zero valence(价)electrons in their outer shell.This was later proven to be untrue when some noble gas compounds were discovered.3 The gases are elements,which share similar properties.These properties include being monoatomic, colorless,odorless,being able to conduct electricity,and having low chemical reactivity.Noble gases include helium,neon,argon,krypton,xenon and radon.These are all found in Group 18,in the right most column of the periodic table.If you look at the periodic table,you will notice that these elements are the only ones which do not have a charge. Helium has the lowest molecular(分子的)weight while radon is theheaviest.4 Remember that chemical reactions occur because atoms have valence electrons,which are electrons in their outer shell.When the outer shell is"unfilled"or the required number of electrons is not yet com- plete,the atom is more reactive.Noble gases have a full outer shell,meaning that they have complete elec- trons in their outer shell.This complete number varies.For instance,the outer shell of helium has 2 valence electrons while the outer shell of xenon has 8 electrons.Nowadays,there remains to be a few noble gases because of the low chemical reactivity of these said gases.5 because of their properties,noble gases have many important applications.They are widely used in medicine and industries. For instance , liquid helium is used for superconducting magnets(磁体).These magnets are very important in physics and medicine.When a doctor suspects that a person's brain has been damaged,he might request for Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI).MRI allows the doctor to"see"the brain,without operating on the patient. The required number of electrons in noble gases' outer shell is __________.
[单选题]Geothermal(地热)Energy   1 Since heat naturally moves from hotter regions to cooler ones, the heat from the earth's center flows outwards towards the surface. In this way, it transfers to the next layer of rock. If the temperature is high enough, some of this rock melts and forms magma(岩浆). The magma ascends in its turn towards the earth's surface. It often remains well below the earth's surface, creating vast areas of hot rock. In such regions, there are deep cracks, which allow rainwater to descend underground. Some of the heated rainwater travels back up to the earth's surface where it will appear as a hot spring. However, if this ascending hot water reaches a layer of impermeable(不可渗透的)rock, it remains trapped, forming a geothermal reservoir. If geothermal reservoirs are close enough to the surface, they can be reached by drilling wells. Hot water and steam shoot up the wells naturally, and can be used to produce electricity in geothermal power plants.   2.A few geothermal power plants depend on dry-stem reservoirs which produce steam but little or no water. In these cases, the steam is piped up directly to provide the power to spin a turbine generator. The first geothermal power plant, constructed at Lardarello in Italy, was of this type, and is still producing electricity today.   3.Most currently operating geothermal power plants are either "flash" steam plants or binary(双重的)plants. Flash plants produce mainly hot water ranging in temperature from 300° to 700°Fahrenheit. This water is passed through one or two separators where released from the pressure of the underground reservoir, it "flashes" or boils into steam Again, the force of this steam provides the energy to spin the turbine and produce electricity. The geothermal water and steam are then reinjected directly back down into the earth to maintain the volume and pressure of the reservoir. Gradually they will be reheated and can then be used again.   4.A reservoir with temperatures below 300° Fahrenheit is not hot enough to flash steam but it can still be used to generate electricity in binary fluid. The steam from this is used to power the turbines. As in the flash steam plant, the geothermal water is recycled back into the reservoir. 文章(23~30) Paragraph1_____
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇“Life Form Found" on Saturn ' s TitanScientists say they have discovered hints of alien life on the Saturn'5 moon.The discovery of a sort of life was announced after researchers at the US space agency,NASA,analyzed data from spacecraft Cassini, which pointed to the existence of methane-based form of life on Saturn's biggest moon.Scientists have reportedly discovered clues showing primitive alien beings are"breathing"in Titan's dense atmosphere filled with hydrogen.They argue that hydrogen gets absorbed before hitting Titan's planet-like surface covered with methane lakes and rivers.This,they say,points to the existence of some"bugs"consuming the hydrogen at the surface of the moon less than half the size of the Earth."We suggested hydrogen consumption because it's the obvious gas for life to consume on Titan,similar to the way we consume oxygen on Earth,"says NASA scientist Chris McKay."If these signs do turn out to be a sign of life,it would be doubly exciting because it would represent a second form of life independent from water-based life on Earth."To date,scientists have not yet detected this form of life anywhere,though there are liquid-water-based microorganisms on Earth that grow well on methane or produce it as a waste product. On Titan,wheretemperatures are around minus 17 Kelvin(minus 290 degrees Farenheit),a methane-based organism would have to use a substance that is liquid as its medium for living processes,but not water itself. Water is frozen solid on Titan'5 surface and much too cold to support life as we know it.Scientists had expected the Sun'5 interactions with chemicals in the atmosphere to produce a coating of acetylene on Titan'5 surface.But Cassini detected no acetylene on the surface.The absence of detectable acetylene on the Titan's surface can very well have a non-biological explana-tion,said Mark Allen,a principal investigator of the NASA Titan team."Scientific conservatism suggests that a biological explanation should be the last choice after all non- biological explanations are addressed,"Allen said."We have a lot of work to do to rule out possible non-bio- logical explanations.It is more likely that a chemical process,without biology,can explain these results." Which of the following statements about Titan is true?
[多选题]共用题干 Young Adults Who Exercise Get Higher IQ ScoresYoung adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more likely to go on to university,reveals a major new study_________(51)out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(PNAS).The study__________(52)1._________(1.)2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born between 1950 and1976._________(1976.)The research group analyzed the ________(53)of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.The study shows a clear link _________(54)good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test.The strongest links are for ________(55)thinking and verbal comprehension.But it is only fitness thatplays a _________ (56)in the results for the IQ test,and not strength."Being fit means that you also havegood heart and lung __________(57)and that your brain gets plenty of oxygen."says Michael Nilsson,pro-fessor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital."This may be one of the reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness,but not with muscular_________(58).We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important."By analyzing data for twins,the researchers have been________(59)to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that___________(60)the link between fitness and a higher IQ."We have also shown that those youngsters who _______(61)their physical fitness between the ages of 1 5 and 1 8 increase their performance."says Maria Aberg,researcher at the Sahlgrenska Academy andphysician at Aby health centre."This being the case,physical education is a_______(62)that has an important place in schools,and is an absolute must________(63)we want to do well in math and other theoretical subjects."The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests during national service_______(64) the socioeconomic status of the men later in life.Those who were fit at I 8 were more__________(65)to go into higher education,and many secured more qualified jobs. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Archive Gallery : The Best of Bionics(仿生学)Humans might be the most highly-evolved species on the planet,but most animals possess skills we can only dream of having. Imagine how much electricity we could save if we could see in the dark the way catsdo. Imagine leaping from tree to tree like a monkey. Giraffes(长颈鹿),which are otherwise calm and good- natured,sleep only 4.6 hours a day.We realized a long , long time ago that nature provides the best blueprint(蓝图)for invention. We ' ve borrowed canals from beavers(河狸)and reflectors from cat's eyes. Although the words"bionics"became popular only after the l960s,history shows that nature has always provided ideas on solving everyday prob- lems. Our archives(档案)don't go back to the time of Leonardo da Vinci and his bird-like flying machines,but we can take you to the late 19th century,where we applied those same principles for building our first practical airplanes.To prepare for their flight at Kitty Hawk,the Wright brothers studied the movements of pigeons to fingureout how they stayed high up when they were heavier than air. Their success inspired scores of successors to improve on the airplane by studying various aspects of nature.One of Orville Wright's pupils caught and stuffed seagulls to examine their wingspan.Meanwhile,two French inventors examined spinning sycamore(美 国梧桐)seeds in an effort to apply those same motions , reversed , to a helicopter.Some examples are more obvious than others.The outside of the airplane designed by the WrightDrotliers looks like a minimalistic(简单抽象艺术)structure. On the other hand , Barney Connett ' s fish iubmarine(潜水艇)actually looks like a fish.Some bio-inspired concepts have yet to be invented.In the l960s,the US Army commissioned several iniversity professors to conduct research on the motor skills of animals in hope of applying those same abili- ies to tanks. Tanks that run like horses or jump like grasshoppers(蚂炸)一sounds shocking,doesn't it? 3ut imagine how life would change if we could achieve that. "Cats","monkeys"and"giraffes"mentioned in Paragraph 1 are examples to illustrate____________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Gross National HappinessIn the last century,new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries.However,one country resisted these changes.High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia,the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however,was a poor country.People died at a young age.Most of its people could not read,and they did not know much about the outside world.Then,in 1972,a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck de- cided to help Bhutan to become modern,but without losing its traditions.King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas.He saw that most countries measured their progress by their Gross National Product(GNP).The GNP measures products and money. When the number of products sold increases,people say the country is making progress.King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan. He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness.If the people's happiness increased, the king could say that Bhutan was making progress.To decide if people were happier,he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness.People are happier if they have health care, education,and jobs.They are happier when they live in a healthy,protected environment. They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs.Finally,people are happier when they have a good,stable government.Now there is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan.People are healthier and are living longer. More people are educated and employed.Twenty-five percent of the land has become national parks,and the country has almost no pollution. The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs.Bhutan has also become a democracy.In 2008,King Wangchuck gave his power to his son.Although the country still had a king,it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time.Finally,Bhutan has connected to the rest of the world through television and internet.Bhutan is a symbol for social progress.Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH.These countries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness.They want to create new policies that take care of their people,cultures,and land.Brazil may be the next country to use the principles of GNH.Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration.Brazil is a large country with a diverse population.If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil,perhaps the rest of the world will follow. According to GNH,people are happier if they____________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Small but WiseOn December 14,NASA blasted a small but mighty telescope into space.The telescope is called WISE and is about as wide around as a trashcan.Don't let its small size fool you:WISE has a powerful digital camera,and it will be taking pictures of some of the wildest objects in the known universe,including asteroids,faint stars,blazing galaxies and giant clouds of dust where planets and stars are born."I'm very excited because we're going to be seeing parts of the universe that we haven't seen be- fore,"said Ned Wright,a scientist who directs the WISE project.Since arriving in space,the WISE telescope has been circling the Earth,held by gravity in a polar orbit (this means it crosses close to the north and south poles with each lap).Its camera is pointed outward,awayfrom the Earth,and WISE will snap a picture of a different part of the sky every 11 minutes.After six months it will have taken pictures across the entire sky.The pictures taken by WISE won't be like everyday digital photographs,however. WISE stands for "Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer".As its name suggests,the WISE camera takes pictures of features that give off infrared radiation.Radiation is energy that travels as a wave.Visible light,including the familiar spectrum of light that be- comes visible in a rainbow,is an example of radiation.When an ordinary digital camera takes a picture of a tree,for example,it receives the waves of visible light that are reflected off the tree.When these waves enter the camera through the lens,they're processed by the camera,which then puts the image together.Waves of infrared radiation are longer than waves of visible light,so ordinary digital cameras don't see them,and neither do the eyes of human beings.Although invisible to the eye,longer infrared radiation can be detected as warmth by the skin.That's a key idea to why WISE will be able to see things other telescopes can't. Not everything in the universe shows up in visible light.Asteroids,for example, are giant rocks that float through space一but they absorb most of the light that reaches them.They don't reflect light,so they're difficult to see.But they do give off infrared radiation,so an infrared telescope like WISE will be able to produce images of them.During its mission WISE will take pictures of hundreds of thousands of asteroids.Brown dwarfs are another kind of deep-space objects that will show up in WISE's pictures.These ob- jects are "failed" stars一which means they are not massive enough to jump-start the same kind of reactions that power stars such as the sun.Instead,brown dwarfs simply shrink and cool down.They're so dim that they're almost impossible to see with visible light,but in the infrared spectrum they glow. It is true that infrared radiation_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Climate Change:The Long Reach1.Earth is warming.Sea levels are rising.There's more carbon in the air,and Arctic ice is melting faster than at any time in recorded history.Scientists who study the environment to better gauge(评估) Earth's future climate now argue that these changes may not reverse for a very long time.2.People burn fossil fuels like coal and oil for energy.That burning releases carbon dioxide,a colorless gas.In the air,this gas traps heat at Earth's surface.And the more carbon dioxide released,the more the planet warms.If current consumption of fossil fuels doesn't slow,the long-term climate impacts could last thousands of years-and be more severe than scientists had been expecting.Climatologist Richard Zeebe of the University of Hawaii at Manoa offers this conclusion in a new paper.3.Most climate-change studies look at what's going to happen in the next century or so.During that time , changes in the planet's environment could nudge(推动)global warming even higher.For example, snow and ice reflect sunlight back into space.But as these melt,sunlight can now reach-and warm-the exposed ground.This extra heat raises the air temperature even more,causing even more snow to melt.This type of rapid exaggeration of impacts is called a"fast feedback".4.Zeebe says it's important to look at fast feedbacks.However,he adds,they're limited.From a climate change perspective,"This century is the most important time for the next few generations,"he told Science News."But the world is not ending in 2100."For this new study,Zeebe now focuses on"slow feedbacks".While fast feedback events unfold over decades or centuries,slow feedbacks can take thousands of years.Melting of continental ice sheets and the migration of plant life-as they relocate to more comfortable areas-are two examples of slow feedbacks.5.Zeebe gathered information from previously published studies investigating how such processes played out over thousands of years during past dramatic changes in climate.Then he came up with a forecast for the future that accounts for both slow and fast feedback processes.Climate forecasts that use only fast feedbacks predict a 4.5 degree Celsius(8.1 degree Fahrenheit)change by the year 3000.But slow feedbacks added another 1.5℃-for a 6℃ total increase,Zeebe reports.He also found that slow feedback events will cause global warming to persist for thousands of years after people run out of fossil fuels to burn. Zeebe came up with his future climate prediction by analyzing______.
[多选题]共用题干 The Case of the Disappearing FingerprintsOne useful anti-cancer drug can effectively erase the whorls(箩状指纹)and other characteristic marks that give people their distinctive fingerprints(指纹).Losing them could become troublesome. A case______________ (51) online in a letter by Annals of Oncology(肿瘤学)indicates how big a ______________ (52) losing fingerprints is.Eng-Huat Tan,a Singapore-based medical doctor describes a 62-year-old man who has usedcapecitabine(卡培他滨)to______________ ( 53 ) his nasopharyngeal cancer(鼻咽癌).After three years on the_______________ (54),the patient decided to visit his U.S.relatives last December. But he was stopped by U. S. customs officials_______________(55)4 hours after entering the country when those officials couldn't get finger- prints from the man. There were no ___________( 56 ) swirly(旋涡状的)marks appearing from his index finger."U.S.customs has been fingerprinting incoming foreign visitors for years,"Tan says."Unfortunately,forthe Singaporean traveler,one potential ______________ (57)effect of his drug treatment is a smoothing of the tis-sue on the finger pads. ______________ (58)no fingerprints.""It is uncertain when fingerprint ______________ (59)will begin to take place in patients who are takingcapecitabine,"Tan points out.So he______________ (60)any physicians who prescribe the drug to provide theirpatients with a doctor's______________ (61)pointing out that their medicine may cause fingerprints to disap-pear.Eventually,the Singapore traveler made it into the United States.But he's also now got the doctor's ex-planatory note一and won't leave home______________ (62)it.By the way, maybe the Food and Drug Administration(美国食品药物管理局),________ (63) approved use of the drug 11 years ago,should consider updating its list of side effects_______________ (64)with this medicine. The current list does note that patients may experience vomiting(呕吐),stomach pain and some other side effects.But no where_______________ (65)it mention the potential for loss of fingerprints. _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Approaches to Understanding IntelligencesIt pays to be smart,but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician,but you might not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on all tests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelligent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believes that all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about.the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathematical,spatial, musical , interpersonal,intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic. According to Gardner,schools should______.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The IcemanOn a September day in 1991,two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy. High up on a mountain pass,they found the body of a man lying on the ice.At that height(10,499 feet or 3,200 meters),the ice is usually permanent,but 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice had melted more than usual and so the body had come to the surface.It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架)was in perfect condition, except for a wound in the head.There was still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes.The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots.Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮)and a holder for arrows.Who was this man?How and when had he died?Everybody had a different answer to these questions. Some people thought that it was from this century,perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War I, since several soldiers had already been found in the area. A Swiss woman believed it might be her father, who had died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found.The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older,maybe even a thousand years old.With modern dating techniques,the scientists soon learned that the iceman was about 5,300 years old. Born in about 3300 B.C.,he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe.At first scientists thought he was probably a hunter who had died in an accident in the high mountains.More recent evidence,however,tells a different story.A new kind of X-ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. It left only a tiny hole in his skin, but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He almost certainly died from this wound, and not from the wound on the back of his head.This means that he was probably in some kind of a battle.It might have beenpart of a larger war,or he might have beenl fighting bandits.He might even have been a bandit himself.By studying his clothes and tools,scientists have already learned a great deal from the iceman about the times he lived in.we may never know the full story of how he died,but he has given us important clues to the history of those distant times. The scientists made the deduction that the iceman______________.
[多选题]共用题干 Climate Change:The Long Reach1.Earth is warming.Sea levels are rising.There's more carbon in the air,and Arctic ice is melting faster than at any time in recorded history.Scientists who study the environment to better gauge(评估) Earth's future climate now argue that these changes may not reverse for a very long time.2.People burn fossil fuels like coal and oil for energy.That burning releases carbon dioxide,a colorless gas.In the air,this gas traps heat at Earth's surface.And the more carbon dioxide released,the more the planet warms.If current consumption of fossil fuels doesn't slow,the long-term climate impacts could last thousands of years-and be more severe than scientists had been expecting.Climatologist Richard Zeebe of the University of Hawaii at Manoa offers this conclusion in a new paper.3.Most climate-change studies look at what's going to happen in the next century or so.During that time , changes in the planet's environment could nudge(推动)global warming even higher.For example, snow and ice reflect sunlight back into space.But as these melt,sunlight can now reach-and warm-the exposed ground.This extra heat raises the air temperature even more,causing even more snow to melt.This type of rapid exaggeration of impacts is called a"fast feedback".4.Zeebe says it's important to look at fast feedbacks.However,he adds,they're limited.From a climate change perspective,"This century is the most important time for the next few generations,"he told Science News."But the world is not ending in 2100."For this new study,Zeebe now focuses on"slow feedbacks".While fast feedback events unfold over decades or centuries,slow feedbacks can take thousands of years.Melting of continental ice sheets and the migration of plant life-as they relocate to more comfortable areas-are two examples of slow feedbacks.5.Zeebe gathered information from previously published studies investigating how such processes played out over thousands of years during past dramatic changes in climate.Then he came up with a forecast for the future that accounts for both slow and fast feedback processes.Climate forecasts that use only fast feedbacks predict a 4.5 degree Celsius(8.1 degree Fahrenheit)change by the year 3000.But slow feedbacks added another 1.5℃-for a 6℃ total increase,Zeebe reports.He also found that slow feedback events will cause global warming to persist for thousands of years after people run out of fossil fuels to burn. Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Night of the Living AntsWhen an ant dies,other ants move the dead insect out of the nest.This behavior is interesting to scien-tists,who wonder how ants know for sure一and so soon一that another ant is dead.Dong-Hwan Choe,a scientist at the University of California,found that Argentine ants have a chemical on the outside of their bodies that signals to other ants,"I'm dead一take me away."But there's a twist to Choe's discovery. These ants behave a little bit like zombies(僵尸).Choe says that the living ants一not just the dead ones一have this death chemicals. In other words,while an ant crawls around,perhaps in a picnic or home,it's telling other ants that it's dead.What keeps ants from hauling away the living dead? Choe found that Argentine ants have two additional chemicals on their bodies,and these tell nearby ants something like,"Wait一I'm not dead yet."So Choe's research turned up two sets of chemical signals in ants:one says,"I'm dead,"the other set says,"I'm not dead yet."Other scientists have tried to figure out how ants know when another ant is dead.If an ant is knockedunconscious,other ants leave it alone until it wakes up.That means ants know that unmoving ants can still be alive.Choe suspects that when an Argentine ant dies,the chemical that says"Wait一I'm not dead yet"quickly goes away. Once that chemical is gone,only the one that says"I'm dead"is left."It's because the dead ant no longer smells like a living ant that it gets carried to the graveyard(墓地),not because its body releases new,unique chemicals after death,"said Choe.When other ants detect the"dead"chemical without the"not dead yet" chemical,they haul away the body. This was Choe's hypothesis(假设).To test his hypothesis,Choe and his team put different chemicals on Argentine ant pupae(蛹).When the scientists used the"I'm dead"chemical,other ants quickly hauled the treated pupae away.When the sci-entists used the"Wait一I'm not dead yet"chemical,other ants left the treated pupae alone.Choe believes this behavior shows that the" not dead yet" chemical overrides(优先于)the" dead" chemical when picked up by adult ants.And that when an ant dies,the"not dead yet"chemical fades away.Other nearby ants then de-tect the remaining"dead"chemical and remove the body from the nest. The passage"Night of the Living Ants"tells us about_______________.
[多选题]共用题干 Learn About Noble Gases(惰性气体)1 Have you ever ridden on a balloon?Many tourist spots offer balloon rides in order for people to see the beauty of a place from above.A balloon contains a noble gas called helium(氦).Formerly,balloons con- tamned hydrogen but hydrogen is very flammable and dangerous when uncontrolled.Therefore,people shiftedto helium,which is safer. Helium is safe because it has the properties of the noble gases.2 People once believed that noble gases couldn't chemically react at all.For this reason,they were called inert gases(隋性气体).They were also listed under Group 0 in the old periodic table because scien- tists believed that the gases have zero valence(价)electrons in their outer shell.This was later proven to be untrue when some noble gas compounds were discovered.3 The gases are elements,which share similar properties.These properties include being monoatomic, colorless,odorless,being able to conduct electricity,and having low chemical reactivity.Noble gases include helium,neon,argon,krypton,xenon and radon.These are all found in Group 18,in the right most column of the periodic table.If you look at the periodic table,you will notice that these elements are the only ones which do not have a charge. Helium has the lowest molecular(分子的)weight while radon is theheaviest.4 Remember that chemical reactions occur because atoms have valence electrons,which are electrons in their outer shell.When the outer shell is"unfilled"or the required number of electrons is not yet com- plete,the atom is more reactive.Noble gases have a full outer shell,meaning that they have complete elec- trons in their outer shell.This complete number varies.For instance,the outer shell of helium has 2 valence electrons while the outer shell of xenon has 8 electrons.Nowadays,there remains to be a few noble gases because of the low chemical reactivity of these said gases.5 because of their properties,noble gases have many important applications.They are widely used in medicine and industries. For instance , liquid helium is used for superconducting magnets(磁体).These magnets are very important in physics and medicine.When a doctor suspects that a person's brain has been damaged,he might request for Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI).MRI allows the doctor to"see"the brain,without operating on the patient. Paragraph 2________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Archive Gallery : The Best of Bionics(仿生学)Humans might be the most highly-evolved species on the planet,but most animals possess skills we can only dream of having. Imagine how much electricity we could save if we could see in the dark the way catsdo. Imagine leaping from tree to tree like a monkey. Giraffes(长颈鹿),which are otherwise calm and good- natured,sleep only 4.6 hours a day.We realized a long , long time ago that nature provides the best blueprint(蓝图)for invention. We ' ve borrowed canals from beavers(河狸)and reflectors from cat's eyes. Although the words"bionics"became popular only after the l960s,history shows that nature has always provided ideas on solving everyday prob- lems. Our archives(档案)don't go back to the time of Leonardo da Vinci and his bird-like flying machines,but we can take you to the late 19th century,where we applied those same principles for building our first practical airplanes.To prepare for their flight at Kitty Hawk,the Wright brothers studied the movements of pigeons to fingureout how they stayed high up when they were heavier than air. Their success inspired scores of successors to improve on the airplane by studying various aspects of nature.One of Orville Wright's pupils caught and stuffed seagulls to examine their wingspan.Meanwhile,two French inventors examined spinning sycamore(美 国梧桐)seeds in an effort to apply those same motions , reversed , to a helicopter.Some examples are more obvious than others.The outside of the airplane designed by the WrightDrotliers looks like a minimalistic(简单抽象艺术)structure. On the other hand , Barney Connett ' s fish iubmarine(潜水艇)actually looks like a fish.Some bio-inspired concepts have yet to be invented.In the l960s,the US Army commissioned several iniversity professors to conduct research on the motor skills of animals in hope of applying those same abili- ies to tanks. Tanks that run like horses or jump like grasshoppers(蚂炸)一sounds shocking,doesn't it? 3ut imagine how life would change if we could achieve that. Which of the following is true about the research carried out by the US Army?
[多选题]共用题干 Learn About Noble Gases(惰性气体)1 Have you ever ridden on a balloon?Many tourist spots offer balloon rides in order for people to see the beauty of a place from above.A balloon contains a noble gas called helium(氦).Formerly,balloons con- tamned hydrogen but hydrogen is very flammable and dangerous when uncontrolled.Therefore,people shiftedto helium,which is safer. Helium is safe because it has the properties of the noble gases.2 People once believed that noble gases couldn't chemically react at all.For this reason,they were called inert gases(隋性气体).They were also listed under Group 0 in the old periodic table because scien- tists believed that the gases have zero valence(价)electrons in their outer shell.This was later proven to be untrue when some noble gas compounds were discovered.3 The gases are elements,which share similar properties.These properties include being monoatomic, colorless,odorless,being able to conduct electricity,and having low chemical reactivity.Noble gases include helium,neon,argon,krypton,xenon and radon.These are all found in Group 18,in the right most column of the periodic table.If you look at the periodic table,you will notice that these elements are the only ones which do not have a charge. Helium has the lowest molecular(分子的)weight while radon is theheaviest.4 Remember that chemical reactions occur because atoms have valence electrons,which are electrons in their outer shell.When the outer shell is"unfilled"or the required number of electrons is not yet com- plete,the atom is more reactive.Noble gases have a full outer shell,meaning that they have complete elec- trons in their outer shell.This complete number varies.For instance,the outer shell of helium has 2 valence electrons while the outer shell of xenon has 8 electrons.Nowadays,there remains to be a few noble gases because of the low chemical reactivity of these said gases.5 because of their properties,noble gases have many important applications.They are widely used in medicine and industries. For instance , liquid helium is used for superconducting magnets(磁体).These magnets are very important in physics and medicine.When a doctor suspects that a person's brain has been damaged,he might request for Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI).MRI allows the doctor to"see"the brain,without operating on the patient. Paragraph 3__________
[多选题]共用题干 Mt. Desert IslandThe coast of the State of Maine is one of the most irregular in the world.A straight line running from the southernmost coastal city to the northernmost coastal city would measure about 225 miles.If you followed the coastline between these points,you would travel more than ten times as far. This irregularity is the result of what is called a drowned coastline._________(46)At that time,the whole area that is now Maine was part of a mountain range that towered above the sea. As the glacier(冰川)descended , however , it expended enormous force on those mountains,and they sank into the sea.As the mountains sank,ocean water charged over the lowest parts of the remaining land,forming a series of twisting inlets and lagoons(咸水湖).The highest parts of the former mountain range , nearest the shore, remained as islands.________(47)Maine fossils found here were 225 feet above sea level,indicating the level of the shoreline prior to the glacier.The 2,500-mile-long rocky coastline of Maine keeps watch over nearly two thousand islands. Many of these islands are tiny and uninhabited,but many are home to thriving communities.Mt. Desert Island is one of the largest,most beautiful of the Maine coast islands.Measuring 16 miles by 12 miles,Mt. Desert was es- sentially formed as two distinct islands._______(48)For years,Mt. Desert Island,particularly its major settlement,Bar Harbor,afforded summer homes for the wealthy.Recently though,Bar Harbor has become a rapidly growing arts community as well.But,the best part of the island is the unspoiled forest land known as Acadia National Park.Because the island sits on the boundary line between the temperate(温带)and sub-Arctic zones,the island supports the plants and ani- mals of both zones as well as beach , inland , and alpine(高山的)plants. _________( 49 ) The establish- ment of Acadia National Park in 1916 means that this natural reserve will be perpetually available to all people,not just the wealthy.Visitors to Acadia may receive nature instruction from the park naturalists as well as enjoy camping,cycling,and boating.Or they may choose to spend time at the archeological museum, learning about the Stone Age inhabitants of the island.The best view on Mt.Desert Island is from the top of Cadillac Mountain._________(50)From thesummit,you can gaze back toward the mainland or out over the Atlantic Ocean and contemplate the beauty created by a retreating glacier. _________(50)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Walking to Exercise the BrainDo you think sitting and studying all the time will improve your grades?Think again.Getting some exer-cise may help,too.New research with old people suggests that taking regular walks helps them pay attention better than if they didn't exercise.Previous research had shown that mice learn,remember,and pay attention better after a few weeks of working out on a running wheel.Mice that exercise have greater blood flow to the brain than those who don't. Their brain cells also make more connections.Neuroscientists(神经科学家)from the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign wanted to find out if the same thing is true for people.First,they measured the physical fitness of 41 adults,ages 58 to 77,after each person walked 1 mile.Then,participants looked at arrows on a computer screen and had to use computer keys to show which way one particular arrow was pointing.Adults who were physically fit were faster at the arrow task,and their answers were just as accurate as their less-fit peers,the researchers found.The fitter participants also had more blood flow to a part of theirbrain responsible for paying attention and making decisions.In a second study , 15 elderly people who completed a 6-month aerobic-training(有氧运动)course were faster at attention tasks compared with 14 seniors who just did stretching and toning exercises(韵律操)for the same amount of time.So,even going for a walk every 2 or 3 days for just 10 to 45 minutes can help.That should be good news for the elderly.The effects of exercising on the brains of younger people haven't been studied yet. Still,it can't hurt to take occasional breaks and go for a walk or run around with friends.Whatever you do,though,don't try to read and walk at the same time.You could end up hurting yourself! The first study on 41 elderly people found______________.
[多选题]共用题干 The Case of the Disappearing FingerprintsOne useful anti-cancer drug can effectively erase the whorls(箩状指纹)and other characteristic marks that give people their distinctive fingerprints(指纹).Losing them could become troublesome. A case______________ (51) online in a letter by Annals of Oncology(肿瘤学)indicates how big a ______________ (52) losing fingerprints is.Eng-Huat Tan,a Singapore-based medical doctor describes a 62-year-old man who has usedcapecitabine(卡培他滨)to______________ ( 53 ) his nasopharyngeal cancer(鼻咽癌).After three years on the_______________ (54),the patient decided to visit his U.S.relatives last December. But he was stopped by U. S. customs officials_______________(55)4 hours after entering the country when those officials couldn't get finger- prints from the man. There were no ___________( 56 ) swirly(旋涡状的)marks appearing from his index finger."U.S.customs has been fingerprinting incoming foreign visitors for years,"Tan says."Unfortunately,forthe Singaporean traveler,one potential ______________ (57)effect of his drug treatment is a smoothing of the tis-sue on the finger pads. ______________ (58)no fingerprints.""It is uncertain when fingerprint ______________ (59)will begin to take place in patients who are takingcapecitabine,"Tan points out.So he______________ (60)any physicians who prescribe the drug to provide theirpatients with a doctor's______________ (61)pointing out that their medicine may cause fingerprints to disap-pear.Eventually,the Singapore traveler made it into the United States.But he's also now got the doctor's ex-planatory note一and won't leave home______________ (62)it.By the way, maybe the Food and Drug Administration(美国食品药物管理局),________ (63) approved use of the drug 11 years ago,should consider updating its list of side effects_______________ (64)with this medicine. The current list does note that patients may experience vomiting(呕吐),stomach pain and some other side effects.But no where_______________ (65)it mention the potential for loss of fingerprints. _________(59)
[单选题]《第十三篇 Affectionate Androids》 Computers are now powerful enough to allow the age of humanoidrobots to dawn1. And it won’t be long befe we will see realistic cyber companions, completewith skin, dexterity, intelligence.They will be programmed to tend to yourevery need. Will we ever want to marry robots? Artificial intelligenceresearcher David Levy has published a book claiming human-robot relationshipswill become popular in the next few decades. ____1____ Will humans really be able to fm deep emotional attachments tomachines? It will, in fact, be relatively easy to fm these strong attachmentsbecause the human mind loves to anthropomphize: to give human attributes toother creatures—even objects. F example, researchers in San Diego recently put a small humanoidrobot in with a toddler playgroup f several months. ____2____The childrenended up treating it as a fellow toddler. When it lay down because itsbatteries were flat,the kids even covered it with a blanket. In a few decades, when humanoid robots with plastic skin look feel very real, will people want to fm relationships with them? What if thebots could hold a conversation? And be programmed to bethe perfect companions—soul mates,even? ____3____ And like those toddlers inthe experiment, they will be veryaccepting of them. The next question, then, is whether there is anything wrong withhaving an emotional relationship with a machine. Even today there are peoplewho fm deep attachments to their pets use them as substitutes f friends even children. Few consider that unethical. ____4____ F those who always seem to end upmarrying the wrong man woman, a robotic Mr. Ms. Right could be mighty tempting. As the father ofartificial intelligence, Marvin Minsky, put it when asked about the ethics oflonely older people fming close relationships with robots: “If a robot hadall the virtues of a person was smarter me understing, why wouldthe elderly bother talking to other grumpy old people?” A robot could be programmed to be as dumb smart, as independent subservient, as an owner desired. And that’s the bigdisadvantage. Having the perfect robot partner will damage the ability to fmequally deep human-human relationships. People will always seem imperfectincomparison. When you’re behaving badly, a good friend will tell you.____5____ People in relationships have to learn to adapt toeach other: toenjoy their common interests to deal with their differences.It makes usricher, stronger, wiser. A robot companion will be perfect at the start. However,there will be nothing to move the relationship to grow to greater heights.   词汇: affectionate adj. 深情的 dexterityn. 灵巧,敏捷 anthropomphize v. 赋于人性,人格化 grumpy adj. 脾气暴躁的 cyber adj. 计算机的 tendv. 照料 bot n. 机器人 subservient adj. 屈从的,奉承的   注释: 1.Computers are now powerful enough to allow the age of humanoidrobots to dawn:计算机技术已经足够成熟,能够支持人形机器人的诞生和普及,进入人形机器人的时代。   练习:
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Cell Phones : Hang Up or Keep Talking?Millions of people are using cell phones today.In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one.In many countries,cell phones are very popular with young people.They find that the phones are more than a means of communication一having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected.The explosions around the world in mobile phone use make some health professionals worried.Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones.In England,there has been a serious debate about this issue.Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas.They say that there is no proof that mobile phones are bad for your health.On the other hand,why do some medical studies show changes in the brain cells of some people who use mobile phones?Signs of change in the tissues of the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning (扫描)equipment. In one case , a traveling salesman had to retire at a young age because of serious memory Loss.He couldn't remember even simple tasks.He would often forget the name of his own son.This man usedto talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day,every day of his working week,for a couple of years.His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use,but his employer's doctor didn't agree.What is it that makes mobile phones potentially harmful?The answer is radiation.High-tech machines can detect very small amounts of radiation from mobile phones.Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation,but they say the amount is too small to worry about.As the discussion about their safety continues,it appears that it's best to use mobile phones less often. Use your regular phone if you want to talk for a long time.Use your mobile phone only when you really need it.Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient,especially in emergencies.In the future,mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health.So for now,it's wise not to use your mobile phone too often. On the safety issue of mobile phones,the manufacturing companies__________.
[多选题]共用题干 So Many"Earths"The Milky Way(银河)contains billions of Earth-sized planets that could support life.That's the finding of a new study.It draws on data that came from NASA's top planet-hunting telescope.A mechanical failure recently put that Kepler space telescope out of service.Kepler had played a big role in creating a census of planets orbiting some 170,000 stars.Its data have been helping astronomers predict how common planets are in our galaxy.The telescope focused on hunting planets that might have conditions similar to those on Earth.The authors of a study,published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,conclude that between 14 and 30 out of every 100 stars,with a mass and temperature similar to the Sun,may host a planet that could support life as we know it.Such a planet would have a diameter at least as large as Earth's,but no more than twice that big.The planet also would have to orbit in a star's habitable zone.That's where the surface temperature would allow any water to exist as a liquid.The new estimate of how many planets might fit these conditions comes from studying more than 42,000 stars and identifying suitable worlds orbiting them.The scientists used those numbers to extrapolate(推算) to the rest of the stars that the telescope could not see.The estimate is rough,the authors admit.If applied to the solar system,it would define as habitable a zone starting as close to the Sun as Venus and running to as far away as Mars.Neither planet is Earthlike (although either might have been in the distant past).Using tighter limits,the researchers estimate that between 4 and 8 out of every 100 sunlike stars could host an Earth-sized world.These are ones that would take 200 to 400 days to complete a yearly orbit.Four out of every 100 sunlike stars doesn't sound like a big number.It would mean,however,that the Milky Way could host more than a billion Earth-sized planets with a chance for life. The main task of the Kepler space telescope is to find out planets with similar conditions to Earth's.
[多选题]共用题干 Climate Change Poses Major Risks for Unprepared CitiesA new examination of urban policies has been carried out recently by Patricia Romero Lankao. She is a so- ciologist specializing in climate change and_____________(51) development. She warns that many of the world'5 fast-growing urban areas,especially in developing countries,will likely suffer from the_____________(52)of changing climate. Her work also concludes that most cities are failing to_____________(53)emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. These gases are known to affect the atmosphere."Climate change is a deeply local issue and poses profound_____________ (54) to the growing cities of the world,"says Romero Lankao. "But too few cities are developing effective strategies to protect their residents."Cities are_____________(55)sources of greenhouse gases.And urban populations are likely to be among those most severely affected by future climate change.Lankao's findings highlight ways in which city-resi- dents are particularly vulnerable,and suggest policy interventions that could offer immediate and longer-term ____________ (56).The locations and dense construction patterns of cities often place their populations at greater _____________(57)for natural disasters.Potential threats associated with climate include storm surges and pro- longed hot weather. Storm surges can flood coastal areas and prolonged hot weather can heat_____________(58) paved cities more than surrounding areas. The impacts of such natural events can be more_____________(59)in an urban environment. For example,a prolonged heat wave can increase existing levels of air pollution,causing widespread health problems.Poorer neighborhoods that may_____________(60)basic facilities such as drinking water or a dependable network of roads,are especially vulnerable to natural disasters.Many residents in poorer countries live in substandard housing_____________(61)access to reliable drinking water,roads and basic services.Local governments,therefore,should take measures to_____________(62)their residents."Unfortunately, they tend to move towards rhetoric_____________(63)meaningful responses,"Romero Lankao writes,"They don't impose construction standards that could reduce heating and air conditioning_____________(64).They don't em- phasize mass transit and reduce automobile use.In fact,many local governments are taking a hands-off ap- proach."_____________(65),she urges them to change their idle policies and to take strong steps to prevent the harmful effects of climate change on cities. _________(58)
[多选题]共用题干 Eastern Quakes can Trigger Big ShakesIn the first week of November 2011,people in central Oklahoma experienced more than two dozen earth- quakes.The largest,a magnitude(量)5.6 quake,shook thousands of fans in a college football stadium, caused cracks in a few buildings and scared many people who had never felt a quake before.Oklahoma is not an area of the country famous for its quakes.If you watch the news on TV,you will see reports about all sorts of natural disasters.But the most dangerous type of natural disaster,and also the most unpredictable,is the earthquake.Researchers at the US Geological Survey(USGS)estimate that several million earthquakes occur globally each year. That may sound scary,but people don't feel many of them because they happen in remote and unpopulated regions.Many quakes happen under the ocean,and others have a very small magnitude.Scientists know about small,remote quakes only because of very sensitive electronic devices called seis- mometers(地震仪).These devices detect and measure the size of ground vibrations(震颤)produced by earthquakes.Altogether,USGS researchers use seismometers to identify and locate about 20,000 earthquakes each year.Although earthquakes can happen anywhere in the world,really big quakes occur only in certain areas.The largest ones register a magnitude 8 or higher and happen,on average,only once each year. Such big ones typically occur along the edges of Earth ' s tectonic plates(构造板块).Tectonic plates are huge pieces of Earth ' s crust(外壳),sometimes many kilometers thick. Often, edges of these plates temporarily lock together. When plates push and scrape(擦)past each other earthquakes occur. On average,tectonic plates move very slowly一about the same speed as your fingernails grow.But sometimes earthquakes rumble(轰轰作响)through portions of the landscape far from a plate ' s edges.Although less expected,these"mid-plate"small earthquakes can do substantial damage.Some of the biggest known examples hit the eastern half of the United States two centuries ago.Today,scientists are still puzzling over why the quakes occurred and when similar ones might occur. Oklahoma is an area often experiencing natural disasters.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Download Knowledge Directly to Your BrainFor the first time,researchers have been able to hack into the process of learning in the biain,using induced brain patterns to create a learned behavior. It's not quite as advanced as an instant Kung-fu down- load,and it's not as sleek as cognitive inception,but it's still an important finding that could lead to new teaching and rehabilitation techniques.Future therapies could decode the brain activity patterns of an athlete or a musician,and use them as a benchmark for teaching another person a new activity,according to the researchers.Scientists from Boston University and ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories in Kyoto used functional magnetic resonance imaging,or fMRI,to study the learning process.They were examining the adult brain's aptitude for visual perceptual learning,or VPL,in which repetitive training improves a per- son's performance on a particular task.Whether adults can do this as well as young people has been an on- going debate in neuroscience.Led by BU neuroscientist Takeo Watanabe,researchers used a method called decoded fMRI neurofeed- back to stimulate the visual cortex.First they showed participants circles at different orientations.Then they used fMRI to watch the participants'brain activity.The researchers were then able to train the participants to recreate this visual cortex activity.The volunteers were again placed in MRI machines and asked to visualize shapes of certain colors.The participants were asked to"somehow regulate activity in the posterior part of the brain"to make a solid green disc as large as they could.They were told they would get a paid bonus proportional to the size of this disc, but they weren't told anything about what the disc meant.The researchers watched the participants'brain activity and monitored the activation patterns in their visual cortices."Participants can be trained to control the overall mean activation of an entire brain region,"the study authors write,"or the adtivation in one region relative to that in another region."This worked even when test subjects were not aware of what they were learning,the researchers said."The most surprising thing in this study is that mere inductions of neural activation patterns corresponding to a specific visual feature led to visual performance improvement on the visual feature,without presenting the fea- ture or subjects' awareness of what was to be learned,"Watanabe said in a statement.Watanabe and colleagues said this method can be a powerful tool."It can'incept' a person to acquire new learning, skills,or memory,or possibly to restore skills or knowledge that has been damaged through accident,disease,or aging,without a person's awareness of what is learned or memorized,"they write. What helps a person to do a particular task better in visual perceptual learning?
[多选题]共用题干 Young Adults Who Exercise Get Higher IQ ScoresYoung adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more likely to go on to university,reveals a major new study_________(51)out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(PNAS).The study__________(52)1._________(1.)2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born between 1950 and1976._________(1976.)The research group analyzed the ________(53)of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.The study shows a clear link _________(54)good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test.The strongest links are for ________(55)thinking and verbal comprehension.But it is only fitness thatplays a _________ (56)in the results for the IQ test,and not strength."Being fit means that you also havegood heart and lung __________(57)and that your brain gets plenty of oxygen."says Michael Nilsson,pro-fessor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital."This may be one of the reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness,but not with muscular_________(58).We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important."By analyzing data for twins,the researchers have been________(59)to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that___________(60)the link between fitness and a higher IQ."We have also shown that those youngsters who _______(61)their physical fitness between the ages of 1 5 and 1 8 increase their performance."says Maria Aberg,researcher at the Sahlgrenska Academy andphysician at Aby health centre."This being the case,physical education is a_______(62)that has an important place in schools,and is an absolute must________(63)we want to do well in math and other theoretical subjects."The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests during national service_______(64) the socioeconomic status of the men later in life.Those who were fit at I 8 were more__________(65)to go into higher education,and many secured more qualified jobs. _________(52)
[多选题]共用题干 Europa's Watery UnderworldEuropa,one of Jupiter's 63 known moons,looks bright and icy on the surface.But appearances can be deceiving:Miles within its cracked,frigid shell,Europa probably hides giant pools of liquid water. Where scientists find liquid water,they hope to find life as well.Since we can't go diving into Europa's depths just yet,scientists instead have to investigate the moon's surface for clues to what lies beneath.In a new study,scientists investigated one group of strange ice patterns on Europa and concluded that the formations mark the top of an underground pool that holds as much water as the U.S.Great Lakes.Pictures of Europa,which is slightly smaller than Earth's moon,clearly show a tangled,icy mishmash of lines and cracks known as"chaos terrains".These chaotic places cover more than half of Europa. For more than 10 years,scientists have wondered what causes the formations.The new study suggests that they arise from the mixing of vast underground stores of liquid water with icy material near the surface.For scientists who suspect that Europa also may be hiding life beneath its icy surface,the news about the new lake is exciting."It would be great if these lakes harbored life,"Britney Schmidt,a planetary scientist who worked onthe study,told Science News."But even if they didn't,they say that Europa is doing something interesting and active right now."Schmidt,a scientist at the University of Texas at Austin,and her colleagues wanted to know how chaos terrains form.Since they couldn't rocket to Europa to see for themselves,they searched for similar forma- tions here on Earth.They studied collapsed ice shelves in Antarctica and icy caps on volcanoes in Iceland. Those features on Earth formed when liquid water mixed with ice.The scientists now suspect something similar might be happening on Europa:that as water and ice of different temperatures mingle and shift,the surface fractures.This would explain the jumbled ice sculptures."Fracturing catastrophically disrupts the ice in the same way that it causes ice shelves to collapse on Earth,"Schmidt told Science News.She and her team found that the process could be causing chaos terrains to form quickly on Europa.The new study suggests that on this moon,elements such as oxygen from the surface blend with the deep bodies of water. That mixture may create an environment that supports life. The size of Europa is a bit larger than that of Earth's moon.
[多选题]共用题干 Climate Change Poses Major Risks for Unprepared CitiesA new examination of urban policies has been carried out recently by Patricia Romero Lankao. She is a so- ciologist specializing in climate change and_____________(51) development. She warns that many of the world'5 fast-growing urban areas,especially in developing countries,will likely suffer from the_____________(52)of changing climate. Her work also concludes that most cities are failing to_____________(53)emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. These gases are known to affect the atmosphere."Climate change is a deeply local issue and poses profound_____________ (54) to the growing cities of the world,"says Romero Lankao. "But too few cities are developing effective strategies to protect their residents."Cities are_____________(55)sources of greenhouse gases.And urban populations are likely to be among those most severely affected by future climate change.Lankao's findings highlight ways in which city-resi- dents are particularly vulnerable,and suggest policy interventions that could offer immediate and longer-term ____________ (56).The locations and dense construction patterns of cities often place their populations at greater _____________(57)for natural disasters.Potential threats associated with climate include storm surges and pro- longed hot weather. Storm surges can flood coastal areas and prolonged hot weather can heat_____________(58) paved cities more than surrounding areas. The impacts of such natural events can be more_____________(59)in an urban environment. For example,a prolonged heat wave can increase existing levels of air pollution,causing widespread health problems.Poorer neighborhoods that may_____________(60)basic facilities such as drinking water or a dependable network of roads,are especially vulnerable to natural disasters.Many residents in poorer countries live in substandard housing_____________(61)access to reliable drinking water,roads and basic services.Local governments,therefore,should take measures to_____________(62)their residents."Unfortunately, they tend to move towards rhetoric_____________(63)meaningful responses,"Romero Lankao writes,"They don't impose construction standards that could reduce heating and air conditioning_____________(64).They don't em- phasize mass transit and reduce automobile use.In fact,many local governments are taking a hands-off ap- proach."_____________(65),she urges them to change their idle policies and to take strong steps to prevent the harmful effects of climate change on cities. _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 Underground Coal FiresCoal burning deep underground in China,India and Indonesia is threatening the environment and human life , scientists have warned.These large-scale______(51)blazes(火焰)cause the ground temperature to heat up and kill surrounding vegetation,produce greenhouse gases and can______(52) ignite(点燃)forest fires , a group of scientists told the annual meeting of the American Association for theAdvancement of Science in Denver.The resulting______(53)of poisonous elements like mercury can also pollute local water sources and soils,they warned."Coal fires are a global disaster,"said Associate Professor Glenn Stracher of East Georgia College inSwainsboro,USA.But______(54)few people know about them.Coal can heat up on its own,and eventually catch fire and bum,if there is a continuous oxygen supply.The heat produced is not caused to______(55)and under the right combinations of sunlight and oxygen,can trigger spontaneous(自发的)catching fire and buming.This can occur underground , in coal stockpiles, abandoned mines or even as coal is transported.______(56)fires in China consume up to 200 million tons of coal per year,delegates were told.In______(57),the U.S.economy consumes about one billion tons of coal annually,said Stracher,______(58)analysis of the likely impact of coal fires has been accepted for publication in the International Journal of Coal Ecology.______(59)underway,coal fires can bum for decades,even centuries.In the process,they release large______(60)of greenhouse gases,poisonous fumes and black particles into the atmosphere.The members of the panel discussed the______(61)these fires may be having on global and regional climate change,and agreed that the underground nature of the fires makes them difficult to______(62).Ultimately,the remote sensing and other techniques should allow scientists to______(63)how much carbon dioxide these fires are emitting(释放).One suggested______(64)of containing the fires was presented by Gary Colaizzi,of the engineering firm Goodson,which has developed a heat-resistant grout(灌浆),which is designed to be pumped into the coal fire to______(65)the oxygen supply. _________60
[多选题]共用题干 The Mysteries of NazcaIn the desert of Peru,300 kilometers from Lima,one of the most unusual artworks in the world has mystified(迷惑)people for decades._________ (46 ) But from high above,these marks are huge images of birds,fish,seashells,all beautifully carved into the earth.The Nazca lines are so difficult to see from the ground that they weren't discovered until the 1930s, when pilots spotted them while flying over the area. In all,there are about 70 different human and animal figures on the plain,along with 900 triangles,circles,and lines.Researchers have figured out that the lines are at least 1,500 years old,but their purpose is still a mystery.__________(47)However,it would probably be very tricky to land a spaceship in the middle ofpictures of dogs and monkeys.In the 1940s,an American explorer named Paul Kosok suggested that the drawings are a chronicle(记 录)of the movement of the stars and planets._________(48)Later,an astronomer tested his theory with a computer,but he couldn' t find any relation between the lines and movements in space.Another explanation is that the lines may have been made for religious reasons.British researcher Tony Morrison investigated the customs of people in the Andes Mountain and learned that they sometimes pray by the side of the road.It's possible that in the past,the lines of Nazca were created for a similar purpose. _________(49)But the local people have never constructed anything this big.Recently,two other scientists,David Johnson and Steve Mabee,have speculated that lines could have been related to water. Nazca is one of the driest places in the world and receives only 2cm of rain every year. While Johnson was searching for ancient water sources in the area,he noticed that some waterways built by ancient people were connected with the lines.Johnson believes that the Nazca lines are a giant map of the underground water in the area._________(50) _________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 Young Adults Who Exercise Get Higher IQ ScoresYoung adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more likely to go on to university,reveals a major new study_________(51)out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(PNAS).The study__________(52)1._________(1.)2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born between 1950 and1976._________(1976.)The research group analyzed the ________(53)of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.The study shows a clear link _________(54)good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test.The strongest links are for ________(55)thinking and verbal comprehension.But it is only fitness thatplays a _________ (56)in the results for the IQ test,and not strength."Being fit means that you also havegood heart and lung __________(57)and that your brain gets plenty of oxygen."says Michael Nilsson,pro-fessor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital."This may be one of the reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness,but not with muscular_________(58).We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important."By analyzing data for twins,the researchers have been________(59)to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that___________(60)the link between fitness and a higher IQ."We have also shown that those youngsters who _______(61)their physical fitness between the ages of 1 5 and 1 8 increase their performance."says Maria Aberg,researcher at the Sahlgrenska Academy andphysician at Aby health centre."This being the case,physical education is a_______(62)that has an important place in schools,and is an absolute must________(63)we want to do well in math and other theoretical subjects."The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests during national service_______(64) the socioeconomic status of the men later in life.Those who were fit at I 8 were more__________(65)to go into higher education,and many secured more qualified jobs. _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 Young Adults Who Exercise Get Higher IQ ScoresYoung adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more likely to go on to university,reveals a major new study_________(51)out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(PNAS).The study__________(52)1._________(1.)2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born between 1950 and1976._________(1976.)The research group analyzed the ________(53)of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.The study shows a clear link _________(54)good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test.The strongest links are for ________(55)thinking and verbal comprehension.But it is only fitness thatplays a _________ (56)in the results for the IQ test,and not strength."Being fit means that you also havegood heart and lung __________(57)and that your brain gets plenty of oxygen."says Michael Nilsson,pro-fessor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital."This may be one of the reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness,but not with muscular_________(58).We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important."By analyzing data for twins,the researchers have been________(59)to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that___________(60)the link between fitness and a higher IQ."We have also shown that those youngsters who _______(61)their physical fitness between the ages of 1 5 and 1 8 increase their performance."says Maria Aberg,researcher at the Sahlgrenska Academy andphysician at Aby health centre."This being the case,physical education is a_______(62)that has an important place in schools,and is an absolute must________(63)we want to do well in math and other theoretical subjects."The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests during national service_______(64) the socioeconomic status of the men later in life.Those who were fit at I 8 were more__________(65)to go into higher education,and many secured more qualified jobs. _________(62)
[多选题]共用题干 The Case of the Disappearing FingerprintsOne useful anti-cancer drug can effectively erase the whorls(箩状指纹)and other characteristic marks that give people their distinctive fingerprints(指纹).Losing them could become troublesome. A case______________ (51) online in a letter by Annals of Oncology(肿瘤学)indicates how big a ______________ (52) losing fingerprints is.Eng-Huat Tan,a Singapore-based medical doctor describes a 62-year-old man who has usedcapecitabine(卡培他滨)to______________ ( 53 ) his nasopharyngeal cancer(鼻咽癌).After three years on the_______________ (54),the patient decided to visit his U.S.relatives last December. But he was stopped by U. S. customs officials_______________(55)4 hours after entering the country when those officials couldn't get finger- prints from the man. There were no ___________( 56 ) swirly(旋涡状的)marks appearing from his index finger."U.S.customs has been fingerprinting incoming foreign visitors for years,"Tan says."Unfortunately,forthe Singaporean traveler,one potential ______________ (57)effect of his drug treatment is a smoothing of the tis-sue on the finger pads. ______________ (58)no fingerprints.""It is uncertain when fingerprint ______________ (59)will begin to take place in patients who are takingcapecitabine,"Tan points out.So he______________ (60)any physicians who prescribe the drug to provide theirpatients with a doctor's______________ (61)pointing out that their medicine may cause fingerprints to disap-pear.Eventually,the Singapore traveler made it into the United States.But he's also now got the doctor's ex-planatory note一and won't leave home______________ (62)it.By the way, maybe the Food and Drug Administration(美国食品药物管理局),________ (63) approved use of the drug 11 years ago,should consider updating its list of side effects_______________ (64)with this medicine. The current list does note that patients may experience vomiting(呕吐),stomach pain and some other side effects.But no where_______________ (65)it mention the potential for loss of fingerprints. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Eye-tracker Lets You Drag and Drop Files with a GlanceBored of using a mouse?Soon you'11 be able to change stuff on your computer screen-and then move it directly onto your smartphone or tablet(平板电脑)-with nothing more than a glance.A system called EyeDrop uses a head-mounted eye tracker that simultaneously records your field of view so it knows where you are looking on the screen.Gazing at an object-a photo,say-and then pressing a key,selects that object.It can then be moved from the screen to a tablet or smartphone just by glancing at the second device,as long as the two are connected wirelessly."The beauty of using gaze to support this is that our eyes naturally focus on content that we want toacquire,"says Jayson Turner,who developed the system with colleagues at Lancaster University,UK.Turner believes EyeDrop would be useful to transfer an interactive map or contact information from a public display to your smartphone or tablet for sharing photos.A button needs to be used to select the object you are looking at otherwise you end up with the"Midas touch"(点石成金)effect, whereby everything you look at gets selected by your gaze, says Turner."Imagine if your mouse clicked on everything it pointed at,"he says.Christian Holz,a researcher in human-computer interaction at Yahoo Labs in Sunnyvale,California, says the system is a nice take on getting round this fundamental problem of using gaze-tracking to interact."EyeDrop solves this in a slick(灵巧的)way by combining it with input on the touch devices we carry with us most of the time anyway and using touch input as a clutching mechanism,"he says."This now allows users to seamlessly(无缝地)interact across devices far and close in a very natural manner."While current eye-trackers are rather bulky,mainstream consumer devices are not too far away.Swedish firm Tobii is developing gaze-tracking technology that can be installed in laptops and tablets and is expected to be available to buy next year.And the Google Glass headset is expected to include eye-tracking in the future.Turner says he has also looked at how content can be cut and pasted or drag-and-dropped using a mix of gaze and taps on a touchscreen.The system was presented at the Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia in Sweden,last week. Which of the following statements is true of eye-trackers for consumer use?
[多选题]共用题干 Climate Change Poses Major Risks for Unprepared CitiesA new examination of urban policies has been carried out recently by Patricia Romero Lankao. She is a so- ciologist specializing in climate change and_____________(51) development. She warns that many of the world'5 fast-growing urban areas,especially in developing countries,will likely suffer from the_____________(52)of changing climate. Her work also concludes that most cities are failing to_____________(53)emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. These gases are known to affect the atmosphere."Climate change is a deeply local issue and poses profound_____________ (54) to the growing cities of the world,"says Romero Lankao. "But too few cities are developing effective strategies to protect their residents."Cities are_____________(55)sources of greenhouse gases.And urban populations are likely to be among those most severely affected by future climate change.Lankao's findings highlight ways in which city-resi- dents are particularly vulnerable,and suggest policy interventions that could offer immediate and longer-term ____________ (56).The locations and dense construction patterns of cities often place their populations at greater _____________(57)for natural disasters.Potential threats associated with climate include storm surges and pro- longed hot weather. Storm surges can flood coastal areas and prolonged hot weather can heat_____________(58) paved cities more than surrounding areas. The impacts of such natural events can be more_____________(59)in an urban environment. For example,a prolonged heat wave can increase existing levels of air pollution,causing widespread health problems.Poorer neighborhoods that may_____________(60)basic facilities such as drinking water or a dependable network of roads,are especially vulnerable to natural disasters.Many residents in poorer countries live in substandard housing_____________(61)access to reliable drinking water,roads and basic services.Local governments,therefore,should take measures to_____________(62)their residents."Unfortunately, they tend to move towards rhetoric_____________(63)meaningful responses,"Romero Lankao writes,"They don't impose construction standards that could reduce heating and air conditioning_____________(64).They don't em- phasize mass transit and reduce automobile use.In fact,many local governments are taking a hands-off ap- proach."_____________(65),she urges them to change their idle policies and to take strong steps to prevent the harmful effects of climate change on cities. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Archive Gallery : The Best of Bionics(仿生学)Humans might be the most highly-evolved species on the planet,but most animals possess skills we can only dream of having. Imagine how much electricity we could save if we could see in the dark the way catsdo. Imagine leaping from tree to tree like a monkey. Giraffes(长颈鹿),which are otherwise calm and good- natured,sleep only 4.6 hours a day.We realized a long , long time ago that nature provides the best blueprint(蓝图)for invention. We ' ve borrowed canals from beavers(河狸)and reflectors from cat's eyes. Although the words"bionics"became popular only after the l960s,history shows that nature has always provided ideas on solving everyday prob- lems. Our archives(档案)don't go back to the time of Leonardo da Vinci and his bird-like flying machines,but we can take you to the late 19th century,where we applied those same principles for building our first practical airplanes.To prepare for their flight at Kitty Hawk,the Wright brothers studied the movements of pigeons to fingureout how they stayed high up when they were heavier than air. Their success inspired scores of successors to improve on the airplane by studying various aspects of nature.One of Orville Wright's pupils caught and stuffed seagulls to examine their wingspan.Meanwhile,two French inventors examined spinning sycamore(美 国梧桐)seeds in an effort to apply those same motions , reversed , to a helicopter.Some examples are more obvious than others.The outside of the airplane designed by the WrightDrotliers looks like a minimalistic(简单抽象艺术)structure. On the other hand , Barney Connett ' s fish iubmarine(潜水艇)actually looks like a fish.Some bio-inspired concepts have yet to be invented.In the l960s,the US Army commissioned several iniversity professors to conduct research on the motor skills of animals in hope of applying those same abili- ies to tanks. Tanks that run like horses or jump like grasshoppers(蚂炸)一sounds shocking,doesn't it? 3ut imagine how life would change if we could achieve that. Which of the following can be found in the archive gallery?
[多选题]共用题干 SemcoAt 21,Ricardo Semler became boss of his father's business in Brazil,Semco,which sold parts for ships. Semler Junior worked like a madman,from 7:30 a. m.until midnight every day.One afternoon,while touring a factory in New York,he collapsed.The doctor who treated him said,"There's nothing wrong with you.But if you continue like this,you'll find a new home in our hospital." Semler got the message.He changed the way he worked.In fact,he changed the way his employees worked too.He let his workers take more responsibility so that they would be the ones worrying when things went wrong. He allowed them to set their own salaries,and he cut all the jobs he thought were unnecessary,like re-- ceptionists and secretaries._______________ (46)"Everyone at Semco,even top managers,meets guests in recep- tion,does the photocopying,sends faxes,types letters and dials the phone."He completely reorganized the office:instead of walls,they have plants at Semco,so bosses can't shut themselves away from everyone else._______________ (47)As for uniforms,some people wear suits and others wear T-shirts.Semler says,"We have a sales manager named Rubin Agater who sits there reading the newspaper hour after hour. He doesn't even pretend to be busy.But when a Semco pump on the other side of the world fails and millions of gallons of oil are about to spill into the sea,Rubin springs into action.______________(48) That's when he earns his salary. No one cares if he doesn't look busy the rest of the time."Semco has flexible working hours;the employees decide when they need to arrive at work.The employees also evaluate their bosses twice a year.______________ (49)It sounds perfect,but does it work?The answer is in the numbers:in the last six years,Semco's revenues have gone from$35 million to $212 million.The company has grown from eight hundred employees to 3,000.Why?Semler says it's because of"peer pressure".Peer pressure makes employees work hard for everyone else._______________ (50)In other words,Ricardo Semler treats his workers like adults and expects them to act like adults.And they do. __________(50)
[单选题]Warmer climate will bake tropical bugs   Global warming could cook tropical insects, with unpredictable knock-on effects, say researchers who warn that rising temperatures also_____(51)tropical frogs and lizards(蜥蜴).   Temperatures are_____(52)to increase much faster in temperate(温和的)and polar(极地的)regions than in the tropics. But no-one had looked at how warming would affect insects and other cold-blooded animals_____(53)had evolved in tropical regions with little temperature variation.   Curtis Deutsch at the University of California at Los Angeles and colleagues analysed data_____(54)insect survival and reproduction for 38 species in different ecosystems(生态系统), and then estimated how these values would_____(55)with predictions of climate change for the 21st century.   The team found that the reproductive_____(56)of tropical insects tends to peak very close to the temperatures where they normally live, but_____(57)sharply at higher temperatures. This means that cranking up(提高)the heat only a small amount can exert a heavy toll, leaving insects unable to reproduce_____(58)enough to keep up their numbers.   Temperate insects reproduce well over a broader range, and do not live as_____(59)to their thermal(热的)limit, so they can reproduce successfully when their climate warms more than in the tropics.   "Tropical insects do very well in a narrow band of temperatures, but move them above that_____(60)and they die," says team member Josh Tewksbury of the University of Washington in Seattle.   The heart of the_____(61)is temperature tolerance. Temperate-zone insects have evolved to survive the much broader temperature swings of seasonal climates, than have their tropical relatives.   The_____(62)appears worse for animals that live in hot stable climate of the lower levels of tropical forests. Lizards in clear areas can find shade to cool down, but those living in the forest are already in the_____(63), and there's not much they can do to get cooler, Deutsch says.   Too few tropical insects have been studied so far to_____(64)if any particular group will be particularly hard-hit, says Tewksbury. Insects play important_____(65)in forest ecology(生态学).   The team are now starting to evaluate how temperature affects ecological interactions of insects with other species, including crops such as African corn. 文章(51~65) _____   
[多选题]共用题干 Voice Your Opinion一Change is Needed in Youth SportsEverywhere you look,you see kids bouncing。basketball or waving a tennis racquet(网球拍).Andthese kids are getting younger and younger. In some countries,children can compete on basketball,base- ball,and volleyball teams starting at age nine._____________ (46)And swimming and gynmastics classes begin at age four, to prepare children for competition.It's true that a few of these kids will develop into highly skilled athletes and may even become members of the national Olympic teams._____________ (47)This emphasis on competition in sports is having serious negative effects.Children who get involved in competitive sports at a young age often grow tired of their sport. Many parents pressure their kids to choose one sport and devote all their time to it._____________ (48)But 66 per- cent of the young athletes wanted to play more than one sport一for fun.Another problem is the pressure imposed by over-competitive parents and coaches. Children are not naturally competitive. In fact,a recent study by Paulo David found that most children don' t even understand the idea of competition until they are seven years old._____________ (49)The third,and biggest,problem for young athletes is the lack of time to do their homework,have fun, be with friends一in short,time to be kids. When they are forced to spend every afternoon at sports practice, they often start to hate their chosen sport. A research found that 70 percent of kids who take part in competi- tive spoils before the age of twelve quit before they turn eighteen._____________(50) Excessive competitive sports take away all the enjoyment.Need to remember the purpose of youth sportsweto give kids a chance to have developing, strong, healthy bodies. __________(46)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Approaches to Understanding IntelligencesIt pays to be smart,but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician,but you might not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on all tests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelligent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believes that all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about.the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathematical,spatial, musical , interpersonal,intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic. What is the main idea of this passage?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Approaches to Understanding IntelligencesIt pays to be smart,but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician,but you might not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on all tests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelligent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believes that all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about.the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathematical,spatial, musical , interpersonal,intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic. Gardner thinks that his theory has a______.
[多选题]共用题干 Mt. Desert IslandThe coast of the State of Maine is one of the most irregular in the world.A straight line running from the southernmost coastal city to the northernmost coastal city would measure about 225 miles.If you followed the coastline between these points,you would travel more than ten times as far. This irregularity is the result of what is called a drowned coastline._________(46)At that time,the whole area that is now Maine was part of a mountain range that towered above the sea. As the glacier(冰川)descended , however , it expended enormous force on those mountains,and they sank into the sea.As the mountains sank,ocean water charged over the lowest parts of the remaining land,forming a series of twisting inlets and lagoons(咸水湖).The highest parts of the former mountain range , nearest the shore, remained as islands.________(47)Maine fossils found here were 225 feet above sea level,indicating the level of the shoreline prior to the glacier.The 2,500-mile-long rocky coastline of Maine keeps watch over nearly two thousand islands. Many of these islands are tiny and uninhabited,but many are home to thriving communities.Mt. Desert Island is one of the largest,most beautiful of the Maine coast islands.Measuring 16 miles by 12 miles,Mt. Desert was es- sentially formed as two distinct islands._______(48)For years,Mt. Desert Island,particularly its major settlement,Bar Harbor,afforded summer homes for the wealthy.Recently though,Bar Harbor has become a rapidly growing arts community as well.But,the best part of the island is the unspoiled forest land known as Acadia National Park.Because the island sits on the boundary line between the temperate(温带)and sub-Arctic zones,the island supports the plants and ani- mals of both zones as well as beach , inland , and alpine(高山的)plants. _________( 49 ) The establish- ment of Acadia National Park in 1916 means that this natural reserve will be perpetually available to all people,not just the wealthy.Visitors to Acadia may receive nature instruction from the park naturalists as well as enjoy camping,cycling,and boating.Or they may choose to spend time at the archeological museum, learning about the Stone Age inhabitants of the island.The best view on Mt.Desert Island is from the top of Cadillac Mountain._________(50)From thesummit,you can gaze back toward the mainland or out over the Atlantic Ocean and contemplate the beauty created by a retreating glacier. _________(46)
[多选题]共用题干 Learn About Noble Gases(惰性气体)1 Have you ever ridden on a balloon?Many tourist spots offer balloon rides in order for people to see the beauty of a place from above.A balloon contains a noble gas called helium(氦).Formerly,balloons con- tamned hydrogen but hydrogen is very flammable and dangerous when uncontrolled.Therefore,people shifted to helium,which is safer. Helium is safe because it has the properties of the noble gases.2 People once believed that noble gases couldn't chemically react at all.For this reason,they were called inert gases(惰性气体).They were also listed under Group 0 in the old periodic table because scien- tists believed that the gases have zero valence(价)electrons in their outer shell.This was later proven to be untrue when some noble gas compounds were discovered.3 The gases are elements,which share similar properties.These properties include being monoatomic, colorless,odorless,being able to conduct electricity,and having low chemical reactivity.Noble gases include helium,neon,argon,krypton,xenon and radon.These are all found in Group 18,in the right most column of the periodic table.If you look at the periodic table,you will notice that these elements are the only ones which do not have a charge. Helium has the lowest molecular(分子的)weight while radon is the heaviest.4 Remember that chemical reactions occur because atoms have valence electrons,which are electrons in their outer shell.When the outer shell is"unfilled"or the required number of electrons is not yet corn- plete,the atom is more reactive.Noble gases have a full outer shell,meaning that they have complete elec- trons in their outer shell.This complete number varies.For instance,the outer shell of helium has 2 valence electrons while the outer shell of xenon has 8 electrons.Nowadays,there remains to be a few noble gases because of the low chemical reactivity of these said gases.5 because of their properties,noble gases have many important applications.They are widely used in medicine and industries. For instance , liquid helium is used for superconducting magnets(磁体).These magnets are very important in physics and medicine.When a doctor suspects that a person's brain has been damaged,he might request for Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI).MRI allows the doctor to"see"the brain,without operating on the patient. Paragraph 3____________
[多选题]共用题干 Eastern Quakes can Trigger Big ShakesIn the first week of November 2011,people in central Oklahoma experienced more than two dozen earth- quakes.The largest,a magnitude(量)5.6 quake,shook thousands of fans in a college football stadium, caused cracks in a few buildings and scared many people who had never felt a quake before.Oklahoma is not an area of the country famous for its quakes.If you watch the news on TV,you will see reports about all sorts of natural disasters.But the most dangerous type of natural disaster,and also the most unpredictable,is the earthquake.Researchers at the US Geological Survey(USGS)estimate that several million earthquakes occur globally each year. That may sound scary,but people don't feel many of them because they happen in remote and unpopulated regions.Many quakes happen under the ocean,and others have a very small magnitude.Scientists know about small,remote quakes only because of very sensitive electronic devices called seis- mometers(地震仪).These devices detect and measure the size of ground vibrations(震颤)produced by earthquakes.Altogether,USGS researchers use seismometers to identify and locate about 20,000 earthquakes each year.Although earthquakes can happen anywhere in the world,really big quakes occur only in certain areas.The largest ones register a magnitude 8 or higher and happen,on average,only once each year. Such big ones typically occur along the edges of Earth ' s tectonic plates(构造板块).Tectonic plates are huge pieces of Earth ' s crust(外壳),sometimes many kilometers thick. Often, edges of these plates temporarily lock together. When plates push and scrape(擦)past each other earthquakes occur. On average,tectonic plates move very slowly一about the same speed as your fingernails grow.But sometimes earthquakes rumble(轰轰作响)through portions of the landscape far from a plate ' s edges.Although less expected,these"mid-plate"small earthquakes can do substantial damage.Some of the biggest known examples hit the eastern half of the United States two centuries ago.Today,scientists are still puzzling over why the quakes occurred and when similar ones might occur. Few earthquakes happen without people'S awareness.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Some People do Not Taste Salt Like OthersLow-salt foods may be harder for some people to like than others,according to a study by a Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences food scientist.The research indicates that genetic factors influence some of the difference in the levels of salt we like to eat.Those conclusions are important because recent,well-publicized efforts to reduce the salt content in food have left many people struggling to accept fare that simply does not taste as good to them as it does to others, pointed out John Hayes,assistant professor of food science who was lead investigator on the study.Diets high in salt can increase the risk of high blood pressure and stroke.That is why public health ex- perts and food companies are working together on ways to help consumers lower salt intake through foods that are enjoyable to eat.This study increases undersfanding of salt preference and consumption.The research involved 87 carefully screened participants who sampled salty foods such as soup andchips,on multiple occasions,spread out over weeks.Test subjects were 45 men and 42 women,reportedly healthy,ranging in age from 20 to 40 years.The sample was composed of individuals who were not actively modifying their dietary intake and did not smoke cigarettes.They rated the intensity of taste on a commonly used scientific scale,ranging from barely detectable to strongest sensation of any kind."Most of us like the taste of salt.However,some individuals eat more salt,both because they like the taste of saltiness more,and also because it is needed to block other unpleasant tastes in food,"said Hayes. "Supertasters,people who experience tastes more intensely,consume more salt than nontasters do.Snack foods have saltiness as their primary flavor,and at least for these foods,more is better,so the supertasters seem to like them more."However,supertasters also need higher levels of salt to block unpleasant bitter tastes in food such as cheese,Hayes noted."For example,cheese is a wonderful blend of dairy flavors from fermented milk,but al- so bitter tastes from ripening that are blocked by salt,"he said."A supertaster finds low-salt cheese unpleasant because the bitterness is too pronounced."Hayes cited research done more than 75 years ago by a chemist named Fox and a geneticist named Blakeslee,showing that individuals differ in their ability to taste certain chemicals.As a result,Hayes ex- plained,we know that a wide range in taste acuity exists,and this variation is as normal as variations in eye and hair color."Some people,called supertasters,'describe bitter compounds as being extremely bitter,while others, called nontasters,find these same bitter compounds to be tasteless or only weakly bitter,"he said."Response to bitter compounds is one of many ways to identify biological differences in food preference because super- tasting is not limited to bitterness." It can be inferred from the last paragraph that taste acuity is_______.