综合类

考试试题

[单选题]What Is a Dream?【什么是梦】 阅读判断改编为补全短文   For centuries, people have wondered about the strange things that they dream about. Some psychologists say that this nighttime activity of the mind has no special meaning. Others, however, think that dreams are an important part of our lives. In fact, many experts believe that dreams can tell us about a person's mind and emotions.   Before modern times, many people thought that dreams contained messages from God.(46)___   The Austrian psychologist, Sigmund Freud', was probably the first person to study dreams scientifically. In his famous book, The interpretation of Dreams (1900) ,Freud wrote that dreams are an expressions of a person's wishes. He believed that dreams allow people to express the feelings, thoughts, and fears that they are afraid to express in real life.   The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung2 was once a student of Freud's. Jung, however, had a different idea about dreams. Jung believed that the purpose of a dream was to communicate a message to the dreamer. (47)___ For example, people who dream about falling may learn that they have too high an opinion of themselves. On the other hand, people who dream about being heroes may learn that they think too little of themselves.   Modern-day psychologists continue to develop theories about dreams. For example, psychologist William Domhoff from the University of California, Santa Cruz, believes that dreams are tightly linked to a person's daily life, thoughts, and behavior. (48)___   Domhoff believes that there is a connection between dreams and age. His research shows that children do not dream as much as adults. According to Domhoff, dreaming is a mental skill that needs time to develop.   He has also found a link between dreams and gender. His studies show that the dreams of men and women are different. (49)___This is not true of women's dreams.-3 Domhoff found this gender difference in the dreams of people from 11 cultures around the world, including both modern and traditional ones.   Can dreams help us understand ourselves Psychologists continue to try to answer this question in different ways. (50)___The dream' may have meaning, but it does not mean that some terrible event will actually take place. It's important to remember that the world of dreams is not the real world. 文章(46~50)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Three Ways to Become More CreativeMost people believe they don't have much imagination.They are wrong. Everyone has imagination,but most of us,once we become adults,forget how to access it.Creativity isn't always connected with great works of art or ideas.People at work and in their free time routinely think of creative ways to solve problems.Maybe you have a goal to achieve,a tricky question to answer or you just want to expand your mind!Here are three techniques to help you.This technique involves taking unrelated ideas and trying to find links between them. First,think about the problem you have to solve or the job you need to do.Then find an image,word,idea or object,for exam- ple,a candle.Write down all the ideas/words associated with candles:light,fire,matches,wax,night,silence, etc.Think of as many as you can.The next stage is to relate the ideas to the job you have to do.So imagine you want to buy a friend an original present,you could buy him tickets to a match or take him out for the night.Imagine that normal limitations don't exist.You have as much time/space/money,etc.as you want. Think about your goal and the new possibilities.If,for example,your goal is to learn to ski,you can now prac- tice skiing every day of your life(because you have the time and the money).Now adapt this to reality.May- be you can practice skiing every day in December,or every Monday in January.Look at the situation from a different point of view. Good negotiators(谈判者)use this technique in business,and so do wnters.Fiction writers often imagine they are the characters in their books.They askquestions:What does this character want?Why can't she get it?What changes must she make to get what she wants?What does she dream about?If your goal involves other people,put yourself" in their shoes".The best fishermen think like fish!
[多选题]共用题干 The Storyteller1.Steven Spielberg has always had one goal;to tell as many interesting stories to as many people as possible.The son of a computer scientist and a pianist , Spielberg spent his early childhood in New Jersey and then Arizona.Some of his childhood memories became the inspiration for his filmmaking.2.Even decades later , Spielberg says he has vivid memories of his earliest years , which are the origins of some of his most successful films.He believes that E.T.is the result of the difficult years leading up to his parent ' s 1966 divorce.He commented , "It is really about a young boy who was in search of some stability in his life."Close Encounters of the Third Kind was inspired by times when the four-year-old Steven and his father would search the skies for meteors (流星).His mother remembers , " He was scared of just about everything.When trees brushed against the house , he would jump into my bed.And that ' s just the kind of scary stuff he would put in films like Pottorgeist.3.Spielberg was 11 when he first got his hands on his dad's movie camera and began shooting short flicks(电影) about flying saucers(飞碟) and World War II battles.These homemade movies gave him a way to escape his fears.From the very beginning , he had a creative imagination.With his talent for scary storytelling , he could terrify his three younger sisters.It also made it easier for him to make friendships.On Boy Scout camping trips , when night fell , young Steven became the center of attention." Steven would start telling his ghost stories , says Richard Y.Hoffman.Jr.,leader of Troop 294 , " and everyone would suddenly get quiet so that they could all hear.4 Spielberg moved to California with his father and went to high school there , but his grades were so bad that he barely graduated.Both UCLA and USC film schools rejected him,so he entered California State University at Long Beach because it was close to Hollywood.Spielberg was determined to make movies,and he managed to get an unpaid,non-credit internship(实习) in Hollywood.Soon he was given a contract and he dropped out of college.He never looked back.5.Now , many years later , Spielberg is still telling stories with as much passion as when he was a boy.Ask him where he gets his ideas , and Spielberg will shrug." The process for me is mostly intuitive , he says."There are films that I feel that I need to make.And it ' s for a variety of reasons , for personal reasons , or because I just want to have fun.Or maybe because the subject matter is cool , and I think that my kids will like it. When Spielberg was a boy , he used to be scared of______.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Why So Many ChildrenIn many of the developing countries in Africa and Asia,the population is growing fast.The reason for this is simple.Women in these countries have a high birth rate一from 3.0 to 7.0 children per woman.The majority of these women are poor,without the food or resources to care for their families.Why do they have so many children?Why don't they limit the size of their families?There are several reasons for this.One reason is economic.In a traditional agricultural economy,large families are helpful.Having more children means having more workers in the fields and someone to take care of the parents in old age.In an industrial economy,the situation is different.Many children do not help a family;instead,they are an ex- pense.Thus,industrialization has generally brought down the birth rate.This was the case in Italy,which was industrialized quite recently and rapidly.In the early part of the twentieth century,Italy was a poor,largely agricultural country with a high birth rate.After World War II,Italy's economy was rapidly modernized and industrialized. By the end of the century,the birth rate had dropped to 1.3 children per woman,the world's lowest.However,the economy is not the only important factor that influences birth rate.Saudi Arabia,for exam- pie,does not have an agriculture-based economy,and it has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.Nevertheless,it also has a very high birth rate(7.0).Mexico and Indonesia,on the other hand,are poor countries,with largely agricultural economies,but they have recently reduced their population growth.Clearly,other factors are involved.The most important of these is the condition of women.A high birth rate almost always goes together with lack of education and low status for women.This would explain the high birth rate of Saudi Arabia.There,the traditional culture gives women little education or independence and few possibilities outside the home.On the other hand,the improved condition of women in Mexico,Thailand,and indonesia explains the decline in birth rates in these countries.Their governments have taken measures to provide more education and opportunities for women.Another key factor in the birth rate is birth control.Women may want to limit their families but have no way to do so.In countries where governments have made birth control easily available and inexpensive,birth rates have gone down.This is the case in Singapore,Sri Lanka,and India,as well as in Indonesia,Thailand, Mexico,and Brazil.In these countries,women have also been provided with health care and help in planning their families.These trends show that an effective program to reduce population growth does not have to de- pend on better economic conditions. Saudi Arabia is mentioned because it shows that_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The Worker' s Role in ManagementTraditionally , it has been the workers 'role to work and management's role to manage.Managers have planned and directed the firm' s operations with little thought of consulting the labor force.Managers have rarely felt compelled (被迫的) to obtain the workers ' opinions or to explain their decisions to their employees.At most , companies have provided " suggestion boxes " in which workers could place ideas for improving procedures.In recent years , however , many management specialists have been arguing that workers are more than sellers of labor-they have a vital stake in the company and may be able to make significant contributions to its management.Furthermore , major company decisions profoundly affect workers and their dependents.This is particularly true of plant closings , which may put thousands on the unemployment lines.Should workers , then , play a stronger role in management?Workers should have a role in management.At the very least , the labor force should be informed of major policy decisions ( A common complaint among rank-and-file workers is the lack of information about company policies and actions).Between 1980 and 1985 about five million workers were the victims of plant closings and permanent layoffs(失业) often with no warning.At least 90 days ' notice ought to be given in such instances so that workers have time to adjust.Management should consult workers before closing a plant , because the workers might be able to suggest ways of improving productivity and reducing costs and might be willing to make concessions that will help keep the plant operating.It should become a general practice to include workers in some managerial decision making.There ought to be representatives of the workers on the firm ' s board of directors or other major policymaking groups.If rank-and-file workers are given a voice in the planning and management of the work flow , they will help to make improvements , their morale will rise , and their productivity will increase.As a further incentive , they must be given a share in the company's profits.This can be done through employee stockownership plans,bonuses , or rewards for efficiency and productivity.Finally , when a plant can no longer operate at a profit,the workers should be given the opportunity to purchase the plant and run it themselves. If not given a voice in managerial decision making,workers______._
[多选题]共用题干 Who Built Giza's Pyramids(金字塔)?1 .For centuries,the pyramids of Giza have been timeless symbols of Egyptian culture.But who actually built them? For years, we did not know for sure.But archeologists(考古学家)recently discovered an ancient village near the pyramids.Close by,there was also a ceme-tery(墓地)where pyramid builders were buried.From studying these places, archeologists can now confirm that the pyramids were not built by slaves or foreigners.Ordinary Egyptians built them.2 .It took about eighty years to build the pyramids.According to archeologists,about 20,000~30,000 people were involved in completing the task.The workers had different roles.Some dug up the rock,some moved it,and some shaped it into blocks.People also worked on different teams,each with its own name.On a wall in Khufu's Great Pyramid,for example,a group of workers wrote“Friends of Khufu.”Teams often competed to do a job faster.3.Life for these workers was hard.“We can see that in their skeletons(骨架),”says Azza Mohamed Sarry El-Din,a scientist studying bodies found in the cemetery.The bones show signs of arthritis(关节炎),which developed from carrying heavy things for a long time.Archeologists have also found many female skeletons in the village and cemetery.The damage to their bones is similar to the men's.Their lives may have been even tougher:male workers lived to age 40~45,but women to only 30~35.However,workers usually had enough food,and they also had medical care if they got sick or hurt.4 .The work was challenging,but laborers were proud of their work.“It's because they were not just building the tomb of their king,” says Egyptian archeologist Zahi Hawass.“They were building Egypt.It was a national project,and everyone was a participant.” Paragraph 2______
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Gross National HappinessIn the last century,new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries.However,one country resisted these changes.High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia,the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教的)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan,however,was a poor country.People died at a young age.Most of its people could not read,and they did not know much about the outside world. Then,in 1972,a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck decided to help Bhutan to become modern,but without losing its traditions.King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas.He saw that most countries measured their progress by their Gross Natonal Product(GNP).The GNP measures products and money.When the number of products sold increases,people say the country is making progress.King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan.He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness.If the people's happiness in- creased,the king could say that Bhutan was making progress.To decide if people were happier,he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness.People are happier if they have health care, education,and jobs.They are happier when they live in a healthy,protected environment. They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs.Finally,people are happier when they have a good,stable government.Now there is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan.People are healthier and are living longer.More people are educated and employed.Twenty-five percent of the land has become national parks,and the country has almost no pollution.The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs.Bhutan has also become a democracy.In 2008,King Wangchuck gave his power to his son.Although the country still had a king,it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time.Finally,Bhutan has connected to the rest of theworld through television and internet.Bhutan is a symbol for social progress.Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH.Thesecountries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness.They want to create new policies that takecare of their people,cultures,and land.Brazil may be the nest country to use the principles of GNH.Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration.Brazil is a large country with a diverse population. If happiness works as ameasure of progress in Brazil,perhaps the rest of the world will follow.
[多选题]共用题干 The Storyteller1.Steven Spielberg has always had one goal;to tell as many interesting stories to as many people as possible.The son of a computer scientist and a pianist , Spielberg spent his early childhood in New Jersey and then Arizona.Some of his childhood memories became the inspiration for his filmmaking.2.Even decades later , Spielberg says he has vivid memories of his earliest years , which are the origins of some of his most successful films.He believes that E.T.is the result of the difficult years leading up to his parent ' s 1966 divorce.He commented , "It is really about a young boy who was in search of some stability in his life."Close Encounters of the Third Kind was inspired by times when the four-year-old Steven and his father would search the skies for meteors (流星).His mother remembers , " He was scared of just about everything.When trees brushed against the house , he would jump into my bed.And that ' s just the kind of scary stuff he would put in films like Pottorgeist.3.Spielberg was 11 when he first got his hands on his dad's movie camera and began shooting short flicks(电影) about flying saucers(飞碟) and World War II battles.These homemade movies gave him a way to escape his fears.From the very beginning , he had a creative imagination.With his talent for scary storytelling , he could terrify his three younger sisters.It also made it easier for him to make friendships.On Boy Scout camping trips , when night fell , young Steven became the center of attention." Steven would start telling his ghost stories , says Richard Y.Hoffman.Jr.,leader of Troop 294 , " and everyone would suddenly get quiet so that they could all hear.4 Spielberg moved to California with his father and went to high school there , but his grades were so bad that he barely graduated.Both UCLA and USC film schools rejected him,so he entered California State University at Long Beach because it was close to Hollywood.Spielberg was determined to make movies,and he managed to get an unpaid,non-credit internship(实习) in Hollywood.Soon he was given a contract and he dropped out of college.He never looked back.5.Now , many years later , Spielberg is still telling stories with as much passion as when he was a boy.Ask him where he gets his ideas , and Spielberg will shrug." The process for me is mostly intuitive , he says."There are films that I feel that I need to make.And it ' s for a variety of reasons , for personal reasons , or because I just want to have fun.Or maybe because the subject matter is cool , and I think that my kids will like it. Paragraph 1______
[多选题]共用题干 Sport or Spectacle?Muhammad Aui is probably the most famous sports figure on earth:he is recognized on every continent and by all generations. The__________(51)of his illness as Parkinson's disease after his retirement fuelled the debate about the dangers of boxing and criticism__________(52)the sport. That,plus his outspoken opposition___________(53)women's boxing,made people wonder how he would react when one of his daugh- ters decided to____________(54)up the sport.His presence at Laila's first professional fight,however,seemed to broadcast a father's support.Of course Muhammad Aui wanted to___________(55)his daughter fight.The ring announcer introduced him as the"the greatest"and as he sat down at the ringside the crowd chanted.Twenty-one-year-old Laila's debut fight(首次亮相)was a huge success and there was as much publicity for the___________(56)as her father's fights once attracted Laila's opponent was much weaker than she was and__________(57)the fight lasted just 31 seconds.Since then, Laila has won most of her fights by knoc-king out her opponent"She knows ______ (58)she's doing,"said one referee about her."She knowsabout moving well.You can see some of her dad's moves."Laila Ali would rather not_________ (59)herself to her father. She prefers to make. __________(60). Her father supports her decision to enter the sport but he has not spared her the details of what can happen. Laila__________(61)that her father wants her to understand the worst possible scenario to see_________(62) she still wants to go forward with it.She knows she's going to get hit hard at times,that she may get a broken nose or a swollen(肿胀的)face , but at least she is prepared for it.Laila's decision to start boxing despite her father's__________(63)with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease has of course sparked a mixture of praise and__________(64).But Laila is a determined individual and it is her famous last name that has made her a magnet for worldwide media attention.Of course,the ___________(65)on the boxing scene of a woman with her family history attracts even more questions about whether women's boxing is sport or spectacle. _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Excessive Demands on Young PeopleBeing able to multitask is hailed by most people as a welcome skill,but not according to a recent study which claims that young people between the ages of eight and eighteen of the so-called Generation M are spending a considerable amount of their time in fruitless efforts as they multitask.It argues that in fact,these young people are frittering(浪费)away as much as half of their time as they would if they performed the very same tasks one after the other.Some young people are using an ever larger number of electronic devices as they study. At the same time they are working,young adults are also surfing on the Internet,or sending out emails to their friends,and/or answering the telephone and listening to music on their iPods or on another computer. As some new device comes along,it is also added to the list rather than replacing one of the existing devices.Other research has indicated that this multitasking is even affecting the way families themselves function as young people are too wrapped up in(沉湎于)their own isolated worlds to interact with the other people around them. They can no longer greet family members when they enter the house nor can they eat at the family table.All this electronic wizardry(魔力)is supposedly also seriously affecting young people's performance at university and in the workplace. When asked about their opinions of the impact of modern gadgets(小装置) on their performance of tasks,the great majority of young people gave a favourable response.The response from the academic and business worlds was not quite as positive.The former feel that mul- titasking with electronic gadgets by children affects later development of study skills,resulting in a decline in the quality of writing,for example,because of the lack of concentration on task completion.They feel that many undergraduates now urgently need remedial(补救的)help with study skills. Similarly, employers feel that young people entering the workforce need to be taught all over again,as they have become deskilled.While all this may be true,it mnust be borne in mind that more and more is expected of young people nowadays in fact,too much.Praise rather than criticism is due in respect of the way today's youth are able to cope despite what the older generation throw at them. What attitude should the older generation adopt towards the multitasking youth?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Cell Phones: Hang Up or Keep Talking?Millions of people are using cell phones today,In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one.In many countries,cell phones are very popular with Young people.They find that the phones aremore than a means of communication一having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected.The explosions around the world in mobile phone use make some health professionals worried.Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones.In England,there has been a serious debate about this issue.Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas.They say that there is no proof that mobile phones are bad for your health.On the other hand,why do some medical studies show changes in the brain cells of some people who use mobile phones?Signs of change in the tissues of the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning (扫描)equipment. In one case , a traveling salesman had to retire at a young age because of serious memory loss.He couldn't remember even simple tasks.He would often forget the name of his own son.This man used to talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day,every day of his working week,for a couple of years.His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use,but his employer's doctor didn't agree.What is it that makes mobile phones potentially harmful?The answer is radiation.High-tech machines can detect very small amounts of radiation from mobile phones.Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation,but they say the amount is too small to worry about.As the discussion about their safety continues,it appears that it's best to use mobile phones less often. Use your regular phone if you want to talk for a long time.Use your mnobile phone only when you really need it.Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient,especially in emergencies.In the future,mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health.So for now,it's wise not to use your mobile phone too often. The salesman retired young because____________.
[多选题]共用题干 The Making of a Success Story1 .IKEA is the world's largest furniture retailer,and the man behind it is Ingvar Kamprad,one of the world's most successful entrepreneurs.Born in Sweden in 1926,Kamprad was a natural business man.As a child,he enjoyed selling things and made small profits from selling matches,seeds and pencils in his community.When Kamprad was 17,his father gave him some money as a reward for his good grades.Naturally he used it to start up a business一IKEA.2 .IKEA's name comes form Kamprads'initials(I.K.)and the place where he grew up (E and A).Today IKEA is known for its modern,minimalist furniture,but it was not a furniture company in the beginning.Rather,IKEA sold all kinds of miscellaneous goods. Kamprad's wares included anything that he could sell for profits at low prices,including watches,pens and stockings.3 .IKEA first began to sell furniture through a mail-order catalogue in 1947.the furniture was all designed and made by manufactures near Kamprad's home.Initial sales were very encouraging,so Kamprad expanded the product line.Furniture was such a successful aspect of the business that IKEA became solely a furniture company in 1951. 4 .In 1953 IKEA opened its first showroom in Almhult,Sweden.IKEA is known today for its spacious stress with furniture in attractive settings,but in the early 1950s, people ordered from catalogues.Thus response to the first showroom was overwhelming:people loved being able to see and try the furniture before buying it.This led to increased sales and the company continued to thrive.By 1955,IKEA was designing all its own furniture.5 .In 1956 Kamprad saw a man disassembling a table to make it easier to transport.Kamprad was inspired.The man had given him a great idea:flat packaging.Flat packaging would mean lower shipping costs for IKEA and lower prices for customers.IKEA tried it and sales soared.The problem was that people had to assemble furniture themselves,but over time, even this grew into an advantage for IKEA.Nowadays,IKEA is often seen as having conno-tations of self-sufficiency.This image has done wonders for the company,leading to better sales and continued expansion.6 .Today there are over 200 stores in 32 countries.Amazingly,Ingvar Kamprad has man-aged to keep IKEA a privately-held company.In 2004 he was named the world's richest man.He currently lives in Switzerland and is retired from the day-today operations of IKEA.IKEA itself,though,just keeps on growing. Even when he was only a child,______.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇The Making of a Success StoryIKEA is the world ' s largest furniture retailer , and the man behind it is Ingvar Kamprad , one of the world ' s most successful entrepreneurs (企业家 ).Born in Sweden in 1926 , Kamprad was a natural businessman.As a child , he enjoyed selling things and made small profits from selling matches , seeds , and pencils in his community.When Kamprad was 17 , his father gave him some money as a reward for his good grades.Naturally , he used it to start up a business-IKEA.Today IKEA is known for its modern , minimalist (极简单主义的) furniture , but it was not a furniture company in the beginning.Rather , IKEA sold all kinds of miscellaneous (五花八门的) goods , including watches , pens and stockings.IKEA first began to sell furniture through a mail-order catalogue in 1947.The furniture was all designed and made by manufacturers near Kamprad's home.Initial sales were very encouraging, so Kamprad expanded the product line.Furniture was such a successful aspect of the business that IKEA became solely a furniture company in 1951.In 1953 IKEA opened its first showroom in Almhult ,Sweden.IKEA is known today for its spacious stores with furniture in attractive settings , but in the early 1950s , people ordered from catalogues.Thus response to the first showroom was overwhelming : people loved being able to see and try the furniture before buying it.This led to increased sales and the company continued to thrive.By 1955 ,IKEA was designing all its own furniture.In 1956 , Kamprad saw a man disassembling a table to make it easier to transport.Kamprad was inspired.The man had given him a great idea , flat packaging.Flat packaging would mean lower shipping costs for IKEA and lower prices for customers.IKEA tried it and sales soared.The problem was that people had to assemble furniture themselves , but over time , even this grew into an advantage for IKEA.Nowadays , IKEA is often seen as having connotations of self-sufficiency.This image has done wonders for the company , leading to otter sales and continued expansion.Today there are over 200 stores in 32 countries.Amazingly , Ingvar Kamprad has managed to keep IKEA privately-held company.In 2004 he was named the world ' s richest man.He currently lives in Switzerland id is retired from the day-to-day operations of IKEA.IKEA itself, though , just keeps on growing. What is the author ' s attitude towards IKEA's future according to the last paragraph?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Why So Many ChildrenIn many of the developing countries in Africa and Asia,the population is growing fast.The reason for this is simple.Women in these countries have a high birth rate一from 3.0 to 7.0 children per woman.The majority of these women are poor,without the food or resources to care for their families.Why do they have so many children?Why don't they limit the size of their families?There are several reasons for this.One reason is economic.In a traditional agricultural economy,large families are helpful.Having more children means having more workers in the fields and someone to take care of the parents in old age.In an industrial economy,the situation is different.Many children do not help a family;instead,they are an ex- pense.Thus,industrialization has generally brought down the birth rate.This was the case in Italy,which was industrialized quite recently and rapidly.In the early part of the twentieth century,Italy was a poor,largely agricultural country with a high birth rate.After World War II,Italy's economy was rapidly modernized and industrialized. By the end of the century,the birth rate had dropped to 1.3 children per woman,the world's lowest.However,the economy is not the only important factor that influences birth rate.Saudi Arabia,for exam- pie,does not have an agriculture-based economy,and it has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.Nevertheless,it also has a very high birth rate(7.0).Mexico and Indonesia,on the other hand,are poor countries,with largely agricultural economies,but they have recently reduced their population growth.Clearly,other factors are involved.The most important of these is the condition of women.A high birth rate almost always goes together with lack of education and low status for women.This would explain the high birth rate of Saudi Arabia.There,the traditional culture gives women little education or independence and few possibilities outside the home.On the other hand,the improved condition of women in Mexico,Thailand,and indonesia explains the decline in birth rates in these countries.Their governments have taken measures to provide more education and opportunities for women.Another key factor in the birth rate is birth control.Women may want to limit their families but have no way to do so.In countries where governments have made birth control easily available and inexpensive,birth rates have gone down.This is the case in Singapore,Sri Lanka,and India,as well as in Indonesia,Thailand, Mexico,and Brazil.In these countries,women have also been provided with health care and help in planning their families.These trends show that an effective program to reduce population growth does not have to de- pend on better economic conditions. In Mexico,as in Thailand and Indonesia,the government_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Brotherly LoveAdidas and Puma have been two of the biggest names in sports shoe manufacturing for over half a century.Since 1928 they have supplied shoes for Olympic athletes,World Cup-winning football heroes,Muhammad Ali,hip hop stars and rock musicians famous all over the world.But the story of these two companies begins in one house in the town of Herzogenaurach,Germany.Adolph and Rudolph Dassler were the sons of a shoemaker. They loved sports but complained that they could never find comfortable shoes to play in.Rudolph always said,"You cannot play sports wearing shoes that you'd walk around town with."So they started making their own.In 1920 Adolph made the first pair of athletic shoes with spikes(钉),produced on the Dasslers'kitchen table.On 1 st July 1924 they formed a shoe company,Dassler Brothers Ltd and they worked together for many years.The company became successful and it provided the shoes for Germany's athletes at the 1928 and 1932 Olympic Games.But in 1948 the brothers argued.No one knows exactly what happened,but family members have sug- gested that the argument was about money or women.The result was that Adolph left the company.His nick- name was Adi,and using this and the first three letters of the family name,Dassler,he founded Adidas.Rudolph relocated across the River Aurach and founded his own company,too.At first he wanted to call it Ruda,but eventually he called it Puma,after the wild cat.The famous Puma logo of the jumping cat has hardly changed since.After the big split of 1948 Adolph and Rudolph never spoke to each other again and their companieshave now been in competition for over sixty years.Both companies were for many years the market leaders, though Adidas has always been more successful than Puma. A hip hop group,Run DMC,has even written a song called"My Adidas"and in 2005 Adidas bought Reebok,another big sports shoe company.The terrible family argument should really be forgotten,but ever since it happened,over sixty years ago ,the town has been split into two.Even now,some Adidas employees and Puma employees don't talk toeach other. People in town have forgotten their argument.
[多选题]共用题干 The Storyteller1.Steven Spielberg has always had one goal;to tell as many interesting stories to as many people as possible.The son of a computer scientist and a pianist , Spielberg spent his early childhood in New Jersey and then Arizona.Some of his childhood memories became the inspiration for his filmmaking.2.Even decades later , Spielberg says he has vivid memories of his earliest years , which are the origins of some of his most successful films.He believes that E.T.is the result of the difficult years leading up to his parent ' s 1966 divorce.He commented , "It is really about a young boy who was in search of some stability in his life."Close Encounters of the Third Kind was inspired by times when the four-year-old Steven and his father would search the skies for meteors (流星).His mother remembers , " He was scared of just about everything.When trees brushed against the house , he would jump into my bed.And that ' s just the kind of scary stuff he would put in films like Pottorgeist.3.Spielberg was 11 when he first got his hands on his dad's movie camera and began shooting short flicks(电影) about flying saucers(飞碟) and World War II battles.These homemade movies gave him a way to escape his fears.From the very beginning , he had a creative imagination.With his talent for scary storytelling , he could terrify his three younger sisters.It also made it easier for him to make friendships.On Boy Scout camping trips , when night fell , young Steven became the center of attention." Steven would start telling his ghost stories , says Richard Y.Hoffman.Jr.,leader of Troop 294 , " and everyone would suddenly get quiet so that they could all hear.4 Spielberg moved to California with his father and went to high school there , but his grades were so bad that he barely graduated.Both UCLA and USC film schools rejected him,so he entered California State University at Long Beach because it was close to Hollywood.Spielberg was determined to make movies,and he managed to get an unpaid,non-credit internship(实习) in Hollywood.Soon he was given a contract and he dropped out of college.He never looked back.5.Now , many years later , Spielberg is still telling stories with as much passion as when he was a boy.Ask him where he gets his ideas , and Spielberg will shrug." The process for me is mostly intuitive , he says."There are films that I feel that I need to make.And it ' s for a variety of reasons , for personal reasons , or because I just want to have fun.Or maybe because the subject matter is cool , and I think that my kids will like it. Paragraph 3______
[多选题]共用题干 Sport or Spectacle?Muhammad Aui is probably the most famous sports figure on earth:he is recognized on every continent and by all generations. The__________(51)of his illness as Parkinson's disease after his retirement fuelled the debate about the dangers of boxing and criticism__________(52)the sport. That,plus his outspoken opposition___________(53)women's boxing,made people wonder how he would react when one of his daugh- ters decided to____________(54)up the sport.His presence at Laila's first professional fight,however,seemed to broadcast a father's support.Of course Muhammad Aui wanted to___________(55)his daughter fight.The ring announcer introduced him as the"the greatest"and as he sat down at the ringside the crowd chanted.Twenty-one-year-old Laila's debut fight(首次亮相)was a huge success and there was as much publicity for the___________(56)as her father's fights once attracted Laila's opponent was much weaker than she was and__________(57)the fight lasted just 31 seconds.Since then, Laila has won most of her fights by knoc-king out her opponent"She knows ______ (58)she's doing,"said one referee about her."She knowsabout moving well.You can see some of her dad's moves."Laila Ali would rather not_________ (59)herself to her father. She prefers to make. __________(60). Her father supports her decision to enter the sport but he has not spared her the details of what can happen. Laila__________(61)that her father wants her to understand the worst possible scenario to see_________(62) she still wants to go forward with it.She knows she's going to get hit hard at times,that she may get a broken nose or a swollen(肿胀的)face , but at least she is prepared for it.Laila's decision to start boxing despite her father's__________(63)with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease has of course sparked a mixture of praise and__________(64).But Laila is a determined individual and it is her famous last name that has made her a magnet for worldwide media attention.Of course,the ___________(65)on the boxing scene of a woman with her family history attracts even more questions about whether women's boxing is sport or spectacle. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 The Storyteller1.Steven Spielberg has always had one goal;to tell as many interesting stories to as many people as possible.The son of a computer scientist and a pianist , Spielberg spent his early childhood in New Jersey and then Arizona.Some of his childhood memories became the inspiration for his filmmaking.2.Even decades later , Spielberg says he has vivid memories of his earliest years , which are the origins of some of his most successful films.He believes that E.T.is the result of the difficult years leading up to his parent ' s 1966 divorce.He commented , "It is really about a young boy who was in search of some stability in his life."Close Encounters of the Third Kind was inspired by times when the four-year-old Steven and his father would search the skies for meteors (流星).His mother remembers , " He was scared of just about everything.When trees brushed against the house , he would jump into my bed.And that ' s just the kind of scary stuff he would put in films like Pottorgeist.3.Spielberg was 11 when he first got his hands on his dad's movie camera and began shooting short flicks(电影) about flying saucers(飞碟) and World War II battles.These homemade movies gave him a way to escape his fears.From the very beginning , he had a creative imagination.With his talent for scary storytelling , he could terrify his three younger sisters.It also made it easier for him to make friendships.On Boy Scout camping trips , when night fell , young Steven became the center of attention." Steven would start telling his ghost stories , says Richard Y.Hoffman.Jr.,leader of Troop 294 , " and everyone would suddenly get quiet so that they could all hear.4 Spielberg moved to California with his father and went to high school there , but his grades were so bad that he barely graduated.Both UCLA and USC film schools rejected him,so he entered California State University at Long Beach because it was close to Hollywood.Spielberg was determined to make movies,and he managed to get an unpaid,non-credit internship(实习) in Hollywood.Soon he was given a contract and he dropped out of college.He never looked back.5.Now , many years later , Spielberg is still telling stories with as much passion as when he was a boy.Ask him where he gets his ideas , and Spielberg will shrug." The process for me is mostly intuitive , he says."There are films that I feel that I need to make.And it ' s for a variety of reasons , for personal reasons , or because I just want to have fun.Or maybe because the subject matter is cool , and I think that my kids will like it. Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 The Making of a Success Story1 .IKEA is the world's largest furniture retailer,and the man behind it is Ingvar Kamprad,one of the world's most successful entrepreneurs.Born in Sweden in 1926,Kamprad was a natural business man.As a child,he enjoyed selling things and made small profits from selling matches,seeds and pencils in his community.When Kamprad was 17,his father gave him some money as a reward for his good grades.Naturally he used it to start up a business一IKEA.2 .IKEA's name comes form Kamprads'initials(I.K.)and the place where he grew up (E and A).Today IKEA is known for its modern,minimalist furniture,but it was not a furniture company in the beginning.Rather,IKEA sold all kinds of miscellaneous goods. Kamprad's wares included anything that he could sell for profits at low prices,including watches,pens and stockings.3 .IKEA first began to sell furniture through a mail-order catalogue in 1947.the furniture was all designed and made by manufactures near Kamprad's home.Initial sales were very encouraging,so Kamprad expanded the product line.Furniture was such a successful aspect of the business that IKEA became solely a furniture company in 1951. 4 .In 1953 IKEA opened its first showroom in Almhult,Sweden.IKEA is known today for its spacious stress with furniture in attractive settings,but in the early 1950s, people ordered from catalogues.Thus response to the first showroom was overwhelming:people loved being able to see and try the furniture before buying it.This led to increased sales and the company continued to thrive.By 1955,IKEA was designing all its own furniture.5 .In 1956 Kamprad saw a man disassembling a table to make it easier to transport.Kamprad was inspired.The man had given him a great idea:flat packaging.Flat packaging would mean lower shipping costs for IKEA and lower prices for customers.IKEA tried it and sales soared.The problem was that people had to assemble furniture themselves,but over time, even this grew into an advantage for IKEA.Nowadays,IKEA is often seen as having conno-tations of self-sufficiency.This image has done wonders for the company,leading to better sales and continued expansion.6 .Today there are over 200 stores in 32 countries.Amazingly,Ingvar Kamprad has man-aged to keep IKEA a privately-held company.In 2004 he was named the world's richest man.He currently lives in Switzerland and is retired from the day-today operations of IKEA.IKEA itself,though,just keeps on growing. Paragraph 2______
[多选题]共用题干 The Storyteller1.Steven Spielberg has always had one goal;to tell as many interesting stories to as many people as possible.The son of a computer scientist and a pianist , Spielberg spent his early childhood in New Jersey and then Arizona.Some of his childhood memories became the inspiration for his filmmaking.2.Even decades later , Spielberg says he has vivid memories of his earliest years , which are the origins of some of his most successful films.He believes that E.T.is the result of the difficult years leading up to his parent ' s 1966 divorce.He commented , "It is really about a young boy who was in search of some stability in his life."Close Encounters of the Third Kind was inspired by times when the four-year-old Steven and his father would search the skies for meteors (流星).His mother remembers , " He was scared of just about everything.When trees brushed against the house , he would jump into my bed.And that ' s just the kind of scary stuff he would put in films like Pottorgeist.3.Spielberg was 11 when he first got his hands on his dad's movie camera and began shooting short flicks(电影) about flying saucers(飞碟) and World War II battles.These homemade movies gave him a way to escape his fears.From the very beginning , he had a creative imagination.With his talent for scary storytelling , he could terrify his three younger sisters.It also made it easier for him to make friendships.On Boy Scout camping trips , when night fell , young Steven became the center of attention." Steven would start telling his ghost stories , says Richard Y.Hoffman.Jr.,leader of Troop 294 , " and everyone would suddenly get quiet so that they could all hear.4 Spielberg moved to California with his father and went to high school there , but his grades were so bad that he barely graduated.Both UCLA and USC film schools rejected him,so he entered California State University at Long Beach because it was close to Hollywood.Spielberg was determined to make movies,and he managed to get an unpaid,non-credit internship(实习) in Hollywood.Soon he was given a contract and he dropped out of college.He never looked back.5.Now , many years later , Spielberg is still telling stories with as much passion as when he was a boy.Ask him where he gets his ideas , and Spielberg will shrug." The process for me is mostly intuitive , he says."There are films that I feel that I need to make.And it ' s for a variety of reasons , for personal reasons , or because I just want to have fun.Or maybe because the subject matter is cool , and I think that my kids will like it. Spielberg says he makes movies for______.
[多选题]共用题干 Mau Piailug,Ocean NavigatorMau sailed from Hawaii to Tahiti using traditional methods.In early 1976,Mau Piailug,a fisherman,led an expedition in which he sailed a traditional Polynesian boat across 2,500 miles of ocean from Hawaii to Tahiti.The Polynesian Voyaging Society had organised the expe-dition. Its purpose was to find out if seafarers(海员)in the distant past could have found their way from one island to the other without navigational instruments,or whether the islands had been populated by accident. At the time,Mau was the only man alive who knew how to navigate just by observing the stars,the wind and the sea.He had never before sailed to Tahiti,which was a long way to the south.However,he understood how the wind and the sea behave around islands,so he was confident he could find his way.The voyage took him and his crew a month to complete and he did it without a compass or charts.His grandfather began the task of teaching him how to navigate when he was still a baby.He showed him pools of water on the beach to teach him how the behaviour of the waves and wind changed in different places.Later,Mau used a circle of stones to memorise the positions of the stars.Each stone was laid out in the sand to represent a star.The voyage proved that Hawaii's first inhabitants came in small boats and navigated by reading the sea and the stars.Mau himself became a keen teacher,passing on his traditional secrets to people of other cul-tures so that his knowledge would not be lost.He explained the positions of the stars to his students,but he allowed them to write things down because he knew they would never be able to rememnber everything as he had done. Mau learnt navigation skills from his grandfather.
[多选题]共用题干 Traffic Jams一No End in Sight1 Traffic congestion(拥堵)affects people throughout the world. Traffic jams cause smog in dozens of cities across both the developed and developing world. In the U. S.,commuters(通勤人员)spend an average of a full working week each year sitting in traffic jams,according to the Texas Transportation Institu-te.While alternative ways of getting around are available,most people still choose their cars because they are looking for convenience,comfort and privacy.2 The most promising technique for reducing city traffic is called congestion pricing,whereby cities charge a toll to enter certain parts of town at certain times of day.In theory,if the toll is high enough,some drivers will cancel their trips or go by bus or train.And in practice it seems to work:Singapore,London and Stockholm have reduced traffic and pollution in city centres thanks to congestion pricing.3 Another way to reduce rush-hour traffic is for employers to implement flexitime,which lets employees travel to and from work at off-peak traffic times to avoid the rush hour. Those who have to travel during busy times can do their part by sharing cars.Employers can also allow more staff to telecommute(work from home)so as to keep more cars off the road altogether.4 Some urban planners still believe that the best way to ease traffic congestion is to build more roads, especially roads that can take drivers around or over crowded city streets.But such techniques do not really keep cars off the road;they only accommodate more of them.5 Other,more forward-thinking,planners know that more and more drivers and cars are taking to the roads every day,and they are unwilling to encourage more private automobiles when public transport is so much better both for people and the environment.For this reason,the American government has decided to spend some$7 billion on helping to increase capacity on public-transport systems and upgrade them with more efficient technologies.But environmentalists complain that such funding is tiny compared with the$50 billion being spent on roads and bridges. The U.S.government has planned to_________updating public-transport systems.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Gross National HappinessIn the last century,new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries.However,one country resisted these changes.High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia,the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教的)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan,however,was a poor country.People died at a young age.Most of its people could not read,and they did not know much about the outside world. Then,in 1972,a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck decided to help Bhutan to become modern,but without losing its traditions.King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas.He saw that most countries measured their progress by their Gross Natonal Product(GNP).The GNP measures products and money.When the number of products sold increases,people say the country is making progress.King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan.He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness.If the people's happiness in- creased,the king could say that Bhutan was making progress.To decide if people were happier,he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness.People are happier if they have health care, education,and jobs.They are happier when they live in a healthy,protected environment. They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs.Finally,people are happier when they have a good,stable government.Now there is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan.People are healthier and are living longer.More people are educated and employed.Twenty-five percent of the land has become national parks,and the country has almost no pollution.The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs.Bhutan has also become a democracy.In 2008,King Wangchuck gave his power to his son.Although the country still had a king,it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time.Finally,Bhutan has connected to the rest of theworld through television and internet.Bhutan is a symbol for social progress.Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH.Thesecountries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness.They want to create new policies that takecare of their people,cultures,and land.Brazil may be the nest country to use the principles of GNH.Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration.Brazil is a large country with a diverse population. If happiness works as ameasure of progress in Brazil,perhaps the rest of the world will follow. Who was Jigme Singye Wangchuck?
[多选题]共用题干 Is There a Way to Keep the Britain's Economy Growing?1 .In today's knowledge economy,nations survive on the things they do best.Japanese design electronics while Germens export engineering techniques.The French serve the best food and Americans make computers.2 .Britain specializes in the gift of talking.The nation doesn't manufacture much of any-thing.But it has lawyers,stylists and business consultants who earn their living from talktalk and more talk.The World Foundation think tank says the UK's four iconic job、todayare not scientists,engineers,teachers and nurses.Instead,they're hairdressers,celebrities,management consultants and managers.But can all this talking keep the British economy going?The British government thinks it can.3 .Although the country's trade deficit was more than£60 billion in 2006,UK's largest in thepostwar period,officials say the country has nothing to worry about.In fact,Britain does have a world-class pharmaceutical industry and it still makes a small sum from selling arms abroad.It also trades services一accountancy,insurance,banking and advertising.The government believes Britain is on the cutting edge of the knowledge economy.After all,the country of Shakespeare and Words-worth has a literary tradition of which to be proud.Rock'n'roll is an English language medium,and there are billions to be made by their cutting-edge bands.In other words,the creative economy has plenty of strength to carry the British economy. 4 .However,creative industries account for only about 4 percent of UK's exports of goods and services.The industries are finding it hard to make a profit,according to a report of the National Endowment for Science,Technology and the Arts.The report shows only 38 percent of British companies were engaged in“innovation activities”,3 percentage points be-low the EU average and well below Germany(61 percent)and Sweden(47 percent). 5 .In fact,it might be better to call Britain a“servant”economy一there are at least 4 million people“in service”.The majority of the population are employed by the rich to cook,clean,and take care of their children.Many graduates are even doing menial jobs for which they do not need a degree.Most employment growth has been, and will continue to be,at the low-skill end of the service sector一in shops,bars,hotels,domestic service and in nursing and care homes. Many graduates are employed______.
[多选题]共用题干 Public RelationsPublic relations is a broad set of planned communications about the company, including publicity releases,designed to promote goodwill and a favorable image.Publicity then is part of public relations when it is initiated by the firm , usually in the________ (51)of press releases or press conferences.Since public relations involves communications with stockholders,financial analysts,government officials,and other noncustomer groups,it is usually________(52) outside the marketing department , perhaps as a staff department or outside consulting firm reporting to to management.This organizational placement can be a________(53) because the public relations department or consultant will likely not be in line with marketing efforts.Poor communication and no coordination can be the________ (54).Although the basic purpose of public relations is to provide positive influence_______(55) the public image,this influence generally may be less than_______(56) provided by the other components of the public image mix.Publicity may be in the form of news releases that have(57) overtones for the company initiated by the public relations department.Publicity on the other________ (58) should not be divorce from the marketing department,as it can________(59) a useful adjunct(辅助) to the regular advertising______(60) not all publicity is initiated by the firm;some can________(61) from an unfavorable press a reaction to certain actions or lack of________(62) that are controversial or even downright ill-advisedThe________(63) we wish to emphasize is that a firm is deluding(自欺) itself if it thinks its public relations function,whether within the company or an outside firm,can take________(64) of public image problems and opportunities.Many of these have to do with the way the________(65) does business,such as its product quality,the servicing and handling of complaints , etc. _________62
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Making a Loss Is the Height of FashionGiven that a good year in the haute couture(高级定制女装)business is one where you lose even more money than usual,the prevailing mood in Paris last week was sensational.The big-name designers were fall- ing over themselves to boast of how many outfits they had sold at below cost price,and how this proved that the fashion business was healthier than ever. Jean-Paul Gaultier reported record sales,"but we don't makeany money out of it,"the designer assured journalists backstage."No matter how successful you are,you can't make a profit from couture,"explained Jean-Jacques Picart,a veteran fashion PR man,and co-founder of the now-bankrupt Lacroix house.Almost 20 years have passed since the unusual economics of the couture business were first exposed. Outraged that he was losing money on evening dresses costing tens of thousands of pounds,the couturier Jean-Louis Scherrer published a detailed summary of his costs.One outfit he described curtained over half a mile of gold thread ,18 ,000 sequins(亮片),and had required hundreds of hours of hand-stitching in an ate- her(制作室).A fair price would have been£50 ,000, but the couturier could only get£35,000 for it. Rather than riding high on the foolishness of the super-rich,he and his team could barely feed their hungry families.The result was an outcry and the first of a series of government-and industry-sponsored inquiries into the surreal(超现实的)world of ultimate fashion. The trade continues to insist that couture offers you more than you pay for,but it's not as simple as that.When such a temple of old wealth starts talking about value for money,it jsn't to convince anyone that dresses costing as much as houses are a bargain.Rather,it is to pre- serve the peculiar mystique(神秘),lucrative(利润丰厚的)associations and threatened interests that couture represents.Essentially,the arguments couldn't be simpler. On one side are those who say that the business will die if it doesn't change.On the other are those who say it will die if it does.What's not in doubt is that haute couture一the term translates as"high sewing”一is highly dated. Huge in its costs,tiny in its clientele and questionable in its influence,it still remains one of the great themes of Parisian life.In his book,The Fashion Conspiracy , Nicholas Coleridge estimates that the entire couture industry rests on the whims(一时兴起)of less than 30 immensely wealthy women,and although the number may have grown in recent years with the new prosperity of Asia,the number of couture customers worldwide is no more than 4,000.To qualify as couture,a garment must be entirely handmade by one of the 1 1 Paris couture houses regis- tered to the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture.Each house must employ at least 20 people,and show a minimum of 75 new designs a year. So far, so traditional,but the Big Four operators一Chanel,Dior,Givenchy and Gaultier一increasingly use couture as a marketing device for their far more profitable ready-to-wear,fra- grance and accessory lines. What is the writer's tone towards haute couture business?
[多选题]共用题干 Traffic Jams一No End in Sight1 Traffic congestion(拥堵)affects people throughout the world. Traffic jams cause smog in dozens of cities across both the developed and developing world. In the U. S.,commuters(通勤人员)spend an average of a full working week each year sitting in traffic jams,according to the Texas Transportation Institu-te.While alternative ways of getting around are available,most people still choose their cars because they are looking for convenience,comfort and privacy.2 The most promising technique for reducing city traffic is called congestion pricing,whereby cities charge a toll to enter certain parts of town at certain times of day.In theory,if the toll is high enough,some drivers will cancel their trips or go by bus or train.And in practice it seems to work:Singapore,London and Stockholm have reduced traffic and pollution in city centres thanks to congestion pricing.3 Another way to reduce rush-hour traffic is for employers to implement flexitime,which lets employees travel to and from work at off-peak traffic times to avoid the rush hour. Those who have to travel during busy times can do their part by sharing cars.Employers can also allow more staff to telecommute(work from home)so as to keep more cars off the road altogether.4 Some urban planners still believe that the best way to ease traffic congestion is to build more roads, especially roads that can take drivers around or over crowded city streets.But such techniques do not really keep cars off the road;they only accommodate more of them.5 Other,more forward-thinking,planners know that more and more drivers and cars are taking to the roads every day,and they are unwilling to encourage more private automobiles when public transport is so much better both for people and the environment.For this reason,the American government has decided to spend some$7 billion on helping to increase capacity on public-transport systems and upgrade them with more efficient technologies.But environmentalists complain that such funding is tiny compared with the$50 billion being spent on roads and bridges. Building more roads is not an effective way to_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Why So Many ChildrenIn many of the developing countries in Africa and Asia,the population is growing fast.The reason for this is simple.Women in these countries have a high birth rate一from 3.0 to 7.0 children per woman.The majority of these women are poor,without the food or resources to care for their families.Why do they have so many children?Why don't they limit the size of their families?There are several reasons for this.One reason is economic.In a traditional agricultural economy,large families are helpful.Having more children means having more workers in the fields and someone to take care of the parents in old age.In an industrial economy,the situation is different.Many children do not help a family;instead,they are an ex- pense.Thus,industrialization has generally brought down the birth rate.This was the case in Italy,which was industrialized quite recently and rapidly.In the early part of the twentieth century,Italy was a poor,largely agricultural country with a high birth rate.After World War II,Italy's economy was rapidly modernized and industrialized. By the end of the century,the birth rate had dropped to 1.3 children per woman,the world's lowest.However,the economy is not the only important factor that influences birth rate.Saudi Arabia,for exam- pie,does not have an agriculture-based economy,and it has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.Nevertheless,it also has a very high birth rate(7.0).Mexico and Indonesia,on the other hand,are poor countries,with largely agricultural economies,but they have recently reduced their population growth.Clearly,other factors are involved.The most important of these is the condition of women.A high birth rate almost always goes together with lack of education and low status for women.This would explain the high birth rate of Saudi Arabia.There,the traditional culture gives women little education or independence and few possibilities outside the home.On the other hand,the improved condition of women in Mexico,Thailand,and indonesia explains the decline in birth rates in these countries.Their governments have taken measures to provide more education and opportunities for women.Another key factor in the birth rate is birth control.Women may want to limit their families but have no way to do so.In countries where governments have made birth control easily available and inexpensive,birth rates have gone down.This is the case in Singapore,Sri Lanka,and India,as well as in Indonesia,Thailand, Mexico,and Brazil.In these countries,women have also been provided with health care and help in planning their families.These trends show that an effective program to reduce population growth does not have to de- pend on better economic conditions. In a traditional agricultural economy,a large family_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Waste Not,Want Not1 .Bob and Clara Darlington,who own and run a farm in the North of England,have always looked for new ways of making money out of the produce they grow.Their success be-gan when they established a shop on their farm,so that people could come and buy fresh vegetables directly from them.2 .The business was an immediate success,and soon scored top marks in a competition set up by the Farm Retail Association to find the best farm shop in the country.The Association's inspectors found the Darlingtons'shop offered excellent service and value for money as well as quality fruit and vegetable.3 .Clara Darlington is a trained chef and,in addition to a range of home-grown foods and other local produce,she began offering a variety of prepared meals which she had made her-self in the farmhouse kitchen.A small cafe alongside the farm shop was soon added,with eve-rything that visitors could taste on the menu also being for sale in the shop.4 .Clara admits that starting the business was expensive,and she has worked very hard, but maintains that if the product is good,the public recognize this and buy it.“I aim to offer the highest quality to our customers,whether they come in for a loaf of bread,or take a whole dinner-party menu.I take it as a compliment(恭维)if people take home one of my dishes to serve to their family and friends and get away with pretending they made it themselves.”5 .So it was that the couple realized that they had a surplus of misshapen or damaged vegetables grown on the farm which were unsuitable for selling in the shop.Clara,not wish-ing to see them get thrown away,decided to turn them into soup.6 .The soup met with the immediate approval of customers to the shop and Clara now produces ten different varieties.She spent much of the summer traveling up and down to London by rail,doing presentations of the soups.As a result,they are now served in first-class railway restaurant cars belonging to three companies as well as being stocked by a number of high-class London stores. Paragraph 5______
[多选题]共用题干 More Than 8 Hours Sleep Too Much of a Good Thing1 .Although the dangers of too little sleep are widely known,new research suggests that people who sleep too much may also suffer the consequences.2 .Investigators at the University of California in San Diego found that people who clock up 9 or 10 hours each weeknight appear to have more trouble falling and staying asleep,as well as a number of other sleep problems,than people who sleep 8 hours a night.People who slept only 7 hours each night also said they had more trouble falling asleep and feeling refreshed after a night's sleep than 8-hour sleepers.3 .These findings,which DL Daniel Kripke reported in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine,demonstrate that people who want to get a good night's rest may not need to set aside. More than 8 hours a night.He added that“it might be a good idea” for people who sleep more than 8 hours each night to consider reducing the amount of time they spend in bed,but cautioned that more research is needed to confirm this.4 .Previous studies have shown the potential dangers of chronic shortages of sleep一for instance,one report demonstrated that people who habitually sleep less than 7 hours each night have a higher risk of dying within a fixed period than people who sleep more.5 .For the current report,Kripke reviewed the responses of 1,004 adults to sleep questionnaires,in which participants indicated how much they slept during the week and whether they experienced any sleep problems.Sleep problems included waking in the middle of the night,arising early in the morning and being unable to fall back to sleep,and having fatigue interfere with day-to-day functioning.6 .Kripke found that people who slept between 9 and 10 hours each night were more likely to report experiencing each sleep problem than people who slept 8 hours.In an interview, Kripke noted that long sleepers may struggle to get rest at night simply because they spend too much time in bed.As evidence,he added that one way to help insomnia is to spend less time in bed.“It stands to reason that if a person spends too long a time in bed,then they'll spend a higher percentage of time awake.”he said. Paragraph 6______
[多选题]共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech- nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would run out of food were wrong.We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there- fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen for many years,and continues to drop.2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business,they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient.And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super- markets get bigger,the prices get lower.3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro- ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000 global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food com- panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people big- ger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120z portion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to change the trend. Some food producers have reduced_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Sport or Spectacle?Muhammad Aui is probably the most famous sports figure on earth:he is recognized on every continent and by all generations. The__________(51)of his illness as Parkinson's disease after his retirement fuelled the debate about the dangers of boxing and criticism__________(52)the sport. That,plus his outspoken opposition___________(53)women's boxing,made people wonder how he would react when one of his daugh- ters decided to____________(54)up the sport.His presence at Laila's first professional fight,however,seemed to broadcast a father's support.Of course Muhammad Aui wanted to___________(55)his daughter fight.The ring announcer introduced him as the"the greatest"and as he sat down at the ringside the crowd chanted.Twenty-one-year-old Laila's debut fight(首次亮相)was a huge success and there was as much publicity for the___________(56)as her father's fights once attracted Laila's opponent was much weaker than she was and__________(57)the fight lasted just 31 seconds.Since then, Laila has won most of her fights by knoc-king out her opponent"She knows ______ (58)she's doing,"said one referee about her."She knowsabout moving well.You can see some of her dad's moves."Laila Ali would rather not_________ (59)herself to her father. She prefers to make. __________(60). Her father supports her decision to enter the sport but he has not spared her the details of what can happen. Laila__________(61)that her father wants her to understand the worst possible scenario to see_________(62) she still wants to go forward with it.She knows she's going to get hit hard at times,that she may get a broken nose or a swollen(肿胀的)face , but at least she is prepared for it.Laila's decision to start boxing despite her father's__________(63)with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease has of course sparked a mixture of praise and__________(64).But Laila is a determined individual and it is her famous last name that has made her a magnet for worldwide media attention.Of course,the ___________(65)on the boxing scene of a woman with her family history attracts even more questions about whether women's boxing is sport or spectacle. _________(65)
[多选题]共用题干 Is There a Way to Keep the Britain's Economy Growing?1 .In today's knowledge economy,nations survive on the things they do best.Japanese design electronics while Germens export engineering techniques.The French serve the best food and Americans make computers.2 .Britain specializes in the gift of talking.The nation doesn't manufacture much of any-thing.But it has lawyers,stylists and business consultants who earn their living from talktalk and more talk.The World Foundation think tank says the UK's four iconic job、todayare not scientists,engineers,teachers and nurses.Instead,they're hairdressers,celebrities,management consultants and managers.But can all this talking keep the British economy going?The British government thinks it can.3 .Although the country's trade deficit was more than£60 billion in 2006,UK's largest in thepostwar period,officials say the country has nothing to worry about.In fact,Britain does have a world-class pharmaceutical industry and it still makes a small sum from selling arms abroad.It also trades services一accountancy,insurance,banking and advertising.The government believes Britain is on the cutting edge of the knowledge economy.After all,the country of Shakespeare and Words-worth has a literary tradition of which to be proud.Rock'n'roll is an English language medium,and there are billions to be made by their cutting-edge bands.In other words,the creative economy has plenty of strength to carry the British economy. 4 .However,creative industries account for only about 4 percent of UK's exports of goods and services.The industries are finding it hard to make a profit,according to a report of the National Endowment for Science,Technology and the Arts.The report shows only 38 percent of British companies were engaged in“innovation activities”,3 percentage points be-low the EU average and well below Germany(61 percent)and Sweden(47 percent). 5 .In fact,it might be better to call Britain a“servant”economy一there are at least 4 million people“in service”.The majority of the population are employed by the rich to cook,clean,and take care of their children.Many graduates are even doing menial jobs for which they do not need a degree.Most employment growth has been, and will continue to be,at the low-skill end of the service sector一in shops,bars,hotels,domestic service and in nursing and care homes. The creative industries find it difficult______.
[多选题]共用题干 Sport or Spectacle?Muhammad Aui is probably the most famous sports figure on earth:he is recognized on every continent and by all generations. The__________(51)of his illness as Parkinson's disease after his retirement fuelled the debate about the dangers of boxing and criticism__________(52)the sport. That,plus his outspoken opposition___________(53)women's boxing,made people wonder how he would react when one of his daugh- ters decided to____________(54)up the sport.His presence at Laila's first professional fight,however,seemed to broadcast a father's support.Of course Muhammad Aui wanted to___________(55)his daughter fight.The ring announcer introduced him as the"the greatest"and as he sat down at the ringside the crowd chanted.Twenty-one-year-old Laila's debut fight(首次亮相)was a huge success and there was as much publicity for the___________(56)as her father's fights once attracted Laila's opponent was much weaker than she was and__________(57)the fight lasted just 31 seconds.Since then, Laila has won most of her fights by knoc-king out her opponent"She knows ______ (58)she's doing,"said one referee about her."She knowsabout moving well.You can see some of her dad's moves."Laila Ali would rather not_________ (59)herself to her father. She prefers to make. __________(60). Her father supports her decision to enter the sport but he has not spared her the details of what can happen. Laila__________(61)that her father wants her to understand the worst possible scenario to see_________(62) she still wants to go forward with it.She knows she's going to get hit hard at times,that she may get a broken nose or a swollen(肿胀的)face , but at least she is prepared for it.Laila's decision to start boxing despite her father's__________(63)with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease has of course sparked a mixture of praise and__________(64).But Laila is a determined individual and it is her famous last name that has made her a magnet for worldwide media attention.Of course,the ___________(65)on the boxing scene of a woman with her family history attracts even more questions about whether women's boxing is sport or spectacle. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 Who Built Giza's Pyramids(金字塔)?1 .For centuries,the pyramids of Giza have been timeless symbols of Egyptian culture.But who actually built them? For years, we did not know for sure.But archeologists(考古学家)recently discovered an ancient village near the pyramids.Close by,there was also a ceme-tery(墓地)where pyramid builders were buried.From studying these places, archeologists can now confirm that the pyramids were not built by slaves or foreigners.Ordinary Egyptians built them.2 .It took about eighty years to build the pyramids.According to archeologists,about 20,000~30,000 people were involved in completing the task.The workers had different roles.Some dug up the rock,some moved it,and some shaped it into blocks.People also worked on different teams,each with its own name.On a wall in Khufu's Great Pyramid,for example,a group of workers wrote“Friends of Khufu.”Teams often competed to do a job faster.3.Life for these workers was hard.“We can see that in their skeletons(骨架),”says Azza Mohamed Sarry El-Din,a scientist studying bodies found in the cemetery.The bones show signs of arthritis(关节炎),which developed from carrying heavy things for a long time.Archeologists have also found many female skeletons in the village and cemetery.The damage to their bones is similar to the men's.Their lives may have been even tougher:male workers lived to age 40~45,but women to only 30~35.However,workers usually had enough food,and they also had medical care if they got sick or hurt.4 .The work was challenging,but laborers were proud of their work.“It's because they were not just building the tomb of their king,” says Egyptian archeologist Zahi Hawass.“They were building Egypt.It was a national project,and everyone was a participant.” Paragraph 1______
[多选题]共用题干 The Most Wonderful IslandsThe Palm Islands are the largest artificial islands in the world and are under construction in Dubai,in the United Arab Emirates.They are being developed as tourist,leisure,and residential resorts,and will increase the coastline of the country by 120 kilometers.After four years of planning and careful consideration of the environmental issues,construction started in 2001.Dutch engineers with experience of reclaiming land from the sea were employed in the building of the first two islands.The site for all three islands is an area of the sea where the water is not very deep.Sand is taken from the seabed and sprayed into the construction site.Although the shallow water facilitates this process,the islands are still very exposed to the currents and tidal movements of the sea.Rocks are used to hold the sand in place resulting in a large crescent(月状的)structure.This acts as a breakwater and protects the islands from the sea.The first two islands are in the shape of date palm trees and consist of a trunk and 17 fronds,or leaves, coming off the trunk.The first island,named Palm Jumeirah,has three five-star hotels in the trunk,and luxury homes in the leaves.It is astonishing that when these homes went on sale in 2004,they were all sold within three days.The second palm,Jebel Ali,was started in 2002 and is designed to be an entertainment centre.Six marinas(小游艇船坞)are planned,with a water theme park,and homes built on stilts(桩柱)in the water.The Palm Deira is planned to be the largest of the three islands,with a length of 14km and a width of 8.5km,an area larger than the city of Paris.It will consist of residential properties,marinas,shopping malls,sports facilities and clubs.These will be open to both residents and tourists.More artificial islands,the World Islands , are now being constructed near the Palm Jumeirah.They consist of 300 private islands grouped into the shape of the continents of the world and will be used for estates , private homes , community islands , and resorts.Unquestionably , these artificial islands are one of the wonders of the modern world.They will also maintain Dubai' s status as one of the leading tourist destinations in the region. Some Dutch engineers are experienced in reclaiming land from the se