理工B

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 Messages From the Media1.The weather forecast,a story about the candidates in an election,and movie reviews are examples of messages from the media. A communication medium, of which the plural(复数的)form is media,is a means of communicating a message.Examples of media are television,radio,newspapers, books and the telephone.The media that can reach many people at once are called mass media.2.It is not difficult to think of other messages we receive through the mass media. Every day we get hundreds of them. Think about advertisements,for example,we see and hear these messages almost everywhere we go.Advertisements are important messages,even though they are sometimes annoying. They help us compare and evaluate products.3.Most of us get more information from the media than from the classroom. Think for a moment,about how you learn about local news and events.Do you depend on other people or the media?What about international news?What is the most important source of information for you? People who are asked this question usually answer,"Television".4.Think of all the messages you received today.Perhaps you read a newspaper during break-fast,or maybe you read advertisements on billboards(露天广告牌)on your way to school. Did you listen to a weather forecast or the sports news on the radio this morning?Right now you are getting information through a very important medium of mass communication一a book.5.We use the information we get from radio,television,newspapers,and other media to make decisions and form opinions.That is why the mass media are so important. Editorials and articles in newspapers help us decide how to vote,consumer reports on television help us decide how to spend our money,and international news on the radio makes us think and form opinions about questions of war and peace. Paragraph 3______
[多选题]共用题干 More Rural Research is NeededAgricultural research funding is vital if the world is to feed itself better than it does now. Dr. Tony Fischer,crop scientist,said demand was growing at 2 .5%per year but with modern tech-nologies and the development of new ones,the world should be able to stay ahead.“The global decline in investment in international agricultural research must be reversed if significant progress is to be made towards reducing malnutrition(营养不良)and poverty.” he said.Research is needed to solve food production,land degradation(贫瘠化)and environmental problems. Secure local food supplies led to economic growth which in turn,slowed population growth .Dr. Fischer painted a picture of the world's ability to feed itself in the first 25 years, when the world's population is expected to rise from 5 .8 to 8 billion people.He said that things will probably hold or improve but there'll still be a lot of hungry people.The biggest concentration of poor and hungry people would be in sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia in 2020,similar to the current pattern. if there is any change,a slight improvement will be seen in southern Asia, but not in sub-Saharan Africa. The major improvement will be in East Asia,South America and South-East Asia.The developing world was investing about 0 .5%,or$8 billion a year,of its agricultural gross domestic product(GDP)on research and developed world was spending 2 .5%of its GDP. Dr. Fischer said more was needed from all countries.He said crop research could produce technologies that spread across many countries,such as wheat production research having spin-offs(有用的副产品)for Mexico, China or India.“Technologies still need to be refined for the local conditions but a lot of the strategic re- search can have global application,so that money can be used very efficiently.”Dr. Fischer said.Yields of rice, wheat ad maize(玉米)have grown impressively in the past 30 years, espe- cially in developing countries.For example,maize production rose from 2 to 8 tones per hectare between 1950 and 1995.But technologies driving this growth such as high-yield varieties,fertiliz-ers,and irrigation,were becoming exhausted.“If you want to save the land for non-agricultural activities,for forests and wildlife,you're going to have to increase yield.”Dr. Fischer said. What does Dr. Fischer say about technologies?
[多选题]共用题干 Electronic MailDuring the past few years,scientists all over the world have suddenly found themselves pro-ductively engaged in task they once spent their lives avoiding—writing,any kind of writing,but particularly letter writing. Encouraged by electronic mail's surprisingly high speed,convenience and economy,people who never before touched the stuff are regularly,skillfully,even cheerfully tapping out a great deal of correspondence.Electronic networks,woven into the fabric of scientific communication these days,are the route to colleagues in distant countries,shared data,bulletin boards and electronic journals.Any-one with a personal computer,a modern and the software to link computers over telephone lines can sign on.An estimated five million scientists have done so with more joining every day,most of them communicating through a bundle of interconnected domestic and foreign routes known col-lectively as the Internet,or net.E-mail is starting to edge out the fax,the telephone,overnight mail,and of course,land mail.It shrinks time and distance between scientific collaborators,in part because it is conven-iently asynchronous(异步的)( Writer can type while their colleagues across time zones sleep; their message will be waiting.).If it is not yet speeding discoveries,it is certainly accelerating communication.Jeremy Bernstein,the physicist and science writer,once called E-mail the physicist's umbili-cal cord(脐带).Later other people,too,have been discovering its connective virtues. Physi-cists are using it;college students are using it;everybody is using it;and as a sign that it has come of age,the New Yorker has celebrated its liberating presence with a cartoon—an apprecia-tive dog seated at a keyboard,saying happily,“on the Internet,nobody knows you're a dog.” How is the Internet or net explained in the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 Mobile PhonesMobile phones should carry a label if they proved to be a dangerous source of radiation,according to Robert Bell,a scientist.And no more mobile phone transmitter towers should be built until the long-term health effects of the electromagnetic radiation they emit are scientifically evaluated,he said."Nobody is going to drop dead overnight but we should be asking for more scientific information,"Robert Bell said at a conference on the health effects of low-level radiation.______(46) A report widely circulated among the public says that up to now scientists do not really know enough to guarantee there are no ill-effects on humans from electromagnetic radiation.According to Robert Bell,there are 3.3 million mobile phones in Australia alone and they are increasing by 2,000 a day.______(47)As well,there are 2,000 transmitter towers around Australia,many in high density residential areas.______(48)The electromagnetic radiation emitted from these towers may have already produced some harmful effects on the health of the residents nearby.Robber Bell suggests that until more research is completed the government should ban construction of phone towers from within a 500 meter radius of school grounds,child care centers,hospitals, sports playing fields and residential areas with a high percentage of children.______(49)He adds that there is also evidence that if cancer sufferers are subjected to electromagnetic waves the growth rate of the disease accelerates.______(50)According to Robert Bell,it is reasonable for the major telephone companies to fund it. Besides,he also urges the government to set up a wide-ranging inquiry into possible health effects. ________(47)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Karen Rusa was a 30-year-old woman and the mother of four children. For the past several months Karen had been experiencing repetitive thoughts that centered around her children's safety. She frequently found herself imagining that a serious accident had occurred;she was unable to put these thoughts out of her mind.On one such occasion she imagined that her son,Alan,had broken his leg playing football at school. There was no reason to believe that an accident had occurred,but she kept thinking about the possibility until she finally called the school to see if Alan was all right. Even after receiving their assurance that he had not been hurt,she described herself as being somewhat surprised when he later arrived home unharmed.Karen also noted that her daily routine was seriously hampered by an extensive series of counting work that she performed throughout each day.Specific numbers come to have a special meaning to her;she found that her preoccupation with these numbers was interfering with her ability to perform everyday activities.One example was grocery shopping. Karen believed that if she selected the first item,some dreadful thing would happen to her first child, if she selected the second item,some unknown disaster wonld fall on her second child, and so on for the four children.Karen's preoccupation with numbers extended to other activities, most notable the pattern in which she smoked cigarettes and drank coffee.If she had one cigarette, she believed that she had to smoke at least four in a row or one of her children would be harmed in some way. If she drank one cup of coffee,she felt compelled to drink four. Karen acknowledged the unreasonableness of these rules,but,nevertheless,maintained that she felt more comfortable,when she observed them earnestly.When she was occasionally in too great a hurry to observe these rules, she experienced considerable anxiety in the form of a subjective feeling of dread and fear. She described herself as tense,uneasy and unable to relax during these periods. What does the word"preoccupation"mean?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇California一A Land of Variety and ContrastCalifornia is a land of variety and contrast. Almost every type of physical land feature,sort of arctic ice fields and tropical jungles can be found within its borders.Sharply contrasting types of land often lie very close to one another. People living in Bakersfield,for instance,can visit the Pacific Ocean and the coastal plain,the fertile San Joaquin Valley,the arid Mojave Desert,and the high Sierra Nevada,all within a radius of about 100 miles. In other areas it is possible to go snow skiing in the morning and surfing in the evening of the same day,without having to travel long distance.Contrast abounds in California. The highest point in the United States(outside Alaska)is in California,and so is the lowest point(including Alaska).Mount Whitney,14,494 feet above sea level,is separated from Death Valley,282 feet below sea level,by a distance of only 100 miles. The two areas have a difference in altitude of almost three miles.California has deep,clear mountain lakes like Lake Tahoe,the deepest in the country,but it also has shallow,salty desert lakes.It has Lake Tulainyo,12,020 feet above sea level,and the lowest lake in the country,the Salton Sea,236 feet below sea level. Some of its lakes,like Owens Lake in Death Valley,are not lakes at all:they are dried up lake beds.In addition to mountains,lakes,valleys,deserts,and plateaus,California has its Pacific coastline,stretching longer than the coastlines of Oregon and Washington combined. Which statement best demonstrates that California is a land of variety and contrast?
[多选题]共用题干 Lakes,Too,Feel Global WarmingThere's no doubt:In the last few decades,the average temperature on Earth has been higher than it has been in hundreds of years.Around the world,people are starting to measure the effects of global warming一 and trying to figure out what to do about it.Scientists recently used satellites to study the temperatures of lakes around the world,and they found that lakes are heating up.Between 1985 and 2009,satellites recorded the nighttime temperatures of the sur- faces of 167 lakes.During those 24 years,the lakes got warmer by an average of about 0.045 degreeCelsius per year.In some places,lakes have been warming by as much as 0.10 degree Celsius per year. At that rate,a lake may warm by a full degree Celsius in just 10 years.That difference may seem small一you might not even notice it in your bath.But in a lake,slightly warmer temperatures could mean more algae(水藻),and algae can make the lake poisonous to fish.The study shows that in some regions,lakes are warming faster than the air around them.This is impor- tant because scientists often use measurements of air temperature to study how Earth is warming. By using lake temperatures as well,scientists can get a better picture of global warming. The scientists say data on lakes give scientists a new way to measure the impact of climate change around the world.That's going to be useful,since no country is too big or too small to ignore climate change.Scientists aren't the only ones concerned.Everyone who lives on Earth is going to be affected by the rapid warming of the planet. Many world leaders believe we might be able to do something about it,especially by reducing theamount of greenhouse(温室)gases we put into the air.That's why the United Nations started the Framework Convention on Climate Change,or UNFCCC. Every year the convention meets,and representatives from countries around the world gather to talk about climate change and discuss global solutions to the challenges of a warming world. Lakes seem to be warming faster in Asi
[多选题]共用题干 1.Certainly no creature in the sea is odder than the common sea cucumber. All living creatures,especially human beings,have their peculiarities,but everything about the little sea cucumber seems unusual.What else can be said about a bizarre animal that,among other eccentricities, eats mud,feeds almost continuously day and night but can live without eating for long periods,and can be poisonous but is considered supremely edible by gourmets?2.For some fifty million years,despite all its eccentricities,the sea cucumber has subsisted on its diet of mud.It is adaptable enough to live attached to rocks by its tube feet,under rocks in shallow water,or on the surface of mud flats.Common in cool water on both Atlantic and Pacific shores, it has the ability to suck up mud or sand and digest whatever nutrients are present.3.Sea cucumbers come in a variety of colors,ranging from black to reddish brown to sand color and nearly white.One form even has vivid purple tentacles.Usually the creatures are cucumber shaped一hence their name一and because they are typically rock inhabitants,this shape,combined with flexibility,enables them to squeeze into crevices where they are safe from predators and ocean currents.4.Although they have voracious appetites,eating day and night,sea cucumbers have the capacity to become quiescent and live at a low metabolic rate feeding sparingly or not at all for long periods,so that the marine organisms that provide their food have a chance to multiply.If it were not for this faculty,they would devour all the food available in a short time and would probably starve themselves out of existence.5.But the most spectacular thing about the sea cucumber is the way it defends itself. Its major enemies are fish and crabs,when attacked,it squirts all its internal organs into water. It also casts off attached structures such as tentacles.The sea cucumber will eviscerate and regenerate itself if it is attacked or even touched;it will do the same if the surrounding water temperature is too high or if the water becomes too polluted. For a long time,sea cucumbers can live at a low metabolic rate and be______.
[多选题]共用题干 Please Fasten Your SeatbeltsSevere turbulence(湍流)can kill aircraft passengers. Now,in test flights over the RockyMountains , NASA(美国航空航天局)engineers have successfully detected clear-air turbulence up to 10 seconds before an aircraft hits it.Clear-air turbulence often catches pilots by surprise.Invisible to radar,it is difficult to forecast and can hurl(用力抛出去)passengers about the cabin. In December 1 997 , one passenger died and a hundred others were injured when unexpected rough air caused a United Airlines flight over the Pacific to drop 300 meters in a few seconds.However,passengers can avoid serious injury by fastening their seatbelts.“It is the only antidote(对策)for this sort of thing,”says Rod Bogue,project manager at NASA's Dryden FlightResearch Center in Edwards,California.The centre's new turbulence detector is based on lidar,or laser radar. Laser pulses are sent ahead of the plane and these are then reflected back by particles in the air. The technique depends on the Doppler effect.The wavelength of the light shifts according to the speed at which the particles are approaching. In calm air,the speed equals the plane's airspeed.But as the particles swirl(打漩)in rough air,their speed of approach increases or decreases rapidly .The rate of change in speed corresponds to the severity(激烈程度)of the turbulence.In a series of tests that began last month,a research jet flew repeatedly into disturbed air over the mountain ridges(山脉)near Pueblo , Colorado. The lidar detector spotted turbulence between 3 and 8 kilometers ahead,and its forecasts of strength and duration corresponded closely with the turbulence that the plane encountered.Bogue says that he had“a comfortable amount of time”to fasten his seatbelt. The researchers are planning to improve the lidar's range with a more powerful beam.The system could be installed on commercial aircraft in the next few years. What does“clear-air turbulence”in Paragraph 1 probably mean?
[多选题]共用题干 Saving a City's Public ArtAvoiding traffic jams in Los Angeles may be impossible,but the city's colorful freeway mu- rals(壁画)can brighten even the most miserable commute. Paintings that depict(描述)famous people and historic scenes cover office buildings and freeway walls across the city.With a collec-tion of more than 2,000 murals,Los Angeles is the unofficial mural capital of the world.But the combination of graffiti(涂鸦),pollution,and hot sun has left many L. A. murals in terrible condition. ______(46 ) In the past, experts say, little attention was given to caring forpublic art. Artists were even expected to maintain their own works,not an easy task with cars rac- ing by along the freeway. _____( 47)The work started in 2003 . So far, 16 walls have been selected, and more may be added later.Until about 1960,public murals in Los Angeles were rare.But in the 1960s and 1970s, young L. A.artists began to study early 20th-century Mexican mural painting._____(48)The most famous mural in the city is Judith Baca's“The Great Wall,”a 13-foot-high(4-me-ter-high)painting that runs for haff a mile(0.8 kilometer)in North Hollywood.____(49)It took eight years to complete—400 underprivileged teenagers painted the designs—and is probably the longest mural in the world.One of the murals that will be restored now is Kent Twitchell's“Seventh Street Altarpiece.” which he painted for the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984._____(50)Twitchell said,“It was meant as a kind of gateway through which the traveler to L. A.must drive.The open hands represent peace.”Artists often call murals the people's art. Along a busy freeway or hidden in a quiet neighbor-hood,murals can teach people who would never pay money to see fine art in a museum,“Murals give a voice to the silent majority,”said one artist. ______(47 )
[多选题]共用题干 Climate Change Poses Major Risks for Unprepared CitiesA new examination of urban policies has been carried out recently by Patricia Romero Lankao. She is a so- ciologist specializing in climate change and_____________(51) development. She warns that many of the world'5 fast-growing urban areas,especially in developing countries,will likely suffer from the_____________(52)of changing climate. Her work also concludes that most cities are failing to_____________(53)emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. These gases are known to affect the atmosphere."Climate change is a deeply local issue and poses profound_____________ (54) to the growing cities of the world,"says Romero Lankao. "But too few cities are developing effective strategies to protect their residents."Cities are_____________(55)sources of greenhouse gases.And urban populations are likely to be among those most severely affected by future climate change.Lankao's findings highlight ways in which city-resi- dents are particularly vulnerable,and suggest policy interventions that could offer immediate and longer-term ____________ (56).The locations and dense construction patterns of cities often place their populations at greater _____________(57)for natural disasters.Potential threats associated with climate include storm surges and pro- longed hot weather. Storm surges can flood coastal areas and prolonged hot weather can heat_____________(58) paved cities more than surrounding areas. The impacts of such natural events can be more_____________(59)in an urban environment. For example,a prolonged heat wave can increase existing levels of air pollution,causing widespread health problems.Poorer neighborhoods that may_____________(60)basic facilities such as drinking water or a dependable network of roads,are especially vulnerable to natural disasters.Many residents in poorer countries live in substandard housing_____________(61)access to reliable drinking water,roads and basic services.Local governments,therefore,should take measures to_____________(62)their residents."Unfortunately, they tend to move towards rhetoric_____________(63)meaningful responses,"Romero Lankao writes,"They don't impose construction standards that could reduce heating and air conditioning_____________(64).They don't em- phasize mass transit and reduce automobile use.In fact,many local governments are taking a hands-off ap- proach."_____________(65),she urges them to change their idle policies and to take strong steps to prevent the harmful effects of climate change on cities. _________(59)
[多选题]共用题干 Less Is MoreIt sounds all wrong—drilling holes in a piece of wood to make it more resistant to knocks. But it works because the energy from the blow gets distributed throughout the wood rather than fo-cusing on one weak spot. The discovery should lead to more effective and lighter packaging mate-rials.Carpenters have known______(51)centuries that some woods are tougher than others. Hickory,for example,was turned into axe handles and cartwheel spokes because it can absorb shocks without breaking. White oak,for example,is much more easily damaued,________(52)it is almost as dense.Julian Vincent at Bathe University and his team were convinced the wood's internal structure could explain the differences.Many trees have tubular vessels that run_______(53)the trunk and carry water to the leav- es .In oak they are large,and arranged in narrow bands,but in hickory they are smaller,and more evenly distributed.The researchers________(54)this layout might distribute a blow's en-ergy throughout the wood, soaking up a bigger hit.To test the idea,they drilled holes 0.65 millimetres across into a block of spruce,a wood with_______(55)vessels,and found that_______(56)withstood a harder knock_______(57)when there were more than about 30 holes per square centimeter did the wood's performance drop off.A uniform substance doesn't cope well with knocks because only a small proportion of the material is actually______( 58).All the energy from the blow goes towards breaking the material in one or two places , but often the pieces left _________( 59 ) are pristine(未经破坏的).But instead of the energy being concentrated in one place,the holes provide many weak spots that all absorb energy as they break,says Vincent.“You are controlling the places______(60) the wood breaks,and it can then absorb more______(61),more safely.”The researchers believe the principle could be applied to any material—_________(62)example,to manufacture lighter and more protective packaging.It could_______(63)be used in car bumpers,crash barriers and armor for military vehicles,says Ulrike Wegst,_______(64) the Max Plank Institute for Mental Research in Stuttgart. But she emphasizes that you'd ________(65)to design the substance with the direction of force in mind.“The direction of loading is crucial,”she says. 52._________
[多选题]共用题干 ADHD Linked to Air PollutantsChildren have an increased of attention problems,seen as early as grade school,if their no-ses inhaled(吸入)a certain type of air pollution when they were pregnant. That's the finding of a new study.Released when things aren't burned completely,this pollution is known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,or PAHs.The biggest sources of these PAHs:the burning of fossil fuels, wood and trash.Frederica Perera works at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health in New York City.She researches how exposure to things in the environment affects children's health.In a new study,she and her team studied the exposure to air pollution of 233 nonsmoking pregnant women in New York City. Because burning tobacco can spew(排放)PAHs into the air and lungs, Perera's team focused on nonsmokers. The researchers wanted to probe(探查)other sources of PAHs,ones that's would have been hard for an individual to avoid.The team started by testing the blood of each woman during pregnancy.The reason:Any PAHs in a woman's blood would also be available to the baby in her womb.Nine years later,the researchers investigated signs of attention problems in those children,now age 9 .They asked each child's mother a series of questions.These included whatever her child had problems doing things that needed sustained(长期的)mental effort, such as homework or games with friends. The sci-entists also asked if the kids had trouble following instructions or made frequent,careless mis-takes .All of these can be symptoms of a disorder called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.About one in U.S.children has ADHD.Among the women studied,traffic and home heating were the primary sources of air pollution exposure,Perera and her team suspect. Some of these women had low levels of PAHs in their blood .Others had high levels.Those with high levels were five times as likely to have children who showed attention problems by age 9 .The new findings were published November 5 in the journal PLOS ONE. The women with high levels of PAHs in their blood were more likely to have kids with ADHD.
[多选题]共用题干 Medical JournalsMedical journals are publications that report medical information to physicians and other health professionals.In the past,these journals were available only in print. With the development of electronic publishing,many medical journals now have Web sites on the Internet,and some journals are pub-lished only online.A few medical journals,like the Journal of the American Medical Associa-tion,are considered general medical journals because they cover many fields of medicine.Most medical journals are specialty journals that focus on a particular area of medicine.Medical journals publish many types of articles.Research articles report the results of re-search studies on a range of topics varying from the basic mechanisms of diseases to clinical trials that compare outcomes of different treatments.Review articles summarize and analyze the informa-tion available on a specific topic based on a careful search of the medical literature.Because the results of individual research studies can be affected by many factors,combining results from dif-ferent studies on the same topic can be helpful in reaching conclusions about the scientific evidence for preventing,diagnosing or treating a particular disease.Case conferences and case reports may be published in medical journals to educate physicians about particular illnesses and how to treat them. Editorials in medical journals are short essays that express the views of the authors,of-ten regarding a research or review article published in the same issue.Editorials provide a per-spective on how the current article fits with other information on the same topic .Letters to the edi-tor provide a way for readers of the medical journal to express comments,questions or criticisms about articles published in that journal. Letters to the editor enable readers of a medical journal to express comments on______.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Approaches to Understanding IntelligencesIt pays to be smart,but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician,but you might not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on all tests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelligent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believes that all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about.the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathematical,spatial, musical , interpersonal,intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic. According to Gardner,schools should______.
[多选题]共用题干 Transport and Trade1.Transport is one of the aids to trade.By moving goods from places where they are plentiful to places where they are scarce,transport adds to their value.The more easily goods can be brought over the distance that separates producer and consumer,the better for trade.When there were no railways,no good roads,no canals,and only small sailing ships,trade was on a small scale.2.The great advances made in transport during the last two hundred years were accompanied by a big increase in trade.Bigger and faster ships enabled a trade in meat to develop between Britain and New Zealand, for instance.Quicker transport makes possible mass-production and big business, drawing supplies from,and selling goods to,all parts of the globe.Big factories could not exist without transport to carry the large number of workers they need to and from their homes.Big city stores could not have developed unless customers could travel easily from the suburbs and goods delivered to their homes.Big cities could not survive unless food could be brought from a distance.3.Transport also prevents waste.Much of the fish landed at the ports would be wasted if it could not be taken quickly to inland towns.Transport has given us a much greater variety of foods and goods since we no longer have to live on what is produced locally. Foods which at one time could be obtained only during a part of the year can now be obtained all through the year. Transport has raised the standard of living.4.By moving fuel,raw materials and even power,for example,electric cables,transport has led to the establishment of industries and trade in areas where they would have been impossible before.Districts and countries can concentrate on making things which they can do better and more cheaply than others and can then exchange them with one another. The cheaper and quicker transport becomes,the longer the distance over which goods can profitably be carried. Countries with poor transport have a lower standard of living.5.Commerce requires not only the moving of goods and people but also the carrying of messages and information.Means of communication,like telephones,cables and radio,send information about prices,supplies and changing conditions in different parts of the world.In this way,advanced communication systems also help to develop trade. Only when goods can be carried to all parts of the world quickly______.
[多选题]共用题干 Wide World of RobotsEngineers who build and program robots have fascinating jobs. These researchers tinker(修补)with ma- chines in the lab and write computer software to control these devices."They're the best toys out there," says Howie Choset at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh.Choset is a roboticist,a person who designs, builds or programs robots.When Choset was a kid,he was interested in anything that moved-cars,trains,animals.He put motors on Tinkertoy cars to make them move.Later,in high school,he built mobile robots similar to small cars.Hoping to continue working on robots,he studied computer science in college.But when he got to graduate school at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena,Choset's labmates were working on something even cooler than remotely controlled cars:robotic snakes.Some robots can move only forward, backward , left and right. But snakes can twist(扭曲)in many directions and travel over a lot of different types of terrain(地形)."Snakes are far more interesting than the cars,"Choset concluded.After he started working at Carnegie Mellon,Choset and his colleagues there began developing their own snake robots.Choset'5 team programnied robots to perform the same movements as real snakes,such as sliding and inching forward.The robots also moved in ways that snakes usually don't,such as rolling.Choset's snake robots could crawl(爬行)through the grass ,swim in a pond and even climb a flagpole.But Choset wondered if his snakes might be useful for medicine as well. For some heart surgeries,the doctor has to open a patient' s chest ,cutting through the breastbone. Recovering from these surgeries can be very painful. What if the doctor could perform the operation by instead making a small hole in the body and sending in a thin robotic snake?Choset teamed up with Marco Zenati,a heart surgeon now at Harvard Medical School ,to investigate the idea. Zenati practiced using the robot on a plastic model of the chest and they tested the robot in pigs.A company called Medrobotics in Boston is now adapting the technology for surgeries on people.Even after 15 years of working with his team's creations,"I still don't get bored of watching the motionof my robots,"Choset says. Snake robots could move in only four directions.
[多选题]共用题干 Free Statins With Fast Food Could Neutralize Heart RiskFast food outlets could provide statin drugs free of______(51)so that customers can re-duce the heart disease dangers of fatty food,researchers at Imperial College London______(52)in a new study.Statins reduce the______(53)of unhealthy"LDL"cholesterol in the blood.A wealth of trial data has proven them to be highly effective at______(54)a person's heart attack risk.In a paper published in the American Journal of Cardiology,Dr. Darrel Francis and col-leagues calculate that the reduction in heart attack risk offered by a statin is______(55)to off-set the increase in heart attack risk from______(56)a cheeseburger and drinking a milk-shake.Dr. Francis,from the National Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial College London,who is the senior author of the study,said,"Statins don't cut out all of the______(57)effects of che-eseburgers and French fries .It's better to avoid fatty food altogether. But we've worked out that in terms of your______(58)of having a heart attack,taking a statin can reduce your risk to more or less the same______(59)as a fast food meal increases it.""It's ironic that people are free to take as many unhealthy condiments in fast food outlets as they______(60),but statins,which are beneficial to heart health,have to be prescribed.It______(61)sense to make risk-reducing stains available just as easily as the unhealthy condi-ments that are provided free of charge .It would cost less than 5 pence per______(62)-not much different to a sachet of sugar,"Dr. Francis said.When people engage in risky behaviours like driving or smoking,they're encouraged to take______(63)that lower their risk,like______(64)a seatbelt or choosing cigarettes with flu-ters .Taking a statin is a rational way of______(65)some of the risks of eating a fatty meal. 63._________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The Development of American Postal SystemIn the early days of the United States,postal charges were paid by the recipient and charges varied with the distance carried.In 1825,the United States Congress permitted local postmasters to give letters to mail carriers for home delivery,but these carriers received no government salary and their entire compensation depended on what they were paid by the recipients of individual letters.In 1847,the United States Post Office Department adopted the idea of a postage stamp,which of course simplified the payment for postal service but caused grumbling by those who did not like to prepay. Besides,the stamp covered only delivery to the post office and did not include carrying it to a private address.In Philadelphia,for example,with a population of 150,000,people still had to go to the post office to get their mail.The confusion and congestion of individual citizens looking for their letters was itself enough to discourage use of the mail. It is no wonder that,during the years of these cumbersome arrangements,private letter-carrying and express businesses developed.Although their activities were only semi legal,they thrived and actually advertised that between Boston and Philadelphia they were half-day speedier than the government mail. The government postal service lost volume to private competition and was not able to handle efficiently even the business it had.Finally,in 1863,Congress provided that the mail carriers who delivered the mail from the post offices to private addresses should receive a government salary,and that there should be no extra charge for that delivery.But this delivery service was at first confined to cities,and free home delivery became a sign of urbanization.In 1890,of the 75 million people in the United States,fewer than 20 million had mail delivered free to their doors.The rest,nearly three quarters of the population,still received no mail unless they went to their post office. Which of the following is an advantage the private postal services had over the government postal system?
[多选题]共用题干 Local Newspapers in Britain1. Britain has a large circulation(发行量)of the national newspapers. The Daily Mirror and The Daily Express both sell about 4 million copies each day.On average,every family will buy one newspaper in the morning,and take two or three on Sundays.2. Local newspapers are just as popular as the national ones in Britain.Local papers have a week-ly circulation of 13 million .Nearly every town and country area has its own paper,and almost ev-ery local paper is financially holding its own.Many local newspapers are earning good profits.3. Local newspapers have their special characteristics.They mainly satisfy interest in local e-vents-births,weddings,deaths,council meetings,and sports.Editors often rely on a small staff of people who know the district well.Clubs and churches in the neighborhood regularly supply these papers with much local news.Local news does not get out of date as quickly as national news.If there is no room for it in this week's edition,a news item can be held over until the fol- lowing week.4. The editor of a local newspaper never forgets that the success of any newspaper depends on ad-vertising.For this reason,he is keen to keep the good will of local businessmen.If the newspaper sells well with carefully chosen news items to attract local readers,the businessmen will be grateful to the paper for the opportunity of keeping their products in the public eye.5. Local newspapers seldom comment on problems of national importance,and editors rarely take sides on political questions.But they can often provide service to the community in expressing public feeling on local issues.A newspaper can sometimes persuade the council to take action to improve transport,provide better shopping facilities,and preserve local monuments and places of interest. Local newspapers are well received because they carry articles that please______.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Therapeutic TouchA nine-year-old schoolgirl single-handedly cooks up a science-fair equipment that ends up debunking a widely practiced medical treatment.Emily Rosa's target was a practice known as therapeutic touch(TF for short),whose advocates manipulate patients'"energy field"to make them feel better and even,say some,to cure them of various ills.Yet Emily's test shows that these energy fields can't be detected,even by trained TT practitioners.Obviously mindful of the publicity value of the situation,Journal editor George Lundberg appeared on TV to declare,"Age doesn't matter. It's good science that matters,and this is good science."Emily's mother Linda Rosa,a registered nurse,has been campaigning against TT for nearly a decade.Linda first thought about TT in the late 80s,when she learned it was on the approval list for continuing nursing deduction in Colorado.Its 100,000 trained practitioners(48,000 in the U.S.)don't even touch their patients.Instead they waved their hands a few inches from the patient's body, pushing energy fields around until they are in"balance".竹advocates say these manipulations can help heal wounds,relative pain and reduce fever. The claims are taken seriously enough that竹 therapists are frequently hired by leading hospitals,at up to $70 an hour,to smooth patients' energy,sometimes during surgery.Yet Rosa cold not find any evidence that it works.To provide such proof,TT therapists would have to sit down for independent testing一something they haven't been eager to do,even though James Randi has offered more than $1 million to anyone who can demonstrate the existence of a human energy field.(He has had one taker so far. She failed.)A skeptic might conclude that TT practitioners are afraid to lay their beliefs on the line.But who could turn down an innocent forth-grader? Says Emily:"I think they didn't take me very seriously because I am a kid."The experiment was straightforward;21 Ti' therapists stuck their hands,palms up,through a screen.Emily held her own hand over one of their left or right一and the practitioners had to say which hand it was.When the results were recorded,they had done no better than they would have by simply guessing. If there was an energy field,they wouldn't feel it. Which of the following is evidence that TT is widely practiced?
[多选题]共用题干 Smoking can Increase Depressive Symptoms in TeensWhile some teenagers may use cigarettes to "self-medicate"(自我治疗)against the blues(忧郁),sci- entists at the University of Toronto and the University of Montreal have found that smoking may actually ______________(51)depressive symptoms in some teens."This observational study is one of the few to examine the perceived ______________(52)benefits of smoking among teens,"says lead researcher Michael Chaiton,a research associate at the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit of the University of Toronto."_______________(53)cigarettes may appear to have self-medicating effects or to improve mood,in the long_______________(54)we found that teens who started to smoke reported higher depressive symptoms."As part of the study,some 662 high school teenagers completed up to 20 questionnaires about their useof cigarettes to ______________(55)mood.Secondary schools were selected to provide a mix of French andEnglish participants,urban and rural schools,and schools ______________(56)in high,moderate and low so-cioeconomic neighbourhoods.Participants were divided into three______________ (57):never smokers;smokers who did not use ciga-rettes to self-medicate,improve mood or physical______________ (58);smokers who used cigarettes to self-medicate.Depressive symptoms were measured using a scale that asked how often participants felt too tiredto do things;had______________ (59)going to sleep or staying asleep;felt unhappy,sad,or depressed;felt hopeless about the future;felt anxious or tense;and worried too much about things." Smokers who used cigarettes as mood______________( 60 ) had higher risks of elevated(提升)depres-sive symptoms______________ (61)teens who had never smoked,"says co-researcher Jennifer O'Loughlin,aprofessor at the University of Montreal Department of Social and Preventive Medicine."Our study found that teen smokers who reported emotional benefits from smoking are_______________(62)higher risk of developing depressive symptoms."The______________ (63)between depression and'smoking exists______________(64)among teens that usecigarettes to feel better."It's ______________(65)to emphasize that depressive symptom scores were higher among teenagers who reported emotional benefits from smoking after they began to smoke,"says Dr. Chaiton. _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Longer Lives for Wild ElephantsMost people think of zoos as safe places for animals,where struggles such as having difficulty finding food and avoiding predators(猛兽)don't exist. Without such problems,animals in zoos should live to a ripe (成熟的)old age.But that may not be true for the largest land animals on Earth.Scientists have known that elephants in zoos often suffer from poor health.Sometimes,they even become unable to have babies.To learn more about how captivity(圈养)affects elephants, a team of international scientists compared the life spans of female elephants born in zoos with female elephants living outdoors in their native lands. Zoos keep detailed records of all the animals in their care,documenting factors such as birth dates,illnes-ses,weight and death.These records made it possible for the researchers to analyze 40 years of data on 800 African and Asian elephants in zoos across Europe.The scientists compared the life spans of the zoo-born fe-male elephants with the life spans of thousands of wild female elephants in Africa and Asian elephants that work in logging camps(伐木场), over approximately the same time period.The team found that female African elephants born in zoos lived an average of 16.9 years. Their wild counterparts who died of natural causes lived an average of 56 years一more than three times as long. Female Asian elephants followed a similar pattern. In zoos,they lived 18.9 years,while those in the logging camps lived 41.7 years.Scientists don't know yet why wild elephants seem to get on so much better than their zoo-raised coun-terparts.Georgia Mason,a biologist at the University of Guelph in Canada who led the study,thinks stress and obesity(肥胖症)may be to blame. Zoo elephants don't get the same kind of exercise they would in the wild,and most are very fat. Social lives of elephants are also much different in zoos than in the wild,where they live in large herds and family groups.The study raises some questions about acquiring more elephants to keep in zoos.While some threatened and endangered species living in zoos reproduce(生殖)successfully and maintain healthy populations,that doesn't appear to be the case with elephants. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that______________.
[多选题]共用题干 InflationBusiness and government leaders also consider the inflation rate to be an important general indicator. Inflation is a period of increased spending that causes rapid rises in prices.______(51) your money buys fewer goods so that you get______(52)for the same amount of money as before,inflation is the problem.There is a general rise______(53)the price of goods and services.Your money buys less.Sometimes people describe inflation as a time when"a dollar is not worth a dollar anymore".Inflation is a problem for all consumers.People who live on a fixed income are hurt the ______(54).Retired people,for instance,cannot count on an increase in income as prices rise. Elderly people who do not work face serious problems in stretching their incomes to______(55)their needs in time of inflation.Retirement income______(56)any fixed income usually does not rise as fast as prices.Many retired people must cut their spending to______(57)rising prices.In many cases they must stop______(58)some necessary items,such as food and clothing. Even ______(59)working people whose incomes are going up,inflation can be a problem. The ______(60)of living goes up,too.People who work must have even more money to keep up their standard of living. Just buying the things they need costs more.When incomes do not keep ______(61)with rising prices,the standard of living goes down.People may be earning the same amount of money,but they are not living as well because they are not able to buy as many goods and services.Government units gather information about prices in our economy and publish it as price indexes ______(62)the rate of change can be determined.A price index measures changes in prices using the price for a______(63)year as the base.The base price is set at 100,and the other prices are reported as a______(64)of the base price.A price index makes______(65)possible to compare current prices of typical consumer goods,for example,with prices of the same goods in previous years. _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The IcemanOn a September day in 1991,two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy. High up on a mountain pass,they found the body of a man lying on the ice.At that height(10,499 feet or 3,200 meters),the ice is usually permanent,but 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice had melted more than usual and so the body had come to the surface.It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架)was in perfect condition, except for a wound in the head.There was still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes.The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots.Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮)and a holder for arrows.Who was this man?How and when had he died?Everybody had a different answer to these questions. Some people thought that it was from this century,perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War I, since several soldiers had already been found in the area. A Swiss woman believed it might be her father, who had died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found.The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older,maybe even a thousand years old.With modern dating techniques,the scientists soon learned that the iceman was about 5,300 years old. Born in about 3300 B.C.,he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe.At first scientists thought he was probably a hunter who had died in an accident in the high mountains.More recent evidence,however,tells a different story.A new kind of X-ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. It left only a tiny hole in his skin, but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He almost certainly died from this wound, and not from the wound on the back of his head.This means that he was probably in some kind of a battle.It might have beenpart of a larger war,or he might have beenl fighting bandits.He might even have been a bandit himself.By studying his clothes and tools,scientists have already learned a great deal from the iceman about the times he lived in.we may never know the full story of how he died,but he has given us important clues to the history of those distant times. The body of the iceman was found in the mountains mainly because__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Messages From the Media1.The weather forecast,a story about the candidates in an election,and movie reviews are examples of messages from the media. A communication medium, of which the plural(复数的)form is media,is a means of communicating a message.Examples of media are television,radio,newspapers, books and the telephone.The media that can reach many people at once are called mass media.2.It is not difficult to think of other messages we receive through the mass media. Every day we get hundreds of them. Think about advertisements,for example,we see and hear these messages almost everywhere we go.Advertisements are important messages,even though they are sometimes annoying. They help us compare and evaluate products.3.Most of us get more information from the media than from the classroom. Think for a moment,about how you learn about local news and events.Do you depend on other people or the media?What about international news?What is the most important source of information for you? People who are asked this question usually answer,"Television".4.Think of all the messages you received today.Perhaps you read a newspaper during break-fast,or maybe you read advertisements on billboards(露天广告牌)on your way to school. Did you listen to a weather forecast or the sports news on the radio this morning?Right now you are getting information through a very important medium of mass communication一a book.5.We use the information we get from radio,television,newspapers,and other media to make decisions and form opinions.That is why the mass media are so important. Editorials and articles in newspapers help us decide how to vote,consumer reports on television help us decide how to spend our money,and international news on the radio makes us think and form opinions about questions of war and peace. Paragraph 2______
[多选题]共用题干 Free Statins With Fast Food Could Neutralize Heart RiskFast food outlets could provide statin drugs free of______(51)so that customers can re-duce the heart disease dangers of fatty food,researchers at Imperial College London______(52)in a new study.Statins reduce the______(53)of unhealthy"LDL"cholesterol in the blood.A wealth of trial data has proven them to be highly effective at______(54)a person's heart attack risk.In a paper published in the American Journal of Cardiology,Dr. Darrel Francis and col-leagues calculate that the reduction in heart attack risk offered by a statin is______(55)to off-set the increase in heart attack risk from______(56)a cheeseburger and drinking a milk-shake.Dr. Francis,from the National Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial College London,who is the senior author of the study,said,"Statins don't cut out all of the______(57)effects of che-eseburgers and French fries .It's better to avoid fatty food altogether. But we've worked out that in terms of your______(58)of having a heart attack,taking a statin can reduce your risk to more or less the same______(59)as a fast food meal increases it.""It's ironic that people are free to take as many unhealthy condiments in fast food outlets as they______(60),but statins,which are beneficial to heart health,have to be prescribed.It______(61)sense to make risk-reducing stains available just as easily as the unhealthy condi-ments that are provided free of charge .It would cost less than 5 pence per______(62)-not much different to a sachet of sugar,"Dr. Francis said.When people engage in risky behaviours like driving or smoking,they're encouraged to take______(63)that lower their risk,like______(64)a seatbelt or choosing cigarettes with flu-ters .Taking a statin is a rational way of______(65)some of the risks of eating a fatty meal. 60._________
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Approaches to Understanding IntelligencesIt pays to be smart,but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician,but you might not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on all tests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelligent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believes that all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about.the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathematical,spatial, musical , interpersonal,intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic. Which of the following statements is true concerning general intelligence?
[多选题]共用题干 Women's minds work differently from men's.At least,that is what most men are convinced of. Psychologists view the subject either as a matter of frustration or a joke.Now the biologists have moved into this minefield,and some of them have found that there are real differences between the brains of men and women.But being different,they point out hurriedly,is not the same as being better or worse.There is,however,a definite structural variation between the male and female brain.The difference is in a part of the brain that is used in the most complex intellectual processes一the link between the two halves of the brain.The two halves are linked by a trunk line of between 200 and 300 million nerves,the corpus callosum.Scientists have found quite recently that the corpus callosum in women is always larger and probably richer in nerve fibres than it is in men.This is the first time that a structural difference has been found between the brains of women and men and it must have some significance.The question is"What?",and,if this difference exists,are there others?Research shows that present-day women think differently and behave differently from men.Are some of these differences biological and inborn,a result of evolution?We tend to think that is the influence of society that produces these differences.But could we be wrong?Research showed that these two halves of the brain had different functions,and that the corpus callosum enabled them to work together. For most people,the left half is used for word-handling, analytical and logical activities;the right half works on pictures,patterns and forms.We need both halves working together. And the better the connections,the more harmoniously the two halves work.And,according to research findings,women have the better connections.But it isn't all that easy to explain the actual differences between skills of men and women on this basis.In schools throughout the world girls tend to be better than boys at"language subjects" and boys better at maths and physics.If these differences correspond with the differences in the hemispheric trunk line,there is an unalterable distinction between the sexes.We shan't know for a while,partly because we don't know of any precise relationship between abilities in school subjects and the functioning of the two halves of the brain,and we cannot understand how the two halves interact via the corpus callosum.But this striking difference must have some effect and,because the difference is in the parts of the brain involved in intellect,we should be looking for differences in intellectual processing. At the end of the passage the author proposes more work on the effects of the corpus callosum.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇California一A Land of Variety and ContrastCalifornia is a land of variety and contrast. Almost every type of physical land feature,sort of arctic ice fields and tropical jungles can be found within its borders.Sharply contrasting types of land often lie very close to one another. People living in Bakersfield,for instance,can visit the Pacific Ocean and the coastal plain,the fertile San Joaquin Valley,the arid Mojave Desert,and the high Sierra Nevada,all within a radius of about 100 miles. In other areas it is possible to go snow skiing in the morning and surfing in the evening of the same day,without having to travel long distance.Contrast abounds in California. The highest point in the United States(outside Alaska)is in California,and so is the lowest point(including Alaska).Mount Whitney,14,494 feet above sea level,is separated from Death Valley,282 feet below sea level,by a distance of only 100 miles. The two areas have a difference in altitude of almost three miles.California has deep,clear mountain lakes like Lake Tahoe,the deepest in the country,but it also has shallow,salty desert lakes.It has Lake Tulainyo,12,020 feet above sea level,and the lowest lake in the country,the Salton Sea,236 feet below sea level. Some of its lakes,like Owens Lake in Death Valley,are not lakes at all:they are dried up lake beds.In addition to mountains,lakes,valleys,deserts,and plateaus,California has its Pacific coastline,stretching longer than the coastlines of Oregon and Washington combined. Where is the highest point in the United States located?
[多选题]共用题干 Avalanche and Its SafetyAn avalanche is a sudden and rapid flow of snow,often mixed with air and water,down a mountainside .Avalanches are______(51)the biggest dangers in the mountains for both life and property.All avalanches are caused by an over-burden of material,typically snowpack,that is too massive and unstable for the slope______(52)supports it. Determining the critical load,the amount of over-burden which is______(53)to cause an avalanche,______(54)a complex task involving the evaluation of a number of factors.Terrain slopes flatter than 25 degrees or steeper than 60 degrees typically have a low ______(55)of avalanche .Snow does not______(56)significantly on steep slopes;also, snow does not______(57)easily on flat slopes.Human-triggered avalanches have the greatest incidence when the snow's angle of rest is______(58)35 and 45 degrees;the critical angle, the angle at which the human incidence of avalanches is greatest,is 38 degrees.The rule of thumb is:A slope that is______(59)enough to hold snow but steep enough to ski has the potential to generate an avalanche,regardless of the angle.Additionally,avalanche risk increases with ______(60);that is,the more a slope is disturbed by skiers,the more likely it is that an avalanche will occur.Due to the complexity of the subject,winter travelling in the backcountry is never 100% safe .Good avalanche safety is a continuous______(61),including route selection and examination of the snowpack,weather______(62),and human factors.Several well-known good habits can also______(63)the risk .If local authorities issue avalanche risk reports,they should be considered and all warnings should be paid______(64)to. Never follow in the tracks of others without your own evaluations;snow conditions are almost certain to have changed since they were made .Observe the terrain and note obvious avalanche paths where plants are ______(65)or damaged .Avoid travelling below others who might trigger an avalanche. 63._________
[多选题]共用题干 Dangers Await Babies with AltitudeWomen who live in the world's highest communities tend to give birth to under-weight ha-bies,a new study suggests.These babies may grow into adults with a high risk of heart disease and strokes.Research has hinted that newborns in mountain communities are lighter than average.But it wasn't clear whether this is due to reduced oxygen levels at high altitude or because their mothers are under-nourished—many people who live at high altitudes are relatively poor compared with those living lower down.To find out more,Dino Giussani and his team at Cambridge University studied the records of400 births in Bolivia during 1976 and 1998.The babies were born in both rich and poor areas of two cities:La Paz and Santa Cruz. La Paz is the highest city in the world,at 3 .65 kilometers a-bove sea level,while Santa Cruz is much lower,at 0.44 kilometers.Sure enough,Giussani found that the average birthweight of babies in La Paz was significant-ly lower than in Santa Cruz.This was true in both high and low-income families.Even babies born to poor families in Santa Cruz were heavier on average than babies born to wealthy families in lofty La Paz.“We were very surprised by this result,”says Giussani.The results suggest that babies born at high altitude are deprived of oxygen before birth. “This may trigger the release or suppression of hormones that regulate growth of the unborn child,”says Giussani.His team also found that high-altitude babies tended to have relatively larger heads compared with their bodies. This is probably because a fetus starved of oxygen will send oxygenated blood to the brain in preference to rest of the body.Giussani wants to find out if such babies have a higher risk of disease in later life.People born in La Paz might be prone to heart trouble in adulthood,for example.Low birth weight is a risk factor for coronary(冠状的)heart disease. And newborns with a high ratio of head size to body weight are often predisposed to high blood pressure and strokes in later life. It can be learned form the last paragraph that _____.
[多选题]共用题干 Women's minds work differently from men's.At least,that is what most men are convinced of. Psychologists view the subject either as a matter of frustration or a joke.Now the biologists have moved into this minefield,and some of them have found that there are real differences between the brains of men and women.But being different,they point out hurriedly,is not the same as being better or worse.There is,however,a definite structural variation between the male and female brain.The difference is in a part of the brain that is used in the most complex intellectual processes一the link between the two halves of the brain.The two halves are linked by a trunk line of between 200 and 300 million nerves,the corpus callosum.Scientists have found quite recently that the corpus callosum in women is always larger and probably richer in nerve fibres than it is in men.This is the first time that a structural difference has been found between the brains of women and men and it must have some significance.The question is"What?",and,if this difference exists,are there others?Research shows that present-day women think differently and behave differently from men.Are some of these differences biological and inborn,a result of evolution?We tend to think that is the influence of society that produces these differences.But could we be wrong?Research showed that these two halves of the brain had different functions,and that the corpus callosum enabled them to work together. For most people,the left half is used for word-handling, analytical and logical activities;the right half works on pictures,patterns and forms.We need both halves working together. And the better the connections,the more harmoniously the two halves work.And,according to research findings,women have the better connections.But it isn't all that easy to explain the actual differences between skills of men and women on this basis.In schools throughout the world girls tend to be better than boys at"language subjects" and boys better at maths and physics.If these differences correspond with the differences in the hemispheric trunk line,there is an unalterable distinction between the sexes.We shan't know for a while,partly because we don't know of any precise relationship between abilities in school subjects and the functioning of the two halves of the brain,and we cannot understand how the two halves interact via the corpus callosum.But this striking difference must have some effect and,because the difference is in the parts of the brain involved in intellect,we should be looking for differences in intellectual processing. Schoolgirls everywhere tend to be better at language subjects than boys?
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The Book of LifeSo far,scientists have named about 1.8 million living species,and that's just a fraction of what proba- bly exists on Earth.With so many plants,animals,and other creatures covering the planet,it can be toughto figure out what type of spider is moving up your leg or what kind of bird is flying by.A soon-to-be-launched Web site might help. An international team of researchers has announced thecreation of a Web-based Encyclopedia of Life(EoL).The project aims to catalog every species on Earth in asingle,easy-to-use reference guide.To get the encyclopedia started,the creators will use information from scientific databases that alreadyexist.And eventually,in special sections of the site,nonscientists with specialized knowledge will get to join in.Bird-watchers,for example,will be able to input which birds they've seen and where.The technologyfor this kind of tool has only recently become available.As the EoL develops, you might find it useful for school projects.The site will feature special pages forkids who are studying ecosystems(生态系统)in their neighborhoods. To make sure the encyclopedia isaccurate,scientists will review much of the information added to it. People who visit the site will be able tochoose to leave out pages that haven't been reviewed.Another convenient feature of the EoL is that you'll be able to pick the level of detail you see to matchyour interests,age,and current knowledge.If you wanted to learn about bears for a science class report,forexample,you could use the"novice"setting to get basic information about the animals.On the"expert" setting,on the other hand,you could get much more detailed information about the history,literature and exploration of bears.It now takes years for scientists to collect all the data they need to describe and analyze species.Thecreators of the Encyclopedia of Life hope that their new tool will speed that process. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
[多选题]共用题干 Why Buy Shade-Grown Coffee?When people argue about whether coffee is good for health,they're usually thinking of the health of the coffee drinker. Is it good for your heart?Does it increase blood pressure?Does it help you concentrate?However,coffee affects the health of the human population in other ways, too.Traditionally,coffee bushes were planted under the canopy(树冠)of taller indigenous(土生土长的)trees. However, more and more farmers in Latin America are deforesting the land to grow full-sun coffees.At first,this increases production because more coffee bushes can be plan- ted if there aren't any trees.With increased production come increased profits.Unfortunately,deforesting for coffee production immediately decreases local wildlife habitat Native birds nest and hide from predators(捕食者)in the tall trees and migrating birds rest there.Furthermore,in the long term,the full-sun method also damages the ecosystem because more chemical fertilizers and pesticides are needed to grow the coffee.The fertilizers and pesti- cides kill insects that eat coffee plant,but then the birds eat the poisoned insects and also die. The chemicals kill or sicken other animals as well,and can even enter the water that people will eventually drink.Fortunately,farmers in Central and South America are beginning to grow more coffee bushes in the shade.We can support these farmers by buying coffee with such labels as“shade grown” and“bird friendly.”Sure,these varieties might cost a little more.But we're paying for the health of the birds,the land,ourselves,and the planet. I think it's worth it. What is the main idea of this passage?
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Eye-tracker Lets You Drag and Drop Files with a GlanceBored of using a mouse?Soon you'11 be able to change stuff on your computer screen-and then move it directly onto your smartphone or tablet(平板电脑)-with nothing more than a glance.A system called EyeDrop uses a head-mounted eye tracker that simultaneously records your field of view so it knows where you are looking on the screen.Gazing at an object-a photo,say-and then pressing a key,selects that object.It can then be moved from the screen to a tablet or smartphone just by glancing at the second device,as long as the two are connected wirelessly."The beauty of using gaze to support this is that our eyes naturally focus on content that we want toacquire,"says Jayson Turner,who developed the system with colleagues at Lancaster University,UK.Turner believes EyeDrop would be useful to transfer an interactive map or contact information from a public display to your smartphone or tablet for sharing photos.A button needs to be used to select the object you are looking at otherwise you end up with the"Midas touch"(点石成金)effect, whereby everything you look at gets selected by your gaze, says Turner."Imagine if your mouse clicked on everything it pointed at,"he says.Christian Holz,a researcher in human-computer interaction at Yahoo Labs in Sunnyvale,California, says the system is a nice take on getting round this fundamental problem of using gaze-tracking to interact."EyeDrop solves this in a slick(灵巧的)way by combining it with input on the touch devices we carry with us most of the time anyway and using touch input as a clutching mechanism,"he says."This now allows users to seamlessly(无缝地)interact across devices far and close in a very natural manner."While current eye-trackers are rather bulky,mainstream consumer devices are not too far away.Swedish firm Tobii is developing gaze-tracking technology that can be installed in laptops and tablets and is expected to be available to buy next year.And the Google Glass headset is expected to include eye-tracking in the future.Turner says he has also looked at how content can be cut and pasted or drag-and-dropped using a mix of gaze and taps on a touchscreen.The system was presented at the Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia in Sweden,last week. What is Turner likely to study next?
[多选题]共用题干 Look After Your VoiceOften speakers at a meeting experience dry mouths and ask for a glass of water. You can solve the problem by activating the saliva in your mouth.First gently bite the edges of your tongue with your teeth.Or,press your entire tongue to the bottom of your mouth and hold it there until the saliva flows.Or you can imagine that you are slicing a big juicy lemon and sucking the juice.Before you begin your talk,be kind to your voice,Avoid milk or creamy drinks which dry your throat. Keep your throat wet by drinking a little sweetened warm tea or diluted fruit juice.If you sense that you are losing your voice,stop talking completely.In the meantime,do not even talk in a low voice.Save your voice for your health.You may feel foolish using paper to write notes,but the best thing you can do is to rest your voice.If it is necessary,perhaps you can get some advice from a professional singer.What about drinking alcohol to wet your throat?I advice you not to touch alcohol before speaking. The problem with alcohol is that one drink gives you a little confidence.The second drink gives you even more confidence.Finally you will feel all-powerful and you will feel you can do everything,but in fact your brain and your mouth do not work together properly.Save the alcohol until after you finish speaking.Perhaps you want to accept the advice,but you may wonder if you can ever change the habits of a lifetime .Of course you can.Goethe,who lived before indoor skating rinks or swimming pools,said,“We learn to skate in the summer and swim in the winter”.Take this message to heart and give yourself time to develop your new habits.If you are willing to change,you will soon be able to say that you will never forget these techniques because they became a part of your body. Goethe often did outdoor skating and swimming.
[多选题]共用题干 Scotland:A Land of WisdomIn the 1740s,the famous French philosopher Voltaire said"We look to Scotland for all our ideas of civilization."That's not a bad advertisement for any country when it comes to attracting people to search for a first-class education.According to the American author Arthur Herman,the Scots invented the modem world it-self. He argues that Scottish thinkers and intellectuals worked out many of the most important ideas on which modern life depends-everything from the scientific method to market economics.Their ideas did not just spread among intellectuals,but to those people in business,government and the sciences who actually shaped the Western world.It all started during the period that historians call the Scottish Enlightenment(启蒙运动), which is usually seen as taking place between the years 1740 and 1800.Before that,philosophy was mainly concerned with religion.For the thinkers of the Scottish Enlightenment,the proper study of humanity was mankind itself.Their reasoning was practical.For the philosopher David Hume,humanity was the right sub-ject for philosophy because we can examine human behavior and so find real evidence of how peo-ple think and feel. And from that we can make judgments about the societies we live in and make concrete suggestions about how they can be improved,for universal benefit.Hume's enquiry into the nature of knowledge laid the foundations for the scientific method- the pursuit of truth through experiment. His friend and fellow resident of Edinburgh,Adam Smith, famously applied the study of mankind to the ways in which mankind does business. Trade,he ar-gued,was a form of information .In pursuing our own interests through trading in markets,we all come to benefit each other.Smith's idea has dominated modern views of economics.It also has wide applications.He was one of the philosophers to point out that nations can become rich,free and powerful throughpeace,trade and invention.Although the Scottish Enlightenment ended a long time ago,the ideas which evolved at that time still underpin(构成……的基础)our theories of human exchange and enquiry. It also exists in Scotland itself in an educational tradition that combines academic excellence with orientation (方向). Philosophers had come to know the importance of studying humanity even before the Scottish Enlightenment took place.
[多选题]共用题干 Local Newspapers in Britain1. Britain has a large circulation(发行量)of the national newspapers. The Daily Mirror and The Daily Express both sell about 4 million copies each day.On average,every family will buy one newspaper in the morning,and take two or three on Sundays.2. Local newspapers are just as popular as the national ones in Britain.Local papers have a week-ly circulation of 13 million .Nearly every town and country area has its own paper,and almost ev-ery local paper is financially holding its own.Many local newspapers are earning good profits.3. Local newspapers have their special characteristics.They mainly satisfy interest in local e-vents-births,weddings,deaths,council meetings,and sports.Editors often rely on a small staff of people who know the district well.Clubs and churches in the neighborhood regularly supply these papers with much local news.Local news does not get out of date as quickly as national news.If there is no room for it in this week's edition,a news item can be held over until the fol- lowing week.4. The editor of a local newspaper never forgets that the success of any newspaper depends on ad-vertising.For this reason,he is keen to keep the good will of local businessmen.If the newspaper sells well with carefully chosen news items to attract local readers,the businessmen will be grateful to the paper for the opportunity of keeping their products in the public eye.5. Local newspapers seldom comment on problems of national importance,and editors rarely take sides on political questions.But they can often provide service to the community in expressing public feeling on local issues.A newspaper can sometimes persuade the council to take action to improve transport,provide better shopping facilities,and preserve local monuments and places of interest. Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The Development of American Postal SystemIn the early days of the United States,postal charges were paid by the recipient and charges varied with the distance carried.In 1825,the United States Congress permitted local postmasters to give letters to mail carriers for home delivery,but these carriers received no government salary and their entire compensation depended on what they were paid by the recipients of individual letters.In 1847,the United States Post Office Department adopted the idea of a postage stamp,which of course simplified the payment for postal service but caused grumbling by those who did not like to prepay. Besides,the stamp covered only delivery to the post office and did not include carrying it to a private address.In Philadelphia,for example,with a population of 150,000,people still had to go to the post office to get their mail.The confusion and congestion of individual citizens looking for their letters was itself enough to discourage use of the mail. It is no wonder that,during the years of these cumbersome arrangements,private letter-carrying and express businesses developed.Although their activities were only semi legal,they thrived and actually advertised that between Boston and Philadelphia they were half-day speedier than the government mail. The government postal service lost volume to private competition and was not able to handle efficiently even the business it had.Finally,in 1863,Congress provided that the mail carriers who delivered the mail from the post offices to private addresses should receive a government salary,and that there should be no extra charge for that delivery.But this delivery service was at first confined to cities,and free home delivery became a sign of urbanization.In 1890,of the 75 million people in the United States,fewer than 20 million had mail delivered free to their doors.The rest,nearly three quarters of the population,still received no mail unless they went to their post office. Which of the following statements about free home delivery in the United States of the late 19th century is NOT true?
[多选题]共用题干 Mobile Phones:Change Our LifeIn the case of mobile phones,change is everything. Recent research indicates that the mobile phone is changing not only our culture,but our very bodies as well.First,Let's talk about culture.The difference between the mobile phone and its parent一the fixed-line phone,is that a mobile phone corresponds to a person,while a landline goes to a place.If you call my mobile,you get me.If you call my fixed-line phone,you get whoever answers it.This has several implications.The most common one,however,and perhaps the thing that has changed our culture forever,is the"meeting"influence.People no longer need to make firm plans about when and where to meet.Twenty years ago,a Friday night would need to be arranged in advance.You needed enough time to allow everyone to get from their place of work to the first meeting place.Now,however,a night out can be arranged on the run.It is no longer"see you there at 8", but"text me around 8 and we'll see where we all are".Texting changes people as well.In their paper,"Insights into the Social and Psychological Effects of SMS Text Messaging",two British researchers distinguished between two types of mobile phone users:the"talkers"and the"texters”一those who prefer voice to text message and those who prefer text message to voice.They found that the mobile phone's individuality and privacy gave texters the ability to express a whole new outer personality.Texters were likely to report that their family would be surprised if they were to read their texts.This suggests that texting allowed texters to present a self-image that differed from the one familiar to those who knew them well.Another scientist wrote of the changes that mobiles have brought to body language.There are two kinds that people use while speaking on the phone.There is the"speakeasy":the head is held high,in a self-confident way,chatting away.And there is the"spacemaker":these people focus on themselves and keep out other people.Who can blame them?Phone meetings get cancelled or reformed and camera-phones intrude on people's privacy. So,it is understandable if your mobile makes you nervous.But perhaps you needn't worry so much.After all,it is good to talk. Through a person's texts,we can tell what personality he really has.
[多选题]共用题干 Have You Filled up the Form?Of all things in the world,I most dislike filling up forms;in fact,I have a______(51)horror of it. Applying for a living license,______(52)for an evening course,booking a holiday abroad一everything nowadays seem to involve______(53)information about one's personal life and habits that has little or nothing to do with the matter______(54)hand.When applying for a job,it may be______(55)some obscure interest to a______(56)employer to learn that I collect stamp or had measles as a child,but why should he conceivably want to know that my father was a tobacconist who died in 1988?The authorities who______(57)one to fill up forms,frequently demand answers to questions that one would hesitate to put______(58)one's intimate friends.The worst of it is that, when______(59)with such questions,my mind goes blank.Have I ever suffered from a serious illness?My mother always assured me I was"delicate".Do I suffer from any personal defects? Well,I wear contact lenses and my upper teeth are not my own,but perhaps the word"defects"______(60)to my character. Am I supposed to______(61)that I like gambling,and find it difficult to get up in the morning? Both of them are true.Of all,I think job applications are the worst,"education”一previous experience一post heldgive______(62)…Terrified by the awful warning about giving false______(63)which appear at the bottom of the form,I struggle to remember what exams I passed and how long I worked for what firms.______(64)hard I try,there always seems to be a year or two for which I cannot satisfactorily account and which I am certain,if left______(65),will give the impression that I was in prison or engaged in some occupation too dubious to mention. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 Free Statins With Fast Food Could Neutralize Heart RiskFast food outlets could provide statin drugs free of______(51)so that customers can re-duce the heart disease dangers of fatty food,researchers at Imperial College London______(52)in a new study.Statins reduce the______(53)of unhealthy"LDL"cholesterol in the blood.A wealth of trial data has proven them to be highly effective at______(54)a person's heart attack risk.In a paper published in the American Journal of Cardiology,Dr. Darrel Francis and col-leagues calculate that the reduction in heart attack risk offered by a statin is______(55)to off-set the increase in heart attack risk from______(56)a cheeseburger and drinking a milk-shake.Dr. Francis,from the National Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial College London,who is the senior author of the study,said,"Statins don't cut out all of the______(57)effects of che-eseburgers and French fries .It's better to avoid fatty food altogether. But we've worked out that in terms of your______(58)of having a heart attack,taking a statin can reduce your risk to more or less the same______(59)as a fast food meal increases it.""It's ironic that people are free to take as many unhealthy condiments in fast food outlets as they______(60),but statins,which are beneficial to heart health,have to be prescribed.It______(61)sense to make risk-reducing stains available just as easily as the unhealthy condi-ments that are provided free of charge .It would cost less than 5 pence per______(62)-not much different to a sachet of sugar,"Dr. Francis said.When people engage in risky behaviours like driving or smoking,they're encouraged to take______(63)that lower their risk,like______(64)a seatbelt or choosing cigarettes with flu-ters .Taking a statin is a rational way of______(65)some of the risks of eating a fatty meal. 55._________
[多选题]共用题干 ADHD Linked to Air PollutantsChildren have an increased of attention problems,seen as early as grade school,if their no-ses inhaled(吸入)a certain type of air pollution when they were pregnant. That's the finding of a new study.Released when things aren't burned completely,this pollution is known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,or PAHs.The biggest sources of these PAHs:the burning of fossil fuels, wood and trash.Frederica Perera works at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health in New York City.She researches how exposure to things in the environment affects children's health.In a new study,she and her team studied the exposure to air pollution of 233 nonsmoking pregnant women in New York City. Because burning tobacco can spew(排放)PAHs into the air and lungs, Perera's team focused on nonsmokers. The researchers wanted to probe(探查)other sources of PAHs,ones that's would have been hard for an individual to avoid.The team started by testing the blood of each woman during pregnancy.The reason:Any PAHs in a woman's blood would also be available to the baby in her womb.Nine years later,the researchers investigated signs of attention problems in those children,now age 9 .They asked each child's mother a series of questions.These included whatever her child had problems doing things that needed sustained(长期的)mental effort, such as homework or games with friends. The sci-entists also asked if the kids had trouble following instructions or made frequent,careless mis-takes .All of these can be symptoms of a disorder called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.About one in U.S.children has ADHD.Among the women studied,traffic and home heating were the primary sources of air pollution exposure,Perera and her team suspect. Some of these women had low levels of PAHs in their blood .Others had high levels.Those with high levels were five times as likely to have children who showed attention problems by age 9 .The new findings were published November 5 in the journal PLOS ONE. The main purpose of the research was to find out how exposure to PAHs played a role in har-ming the subjects' physical health.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Gross National HappinessIn the last century,new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries.However,one country resisted these changes.High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia,the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however,was a poor country.People died at a young age.Most of its people could not read,and they did not know much about the outside world.Then,in 1972,a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck de- cided to help Bhutan to become modern,but without losing its traditions.King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas.He saw that most countries measured their progress by their Gross National Product(GNP).The GNP measures products and money. When the number of products sold increases,people say the country is making progress.King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan. He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness.If the people's happiness increased, the king could say that Bhutan was making progress.To decide if people were happier,he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness.People are happier if they have health care, education,and jobs.They are happier when they live in a healthy,protected environment. They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs.Finally,people are happier when they have a good,stable government.Now there is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan.People are healthier and are living longer. More people are educated and employed.Twenty-five percent of the land has become national parks,and the country has almost no pollution. The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs.Bhutan has also become a democracy.In 2008,King Wangchuck gave his power to his son.Although the country still had a king,it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time.Finally,Bhutan has connected to the rest of the world through television and internet.Bhutan is a symbol for social progress.Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH.These countries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness.They want to create new policies that take care of their people,cultures,and land.Brazil may be the next country to use the principles of GNH.Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration.Brazil is a large country with a diverse population.If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil,perhaps the rest of the world will follow. Apart from modernizing Bhutan,what else did Wangchuck want to do for Bhutan?
[多选题]共用题干 By the year 1927,Dr. Andrew Manson had a reputation.His practice of medicine was not large,but all his patients had the greatest confidence in him.He(51)______gave medicines, but when he did so,he gave the newest,best,and often the most(52)______medicines on the market.By his use of modern medicines,Manson once prevented a serious disease from(53)______in his town,although the rest of the town suffered badly.The committee of the Medical Society ought to have been thankful to Manson,but a few of its members,led by Chenkin,were(54)______of his success.Though Manson had many friends, he also had(55)______.Andrew sometimes asked himself why he and Christine had remained in Manchester after the death of their child.His coal dust experiments were his only(56)______for staying,he could not leave the mines till he had completed his experiments.He now had a great deal of information about the(57)______of coal bust on the miners' lungs.But,in order to(58)______his facts,he decided to make a few experiments on small animals,to study the action of the dust on their lungs.Here,his real problem began.Taking care to cause the animals as little(59)______as possible;Andrew made some extremely(60) ______experiments,which proved all his beliefs.He felt proud and excited.But then,a few days later,he had a(61)______.When Andrew returned home from work,he found Christine looking( 62)______."What's the matter?"he asked her. She hesitated,"I had some visitors today.""Oh?Who were they?""Five members of the committee,including Chenkin.They had heard about your experiments on the animals,and wanted to see your(63)_____.I told them that you were not at home,but they pushed me out and went into the room.When they saw the animals,one of the men shouted,"Oh, the poor creatures!"I tried to tell them that the animals had not suffered,but they(64)______to listen.They took the animals with them.""What!"Andrew shouted.He thought for a minute,and then went into the hall to use the phone.But,just as he reached it,the phone bell rang."Hello!"he said angrily.Then his(65) ______changed.It was Owen."Look here,Owen.""I know,I know."Owen interrupted." This is a bad business.I'll come to see you now."Owen came.Before Andrew could speak,he said,"Did you get permission?"Andrew looked at him in surprise,"Permission for what?""To experiment on animals.""Good Heavens,no!I never thought about it!""I'm afraid there will be trouble,"Owen said. "Some members of the committee feel very bitter against you.But don't worry,everything will be ok in the end." _________(59)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇FearFear is something that always remains in our heart. We can never eliminate fear from our life. Fear of failing in exams which can make a negative impact in someone's career,and fear of speaking in public where majority of human think that people will make fun of them.Fear of not being liked, fear of storms and floods,fear of being alone and many others are all very common examples of fear.Fear can also affect our physical beings like pounding of the heart,rapid pulse rate,tense muscles,dryness of the throat,churning in the stomach,confusion,fainting,and the inability to concentrate.These things are also very common.Fear is only hidden somewhere inside our bodies, pushing us to work hard and moving us forward to overcome our weaknesses.Fear is the way to our success.I had a very bad experience of fear in my childhood days.My father told me that if I got bad grades another time in my school exams,then he would kick me out of his home and would never allow me to come back again.This sentence of my father stuck in my mind because one of my friends in school at that time recently became homeless.He belonged to a poor family,and his father had lost a big amount of money in a small business near his home.So, the problems he was facing from homelessness made me work hard in my exams;otherwise,I might have been kicked out of home by my father.Fear sometimes can be motivating,and help us to do those things which we think and believe that we can never do.One of the most common fear inducing activities,for example,is swimming. This is primarily caused by most of us not having a background in swimming and only taking it up because it is part of the sport. Additionally,most humans are uncomfortable in the water as a general rule because of the fear of drowning. This fear of drowning is innately strong,and similar common or strong fears tend not to exist when it comes to cycling or running because they are land based activities. Which of the following parts is not covered in the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 How Men Face the Fat ProblemIt is a pleasure to see men of a certain age worrying about their weight. Listening to them is not such a pleasure.Because the men are new at the game,they don't hesitate to discuss the fat problem incessantly. However,women of the same age do not discuss the fat problem,especially not in mixed company. They prefer to face the problem with quiet dignity.Discussing the problem might only draw attention to some stray body part that may be successfully tucked away under an article of clothing.The age at which a man begins to explore the fat problem can vary.The actual problem can manifest itself in the early 30's,but broad-range discussion usually starts later. There are early nonverbal symptoms.I've watched the rugged journalist who shares my apartment sneak by with a Diet Coke.His shirts are no longer neatly tucked in to display a trim waist. Recently he has begun to verbalize his anxiety.He tells me,with a sheepish幼n,that he is taking his suits to Chinatown to have them"tailored."Still-older men have lost their dignity and rattle on unabashedly. Often,wives and children play important roles in their fat-inspection rituals.Take my oldest brother,a former college football player. His daughter says that several times a day he will stand at attention and call out,"Fat,medium or thin?"She knows the correct answer:medium. Thin would be an obvious stretch,and fat may not get her that new video.According to his wife,he stands in front of the mirror in the morning (before the day's meals take their toll),puts his hands behind his head and lurches into a side bend,then clutches the roll that has developed and says,"Am I getting fatter?"His wife is expected to answer,"You look like you may have lost a few pounds."And then there are the ex-husbands,a pitiful group.They are extremely vocal.When I go to the movies with one,he confides that he is suffering from great hunger because he is dieting.He hasn't eaten since the pancakes and sausages he wolfed down that morning. He pauses in his monologue while he buys his popcorn.After the movie,we sprint to a restaurant,where he again pauses to devour a basket of bread.Before he orders his chaste salad and soup,he grows plaintive.Do I think he's fat? Men usually begin to worry about their weight when they are nearly 40.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Cheating is when a person misleads,deceives,or acts dishonestly on purpose.For kids,cheating may happen at school,at home,or while playing a sport.A new study finds that most high school students say they have cheated on tests and homework.This study showed that 89 percent said glancing at someone else's answers during a test was cheating,but 87 percent said they'd done that at least once.Also,94 percent said providing answers to someone during a test was cheating,but 74 percent admitted to doing it.Cheating can happen in a lot of different ways.You can do it by sneaking answers to a test,but it's also cheating to break the rules of a game or contest or to pretend something is yours when it isn't. When people cheat,it's not fair to other people,like the kids who studied for the test or who were the true winners of a game or contest. If students today want to cheat,they have a more insidious tool at their disposal:cellphones.More than one third of teens with cellphones admit to having stored information on them to look at during a test or texting friends about answers.Some kids cheat because they're busy or lazy and they want to get good grades without spending the time studying. Other kids might feel like they can't pass the test without cheating. Even when there seems to be a "good reason"for cheating,cheating isn't a good idea. Kids who cheat may feel worried about getting caught.Whether they are caught or not,these kids may feel guilty,or embarrassed,or ashamed,or all three.Teachers can ban cell phones in exams and principals can suspend or expel students who cheat,but it's important to know if students continue to cheat they will have a lot of problems in the future. According to the passage,which of the following behaviors is not cheating?
[多选题]共用题干 Climate Change:The Long Reach1.Earth is warming.Sea levels are rising.There's more carbon in the air,and Arctic ice is melting faster than at any time in recorded history.Scientists who study the environment to better gauge(评估) Earth's future climate now argue that these changes may not reverse for a very long time.2.People burn fossil fuels like coal and oil for energy.That burning releases carbon dioxide,a colorless gas.In the air,this gas traps heat at Earth's surface.And the more carbon dioxide released,the more the planet warms.If current consumption of fossil fuels doesn't slow,the long-term climate impacts could last thousands of years-and be more severe than scientists had been expecting.Climatologist Richard Zeebe of the University of Hawaii at Manoa offers this conclusion in a new paper.3.Most climate-change studies look at what's going to happen in the next century or so.During that time , changes in the planet's environment could nudge(推动)global warming even higher.For example, snow and ice reflect sunlight back into space.But as these melt,sunlight can now reach-and warm-the exposed ground.This extra heat raises the air temperature even more,causing even more snow to melt.This type of rapid exaggeration of impacts is called a"fast feedback".4.Zeebe says it's important to look at fast feedbacks.However,he adds,they're limited.From a climate change perspective,"This century is the most important time for the next few generations,"he told Science News."But the world is not ending in 2100."For this new study,Zeebe now focuses on"slow feedbacks".While fast feedback events unfold over decades or centuries,slow feedbacks can take thousands of years.Melting of continental ice sheets and the migration of plant life-as they relocate to more comfortable areas-are two examples of slow feedbacks.5.Zeebe gathered information from previously published studies investigating how such processes played out over thousands of years during past dramatic changes in climate.Then he came up with a forecast for the future that accounts for both slow and fast feedback processes.Climate forecasts that use only fast feedbacks predict a 4.5 degree Celsius(8.1 degree Fahrenheit)change by the year 3000.But slow feedbacks added another 1.5℃-for a 6℃ total increase,Zeebe reports.He also found that slow feedback events will cause global warming to persist for thousands of years after people run out of fossil fuels to burn. Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 The Day a Language DiedWhen Carlos Westez died at the age of 76,a language died,too.Westez,more commonly known as Red Thunder Cloud,was the last speaker of the Native American language,Catawba.Anyone who wants to hear various songs of the Catawba can contact the Smithsonian Institution in Washington,D.C.,where, back in the 1940s,Red Thunder Cloud recorded a series of songs for future generations.______(46) They are all that is left of the Catawba language.The language that people used to speak is gone forever.We are all aware of the damage that modern industry can do to the world's ecology(生态).However, few people are aware of the impact that widely spoken languages have on other languages and ways of life.English has spread all over the world.Chinese,Spanish,Russian,and Hindi have become powerful languages,as well.______(47)When this happens,hundreds of languages that are spoken by only a few people die out.Scholars believe there are about 6 ,000 languages around the world,but more than half of them could die out within the next 100 years.There are many examples.Araki is a native language of the island of Vanuatu,located in the Pacific Ocean.It is spoken by only a few older adults,so like Catawba,Araki will soon disappear.Many languages of Ethiopia will have the same fate because each one has only a few speakers.______(48)In the Americas,100 languages,each of which has fewer than 300 speakers,also are dying out.Red Thunder Cloud was one of the first to recognize the threat of language death and to try to do something about it.He was not actually born into the Catawba tribe,and the language was not his mother tongue.______(49)The songs he sang for the Smithsonian Institution helped to make Native American music popular.Now he is gone,and the language is dead.What does it mean when a language disappears? When a plant or insect or animal species dies,it is easy to understand what we've lost and to appreciate what this means for the balance of the natural world.However,language is only a product of the mind.To be the last remaining speaker of a language,like RedThunder Cloud,must be a lonely destiny,almost as strange and terrible as being the last surviving member of a dying species.______(50) _______(48)

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