考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 Toads are Arthritic and in PainArthritis(关节炎)is an illness that can cause pain and swelling in your bones. Toads(蟾蜍),a bigproblem in the north of Australia,are suffering from painful arthritis in their legs and backbone,a new study has shown. The toads that jump the fastest are more likely to be larger and to have longer legs._________(46)The large yellow toads,native to South and Central America,were introduced into the north-eastern Aus-tralian state of Queensland in 1935 in an attempt to stop beetles and other insects from destroying sugarcane crops.'Now up to 200 million of the poisonous toads exist in the country,and they are rapidly spreading through the state of Northern Territory at a rate of up to 60 km a year. The toads can now be found across more than one million square kilometres._________(47)A Venezuelan poison virus was tried in the 1990s but had to be abandoned after it was found to also kill native frog species.The toads have severely affected ecosystems in Australia.Animals,and sometimes pets,that eat the toads die immediately from their poison,and the toads themselves eat anything they can fit inside their mouth. _________(48)A co-author of the new study,Rick Shine,a professor at the University of Sydney,says that little alien- tion has been given to the problems that toads face.Rick and his colleagues studied nearly 500 toads from Queensland and the Northern Territory and found that those in the latter state were very different.They were active,sprinting down roads and breeding quickly.According to the results of the study,the fastest toads travel nearly one kilometre a night._________(49) But speed and strength come at a price一arthritis of the legs and backbone due to constant pressure placed on them.In laboratory tests,the researchers found that after about 15 minutes of hopping,arthritic toads wouldtravel less distance with each hop(跳跃)._________( 50 ) These toads are so programmed to move, apparently,that even when in pain the toads travelled as fast and as far as the healthy ones,continuing their constant march across the landscape. _________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Gross National HappinessIn the last century,new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries. However,one country resisted these changes. High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia,the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however,was a poor country.People died at a young age.Most of its people could not read,and they did not know much about the outside world.Then, in 1972,a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck decided to help Bhutan to become modern,but without losing its traditions.King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas.He saw that most countries measured their progress by their Gross National Product(GNP).The GNP measures products and money.When the number of products sold increases,people say the country is making progress.King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan.He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness.If the people's happiness increased,the king could say that Bhutan was making progress.To decide if people were happier,he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness.People are happier if they have health care, education,and jobs.They are happier when they live in a healthy,protected environment.They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs.Finally,people are happier when they have a good,stable government.Now there is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan.People are healthier and are living longer.More people are educated and employed.Twenty-five percent of the land has become national parks,and the country has almost no pollution.The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow theirancient Buddhist customs.Bhutan has also become a democracy.In 2008,King Wangchuck gave his power to his son.Although the country still had a king,it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time.Finally,Bhutan has connected to the rest of the world through television and internet.Bhutan is a symbol for social progress.Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH.These countries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness.They want to create new policies that take care of their people,cultures,and land.Brazil may be the nest country to use the principles of GNH.Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration.Brazil is a large country with a diverse population.If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil,perhaps the rest of the world will follow. Apart from modernizing Bhutan,what else did Wangchuck want to do for Bhutan?
[多选题]共用题干 Are You a Successful Leader?1 Almost nothing we do in this world is done in isolation.At work or at play,you'll find yourself in groups,working with other people:your team at work,a meeting with colleagues,your family,a holiday with friends,a group of students working together,a day out walking in the mountains,a group of neighbours want- ing to make changes.It is now recognized that being able to work successfully with other people is one of the major keys to success,partly because we need to do it so often.2 In almost every situation where you're in a group,you will need a skilled leader. All groups need leaders and all successful groups have good leaders.Groups without leaders or with weak leaders almost always break down.Members of a leaderless group often begin to feel dissatisfied and frustrated.Time is wasted and the tasks are not achieved.There are often arguments and tensions between people as there is nobody to keep the goals clear. Some personalities dominate and others disappear. Often group members begin not to come to meetings in order to avoid more disharmony.3 Some people are natural leaders.The celebrity chef,Antonio Carluccio says,"True leaders are bornand you can spot them in kitchens."They're people who combine toughness,fairness and humour. Although a lot of people agree that there are somne natural-born leaders,most people now recognize that leadership can also be taught.Our professional and experienced staff can train almost anyone how to be a successful leader. Good leaders don't make people do things in a bossy,controlling way.You can learn how to involve everyone, encouraging the whole group to work towards a comnmon goal.4 Our training courses use activities and techniques to develop a range of qualities which are necessary to be a good leader. Self-confidence is vital and being able to overcome your own fears about being a leader. Successful leaders also need to be calm and intelligent.They need to be able to work out good strategies and make sound judgements under pressure.Lastly,and probably most importantly,good leaders need to be sensi- tive,sociable and be able to get on with a wide range of people.Good leadership is essentially the ability to influence others and good leaders allow all members of the group to contribute. Groups often break down because of_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Food for LearningIn Eritrea,a small country in northeast Africa,approximately 80 percent of the population is illiterate. That percentage is even higher for women.As in many developing countries,most Eritreans have traditionalideas about the role of women.They believe that women should stay home and take care of the family and should not get an education or look for a job.These beliefs are one of the factors that prevent Eritrea and other developing countries from improving their economic situation. Experience in many countries has shown that educated women have fewer children and have more opportunities for improving their lives and the lives of their families.In Eritrea,in fact,there is great need for improvement.It is one of the poorest countries in the world.For many Eritrean families,getting enough food is a daily problem.To deal with these problems,the Eritrean government,together with the World Food Program,has a new program that offers food as a reward for learning. In primary schools,all the children receive food packages to take home to their families.However,with the new program,the girls receive 50 percent more food than the boys.This way,parents are encouraged to send their daughters to school rather than keeping them at home.Another government program that aims to educate women is Food for Training. Managed by the National Union of Eritrean Women,this pro缪m offers food rewards(also from the World Food Organization)to women and older girls who are willing to join the program.Because of the war with Ethiopia,many women are bring- ing up their families on their own.They often live in refugee camps,with no land of their own and no way to earn money. Most of these women are illiterate and have no skills to find a job.They spend most of their day looking for food and preparing it for their families.The Food for Training program helps the teenagers and women change their lives.If they agree to join he program,they receive a large package of food each month.In return,the women are required to attend freeliteracy classes for two卜ours every day. When Food for Training started with classes in two regions of Eritrea, 5,000 girls and women joined in the first two months.It is especially popular with teenage girls,aged fourteen to sixteen,who have never had a chance to go to school before.The organizers of Food for Training also plan to offer other kinds of courses for women,using the same system of food rewards.In these courses,they will teach women job skills and crafts,such as basket weaving. These women will not only learn to read and write,but also become aware of what is going on in their coun- try,and they will be able to have a voice in their future. With the Food for Training program,women get a large package of food as long as__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Are You a Successful Leader?1 Almost nothing we do in this world is done in isolation.At work or at play,you'll find yourself in groups,working with other people:your team at work,a meeting with colleagues,your family,a holiday with friends,a group of students working together,a day out walking in the mountains,a group of neighbours want- ing to make changes.It is now recognized that being able to work successfully with other people is one of the major keys to success,partly because we need to do it so often.2 In almost every situation where you're in a group,you will need a skilled leader. All groups need leaders and all successful groups have good leaders.Groups without leaders or with weak leaders almost always break down.Members of a leaderless group often begin to feel dissatisfied and frustrated.Time is wasted and the tasks are not achieved.There are often arguments and tensions between people as there is nobody to keep the goals clear. Some personalities dominate and others disappear. Often group members begin not to come to meetings in order to avoid more disharmony.3 Some people are natural leaders.The celebrity chef,Antonio Carluccio says,"True leaders are bornand you can spot them in kitchens."They're people who combine toughness,fairness and humour. Although a lot of people agree that there are somne natural-born leaders,most people now recognize that leadership can also be taught.Our professional and experienced staff can train almost anyone how to be a successful leader. Good leaders don't make people do things in a bossy,controlling way.You can learn how to involve everyone, encouraging the whole group to work towards a comnmon goal.4 Our training courses use activities and techniques to develop a range of qualities which are necessary to be a good leader. Self-confidence is vital and being able to overcome your own fears about being a leader. Successful leaders also need to be calm and intelligent.They need to be able to work out good strategies and make sound judgements under pressure.Lastly,and probably most importantly,good leaders need to be sensi- tive,sociable and be able to get on with a wide range of people.Good leadership is essentially the ability to influence others and good leaders allow all members of the group to contribute. Paragraph 4 ___________
[多选题]共用题干 Moderate Earthquake Strikes EnglandA moderate earthquake struck parts of southeast England on 28 April 2007,toppling chim- neys from houses and rousing residents from their beds .Several thousand people were left without power in Kent County. One woman suffered minor head and neck injuries.“It felt as if the whole house was being slid across like a fun-fair ride,”said the woman.The British Geological Survey said the 4 .3-magnitude quake struck at 8:19 a.m. and was centered under the English Channel,about 8 .5 miles south of Dover and near the entrance to the Channel Tunnel.Witnesses said cracks appeared in walls and chimneys collapsed across the county .Residents said the tremor had lasted for about 10 to 15 seconds.“I was lying in bed and it felt as if someone had just got up from bed next to me.”said Hen-drick van Eck,27,of Canterbury about 60 miles southeast of London.“I then heard the sound of cracking,and it was getting heavier and heavier. It felt as if someone was at the end of my bed hopping up and down.”There are thousands of moderate quakes on this scale around the world each year,but they are rare in Britain. The April 28 quake was the strongest in Britain since 2002 when a 4.8-magni-tude quake struck the central England city of Birmingham.The country's strongest earthquake took place in the North Sea in 1931,measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale.British Geological Survey scientist Roger Musson said the quake took place on 28 April in an area that had seen several of the biggest earthquakes ever to strike Britain,including one in 1580 that caused damage in London and was felt in France.Musson predicted that it was only a matter of time before another earthquake struck this part of England.However,people should not be scared too much by this prediction,Musson said,as the modern earthquake warning system of Britain should be able to detect a forthcoming quake and announce it several hours be-fore it takes place .This would allow time for people to evacuate and reduce damage to the mini-mum. The following statements are true Except______.
[多选题]共用题干 Travel Across AfricaFor six hours we shot through the barren(荒芜的)landscape of the Karoo desert in South Africa. Just rocks and sand and baking sun.Knowing our journey was ending,Daniel and I just wanted to remember all we had seen and done.He used a camera. I used words.I had already finished three notebooks and was into the fourth,a beautiful leather notebook I'd bought in a market in Mozambique.Southern Africa was full of stories and visions.We were almost drunk in sensations.The roaring of the water at Victoria Falls,the impossible silence of the Okavango Delta in Botswana.And then the other things:dogs in the streets,whole families in Soweto living in one room,a kilometre from clean water.As we drove towards the setting sun,a quietness fell over us.The road was empty-we hadn't seen another car for hours.And as I drove,something caught my eye,something moving close enough to touch them,to smell their hot breath.I didn't know how long they had been there next to us.I shouted to Dan:"Look!"But he was in a deep sleep,his camera lying useless by his feet.They raced the car for a few seconds,then disappeared far behind us,a memory of heroic forms in the red landscape. When Daniel woke up an hour later I told him what had happened."Wild horses?"he said."Why didn't you wake me up,Sophia?""I tried.But they were gone after a few seconds.""Are you sure you didn't dream it?""You were the one who was sleeping!""Typical,"he said."The best photos are the ones we never take."We checked into a dusty hotel and slept the sleep of the dead. Daniel took photos of the Nile River.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Three Ways to Become More CreativeMost people believe they don't have much imagination.They are wrong. Everyone has imagination,but most of us,once we become adults,forget how to access it.Creativity isn't always connected with great works of art or ideas.People at work and in their free time routinely think of creative ways to solve problems.Maybe you have a goal to achieve,a tricky question to answer or you just want to expand your mind!Here are three techniques to help you.This technique involves taking unrelated ideas and trying to find links between them. First,think about the problem you have to solve or the job you need to do.Then find an image,word,idea or object,for exam- ple,a candle.Write down all the ideas/words associated with candles:light,fire,matches,wax,night,silence, etc.Think of as many as you can.The next stage is to relate the ideas to the job you have to do.So imagine you want to buy a friend an original present,you could buy him tickets to a match or take him out for the night.Imagine that normal limitations don't exist.You have as much time/space/money,etc.as you want. Think about your goal and the new possibilities.If,for example,your goal is to learn to ski,you can now prac- tice skiing every day of your life(because you have the time and the money).Now adapt this to reality.May- be you can practice skiing every day in December,or every Monday in January.Look at the situation from a different point of view. Good negotiators(谈判者)use this technique in business,and so do wnters.Fiction writers often imagine they are the characters in their books.They askquestions:What does this character want?Why can't she get it?What changes must she make to get what she wants?What does she dream about?If your goal involves other people,put yourself" in their shoes".The best fishermen think like fish! The second technique suggests that you just imagine___________.
[单选题]What Is a Dream?【什么是梦】 阅读判断改编为补全短文   For centuries, people have wondered about the strange things that they dream about. Some psychologists say that this nighttime activity of the mind has no special meaning. Others, however, think that dreams are an important part of our lives. In fact, many experts believe that dreams can tell us about a person's mind and emotions.   Before modern times, many people thought that dreams contained messages from God.(46)___   The Austrian psychologist, Sigmund Freud', was probably the first person to study dreams scientifically. In his famous book, The interpretation of Dreams (1900) ,Freud wrote that dreams are an expressions of a person's wishes. He believed that dreams allow people to express the feelings, thoughts, and fears that they are afraid to express in real life.   The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung2 was once a student of Freud's. Jung, however, had a different idea about dreams. Jung believed that the purpose of a dream was to communicate a message to the dreamer. (47)___ For example, people who dream about falling may learn that they have too high an opinion of themselves. On the other hand, people who dream about being heroes may learn that they think too little of themselves.   Modern-day psychologists continue to develop theories about dreams. For example, psychologist William Domhoff from the University of California, Santa Cruz, believes that dreams are tightly linked to a person's daily life, thoughts, and behavior. (48)___   Domhoff believes that there is a connection between dreams and age. His research shows that children do not dream as much as adults. According to Domhoff, dreaming is a mental skill that needs time to develop.   He has also found a link between dreams and gender. His studies show that the dreams of men and women are different. (49)___This is not true of women's dreams.-3 Domhoff found this gender difference in the dreams of people from 11 cultures around the world, including both modern and traditional ones.   Can dreams help us understand ourselves Psychologists continue to try to answer this question in different ways. (50)___The dream' may have meaning, but it does not mean that some terrible event will actually take place. It's important to remember that the world of dreams is not the real world. 文章(46~50)
[多选题]共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech- nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would run out of food were wrong. We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there- fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen for many years,and continues to drop.2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business, they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient. And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super- markets get bigger,the prices get lower.3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro- ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000 global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food corn- panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225 g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120zportion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to change the trend. Buyers like bigger portions because they think they have got___________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇The IcemanOn a September day in 1991,two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy.Highup on a mountain pass,they found the body of a man lying on the ice.At that height(10,499 feet,or 3,200meters),the ice is usually permanent,but 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice hadmelted more than usual and so the body had come to the surface.It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架)was in perfect condition, except for a wound in the head.There was still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes.The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots.Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮)and a holder for arrows.Who was this man?How and when had he died?Everybody had a different answer to these questions.Some people thought that it was from this century,perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War Ⅰ ,since several soldiers had already been found in the area. A Swiss woman believed it might be her father,whohad died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found.The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older,maybe even a thousand years old.With modern dating techniques,the scientists soon learned that the Iceman was about 5,300 years old. Born in about 3300 B.C.,he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe.At first scientists thought he was probablya hunter who had died in an accident in the high mountains.More recent evidence,however,tells a different story.A new kind of X-ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. It left only a tiny hole in his skin, but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He almost certainly died from this wound,and not from the wound on the back of his head.This means that he was probably in some kind of a battle.It might have been part of a larger war,or he might have been fighting bandits.He might even have been a bandit himself.By studying his clothes and tools,scientists have already learned a great deal from the Iceman about the times he lived in.We may never know the full story of how he died,but he has given us important clues to the history of those distant times. The word"bandits"in Paragraph 4 could be best replaced by__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Living History at Jamestown SettlementA woman in Native American clothes is sitting in the sun,sewing a dress from skin. Inside a building,a colonist is making a wooden chair,using very simple tools.And all around,tourists are taking pictures with their digital(数码的)cameras. This is Jamestown settlement today.Jamestown,Virginia,was one of the first place in the world where people form Europe,A-merican,and Africa came together in 1608 .Today,it is a living history museum,where children and adults come to experience history.In a living history museum,actors wear clothes and adults form the past and demonstrate many of the activities of daily life back then.The actors also talk to the visitors and explain everything they do.At a living history museum,there are always many things to touch,hear,and smell. Visitors at Jamestown settlement can walk through copies of the three small sailing ships that carried colo-mists to Virginia and even lie down in a colonist's bed!The colonists stayed on the crowed,dan-gerous ships for more than four months.When they got to Virginia,they built an area of houses with a high wall around it. In today's fort(堡垒),you can see houses, a church, and even a gar-den with foods that the colonists ate .Women in long dresses work inside their homes,and visitors can help them with their sewing and cooking.There is also an Indian Village at Jamestown settlement,and it looks very different from the fort. It shows how the Indians lived in long houses and grew corn and other crops in large fields. Actors there make pottery(陶器)and teach visitors how to play Indian games. You can even help them make an India boat from a tree!Today,the living history museum of Jamestown is very popular,especially with children and families.People come here to have fun,but also to learn. Many school classes visit to experience old ways of getting things done. A living history museum is the best way to understand how people lived in the past. In Jamestown,visitors can walk through the real ships the colonists used.
[多选题]共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech- nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would run out of food were wrong. We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there- fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen for many years,and continues to drop.2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business, they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient. And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super- markets get bigger,the prices get lower.3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro- ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000 global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food corn- panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225 g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120zportion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to change the trend. Paragraph 2__________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Going Her Own WayWhen she was twelve,Maria made her first important decision about the course of her life.She decided that she wanted to continue her education.Most girls from middle-class families chose to stay at home afterprimary school,though some attended private Catholic"finishing"schools.There they learned a little about music,art,needlework,and how to make polite conversation. This was not the sort of education that interested Maria-or her mother. By this time,she had begun to take her studies more seriously.She read constantly and brought her books everywhere.One time she even brought her math book to the theater and tried to study in the dark.Maria knew that she wanted to go on learning in a serious way.That meant attending the public high school,something that very few girls did.In Italy at the time,there were two types of high schools:the"classical"schools and the"technical"schools. In the classical schools,the students followed a very tradi- tional program of studies,with courses in Latin and Greek language and literature,and Italian literature and history. The few girls who continued studying after primary school usually chose these schools.Maria,however,wanted to attend a technical school.The technical schools were more modern than the classical schools and they offered courses in modern languages,mathematics,science,and accounting. Most people一including Maria's father一believed that girls would never be able to understand these subjects. Furthermore,they did not think it was proper for girls to study them.Maria did not care if it was proper or not.Math and science were the subjects that interested her most. But before she could sign up for the technical school,she had to win her father's approval. She finally did, with her mother's help,though for many years after,there was tension in the family. Maria's father continued to oppose her plans,while her mother helped her.In 1883,at age thirteen,Maria entered the"Regia Scuola Tecnica Michelangelo Buonarroti"in Rome. Her experience at this school is difficult for us to imagine.Though the courses included modern subjects,theteaching methods were very traditional. Learning consisted of memorizing long lists of facts and repeating them back to the teacher. Students were not supposed to ask questions or think for themselves in any way. Teachers were very demanding;discipline in the classroom was strict;punishment was severe for those who failed to achieve or were disobedient. High school teachers in Italy in those days were very_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Cell Phones: Hang Up or Keep Talking?Millions of people are using cell phones today,In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one.In many countries,cell phones are very popular with Young people.They find that the phones aremore than a means of communication一having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected.The explosions around the world in mobile phone use make some health professionals worried.Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones.In England,there has been a serious debate about this issue.Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas.They say that there is no proof that mobile phones are bad for your health.On the other hand,why do some medical studies show changes in the brain cells of some people who use mobile phones?Signs of change in the tissues of the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning (扫描)equipment. In one case , a traveling salesman had to retire at a young age because of serious memory loss.He couldn't remember even simple tasks.He would often forget the name of his own son.This man used to talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day,every day of his working week,for a couple of years.His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use,but his employer's doctor didn't agree.What is it that makes mobile phones potentially harmful?The answer is radiation.High-tech machines can detect very small amounts of radiation from mobile phones.Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation,but they say the amount is too small to worry about.As the discussion about their safety continues,it appears that it's best to use mobile phones less often. Use your regular phone if you want to talk for a long time.Use your mnobile phone only when you really need it.Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient,especially in emergencies.In the future,mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health.So for now,it's wise not to use your mobile phone too often. The word"detected"in Paragraph 3 could be best replaced by_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Racial PrejudiceIn some countries where racial prejudice is acute,violence has been taken for granted as a means of solving differences,and this is not even questioned.There are countries________(51)the white man imposes his rule by brute(粗暴的)force ; there are countries where the black man protests by______ (52) fire to cities and by looting and pillaging(抢劫).Important people on both sides , who would appear to be reasonable men , get up and calmly argue in ___________( 53 ) of violence as if it were a legitimate(合法的) solution,________(54)any other. What is really frightening,what really________(55)you with despair,isthe realization that when it comes to the crunch(关键时刻),we have made no actual_________ (56) at all.We may wear collars and ties instead of war-paint,but our instincts remain basically unchanged.The whole of the recorded_________(57)of the human race,that tedious documentation of violence,has taught us absolutely nothing. We have still not learnt that__________(58)never solves a problem but makes it more acute.The sheer horror,the bloodshed and the suffering___________(59)nothing. No solution ever comes to ___________(60)the morning after we dismally(阴郁地)contemplate the smoking ruins and wonder what hit us.The truly reasonable men who___________(61)where the solutions lie are finding it harder and harder to get a hearing. They are despised,mistrusted and even persecuted___________(62)their own kind because they advocate such apparently outrageous things as law enforcement. if half the energy that goes into_________(63)acts was put to good use,if our efforts were directed at. _________(64)up the slums and ghettos(贫民窟),at improving living-standards and providing education and employment for all, we wouldnot have gone a long way to___________(65)at a solution. _________(52)
[多选题]共用题干 Sport or Spectacle?Muhammad Aui is probably the most famous sports figure on earth:he is recognized on every continent and by all generations. The__________(51)of his illness as Parkinson's disease after his retirement fuelled the debate about the dangers of boxing and criticism__________(52)the sport. That,plus his outspoken opposition___________(53)women's boxing,made people wonder how he would react when one of his daugh- ters decided to____________(54)up the sport.His presence at Laila's first professional fight,however,seemed to broadcast a father's support.Of course Muhammad Aui wanted to___________(55)his daughter fight.The ring announcer introduced him as the"the greatest"and as he sat down at the ringside the crowd chanted.Twenty-one-year-old Laila's debut fight(首次亮相)was a huge success and there was as much publicity for the___________(56)as her father's fights once attracted Laila's opponent was much weaker than she was and__________(57)the fight lasted just 31 seconds.Since then, Laila has won most of her fights by knoc-king out her opponent"She knows ______ (58)she's doing,"said one referee about her."She knowsabout moving well.You can see some of her dad's moves."Laila Ali would rather not_________ (59)herself to her father. She prefers to make. __________(60). Her father supports her decision to enter the sport but he has not spared her the details of what can happen. Laila__________(61)that her father wants her to understand the worst possible scenario to see_________(62) she still wants to go forward with it.She knows she's going to get hit hard at times,that she may get a broken nose or a swollen(肿胀的)face , but at least she is prepared for it.Laila's decision to start boxing despite her father's__________(63)with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease has of course sparked a mixture of praise and__________(64).But Laila is a determined individual and it is her famous last name that has made her a magnet for worldwide media attention.Of course,the ___________(65)on the boxing scene of a woman with her family history attracts even more questions about whether women's boxing is sport or spectacle. _________(58)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Cell Phones: Hang Up or Keep Talking?Millions of people are using cell phones today,In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one.In many countries,cell phones are very popular with Young people.They find that the phones aremore than a means of communication一having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected.The explosions around the world in mobile phone use make some health professionals worried.Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones.In England,there has been a serious debate about this issue.Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas.They say that there is no proof that mobile phones are bad for your health.On the other hand,why do some medical studies show changes in the brain cells of some people who use mobile phones?Signs of change in the tissues of the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning (扫描)equipment. In one case , a traveling salesman had to retire at a young age because of serious memory loss.He couldn't remember even simple tasks.He would often forget the name of his own son.This man used to talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day,every day of his working week,for a couple of years.His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use,but his employer's doctor didn't agree.What is it that makes mobile phones potentially harmful?The answer is radiation.High-tech machines can detect very small amounts of radiation from mobile phones.Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation,but they say the amount is too small to worry about.As the discussion about their safety continues,it appears that it's best to use mobile phones less often. Use your regular phone if you want to talk for a long time.Use your mnobile phone only when you really need it.Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient,especially in emergencies.In the future,mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health.So for now,it's wise not to use your mobile phone too often. The writer's purpose of writing this article is to advise people__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇On the Trail of the Honey BadgerOn a recent field trip to the Kalahari Desert,a team of researchers learnt a lot more about honey badgers (獾).The team employed a local wildlife expert,Kitso Khama,to help them locate and follow the badgers across the desert. Their main aim was to study the badgers' movements and behaviour as discreetly(谨慎地) as possible,without frightening them away or causing them to change their natural behaviour. They also planned to trap a few and study them close up before releasing them.In view of the animal's reputation,this was something that even Khama was reluctant to do."The problem with honey badgers is they are naturally curious animals,especially when they see some- thing new,"he says."That,combined with their unpredictable nature,can be a dangerous mixture.If they sense you have food,for example,they won't be shy about coming right up to you for something to eat. They're actually quite sociable creatures around humans,but as soon as they feel they might be in danger, they can become extremely vicious(凶恶的).Fortunately this is rare , but it does happen."The research confirmed many things that were already known.As expected,honey badgers ate any crea- tures they could catch and kill.Even poisonous snakes,feared and avoided by most other animals,were not safe from them.The researchers were surprised,however,by the animal'5 fondness for local melons,probably because of their high water content. Previously researchers thought that the animal got all of its liquid require- ments from its prey(猎物).The team also learnt that , contrary to previous research findings , the badgers occasionally formed loose family groups.They were also able to confirm certain results from previous research,including the fact that female badgers never socialised with each other.Following some of the male badgers was a challenge,since they can cover large distances in a short space of time.Some hunting territories cover more than 500 square kilometres.Although they seem happy toshare these territories with other males,there are occasional fights over an important food source,and male badgers can be as aggressive towards each other as they are towards other species.As the badgers became accustomed to the presence of people,it gave the team the chance to get up close to them without being the subject of the animals'curiosity一or their sudden aggression.The badgers' eating patterns,which had been disrupted,returned to normal.It also allowed the team to observe more closely some of the other creatures that form working associations with the honey badger,as these seemed to adopt the badgers' relaxed attitude when near humans. What happened when honey badgers got used to humans around them?
[多选题]共用题干 In Sports,Red is the Winning ColorWhen opponents of a game are equally matched,the team dressed in red is more likely to win,accord- ing to a new study.British anthropologists Russell Hill and Robert Barton of the University of Durham reached that conclu- sion by studying the outcomes of one-on-one boxing,tae kwon do,Greco-Roman-wresting,and freestyle- wrestling matches at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens,Greece.In each event Olympic staff randomly assigned red or blue clothing or body protection to competitors. When otherwise equally matched with their opponent in fitness and skill,athletes wearing red were more likely to win the bout."Where there was a large point difference一presumably because one contestant was far superior to the other一color had no effect on the outcome,"Barton said."Where there was a small point difference,the effect of color was sufficient to tip the balance."In equally matched bouts,the preponderance of red wins was great enough that it could not be attributed to chance,the anthropologists say.Hill and Barton found similar results in a review of the colors worn at the Euro 2004 international soccer tournament.Their report will be published in tomorrow's issue of the journal Nature.Joanna Setchell,a primate researcher at the University of Cambridge in England,has found similar results in nature.Her work with the large African monkeys known as mandrills shows that red colorationgives males an advantage when it comes to mating.The finding that red also has an advantage in human sporting events does not surprise her,adding that "the idea of the study is very clever."Hill and Barton got the idea for their study out of a mutual interest in the evolution of sexual signals in primates一“red seems to be the color,across species,that signals male dominance and testosterone levels," Barton said.For example,studies by Setchell,the Cambridge primate researcher,show that dominant male man- drills have increased red coloration in their faces and rumps. Another study by other scientists shows that red plastic rings experimentally placed on the legs of male zebra finches increase the birds'dominance.Barton said he and Hill speculated that"there might be a similar effect in humans.And if so,it could be apparent in sporting contests."The pair say their results indicate that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of humans' response to color.Setchell,the primatologist,agrees."As Hill and Barton say,humans redden when we are angry and pale when we're scared.These are very important signals to other individuals,"she said.The advantage of red may be intuitively known,judging from the prevalence of red uniforms in sports一 "though it is clearly not very widely appreciated,on a conscious level at least,"Barton said.He adds that the finding of red's advantage might have implications for regulations that govern sporting attire.In the Olympic matches he surveyed for the new study;for example,it is possible some medal winners may have reached the pedestal with an unintended advantage."That is the implication,though we cannot say that it made the difference in any specific case,"Bartonsaid.Meanwhile,Setchell noted一tongue-in-cheek一that a red advantage may not be limited to sports. "Going by the recent U.S.election results,red is indeed quite successful,"she said. Red is not an advantage for zebra finches.
[多选题]共用题干 Traffic Jams一No End in Sight1 Traffic congestion(拥堵)affects people throughout the world. Traffic jams cause smog in dozens of cities across both the developed and developing world. In the U. S.,commuters(通勤人员)spend an average of a full working week each year sitting in traffic jams,according to the Texas Transportation Institu-te.While alternative ways of getting around are available,most people still choose their cars because they are looking for convenience,comfort and privacy.2 The most promising technique for reducing city traffic is called congestion pricing,whereby cities charge a toll to enter certain parts of town at certain times of day.In theory,if the toll is high enough,some drivers will cancel their trips or go by bus or train.And in practice it seems to work:Singapore,London and Stockholm have reduced traffic and pollution in city centres thanks to congestion pricing.3 Another way to reduce rush-hour traffic is for employers to implement flexitime,which lets employees travel to and from work at off-peak traffic times to avoid the rush hour. Those who have to travel during busy times can do their part by sharing cars.Employers can also allow more staff to telecommute(work from home)so as to keep more cars off the road altogether.4 Some urban planners still believe that the best way to ease traffic congestion is to build more roads, especially roads that can take drivers around or over crowded city streets.But such techniques do not really keep cars off the road;they only accommodate more of them.5 Other,more forward-thinking,planners know that more and more drivers and cars are taking to the roads every day,and they are unwilling to encourage more private automobiles when public transport is so much better both for people and the environment.For this reason,the American government has decided to spend some$7 billion on helping to increase capacity on public-transport systems and upgrade them with more efficient technologies.But environmentalists complain that such funding is tiny compared with the$50 billion being spent on roads and bridges. If charged high enough,some drivers may_________to enter certain parts of town.
[多选题]共用题干 Mau Piailug,Ocean NavigatorMau sailed from Hawaii to Tahiti using traditional methods.In early 1976,Mau Piailug,a fisherman,led an expedition in which he sailed a traditional Polynesian boat across 2,500 miles of ocean from Hawaii to Tahiti.The Polynesian Voyaging Society had organised the expe-dition. Its purpose was to find out if seafarers(海员)in the distant past could have found their way from one island to the other without navigational instruments,or whether the islands had been populated by accident. At the time,Mau was the only man alive who knew how to navigate just by observing the stars,the wind and the sea.He had never before sailed to Tahiti,which was a long way to the south.However,he understood how the wind and the sea behave around islands,so he was confident he could find his way.The voyage took him and his crew a month to complete and he did it without a compass or charts.His grandfather began the task of teaching him how to navigate when he was still a baby.He showed him pools of water on the beach to teach him how the behaviour of the waves and wind changed in different places.Later,Mau used a circle of stones to memorise the positions of the stars.Each stone was laid out in the sand to represent a star.The voyage proved that Hawaii's first inhabitants came in small boats and navigated by reading the sea and the stars.Mau himself became a keen teacher,passing on his traditional secrets to people of other cul-tures so that his knowledge would not be lost.He explained the positions of the stars to his students,but he allowed them to write things down because he knew they would never be able to rememnber everything as he had done. Mau learnt navigation skills from his grandfather.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Going Her Own WayWhen she was twelve,Maria made her first important decision about the course of her life.She decided that she wanted to continue her education.Most girls from middle-class families chose to stay at home afterprimary school,though some attended private Catholic"finishing"schools.There they learned a little about music,art,needlework,and how to make polite conversation. This was not the sort of education that interested Maria-or her mother. By this time,she had begun to take her studies more seriously.She read constantly and brought her books everywhere.One time she even brought her math book to the theater and tried to study in the dark.Maria knew that she wanted to go on learning in a serious way.That meant attending the public high school,something that very few girls did.In Italy at the time,there were two types of high schools:the"classical"schools and the"technical"schools. In the classical schools,the students followed a very tradi- tional program of studies,with courses in Latin and Greek language and literature,and Italian literature and history. The few girls who continued studying after primary school usually chose these schools.Maria,however,wanted to attend a technical school.The technical schools were more modern than the classical schools and they offered courses in modern languages,mathematics,science,and accounting. Most people一including Maria's father一believed that girls would never be able to understand these subjects. Furthermore,they did not think it was proper for girls to study them.Maria did not care if it was proper or not.Math and science were the subjects that interested her most. But before she could sign up for the technical school,she had to win her father's approval. She finally did, with her mother's help,though for many years after,there was tension in the family. Maria's father continued to oppose her plans,while her mother helped her.In 1883,at age thirteen,Maria entered the"Regia Scuola Tecnica Michelangelo Buonarroti"in Rome. Her experience at this school is difficult for us to imagine.Though the courses included modern subjects,theteaching methods were very traditional. Learning consisted of memorizing long lists of facts and repeating them back to the teacher. Students were not supposed to ask questions or think for themselves in any way. Teachers were very demanding;discipline in the classroom was strict;punishment was severe for those who failed to achieve or were disobedient. We can infer from this passage that__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇On the Trail of the Honey BadgerOn a recent field trip to the Kalahari Desert,a team of researchers learnt a lot more about honey badgers (獾).The team employed a local wildlife expert,Kitso Khama,to help them locate and follow the badgers across the desert. Their main aim was to study the badgers' movements and behaviour as discreetly(谨慎地) as possible,without frightening them away or causing them to change their natural behaviour. They also planned to trap a few and study them close up before releasing them.In view of the animal's reputation,this was something that even Khama was reluctant to do."The problem with honey badgers is they are naturally curious animals,especially when they see some- thing new,"he says."That,combined with their unpredictable nature,can be a dangerous mixture.If they sense you have food,for example,they won't be shy about coming right up to you for something to eat. They're actually quite sociable creatures around humans,but as soon as they feel they might be in danger, they can become extremely vicious(凶恶的).Fortunately this is rare , but it does happen."The research confirmed many things that were already known.As expected,honey badgers ate any crea- tures they could catch and kill.Even poisonous snakes,feared and avoided by most other animals,were not safe from them.The researchers were surprised,however,by the animal'5 fondness for local melons,probably because of their high water content. Previously researchers thought that the animal got all of its liquid require- ments from its prey(猎物).The team also learnt that , contrary to previous research findings , the badgers occasionally formed loose family groups.They were also able to confirm certain results from previous research,including the fact that female badgers never socialised with each other.Following some of the male badgers was a challenge,since they can cover large distances in a short space of time.Some hunting territories cover more than 500 square kilometres.Although they seem happy toshare these territories with other males,there are occasional fights over an important food source,and male badgers can be as aggressive towards each other as they are towards other species.As the badgers became accustomed to the presence of people,it gave the team the chance to get up close to them without being the subject of the animals'curiosity一or their sudden aggression.The badgers' eating patterns,which had been disrupted,returned to normal.It also allowed the team to observe more closely some of the other creatures that form working associations with the honey badger,as these seemed to adopt the badgers' relaxed attitude when near humans. What does Kitso Khama say about honey badgers?
[多选题]共用题干 The Mysteries of NazcaIn the desert of Peru,300 kilometers from Lima,one of the most unusual artworks in the world has mystified(迷惑)people for decades.__________ (46) But from high above, these marks are huge images of birds,fish,seashells,all beautifully carved into the earth.The Nazca lines are so difficult to see from the ground that they weren't discovered until the 1930s, when pilots spotted them while flying over the area. In all,there are about 70 different human and animal figures on the plain,along with 900 triangles,circles,and lines.Researchers have figured out that the lines are at least 1 ,500 years old,but their purpose is still a mystery. ____________(47)However,it would probably be very tricky to land a spaceship in the middle of pictures of dogs and monkeys.In the 1940s,an American explorer named Paul Kosok suggested that the drawings are a chronicle (记录)of the movement of the stars and planets.__________(48) Later, an astronomer tested his theory with a computer,but he couldn't find any relation between the lines and movements in space.Another explanation is that the lines may have been made for religious reasons.British researcher Tony Morrison investigated the customs of people in the Andes Mountain and learned that they sometimes pray by the side of the road.It's possible that in the past,the lines of Nazca were created for a similar purpose. __________(49)But the local people have never constructed anything this big.Recently,two other scientists,David Johnson and Steve Mabee,have speculated that lines could have been related to water. Nazca is one of the driest places in the world and receives only 2cm of rain every year. While Johnson was searching for ancient water sources in the area,he noticed that some waterways built by ancient people were connected with the lines.Johnson believes that the Nazca lines are a giant map of the underground water in the area.________(50) __________(47)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Why So Many ChildrenIn many of the developing countries in Africa and Asia,the population is growing fast.The reason for this is simple.Women in these countries have a high birth rate一from 3.0 to 7.0 children per woman.The majority of these women are poor,without the food or resources to care for their families.Why do they have so many children?Why don't they limit the size of their families?There are several reasons for this.One reason is economic.In a traditional agricultural economy,large families are helpful.Having more children means having more workers in the fields and someone to take care of the parents in old age.In an industrial economy,the situation is different.Many children do not help a family;instead,they are an ex- pense.Thus,industrialization has generally brought down the birth rate.This was the case in Italy,which was industrialized quite recently and rapidly.In the early part of the twentieth century,Italy was a poor,largely agricultural country with a high birth rate.After World War II,Italy's economy was rapidly modernized and industrialized. By the end of the century,the birth rate had dropped to 1.3 children per woman,the world's lowest.However,the economy is not the only important factor that influences birth rate.Saudi Arabia,for exam- pie,does not have an agriculture-based economy,and it has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.Nevertheless,it also has a very high birth rate(7.0).Mexico and Indonesia,on the other hand,are poor countries,with largely agricultural economies,but they have recently reduced their population growth.Clearly,other factors are involved.The most important of these is the condition of women.A high birth rate almost always goes together with lack of education and low status for women.This would explain the high birth rate of Saudi Arabia.There,the traditional culture gives women little education or independence and few possibilities outside the home.On the other hand,the improved condition of women in Mexico,Thailand,and indonesia explains the decline in birth rates in these countries.Their governments have taken measures to provide more education and opportunities for women.Another key factor in the birth rate is birth control.Women may want to limit their families but have no way to do so.In countries where governments have made birth control easily available and inexpensive,birth rates have gone down.This is the case in Singapore,Sri Lanka,and India,as well as in Indonesia,Thailand, Mexico,and Brazil.In these countries,women have also been provided with health care and help in planning their families.These trends show that an effective program to reduce population growth does not have to de- pend on better economic conditions. Saudi Arabia is mentioned because it shows that_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Sport or Spectacle?Muhammad Aui is probably the most famous sports figure on earth:he is recognized on every continent and by all generations. The__________(51)of his illness as Parkinson's disease after his retirement fuelled the debate about the dangers of boxing and criticism__________(52)the sport. That,plus his outspoken opposition___________(53)women's boxing,made people wonder how he would react when one of his daugh- ters decided to____________(54)up the sport.His presence at Laila's first professional fight,however,seemed to broadcast a father's support.Of course Muhammad Aui wanted to___________(55)his daughter fight.The ring announcer introduced him as the"the greatest"and as he sat down at the ringside the crowd chanted.Twenty-one-year-old Laila's debut fight(首次亮相)was a huge success and there was as much publicity for the___________(56)as her father's fights once attracted Laila's opponent was much weaker than she was and__________(57)the fight lasted just 31 seconds.Since then, Laila has won most of her fights by knoc-king out her opponent"She knows ______ (58)she's doing,"said one referee about her."She knowsabout moving well.You can see some of her dad's moves."Laila Ali would rather not_________ (59)herself to her father. She prefers to make. __________(60). Her father supports her decision to enter the sport but he has not spared her the details of what can happen. Laila__________(61)that her father wants her to understand the worst possible scenario to see_________(62) she still wants to go forward with it.She knows she's going to get hit hard at times,that she may get a broken nose or a swollen(肿胀的)face , but at least she is prepared for it.Laila's decision to start boxing despite her father's__________(63)with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease has of course sparked a mixture of praise and__________(64).But Laila is a determined individual and it is her famous last name that has made her a magnet for worldwide media attention.Of course,the ___________(65)on the boxing scene of a woman with her family history attracts even more questions about whether women's boxing is sport or spectacle. _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 Sport or Spectacle?Muhammad Aui is probably the most famous sports figure on earth:he is recognized on every continent and by all generations. The__________(51)of his illness as Parkinson's disease after his retirement fuelled the debate about the dangers of boxing and criticism__________(52)the sport. That,plus his outspoken opposition___________(53)women's boxing,made people wonder how he would react when one of his daugh- ters decided to____________(54)up the sport.His presence at Laila's first professional fight,however,seemed to broadcast a father's support.Of course Muhammad Aui wanted to___________(55)his daughter fight.The ring announcer introduced him as the"the greatest"and as he sat down at the ringside the crowd chanted.Twenty-one-year-old Laila's debut fight(首次亮相)was a huge success and there was as much publicity for the___________(56)as her father's fights once attracted Laila's opponent was much weaker than she was and__________(57)the fight lasted just 31 seconds.Since then, Laila has won most of her fights by knoc-king out her opponent"She knows ______ (58)she's doing,"said one referee about her."She knowsabout moving well.You can see some of her dad's moves."Laila Ali would rather not_________ (59)herself to her father. She prefers to make. __________(60). Her father supports her decision to enter the sport but he has not spared her the details of what can happen. Laila__________(61)that her father wants her to understand the worst possible scenario to see_________(62) she still wants to go forward with it.She knows she's going to get hit hard at times,that she may get a broken nose or a swollen(肿胀的)face , but at least she is prepared for it.Laila's decision to start boxing despite her father's__________(63)with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease has of course sparked a mixture of praise and__________(64).But Laila is a determined individual and it is her famous last name that has made her a magnet for worldwide media attention.Of course,the ___________(65)on the boxing scene of a woman with her family history attracts even more questions about whether women's boxing is sport or spectacle. _________(64)
[多选题]共用题干 Racial PrejudiceIn some countries where racial prejudice is acute,violence has been taken for granted as a means of solving differences,and this is not even questioned.There are countries________(51)the white man imposes his rule by brute(粗暴的)force ; there are countries where the black man protests by______ (52) fire to cities and by looting and pillaging(抢劫).Important people on both sides , who would appear to be reasonable men , get up and calmly argue in ___________( 53 ) of violence as if it were a legitimate(合法的) solution,________(54)any other. What is really frightening,what really________(55)you with despair,isthe realization that when it comes to the crunch(关键时刻),we have made no actual_________ (56) at all.We may wear collars and ties instead of war-paint,but our instincts remain basically unchanged.The whole of the recorded_________(57)of the human race,that tedious documentation of violence,has taught us absolutely nothing. We have still not learnt that__________(58)never solves a problem but makes it more acute.The sheer horror,the bloodshed and the suffering___________(59)nothing. No solution ever comes to ___________(60)the morning after we dismally(阴郁地)contemplate the smoking ruins and wonder what hit us.The truly reasonable men who___________(61)where the solutions lie are finding it harder and harder to get a hearing. They are despised,mistrusted and even persecuted___________(62)their own kind because they advocate such apparently outrageous things as law enforcement. if half the energy that goes into_________(63)acts was put to good use,if our efforts were directed at. _________(64)up the slums and ghettos(贫民窟),at improving living-standards and providing education and employment for all, we wouldnot have gone a long way to___________(65)at a solution. _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 Mau Piailug,Ocean NavigatorMau sailed from Hawaii to Tahiti using traditional methods.In early 1976,Mau Piailug,a fisherman,led an expedition in which he sailed a traditional Polynesian boat across 2,500 miles of ocean from Hawaii to Tahiti.The Polynesian Voyaging Society had organised the expe-dition. Its purpose was to find out if seafarers(海员)in the distant past could have found their way from one island to the other without navigational instruments,or whether the islands had been populated by accident. At the time,Mau was the only man alive who knew how to navigate just by observing the stars,the wind and the sea.He had never before sailed to Tahiti,which was a long way to the south.However,he understood how the wind and the sea behave around islands,so he was confident he could find his way.The voyage took him and his crew a month to complete and he did it without a compass or charts.His grandfather began the task of teaching him how to navigate when he was still a baby.He showed him pools of water on the beach to teach him how the behaviour of the waves and wind changed in different places.Later,Mau used a circle of stones to memorise the positions of the stars.Each stone was laid out in the sand to represent a star.The voyage proved that Hawaii's first inhabitants came in small boats and navigated by reading the sea and the stars.Mau himself became a keen teacher,passing on his traditional secrets to people of other cul-tures so that his knowledge would not be lost.He explained the positions of the stars to his students,but he allowed them to write things down because he knew they would never be able to rememnber everything as he had done. Mau could not afford a compass or charts.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Gross National HappinessIn the last century,new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries. However,one country resisted these changes. High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia,the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however,was a poor country.People died at a young age.Most of its people could not read,and they did not know much about the outside world.Then, in 1972,a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck decided to help Bhutan to become modern,but without losing its traditions.King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas.He saw that most countries measured their progress by their Gross National Product(GNP).The GNP measures products and money.When the number of products sold increases,people say the country is making progress.King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan.He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness.If the people's happiness increased,the king could say that Bhutan was making progress.To decide if people were happier,he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness.People are happier if they have health care, education,and jobs.They are happier when they live in a healthy,protected environment.They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs.Finally,people are happier when they have a good,stable government.Now there is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan.People are healthier and are living longer.More people are educated and employed.Twenty-five percent of the land has become national parks,and the country has almost no pollution.The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow theirancient Buddhist customs.Bhutan has also become a democracy.In 2008,King Wangchuck gave his power to his son.Although the country still had a king,it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time.Finally,Bhutan has connected to the rest of the world through television and internet.Bhutan is a symbol for social progress.Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH.These countries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness.They want to create new policies that take care of their people,cultures,and land.Brazil may be the nest country to use the principles of GNH.Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration.Brazil is a large country with a diverse population.If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil,perhaps the rest of the world will follow. A country shows its progress with GNP by_________.
[多选题]共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech- nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would run out of food were wrong. We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there- fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen for many years,and continues to drop.2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business, they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient. And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super- markets get bigger,the prices get lower.3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro- ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000 global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food corn- panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225 g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120zportion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to change the trend. Paragraph 3 ___________
[多选题]共用题干 Sport or Spectacle?Muhammad Aui is probably the most famous sports figure on earth:he is recognized on every continent and by all generations. The__________(51)of his illness as Parkinson's disease after his retirement fuelled the debate about the dangers of boxing and criticism__________(52)the sport. That,plus his outspoken opposition___________(53)women's boxing,made people wonder how he would react when one of his daugh- ters decided to____________(54)up the sport.His presence at Laila's first professional fight,however,seemed to broadcast a father's support.Of course Muhammad Aui wanted to___________(55)his daughter fight.The ring announcer introduced him as the"the greatest"and as he sat down at the ringside the crowd chanted.Twenty-one-year-old Laila's debut fight(首次亮相)was a huge success and there was as much publicity for the___________(56)as her father's fights once attracted Laila's opponent was much weaker than she was and__________(57)the fight lasted just 31 seconds.Since then, Laila has won most of her fights by knoc-king out her opponent"She knows ______ (58)she's doing,"said one referee about her."She knowsabout moving well.You can see some of her dad's moves."Laila Ali would rather not_________ (59)herself to her father. She prefers to make. __________(60). Her father supports her decision to enter the sport but he has not spared her the details of what can happen. Laila__________(61)that her father wants her to understand the worst possible scenario to see_________(62) she still wants to go forward with it.She knows she's going to get hit hard at times,that she may get a broken nose or a swollen(肿胀的)face , but at least she is prepared for it.Laila's decision to start boxing despite her father's__________(63)with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease has of course sparked a mixture of praise and__________(64).But Laila is a determined individual and it is her famous last name that has made her a magnet for worldwide media attention.Of course,the ___________(65)on the boxing scene of a woman with her family history attracts even more questions about whether women's boxing is sport or spectacle. _________(62)