考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 1.Two former lovers are to get married next month after reuniting on Facebook 27 years after their romance first ended.2.Paul Eaton,56,and Dawn Pitman,48,first met when he stayed at her mother's bed and breakfast hotel in 1982.The couple enjoyed an 18-month romance before going their separate ways because Ms. Pitman,then 21,thought she was too young to settle down.3.They both met other partners and had children in the following years,but never forgot about each other,then in 2008,water board worker Mr. Eaton joined social networking website Facebook, where he saw some pictures of Ms.Pitman on holiday and got in touch.The mother-of-one,a care worker from Exmouth,Devon,said,"I went to America on holiday and my niece Rachel put all these pictures on Facebook.The irony was that I told her to put them off because I felt it was an invasion of privacy and she said she would get them around to it when she had time.If I hadn't been on Facebook,he would not have contacted me and we would have never got back together."4.Ms.Pitman later mentioned,"I did think of him quite a lot over the years and wondered what happened to him. He hasn't changed a bit.He's the same old laid back,easygoing Paul I knew all those years ago."Mr. Eaton,a father-of-two from Bransley,South Yorkshire said:"It was totally a chance thing. I had only been on Facebook for one day.I just typed Dawn's name in and I hoped for the best.It was a bit scary when I contacted her. I thought she might be married and would have a dozen kids."5.The couple met up again on New Year's Eve 2008 and were amazed to discover the intervening years had been kind to each other."It was a real shock,"Mrs.Pitman said,"We both saw each other and he was exactly the same as I remember and that's what he said about me.He hadn't changed a bit.I knew then he was the one for me."6.Mr. Eaton added:"We just knew instantly as soon as we met up again.We didn't even have to discuss it or propose.When we knew each other all those years ago,I was a white van man and Dawn had a sports car. I still got a white van and Dawn still has a sports car. Some things never change.She always said that we would see each other again.I just didn't think it would be 27 years."The couple are due to get married in Exmouth on March 20. The irony was that I told her to put them off because I felt it was______.
[多选题]共用题干 First Self-contained Heart ImplantedA patient on the brink of death has received the world's first self-contained artificial heart-a battery-powered device about the size of a softball that runs without the need for wires,tubes or hoses sticking out of the chest.Two surgeons from the University of Louisville implanted the titanium and plastic pump dur-ing a seven-hour operation at Jewish Hospital Monday.The hospital said the patient was"awake and responsive"Tuesday and resting comfortably.It refused to release personal details.The patient had been expected to die within a month without the operation,and doctors said they expected the artificial heart to extend the person's life by only a month.But the device is con-sidered a major step toward improving the patient's quality of life.The new pump,called AbioCor,is also a technological leap from the mechanical hearts used in the 1980s,which were attached by wires and tubes to bulky machinery outside the body.The most famous of those,the Jarvic-7,used air as a pumping device and was attached to an appara-tus about the size of a washing machine."I think it's potentially a major step forward in the artificial heart development,"said Dr. David Faxon,president of the American Heart Association.However,he said the dream of an im-plantable,permanent artificial heart is not yet a reality,"This is obviously an experimental device whose long-term success has to be demonstrated."Only about half of the 4,200 Americans on a waiting list for donor hearts received them last year,and most of the rest died.Some doctors,including Robert Higgins,chairman of cardiology at the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond,said artificial hearts are unlikely to replace donor hearts."A donor heart in a good transplant can last 15 to 30 years,"he said."It's going to be hard to replace that with a machine."The AbilCor has a 2-pound pumping unit,and electronic controls that adjust the pumping speed based on the body's needs. It is powered by a small battery pack worn outside the body that transmits current through the skin. Approximately two thousand one hundred patients received heart implantation in America last year.
[多选题]共用题干 Have You Filled up the Form?Of all things in the world,I most dislike filling up forms;in fact,I have a______(51)horror of it. Applying for a living license,______(52)for an evening course,booking a holiday abroad一everything nowadays seem to involve______(53)information about one's personal life and habits that has little or nothing to do with the matter______(54)hand.When applying for a job,it may be______(55)some obscure interest to a______(56)employer to learn that I collect stamp or had measles as a child,but why should he conceivably want to know that my father was a tobacconist who died in 1988?The authorities who______(57)one to fill up forms,frequently demand answers to questions that one would hesitate to put______(58)one's intimate friends.The worst of it is that, when______(59)with such questions,my mind goes blank.Have I ever suffered from a serious illness?My mother always assured me I was"delicate".Do I suffer from any personal defects? Well,I wear contact lenses and my upper teeth are not my own,but perhaps the word"defects"______(60)to my character. Am I supposed to______(61)that I like gambling,and find it difficult to get up in the morning? Both of them are true.Of all,I think job applications are the worst,"education”一previous experience一post heldgive______(62)…Terrified by the awful warning about giving false______(63)which appear at the bottom of the form,I struggle to remember what exams I passed and how long I worked for what firms.______(64)hard I try,there always seems to be a year or two for which I cannot satisfactorily account and which I am certain,if left______(65),will give the impression that I was in prison or engaged in some occupation too dubious to mention. _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 Smoking can Increase Depressive Symptoms in TeensWhile some teenagers may use cigarettes to "self-medicate"(自我治疗)against the blues(忧郁),sci- entists at the University of Toronto and the University of Montreal have found that smoking may actually ______________(51)depressive symptoms in some teens."This observational study is one of the few to examine the perceived ______________(52)benefits of smoking among teens,"says lead researcher Michael Chaiton,a research associate at the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit of the University of Toronto."_______________(53)cigarettes may appear to have self-medicating effects or to improve mood,in the long_______________(54)we found that teens who started to smoke reported higher depressive symptoms."As part of the study,some 662 high school teenagers completed up to 20 questionnaires about their useof cigarettes to ______________(55)mood.Secondary schools were selected to provide a mix of French andEnglish participants,urban and rural schools,and schools ______________(56)in high,moderate and low so-cioeconomic neighbourhoods.Participants were divided into three______________ (57):never smokers;smokers who did not use ciga-rettes to self-medicate,improve mood or physical______________ (58);smokers who used cigarettes to self-medicate.Depressive symptoms were measured using a scale that asked how often participants felt too tiredto do things;had______________ (59)going to sleep or staying asleep;felt unhappy,sad,or depressed;felt hopeless about the future;felt anxious or tense;and worried too much about things." Smokers who used cigarettes as mood______________( 60 ) had higher risks of elevated(提升)depres-sive symptoms______________ (61)teens who had never smoked,"says co-researcher Jennifer O'Loughlin,aprofessor at the University of Montreal Department of Social and Preventive Medicine."Our study found that teen smokers who reported emotional benefits from smoking are_______________(62)higher risk of developing depressive symptoms."The______________ (63)between depression and'smoking exists______________(64)among teens that usecigarettes to feel better."It's ______________(65)to emphasize that depressive symptom scores were higher among teenagers who reported emotional benefits from smoking after they began to smoke,"says Dr. Chaiton. _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 InflationBusiness and government leaders also consider the inflation rate to be an important general indicator. Inflation is a period of increased spending that causes rapid rises in prices.______(51) your money buys fewer goods so that you get______(52)for the same amount of money as before,inflation is the problem.There is a general rise______(53)the price of goods and services.Your money buys less.Sometimes people describe inflation as a time when"a dollar is not worth a dollar anymore".Inflation is a problem for all consumers.People who live on a fixed income are hurt the ______(54).Retired people,for instance,cannot count on an increase in income as prices rise. Elderly people who do not work face serious problems in stretching their incomes to______(55)their needs in time of inflation.Retirement income______(56)any fixed income usually does not rise as fast as prices.Many retired people must cut their spending to______(57)rising prices.In many cases they must stop______(58)some necessary items,such as food and clothing. Even ______(59)working people whose incomes are going up,inflation can be a problem. The ______(60)of living goes up,too.People who work must have even more money to keep up their standard of living. Just buying the things they need costs more.When incomes do not keep ______(61)with rising prices,the standard of living goes down.People may be earning the same amount of money,but they are not living as well because they are not able to buy as many goods and services.Government units gather information about prices in our economy and publish it as price indexes ______(62)the rate of change can be determined.A price index measures changes in prices using the price for a______(63)year as the base.The base price is set at 100,and the other prices are reported as a______(64)of the base price.A price index makes______(65)possible to compare current prices of typical consumer goods,for example,with prices of the same goods in previous years. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 Underground Coal FiresCoal burning deep underground in China,India and Indonesia is threatening the environment and human life , scientists have warned.These large-scale______(51)blazes(火焰)cause the ground temperature to heat up and kill surrounding vegetation,produce greenhouse gases and can______(52) ignite(点燃)forest fires , a group of scientists told the annual meeting of the American Association for theAdvancement of Science in Denver.The resulting______(53)of poisonous elements like mercury can also pollute local water sources and soils,they warned."Coal fires are a global disaster,"said Associate Professor Glenn Stracher of East Georgia College inSwainsboro,USA.But______(54)few people know about them.Coal can heat up on its own,and eventually catch fire and bum,if there is a continuous oxygen supply.The heat produced is not caused to______(55)and under the right combinations of sunlight and oxygen,can trigger spontaneous(自发的)catching fire and buming.This can occur underground , in coal stockpiles, abandoned mines or even as coal is transported.______(56)fires in China consume up to 200 million tons of coal per year,delegates were told.In______(57),the U.S.economy consumes about one billion tons of coal annually,said Stracher,______(58)analysis of the likely impact of coal fires has been accepted for publication in the International Journal of Coal Ecology.______(59)underway,coal fires can bum for decades,even centuries.In the process,they release large______(60)of greenhouse gases,poisonous fumes and black particles into the atmosphere.The members of the panel discussed the______(61)these fires may be having on global and regional climate change,and agreed that the underground nature of the fires makes them difficult to______(62).Ultimately,the remote sensing and other techniques should allow scientists to______(63)how much carbon dioxide these fires are emitting(释放).One suggested______(64)of containing the fires was presented by Gary Colaizzi,of the engineering firm Goodson,which has developed a heat-resistant grout(灌浆),which is designed to be pumped into the coal fire to______(65)the oxygen supply. _________56
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Eye-tracker Lets You Drag and Drop Files with a GlanceBored of using a mouse?Soon you'11 be able to change stuff on your computer screen-and then move it directly onto your smartphone or tablet(平板电脑)-with nothing more than a glance.A system called EyeDrop uses a head-mounted eye tracker that simultaneously records your field of view so it knows where you are looking on the screen.Gazing at an object-a photo,say-and then pressing a key,selects that object.It can then be moved from the screen to a tablet or smartphone just by glancing at the second device,as long as the two are connected wirelessly."The beauty of using gaze to support this is that our eyes naturally focus on content that we want toacquire,"says Jayson Turner,who developed the system with colleagues at Lancaster University,UK.Turner believes EyeDrop would be useful to transfer an interactive map or contact information from a public display to your smartphone or tablet for sharing photos.A button needs to be used to select the object you are looking at otherwise you end up with the"Midas touch"(点石成金)effect, whereby everything you look at gets selected by your gaze, says Turner."Imagine if your mouse clicked on everything it pointed at,"he says.Christian Holz,a researcher in human-computer interaction at Yahoo Labs in Sunnyvale,California, says the system is a nice take on getting round this fundamental problem of using gaze-tracking to interact."EyeDrop solves this in a slick(灵巧的)way by combining it with input on the touch devices we carry with us most of the time anyway and using touch input as a clutching mechanism,"he says."This now allows users to seamlessly(无缝地)interact across devices far and close in a very natural manner."While current eye-trackers are rather bulky,mainstream consumer devices are not too far away.Swedish firm Tobii is developing gaze-tracking technology that can be installed in laptops and tablets and is expected to be available to buy next year.And the Google Glass headset is expected to include eye-tracking in the future.Turner says he has also looked at how content can be cut and pasted or drag-and-dropped using a mix of gaze and taps on a touchscreen.The system was presented at the Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia in Sweden,last week. What is Turner likely to study next?
[多选题]共用题干 1.Two former lovers are to get married next month after reuniting on Facebook 27 years after their romance first ended.2.Paul Eaton,56,and Dawn Pitman,48,first met when he stayed at her mother's bed and breakfast hotel in 1982.The couple enjoyed an 18-month romance before going their separate ways because Ms. Pitman,then 21,thought she was too young to settle down.3.They both met other partners and had children in the following years,but never forgot about each other,then in 2008,water board worker Mr. Eaton joined social networking website Facebook, where he saw some pictures of Ms.Pitman on holiday and got in touch.The mother-of-one,a care worker from Exmouth,Devon,said,"I went to America on holiday and my niece Rachel put all these pictures on Facebook.The irony was that I told her to put them off because I felt it was an invasion of privacy and she said she would get them around to it when she had time.If I hadn't been on Facebook,he would not have contacted me and we would have never got back together."4.Ms.Pitman later mentioned,"I did think of him quite a lot over the years and wondered what happened to him. He hasn't changed a bit.He's the same old laid back,easygoing Paul I knew all those years ago."Mr. Eaton,a father-of-two from Bransley,South Yorkshire said:"It was totally a chance thing. I had only been on Facebook for one day.I just typed Dawn's name in and I hoped for the best.It was a bit scary when I contacted her. I thought she might be married and would have a dozen kids."5.The couple met up again on New Year's Eve 2008 and were amazed to discover the intervening years had been kind to each other."It was a real shock,"Mrs.Pitman said,"We both saw each other and he was exactly the same as I remember and that's what he said about me.He hadn't changed a bit.I knew then he was the one for me."6.Mr. Eaton added:"We just knew instantly as soon as we met up again.We didn't even have to discuss it or propose.When we knew each other all those years ago,I was a white van man and Dawn had a sports car. I still got a white van and Dawn still has a sports car. Some things never change.She always said that we would see each other again.I just didn't think it would be 27 years."The couple are due to get married in Exmouth on March 20. Paragraph 5______
[多选题]共用题干 ADHD Linked to Air PollutantsChildren have an increased of attention problems,seen as early as grade school,if their no-ses inhaled(吸入)a certain type of air pollution when they were pregnant. That's the finding of a new study.Released when things aren't burned completely,this pollution is known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,or PAHs.The biggest sources of these PAHs:the burning of fossil fuels, wood and trash.Frederica Perera works at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health in New York City.She researches how exposure to things in the environment affects children's health.In a new study,she and her team studied the exposure to air pollution of 233 nonsmoking pregnant women in New York City. Because burning tobacco can spew(排放)PAHs into the air and lungs, Perera's team focused on nonsmokers. The researchers wanted to probe(探查)other sources of PAHs,ones that's would have been hard for an individual to avoid.The team started by testing the blood of each woman during pregnancy.The reason:Any PAHs in a woman's blood would also be available to the baby in her womb.Nine years later,the researchers investigated signs of attention problems in those children,now age 9 .They asked each child's mother a series of questions.These included whatever her child had problems doing things that needed sustained(长期的)mental effort, such as homework or games with friends. The sci-entists also asked if the kids had trouble following instructions or made frequent,careless mis-takes .All of these can be symptoms of a disorder called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.About one in U.S.children has ADHD.Among the women studied,traffic and home heating were the primary sources of air pollution exposure,Perera and her team suspect. Some of these women had low levels of PAHs in their blood .Others had high levels.Those with high levels were five times as likely to have children who showed attention problems by age 9 .The new findings were published November 5 in the journal PLOS ONE. The main purpose of the research was to find out how exposure to PAHs played a role in har-ming the subjects' physical health.
[多选题]共用题干 I'll Be BachComposer David Cope is the inventor of a computer program that writes original works of clas-sical music .It took Cope 30 years to develop the software.Now most people can't_____(51) the difference between music by the famous German composer J. S.Bach(1685-1750)and the Bach-like compositions from Cope's computer.It all started in 1980 in the United States,when Cope was trying to write an opera. He was having____(52)thinking of new melodies,so he wrote a computer program to create the melodies.At first this music was not_____(53)to listen to. What did Cope do?He began to rethink how human beings compose music .He realized that composers,brains_____(54)like big databases. First,they take in all the music that they have ever heard.Then they take_____(55)the music that they dislike.Finally,they make new music from what is_______(56).According to Cope,only the great composers are able to create the database accurately, remember it,and form new musical patterns from it.Cope built a_____(57)database of existing music.He began with hundreds of works by Bach .The software analyzed the data:it______(58)it down into smaller pieces and looked for patterns. It then combined the______(59)into new patterns. Before long,the program could compose short Bach-like works.They weren't good,but it was a start.Cope knew he had more work to do—he had a whole opera to write.He continued to improve the software. Soon it could______(60)more complex music.He also added many other com-posers,including his own work to the database.A few years later,Cope's computer program,called“Emmy”,was ready to help him with his opera. The______(61)required a lot of collaboration between the composer and Emmy. Cope listened to the computer's musical ideas and used the______(62)that he liked.With Emmy,the opera took only two weeks to finish.It was called Cradle Falling,and it was a great _____(63)!Cope received some of the best reviews of his career,but no one knew exactly _____(64)he had composed the work.Since that first opera,Emmy has written thousands of compositions.Cope still gives Emmy feedback on what he likes and doesn't like of her music,_____(65)she is doing most of the hard work of composing these days! 57._________
[多选题]共用题干 Less Is MoreIt sounds all wrong—drilling holes in a piece of wood to make it more resistant to knocks. But it works because the energy from the blow gets distributed throughout the wood rather than fo-cusing on one weak spot. The discovery should lead to more effective and lighter packaging mate-rials.Carpenters have known______(51)centuries that some woods are tougher than others. Hickory,for example,was turned into axe handles and cartwheel spokes because it can absorb shocks without breaking. White oak,for example,is much more easily damaued,________(52)it is almost as dense.Julian Vincent at Bathe University and his team were convinced the wood's internal structure could explain the differences.Many trees have tubular vessels that run_______(53)the trunk and carry water to the leav- es .In oak they are large,and arranged in narrow bands,but in hickory they are smaller,and more evenly distributed.The researchers________(54)this layout might distribute a blow's en-ergy throughout the wood, soaking up a bigger hit.To test the idea,they drilled holes 0.65 millimetres across into a block of spruce,a wood with_______(55)vessels,and found that_______(56)withstood a harder knock_______(57)when there were more than about 30 holes per square centimeter did the wood's performance drop off.A uniform substance doesn't cope well with knocks because only a small proportion of the material is actually______( 58).All the energy from the blow goes towards breaking the material in one or two places , but often the pieces left _________( 59 ) are pristine(未经破坏的).But instead of the energy being concentrated in one place,the holes provide many weak spots that all absorb energy as they break,says Vincent.“You are controlling the places______(60) the wood breaks,and it can then absorb more______(61),more safely.”The researchers believe the principle could be applied to any material—_________(62)example,to manufacture lighter and more protective packaging.It could_______(63)be used in car bumpers,crash barriers and armor for military vehicles,says Ulrike Wegst,_______(64) the Max Plank Institute for Mental Research in Stuttgart. But she emphasizes that you'd ________(65)to design the substance with the direction of force in mind.“The direction of loading is crucial,”she says. 52._________
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇On the Trail of the Honey BadgerOn a recent field trip to the Kalahari Desert,a team of researchers learnt a lot more about honey badgers(獾).The team employed a local wildlife expert,Kitso Khama,t& help them locate and follow the badgers across the desert.Their main aim was to study the badgers'movements and behaviour as discreetly (谨慎地)as possible,without frightening them away or causing them to change their natural behaviour. Theyalso planned to trap a few and study them close up before releasing them.In view of the animal's reputation, this was something that even Khama was reluctant to do. "The problem with honey badgers is that they are naturally curious animals, especially when they see something new,"he says. "That, combined with their unpredictable nature,can be a dangerous mixture. If they sense you have food ,for example , they won't be shy about coming right up to you for something to eat. They're actually quite sociable creatures around humans ,but as soon as ther feel they might be in danger, they can become extremely vicious(凶恶的).Fortunately this is rare ,but it does happen."The research confirmed many things that were already known.As expected , honey badgers ate any crea- tures they could catch and kill. Even poisonous snakes , feared and avoided by most other animals,were not safe from them. The researchers were surprised , however, by the animal' s fondness for local melons , probably because of their high water content. Previously researchers thought that the animal got all of its liquid require- ments from its prey(猎物).The team also learnt that , contraryto previous research findings, the badgers oc- casionauy formed loose famiiy groups. They were also able to confirm certain results Irom previous research,including the fact that female badgers never socialised with each other.Following some of the male badgers was a challenge,since they can cover large distances in a short space of time. Some hunting territories cover more than 500 square kilometers. Although they seem happy to share these territories with other males,there are occasional fights over an important food source, and male badgers can be as aggressive towards each other as they are towards other species.As the badgers became accustomed to the presence of people , it gave the team the chance to get up close to them without being the subject of the animals'curiosity-or their sudden aggression. The badgers'eating patterns, which had been disrupted,returned to normal. It also allowed the team to observe more closely some of the other creatures that form working associations with the honey badger, as these seemed to adopt the badgers' relaxed attitude when near humans. What did the team find out about honey badgers?
[多选题]共用题干 Climate Change Poses Major Risks for Unprepared CitiesA new examination of urban policies has been carried out recently by Patricia Romero Lankao. She is a so- ciologist specializing in climate change and_____________(51) development. She warns that many of the world'5 fast-growing urban areas,especially in developing countries,will likely suffer from the_____________(52)of changing climate. Her work also concludes that most cities are failing to_____________(53)emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. These gases are known to affect the atmosphere."Climate change is a deeply local issue and poses profound_____________ (54) to the growing cities of the world,"says Romero Lankao. "But too few cities are developing effective strategies to protect their residents."Cities are_____________(55)sources of greenhouse gases.And urban populations are likely to be among those most severely affected by future climate change.Lankao's findings highlight ways in which city-resi- dents are particularly vulnerable,and suggest policy interventions that could offer immediate and longer-term ____________ (56).The locations and dense construction patterns of cities often place their populations at greater _____________(57)for natural disasters.Potential threats associated with climate include storm surges and pro- longed hot weather. Storm surges can flood coastal areas and prolonged hot weather can heat_____________(58) paved cities more than surrounding areas. The impacts of such natural events can be more_____________(59)in an urban environment. For example,a prolonged heat wave can increase existing levels of air pollution,causing widespread health problems.Poorer neighborhoods that may_____________(60)basic facilities such as drinking water or a dependable network of roads,are especially vulnerable to natural disasters.Many residents in poorer countries live in substandard housing_____________(61)access to reliable drinking water,roads and basic services.Local governments,therefore,should take measures to_____________(62)their residents."Unfortunately, they tend to move towards rhetoric_____________(63)meaningful responses,"Romero Lankao writes,"They don't impose construction standards that could reduce heating and air conditioning_____________(64).They don't em- phasize mass transit and reduce automobile use.In fact,many local governments are taking a hands-off ap- proach."_____________(65),she urges them to change their idle policies and to take strong steps to prevent the harmful effects of climate change on cities. _________(60)
[多选题]共用题干 ADHD Linked to Air PollutantsChildren have an increased of attention problems,seen as early as grade school,if their no-ses inhaled(吸入)a certain type of air pollution when they were pregnant. That's the finding of a new study.Released when things aren't burned completely,this pollution is known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,or PAHs.The biggest sources of these PAHs:the burning of fossil fuels, wood and trash.Frederica Perera works at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health in New York City.She researches how exposure to things in the environment affects children's health.In a new study,she and her team studied the exposure to air pollution of 233 nonsmoking pregnant women in New York City. Because burning tobacco can spew(排放)PAHs into the air and lungs, Perera's team focused on nonsmokers. The researchers wanted to probe(探查)other sources of PAHs,ones that's would have been hard for an individual to avoid.The team started by testing the blood of each woman during pregnancy.The reason:Any PAHs in a woman's blood would also be available to the baby in her womb.Nine years later,the researchers investigated signs of attention problems in those children,now age 9 .They asked each child's mother a series of questions.These included whatever her child had problems doing things that needed sustained(长期的)mental effort, such as homework or games with friends. The sci-entists also asked if the kids had trouble following instructions or made frequent,careless mis-takes .All of these can be symptoms of a disorder called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.About one in U.S.children has ADHD.Among the women studied,traffic and home heating were the primary sources of air pollution exposure,Perera and her team suspect. Some of these women had low levels of PAHs in their blood .Others had high levels.Those with high levels were five times as likely to have children who showed attention problems by age 9 .The new findings were published November 5 in the journal PLOS ONE. Perera and her team chose nonsmoking pregnant women all over Americ
[多选题]共用题干 How Men Face the Fat ProblemIt is a pleasure to see men of a certain age worrying about their weight. Listening to them is not such a pleasure.Because the men are new at the game,they don't hesitate to discuss the fat problem incessantly. However,women of the same age do not discuss the fat problem,especially not in mixed company. They prefer to face the problem with quiet dignity.Discussing the problem might only draw attention to some stray body part that may be successfully tucked away under an article of clothing.The age at which a man begins to explore the fat problem can vary.The actual problem can manifest itself in the early 30's,but broad-range discussion usually starts later. There are early nonverbal symptoms.I've watched the rugged journalist who shares my apartment sneak by with a Diet Coke.His shirts are no longer neatly tucked in to display a trim waist. Recently he has begun to verbalize his anxiety.He tells me,with a sheepish幼n,that he is taking his suits to Chinatown to have them"tailored."Still-older men have lost their dignity and rattle on unabashedly. Often,wives and children play important roles in their fat-inspection rituals.Take my oldest brother,a former college football player. His daughter says that several times a day he will stand at attention and call out,"Fat,medium or thin?"She knows the correct answer:medium. Thin would be an obvious stretch,and fat may not get her that new video.According to his wife,he stands in front of the mirror in the morning (before the day's meals take their toll),puts his hands behind his head and lurches into a side bend,then clutches the roll that has developed and says,"Am I getting fatter?"His wife is expected to answer,"You look like you may have lost a few pounds."And then there are the ex-husbands,a pitiful group.They are extremely vocal.When I go to the movies with one,he confides that he is suffering from great hunger because he is dieting.He hasn't eaten since the pancakes and sausages he wolfed down that morning. He pauses in his monologue while he buys his popcorn.After the movie,we sprint to a restaurant,where he again pauses to devour a basket of bread.Before he orders his chaste salad and soup,he grows plaintive.Do I think he's fat? My oldest brother's daughter would not tell her father he is fat because she loves him so much that she cannot bear to upset him.
[多选题]共用题干 InflationBusiness and government leaders also consider the inflation rate to be an important general indicator. Inflation is a period of increased spending that causes rapid rises in prices.______(51) your money buys fewer goods so that you get______(52)for the same amount of money as before,inflation is the problem.There is a general rise______(53)the price of goods and services.Your money buys less.Sometimes people describe inflation as a time when"a dollar is not worth a dollar anymore".Inflation is a problem for all consumers.People who live on a fixed income are hurt the ______(54).Retired people,for instance,cannot count on an increase in income as prices rise. Elderly people who do not work face serious problems in stretching their incomes to______(55)their needs in time of inflation.Retirement income______(56)any fixed income usually does not rise as fast as prices.Many retired people must cut their spending to______(57)rising prices.In many cases they must stop______(58)some necessary items,such as food and clothing. Even ______(59)working people whose incomes are going up,inflation can be a problem. The ______(60)of living goes up,too.People who work must have even more money to keep up their standard of living. Just buying the things they need costs more.When incomes do not keep ______(61)with rising prices,the standard of living goes down.People may be earning the same amount of money,but they are not living as well because they are not able to buy as many goods and services.Government units gather information about prices in our economy and publish it as price indexes ______(62)the rate of change can be determined.A price index measures changes in prices using the price for a______(63)year as the base.The base price is set at 100,and the other prices are reported as a______(64)of the base price.A price index makes______(65)possible to compare current prices of typical consumer goods,for example,with prices of the same goods in previous years. _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 Drying Ways for Food1.Centuries ago,man discovered that removing moisture from food helps to preserve it,and that the easiest way to do this is to expose the food to sun and wind.In this way the North American Indians produce pemmican(dried meat ground into powder and made into cakes),the Scandinavians make stockfish and the Arabs dried dates and"apricot leather".2.All foods including water,cabbage and other leaf vegetables contain as much as 93%water, potatoes and other root vegetables 80%,lean meat 75%and fish,anything from 20%to 60%,depending on how fatty it is.If this water is removed,the activity of the bacteria which causes food to go bad is checked.3.Fruit is sun-dried in Asia Minor,Greece,Spain and other Mediterranean countries,and also in California,South Africa and Australia. The methods used vary, but in general,the fruit is spread out on trays in drying yards in the hot sun.In order to prevent darkening,pears,peaches and apricots are exposed to the fumes of burning sulfur before drying. Plums,for making prunes, and certain varieties of grapes for making raisins and currants,are dipped in an alkaline solution in order to crack the skins of the fruit slightly and remove their wax coating,so as to increase the rate of drying.4.Nowadays most foods are dried mechanically.The conventional method of such dehydration is to put food in chambers through which hot air is blown at temperatures of about 110℃at entry and to about 43℃at exit. This is the usual method for drying such things as vegetables,minced meat, and fish.5.Liquids such as milk,coffee,tea,soups and eggs may be dried by pouring them over a heated steel cylinder,by spraying them into a chamber through which a current of hot air passes.In the first case,the dried material is scraped off the roller as a thin film which is then broken up into small,though still relatively coarse flakes.In the second process,it falls to the bottom of the chamber as a fine powder. Where recognizable pieces of meat and vegetables are required,as in soup, the ingredients are dried separately and then mixed.6.Dried foods take up less room and weigh less than the same food packed in cans or frozen, and they do not need to be stored in special conditions.For these reasons they are invaluable to the climbers,explorers and soldiers in battle,who have little storage space.They are also popular with housewives because it takes so little time to cook them.Usually it is just a case of replacing the dried-out moisture with boiling water. Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇In the dark night of the desert,a group of U.S.Air Force scientists is testing a new device for a missile to target.Designed to seek out the heat of an enemy aircraft engine,it is now going through its paces by tracing the movement of a flashlight waving thirty feet away in the darkness.A hundred yards away,unseen by the man,a rattlesnake sliding between the stones senses a patch of warmth. Although the snake's mechanism is small enough to be packed into a head the size of a nut,it can detect a change in temperature of one-thousandth of a degree.With a sound the snake closes in and strikes for the kill.Whenever we look in the animal world we find the same story.Almost anything that man can do,nature has already done better. So,it is for the purpose of learning from nature that a new science called bionics has grown up.Its aim is to find out how animal's instruments work so that man can copy them for his own purpose.Imagine being able to know a friend several miles off by his smell. Male silk moths can do this. Their antennae are so sensitive to the chemical odor of female moths that they can detect their presence by picking up only one molecule of the chemical.Even with their most sensitive instruments, human cannot approach this perfection.Studying beetle's eyes has already paid off. A group of scientists in Germany found that a beetle can accurately measure with its eyes the speed of moving background.After finding out how a beetle accomplishes this scientists built a machine that operated on the same principle.This instrument is able to determine the ground speed of moving aircraft with a high degree of accuracy. The goal for bionics is to______.
[多选题]共用题干 Climate Change Poses Major Risks for Unprepared CitiesA new examination of urban policies has been carried out recently by Patricia Romero Lankao. She is a so- ciologist specializing in climate change and_____________(51) development. She warns that many of the world'5 fast-growing urban areas,especially in developing countries,will likely suffer from the_____________(52)of changing climate. Her work also concludes that most cities are failing to_____________(53)emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. These gases are known to affect the atmosphere."Climate change is a deeply local issue and poses profound_____________ (54) to the growing cities of the world,"says Romero Lankao. "But too few cities are developing effective strategies to protect their residents."Cities are_____________(55)sources of greenhouse gases.And urban populations are likely to be among those most severely affected by future climate change.Lankao's findings highlight ways in which city-resi- dents are particularly vulnerable,and suggest policy interventions that could offer immediate and longer-term ____________ (56).The locations and dense construction patterns of cities often place their populations at greater _____________(57)for natural disasters.Potential threats associated with climate include storm surges and pro- longed hot weather. Storm surges can flood coastal areas and prolonged hot weather can heat_____________(58) paved cities more than surrounding areas. The impacts of such natural events can be more_____________(59)in an urban environment. For example,a prolonged heat wave can increase existing levels of air pollution,causing widespread health problems.Poorer neighborhoods that may_____________(60)basic facilities such as drinking water or a dependable network of roads,are especially vulnerable to natural disasters.Many residents in poorer countries live in substandard housing_____________(61)access to reliable drinking water,roads and basic services.Local governments,therefore,should take measures to_____________(62)their residents."Unfortunately, they tend to move towards rhetoric_____________(63)meaningful responses,"Romero Lankao writes,"They don't impose construction standards that could reduce heating and air conditioning_____________(64).They don't em- phasize mass transit and reduce automobile use.In fact,many local governments are taking a hands-off ap- proach."_____________(65),she urges them to change their idle policies and to take strong steps to prevent the harmful effects of climate change on cities. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 Lakes,Too,Feel Global WarmingThere's no doubt:In the last few decades,the average temperature on Earth has been higher than it has been in hundreds of years.Around the world,people are starting to measure the effects of global warming一 and trying to figure out what to do about it.Scientists recently used satellites to study the temperatures of lakes around the world,and they found that lakes are heating up.Between 1985 and 2009,satellites recorded the nighttime temperatures of the sur- faces of 167 lakes.During those 24 years,the lakes got warmer by an average of about 0.045 degreeCelsius per year.In some places,lakes have been warming by as much as 0.10 degree Celsius per year. At that rate,a lake may warm by a full degree Celsius in just 10 years.That difference may seem small一you might not even notice it in your bath.But in a lake,slightly warmer temperatures could mean more algae(水藻),and algae can make the lake poisonous to fish.The study shows that in some regions,lakes are warming faster than the air around them.This is impor- tant because scientists often use measurements of air temperature to study how Earth is warming. By using lake temperatures as well,scientists can get a better picture of global warming. The scientists say data on lakes give scientists a new way to measure the impact of climate change around the world.That's going to be useful,since no country is too big or too small to ignore climate change.Scientists aren't the only ones concerned.Everyone who lives on Earth is going to be affected by the rapid warming of the planet. Many world leaders believe we might be able to do something about it,especially by reducing theamount of greenhouse(温室)gases we put into the air.That's why the United Nations started the Framework Convention on Climate Change,or UNFCCC. Every year the convention meets,and representatives from countries around the world gather to talk about climate change and discuss global solutions to the challenges of a warming world. A slight temperature increase in a lake could be harmful to fish.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Shyness is the cause of much unhappiness for a great many people.Shy people are anxious and self-conscious;that is,they are excessively concerned with their own appearance and actions.Worrisome thoughts are constantly occurring in their minds.What kind of impression am I taking? Do they like me?Do I look stupid?Am I wearing attractive clothes?It is obvious that such uncomfortable feelings must affect people adversely.A person's self-concept is reflected in the way he or she behaves,and the way a person behaves affects other people's reactions.In general,the way people think about themselves has a profound effect on all areas of their lives.Shy people,having low self-esteem,are likely to be passive and easily influenced by others. They need reassurance that they are doing"the right thing".Shy people are very sensitive to criticism;they feel it confirms their inferiority.They also find it difficult to be pleased by compliments because they believe they are unworthy of praise.A shy person may respond to a compliment with a statement like this one,"you are just saying that to make me feel good.I know it's not true."It is clear that,while self-awareness is a healthy quality,overdoing it is harmful.Can shyness be completely eliminated,or at least reduced?Fortunately,people can overcome shyness with determined and patient effort in building self-confidence.Since shyness goes hand in hand with lack of self-esteem,it is important for people to accept their weaknesses as well as their their strengths.For example,most people would like to be"A"student in every subject. It is not fair for them to label themselves inferior because they have difficulty in some areas.People's expectations of themselves must be realistic.Living on the impossible leads to a sense of inadequacy.Each one of us is a unique,worthwhile individual. We are interested in our own personal ways.The better we understand ourselves,the easier it becomes to live up to our full potential.Let's not allow shyness to block our chances for a rich and fullfilling life. Which of the following does NOT help shy people overcome their shyness?
[多选题]共用题干 Climate Change Poses Major Risks for Unprepared CitiesA new examination of urban policies has been carried out recently by Patricia Romero Lankao. She is a so- ciologist specializing in climate change and_____________(51) development. She warns that many of the world'5 fast-growing urban areas,especially in developing countries,will likely suffer from the_____________(52)of changing climate. Her work also concludes that most cities are failing to_____________(53)emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. These gases are known to affect the atmosphere."Climate change is a deeply local issue and poses profound_____________ (54) to the growing cities of the world,"says Romero Lankao. "But too few cities are developing effective strategies to protect their residents."Cities are_____________(55)sources of greenhouse gases.And urban populations are likely to be among those most severely affected by future climate change.Lankao's findings highlight ways in which city-resi- dents are particularly vulnerable,and suggest policy interventions that could offer immediate and longer-term ____________ (56).The locations and dense construction patterns of cities often place their populations at greater _____________(57)for natural disasters.Potential threats associated with climate include storm surges and pro- longed hot weather. Storm surges can flood coastal areas and prolonged hot weather can heat_____________(58) paved cities more than surrounding areas. The impacts of such natural events can be more_____________(59)in an urban environment. For example,a prolonged heat wave can increase existing levels of air pollution,causing widespread health problems.Poorer neighborhoods that may_____________(60)basic facilities such as drinking water or a dependable network of roads,are especially vulnerable to natural disasters.Many residents in poorer countries live in substandard housing_____________(61)access to reliable drinking water,roads and basic services.Local governments,therefore,should take measures to_____________(62)their residents."Unfortunately, they tend to move towards rhetoric_____________(63)meaningful responses,"Romero Lankao writes,"They don't impose construction standards that could reduce heating and air conditioning_____________(64).They don't em- phasize mass transit and reduce automobile use.In fact,many local governments are taking a hands-off ap- proach."_____________(65),she urges them to change their idle policies and to take strong steps to prevent the harmful effects of climate change on cities. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 Less Is MoreIt sounds all wrong—drilling holes in a piece of wood to make it more resistant to knocks. But it works because the energy from the blow gets distributed throughout the wood rather than fo-cusing on one weak spot. The discovery should lead to more effective and lighter packaging mate-rials.Carpenters have known______(51)centuries that some woods are tougher than others. Hickory,for example,was turned into axe handles and cartwheel spokes because it can absorb shocks without breaking. White oak,for example,is much more easily damaued,________(52)it is almost as dense.Julian Vincent at Bathe University and his team were convinced the wood's internal structure could explain the differences.Many trees have tubular vessels that run_______(53)the trunk and carry water to the leav- es .In oak they are large,and arranged in narrow bands,but in hickory they are smaller,and more evenly distributed.The researchers________(54)this layout might distribute a blow's en-ergy throughout the wood, soaking up a bigger hit.To test the idea,they drilled holes 0.65 millimetres across into a block of spruce,a wood with_______(55)vessels,and found that_______(56)withstood a harder knock_______(57)when there were more than about 30 holes per square centimeter did the wood's performance drop off.A uniform substance doesn't cope well with knocks because only a small proportion of the material is actually______( 58).All the energy from the blow goes towards breaking the material in one or two places , but often the pieces left _________( 59 ) are pristine(未经破坏的).But instead of the energy being concentrated in one place,the holes provide many weak spots that all absorb energy as they break,says Vincent.“You are controlling the places______(60) the wood breaks,and it can then absorb more______(61),more safely.”The researchers believe the principle could be applied to any material—_________(62)example,to manufacture lighter and more protective packaging.It could_______(63)be used in car bumpers,crash barriers and armor for military vehicles,says Ulrike Wegst,_______(64) the Max Plank Institute for Mental Research in Stuttgart. But she emphasizes that you'd ________(65)to design the substance with the direction of force in mind.“The direction of loading is crucial,”she says. 63._________
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Internet Helps Families Stay More in TouchMuch has been said about how anti-social the Internet and mobile phones are.The truth is however,according to new research,communication technology is bringing people closer together. A study by the Pew Internet and American Life Project found family members were keeping in regular contact today more than ever before. And this is all down to e-mail,chat,our cellphones and SMS messaging. It makes sense.Years ago,it took a long time to write a letter,then find an envelope and go to the post office to buy a stamp and post it.Today we write mails while we wait for our change in the convenience store and they're sent in an instant.Having free Internet telephone calls also helps us to stay in touch more often and for longer. Everyone's using it,from five-year-olds to tech-savvy grandparents.According to the Pew survey,technology has a very positive effect on communication within families.Researchers asked 2,252 adults whether new technologies had increased the quality of communication with their family. Fifty-three percent said it increased communication with family members they did not live with,two percent said technology decreased this.Numbers were similar for those living in the same house as their family.The project director Lee Rainey said:"There's a new kind of connectedness being built inside of families with these technologies."Survey co-author Barry Wellman agreed:"It used to be that husbands went off to work,wives went off to a different job or else stayed home…and the kids went off to school…and not until 5:30 or 6 o'clock did they ever connect,"he said. What does the verb"tech-savvy"mean?
[多选题]共用题干 A Great Quake Coming?Everyone who lives in San Francisco knows that earthquakes are common in the Bay Area一and they can be devastating. In 1906,for example,a major quake destroyed about 28,000 buildings and killed hundreds,perhaps thousands of people.Residents now wonder when the next"Big One"will strike.It's bound to happen someday. At least seven active fault(断层)lines run through the San Francisco area. Faults are places where pieces of Earth ' s crust(地壳)slide past each other. When these pieces slip , the ground shakes.To prepare for that day,scientists are using new techniques to reanalyze the 1906 earthquake and pre-dict how bad the damage might be when the next one happens.One new finding about the 1906 earthquake is that the San Andreas fault split apart faster than scientists had assumed at the time. During small earthquakes,faults rupture(断裂)at about 2.7 kilometers per second. During bigger quakes,however,ruptures can happen at rates faster than 3.5 kilometers per second.At such high speeds,massive amounts of pressure build up,generating underground waves that can cause more damage than the quake itself. Lucky for San Francisco , these pressure pulses(脉冲)traveled away from the city during the 1906 event.As bad as the damage was,it could have been far worse.Looking ahead,scientists are trying to predict when the next major quake will occur. Records show that earthquakes were common before 1906.Since then,the area has been relatively quiet.Patterns in the data, however,suggest that the probability of a major earthquake striking the Bay Area before 2032 is at least 62 percent.New buildings in San Francisco are quite safe in case of future quakes.Still,more than 84 percent of thecity's buildings are old and weak.Analyses suggest that another massive earthquake would cause extensive damage.People who live there today tend to feel safe because San Francisco has remained pretty quiet for a while.According to the new research,however,it's not a matter of"if" the Big One will hit.It's just a mat- ter of when. The 1906 earthquake in San Francisco is the most severe one in American history.
[多选题]共用题干 1.Two former lovers are to get married next month after reuniting on Facebook 27 years after their romance first ended.2.Paul Eaton,56,and Dawn Pitman,48,first met when he stayed at her mother's bed and breakfast hotel in 1982.The couple enjoyed an 18-month romance before going their separate ways because Ms. Pitman,then 21,thought she was too young to settle down.3.They both met other partners and had children in the following years,but never forgot about each other,then in 2008,water board worker Mr. Eaton joined social networking website Facebook, where he saw some pictures of Ms.Pitman on holiday and got in touch.The mother-of-one,a care worker from Exmouth,Devon,said,"I went to America on holiday and my niece Rachel put all these pictures on Facebook.The irony was that I told her to put them off because I felt it was an invasion of privacy and she said she would get them around to it when she had time.If I hadn't been on Facebook,he would not have contacted me and we would have never got back together."4.Ms.Pitman later mentioned,"I did think of him quite a lot over the years and wondered what happened to him. He hasn't changed a bit.He's the same old laid back,easygoing Paul I knew all those years ago."Mr. Eaton,a father-of-two from Bransley,South Yorkshire said:"It was totally a chance thing. I had only been on Facebook for one day.I just typed Dawn's name in and I hoped for the best.It was a bit scary when I contacted her. I thought she might be married and would have a dozen kids."5.The couple met up again on New Year's Eve 2008 and were amazed to discover the intervening years had been kind to each other."It was a real shock,"Mrs.Pitman said,"We both saw each other and he was exactly the same as I remember and that's what he said about me.He hadn't changed a bit.I knew then he was the one for me."6.Mr. Eaton added:"We just knew instantly as soon as we met up again.We didn't even have to discuss it or propose.When we knew each other all those years ago,I was a white van man and Dawn had a sports car. I still got a white van and Dawn still has a sports car. Some things never change.She always said that we would see each other again.I just didn't think it would be 27 years."The couple are due to get married in Exmouth on March 20. He's the same old laid back,easygoing Paul I knew______.
[多选题]共用题干 Less Is MoreIt sounds all wrong—drilling holes in a piece of wood to make it more resistant to knocks. But it works because the energy from the blow gets distributed throughout the wood rather than fo-cusing on one weak spot. The discovery should lead to more effective and lighter packaging mate-rials.Carpenters have known______(51)centuries that some woods are tougher than others. Hickory,for example,was turned into axe handles and cartwheel spokes because it can absorb shocks without breaking. White oak,for example,is much more easily damaued,________(52)it is almost as dense.Julian Vincent at Bathe University and his team were convinced the wood's internal structure could explain the differences.Many trees have tubular vessels that run_______(53)the trunk and carry water to the leav- es .In oak they are large,and arranged in narrow bands,but in hickory they are smaller,and more evenly distributed.The researchers________(54)this layout might distribute a blow's en-ergy throughout the wood, soaking up a bigger hit.To test the idea,they drilled holes 0.65 millimetres across into a block of spruce,a wood with_______(55)vessels,and found that_______(56)withstood a harder knock_______(57)when there were more than about 30 holes per square centimeter did the wood's performance drop off.A uniform substance doesn't cope well with knocks because only a small proportion of the material is actually______( 58).All the energy from the blow goes towards breaking the material in one or two places , but often the pieces left _________( 59 ) are pristine(未经破坏的).But instead of the energy being concentrated in one place,the holes provide many weak spots that all absorb energy as they break,says Vincent.“You are controlling the places______(60) the wood breaks,and it can then absorb more______(61),more safely.”The researchers believe the principle could be applied to any material—_________(62)example,to manufacture lighter and more protective packaging.It could_______(63)be used in car bumpers,crash barriers and armor for military vehicles,says Ulrike Wegst,_______(64) the Max Plank Institute for Mental Research in Stuttgart. But she emphasizes that you'd ________(65)to design the substance with the direction of force in mind.“The direction of loading is crucial,”she says. 54._________
[多选题]共用题干 Less Is MoreIt sounds all wrong—drilling holes in a piece of wood to make it more resistant to knocks. But it works because the energy from the blow gets distributed throughout the wood rather than fo-cusing on one weak spot. The discovery should lead to more effective and lighter packaging mate-rials.Carpenters have known______(51)centuries that some woods are tougher than others. Hickory,for example,was turned into axe handles and cartwheel spokes because it can absorb shocks without breaking. White oak,for example,is much more easily damaued,________(52)it is almost as dense.Julian Vincent at Bathe University and his team were convinced the wood's internal structure could explain the differences.Many trees have tubular vessels that run_______(53)the trunk and carry water to the leav- es .In oak they are large,and arranged in narrow bands,but in hickory they are smaller,and more evenly distributed.The researchers________(54)this layout might distribute a blow's en-ergy throughout the wood, soaking up a bigger hit.To test the idea,they drilled holes 0.65 millimetres across into a block of spruce,a wood with_______(55)vessels,and found that_______(56)withstood a harder knock_______(57)when there were more than about 30 holes per square centimeter did the wood's performance drop off.A uniform substance doesn't cope well with knocks because only a small proportion of the material is actually______( 58).All the energy from the blow goes towards breaking the material in one or two places , but often the pieces left _________( 59 ) are pristine(未经破坏的).But instead of the energy being concentrated in one place,the holes provide many weak spots that all absorb energy as they break,says Vincent.“You are controlling the places______(60) the wood breaks,and it can then absorb more______(61),more safely.”The researchers believe the principle could be applied to any material—_________(62)example,to manufacture lighter and more protective packaging.It could_______(63)be used in car bumpers,crash barriers and armor for military vehicles,says Ulrike Wegst,_______(64) the Max Plank Institute for Mental Research in Stuttgart. But she emphasizes that you'd ________(65)to design the substance with the direction of force in mind.“The direction of loading is crucial,”she says. 59._________
[多选题]共用题干 Smoking can Increase Depressive Symptoms in TeensWhile some teenagers may use cigarettes to "self-medicate"(自我治疗)against the blues(忧郁),sci- entists at the University of Toronto and the University of Montreal have found that smoking may actually ______________(51)depressive symptoms in some teens."This observational study is one of the few to examine the perceived ______________(52)benefits of smoking among teens,"says lead researcher Michael Chaiton,a research associate at the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit of the University of Toronto."_______________(53)cigarettes may appear to have self-medicating effects or to improve mood,in the long_______________(54)we found that teens who started to smoke reported higher depressive symptoms."As part of the study,some 662 high school teenagers completed up to 20 questionnaires about their useof cigarettes to ______________(55)mood.Secondary schools were selected to provide a mix of French andEnglish participants,urban and rural schools,and schools ______________(56)in high,moderate and low so-cioeconomic neighbourhoods.Participants were divided into three______________ (57):never smokers;smokers who did not use ciga-rettes to self-medicate,improve mood or physical______________ (58);smokers who used cigarettes to self-medicate.Depressive symptoms were measured using a scale that asked how often participants felt too tiredto do things;had______________ (59)going to sleep or staying asleep;felt unhappy,sad,or depressed;felt hopeless about the future;felt anxious or tense;and worried too much about things." Smokers who used cigarettes as mood______________( 60 ) had higher risks of elevated(提升)depres-sive symptoms______________ (61)teens who had never smoked,"says co-researcher Jennifer O'Loughlin,aprofessor at the University of Montreal Department of Social and Preventive Medicine."Our study found that teen smokers who reported emotional benefits from smoking are_______________(62)higher risk of developing depressive symptoms."The______________ (63)between depression and'smoking exists______________(64)among teens that usecigarettes to feel better."It's ______________(65)to emphasize that depressive symptom scores were higher among teenagers who reported emotional benefits from smoking after they began to smoke,"says Dr. Chaiton. _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇FearFear is something that always remains in our heart. We can never eliminate fear from our life. Fear of failing in exams which can make a negative impact in someone's career,and fear of speaking in public where majority of human think that people will make fun of them.Fear of not being liked, fear of storms and floods,fear of being alone and many others are all very common examples of fear.Fear can also affect our physical beings like pounding of the heart,rapid pulse rate,tense muscles,dryness of the throat,churning in the stomach,confusion,fainting,and the inability to concentrate.These things are also very common.Fear is only hidden somewhere inside our bodies, pushing us to work hard and moving us forward to overcome our weaknesses.Fear is the way to our success.I had a very bad experience of fear in my childhood days.My father told me that if I got bad grades another time in my school exams,then he would kick me out of his home and would never allow me to come back again.This sentence of my father stuck in my mind because one of my friends in school at that time recently became homeless.He belonged to a poor family,and his father had lost a big amount of money in a small business near his home.So, the problems he was facing from homelessness made me work hard in my exams;otherwise,I might have been kicked out of home by my father.Fear sometimes can be motivating,and help us to do those things which we think and believe that we can never do.One of the most common fear inducing activities,for example,is swimming. This is primarily caused by most of us not having a background in swimming and only taking it up because it is part of the sport. Additionally,most humans are uncomfortable in the water as a general rule because of the fear of drowning. This fear of drowning is innately strong,and similar common or strong fears tend not to exist when it comes to cycling or running because they are land based activities. Which of the following is not a person's physical reaction to fear?
[多选题]共用题干 Levi Strauss was born in Germany in the mid 1800's and(51)______to the United States as a young man.He lived in New York City and learned the dry-goods business for several.years.In 1853 he took his knowledge and his(52)______to San Francisco(California.,USA.).His dream to(53)______came true over the next 20 years as he became a very successful (54)______.Many of Levi Strauss' customers were cowboys and miners.They needed(55)______that was strong and durable.Strauss found a special(56)______from France that was comfortable and(57)______a long time.It was called"serge de Nimes,"which was later shortened to the word denim.Another man named Jacob Davis(58)______large amounts of the denim fabric from Levi Strauss.He was a tailor who made pants for hard-working men. One of his customers was(59) ______tearing the pockets off his pants.So Jacob Davis(60)______to put rivets on certain parts of the pants to make them(61)______.The customer loved the new pants so much that he told all his friends,and soon Jacob Davis was busy(62)______lots of pants with rivets.Jacob Davis soon realized that using rivets was a great business idea,and he didn't want any-body to steal that idea. He decided that he would need to get a patent. But being a(63)______ tailor,he didn't have enough money to pay for the patent. After thinking it over,he went to the businessman Levi Strauss and told him his idea. He said,"If you(64)______to pay for the patent, we will share the(65)______from the riveted pants."Levi Strauss did agree,and the new riveted pant business was called Levi Strauss&Company. Today Levi's jeans are more popular than ever,and Levi's name continues to live on. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇In the dark night of the desert,a group of U.S.Air Force scientists is testing a new device for a missile to target.Designed to seek out the heat of an enemy aircraft engine,it is now going through its paces by tracing the movement of a flashlight waving thirty feet away in the darkness.A hundred yards away,unseen by the man,a rattlesnake sliding between the stones senses a patch of warmth. Although the snake's mechanism is small enough to be packed into a head the size of a nut,it can detect a change in temperature of one-thousandth of a degree.With a sound the snake closes in and strikes for the kill.Whenever we look in the animal world we find the same story.Almost anything that man can do,nature has already done better. So,it is for the purpose of learning from nature that a new science called bionics has grown up.Its aim is to find out how animal's instruments work so that man can copy them for his own purpose.Imagine being able to know a friend several miles off by his smell. Male silk moths can do this. Their antennae are so sensitive to the chemical odor of female moths that they can detect their presence by picking up only one molecule of the chemical.Even with their most sensitive instruments, human cannot approach this perfection.Studying beetle's eyes has already paid off. A group of scientists in Germany found that a beetle can accurately measure with its eyes the speed of moving background.After finding out how a beetle accomplishes this scientists built a machine that operated on the same principle.This instrument is able to determine the ground speed of moving aircraft with a high degree of accuracy. Which of the following can be used to replace the word"accomplishes"?
[多选题]共用题干 B1i'k Holes1 Black holes can be best described as a sort of vacuum,sucking up everything in space. Scientists have discovered that black holes come from an explosion of huge stars. Stars that are near death can no longer burn due to loss of fuel , and because its temperature can no longer control the gravitational(重力的)force, hydrogen ends up putting pressure onto the star' s surface until it suddenly explodes then collapses.2 Black holes come from stars that are made of hydrogen,other gases and a few metals. When these explode it can turn into a stellar-mass ( 恒星质量)black hole , which can only occur if the star is large enough (should be bigger than the sun) for the explosion to break it into pieces,and the gravity starts to compact every piece into the tiniest particle. Try to see and compare:if a star that' s ten times the size of the sun endsup being a black hole that' s no longer than 70 kilometers ,then the Earth would become a black hole that' sonly"fraction of an inch! 3 Objects that get sucked in a black hie will always remain there,never to brsak fren. But rememberthat black holes can only gobble up(吞噬)objects within a specific distance to it It' s possible for a largestar near the sun to become a black hole,but the sun will continue to stay in place. Orbits (轨道)do notchange because the newly formed black hole, contains exactly the same amount of mass as when it was a star,only this time its mass is totally contracted that it can end up as on biggeer tnan a state. 4 So far, astronomers have figured out that black holes exist because of Albert Einstenin's theory of relativity. In the end,through numerous studies ,they have discovered that black holes truly exist. Since blackholes trap light and do not give off light,it is nearly impossible to detect black goles via a telescope. Butastronomers continue to study galaxies (银河系),space and the solar system to understand how black holes misht evolve. It is possible that black holes can exist for millions of years,and later contribute to a biggerprocess in galaxies ,which can eventually lead to creation of new entities(实体).Scientists also credit blackholes as helpful in learning how galaxies began to form. Paragraph 4_____________
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇“Life Form Found" on Saturn ' s TitanScientists say they have discovered hints of alien life on the Saturn'5 moon.The discovery of a sort of life was announced after researchers at the US space agency,NASA,analyzed data from spacecraft Cassini, which pointed to the existence of methane-based form of life on Saturn's biggest moon.Scientists have reportedly discovered clues showing primitive alien beings are"breathing"in Titan's dense atmosphere filled with hydrogen.They argue that hydrogen gets absorbed before hitting Titan's planet-like surface covered with methane lakes and rivers.This,they say,points to the existence of some"bugs"consuming the hydrogen at the surface of the moon less than half the size of the Earth."We suggested hydrogen consumption because it's the obvious gas for life to consume on Titan,similar to the way we consume oxygen on Earth,"says NASA scientist Chris McKay."If these signs do turn out to be a sign of life,it would be doubly exciting because it would represent a second form of life independent from water-based life on Earth."To date,scientists have not yet detected this form of life anywhere,though there are liquid-water-based microorganisms on Earth that grow well on methane or produce it as a waste product. On Titan,wheretemperatures are around minus 17 Kelvin(minus 290 degrees Farenheit),a methane-based organism would have to use a substance that is liquid as its medium for living processes,but not water itself. Water is frozen solid on Titan'5 surface and much too cold to support life as we know it.Scientists had expected the Sun'5 interactions with chemicals in the atmosphere to produce a coating of acetylene on Titan'5 surface.But Cassini detected no acetylene on the surface.The absence of detectable acetylene on the Titan's surface can very well have a non-biological explana-tion,said Mark Allen,a principal investigator of the NASA Titan team."Scientific conservatism suggests that a biological explanation should be the last choice after all non- biological explanations are addressed,"Allen said."We have a lot of work to do to rule out possible non-bio- logical explanations.It is more likely that a chemical process,without biology,can explain these results." Which of the following statements about Titan is true?
[多选题]共用题干 The Weight ExperimentNicola Walters has been taking part in experiments in Scotland to discover why humans gain and lose weight. Being locked in a small room called a“ calorimeter”(热量测量室)is one way to find out.1 .The signs above the two rooms read simply“Chamber One”and“Chamber Two”.These are the calorimeters:4m by 2m white-walled rooms where human volunteers are locked up in the name of science .Outside these rooms another sign reads“Please do not enter work in progress” and in front of the rooms advanced machinery registers every move the volunteers make.Each day,meals measured to the last gram are passed through a hole in the wall of the calorimeter to the resident volunteer.2 .Nicola Walters is one of twenty volunteers who,over the past eight months,have spent varying periods inside the calorimeter. Tall and slim,Nicola does not have a weight problem,but thought the strict diet might help with her training and fitness programme.As a self-employed community dance rorker,she was able to fit the experiment in around her work.She saw an advert for volun- teers at her local gym and as she is interested in the whole area of diet and exercise,she thought she would help out.3. The experiment on Nicola involved her spending one day on a fixed diet at home and the next in the room.This sequence was repeated four times over six weeks.She arrived at the calorimeter at8:30 am on each of the four mornings and from then on everything she ate or drank was carefull) measured .Her every move was noted too,her daily exercise routine,timed to the last second. At regular intervals,after eating,she filled in forms about how hungry she felt and samples were taken for analysis.4 .The scientists help volunteers impose a kind of order on the long days they face in the room. “The first time,I only took one video and a book,but it was OK because I watched TV the rest of the time,”says Nicola. And twice a day she used the exercise bike. She pedaled(踩踏板) for half an hour,watched by researchers to make sure she didn't go too fast.5 .It seems that some foods encourage you to eat more,while others satisfy you quickly.Volunteers are already showing that high-fat diets are less likely to make you feel full.Believing that they may now know what encourages people to overeat,the researchers are about to start testing a high-protein weight-loss diet. Volunteers are required and Nicola has signed up for further sessions. Volunteers have to get prepared for the time in the calorimeter_________.
[多选题]共用题干 The Robot ManAccording to Hans Moravec,universal robots will take over all the physical activities that we engage in,leaving us with little to do.Moravec sees four generations on the road to true universal robots. The first generation will be here by 2010 and will consist of free-ranging robots that can navigate by building an internal mental map of their surroundings.In new situations they'll be able to adapt,unlike today's mobile industrial robots.These robots will have the computing power to cope with simple speech and text recognition,and will be used for tasks such as domestic clean-ing.The second generation will arrive around 2020 and will be distinguished by the ability to learn .Second generation robots are programmed with sets of primitive tasks and with feedback that provide"pleasure"and"pain"stimuli .For example,a collision provokes a negative response,a completed task would be positive.Move forward another ten years to 2030 and you get to generation three.This robot can build internal simulations of the world around it. Before beginning a task,it can imagine what will happen in order to predict problems.If it has a free moment,it can replay past experiences and try variations in order to find a better way of如ing things next time .It could even observe a person or another robot performing a task and learn by imitation.For the first time,we have here a robot that can think.By the time we get to generation four in 2040,Moravec predicts that robots will be able to: match human reasoning and behaviour;generalise abstract ideas from specific experience;and, conversely,compile detailed plans of action from general commands such as"earn a living"or "make more robots".The Moravec manifesto(宣告)runs something like this. As robots start to become useful in generation one,they'll begin to take on many tasks in industry.Driven by the availability of this cheap and tireless labour force,the economy will boom and the demand for robots will grow so rapidly that they will soon become lowcost commodity items.So much so that they'll move into the home,where the domestic robot will relieve us of many chores.With increasing automation in generations two and three,the length of the average working day will plummet,eventually to near zero. Most people will be unemployed as robots take over not just primary industry,but the service economy too.Moravec sees the fourth generation as an opportunity to surpass our human limitations.These future machines will be our"mind children".Like biological children of previous generations,they will embody humanity's best hope for a long-term future. What will be the distinctive feature of the second generation robots?
[多选题]共用题干 Messages From the Media1.The weather forecast,a story about the candidates in an election,and movie reviews are examples of messages from the media. A communication medium, of which the plural(复数的)form is media,is a means of communicating a message.Examples of media are television,radio,newspapers, books and the telephone.The media that can reach many people at once are called mass media.2.It is not difficult to think of other messages we receive through the mass media. Every day we get hundreds of them. Think about advertisements,for example,we see and hear these messages almost everywhere we go.Advertisements are important messages,even though they are sometimes annoying. They help us compare and evaluate products.3.Most of us get more information from the media than from the classroom. Think for a moment,about how you learn about local news and events.Do you depend on other people or the media?What about international news?What is the most important source of information for you? People who are asked this question usually answer,"Television".4.Think of all the messages you received today.Perhaps you read a newspaper during break-fast,or maybe you read advertisements on billboards(露天广告牌)on your way to school. Did you listen to a weather forecast or the sports news on the radio this morning?Right now you are getting information through a very important medium of mass communication一a book.5.We use the information we get from radio,television,newspapers,and other media to make decisions and form opinions.That is why the mass media are so important. Editorials and articles in newspapers help us decide how to vote,consumer reports on television help us decide how to spend our money,and international news on the radio makes us think and form opinions about questions of war and peace. Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 Why India Needs Its Dying VulturesThe vultures(秃鹰)in question may look ugly and threatening , but the sudden sharp decline in three species of India'S vultures is producing alarm rather than celebration,and it presents the world with a new kind of environmental problem.The dramatic__________(51)in vulture numbers is causing widespread disruption to people living in the__________(52)areas as the birds.It is also causing serious public health problems__________(53)the Indian sub-continent.While their reputation and appearance may be unpleasant to many Indians,vultures have___________(54) played a very important role in keeping towns and villages all over India___________(55).It is because they feed on dead cows.In India,cows are sacred animals and are___________(56) left in the open when they die in thousands upon thousands every year.The disappearance of the vultures has___________(57)an explosion in the numbers of wild dogs feeding on the remains of these___________(58)animals. There are fears that rabies(狂犬症)may increase as a result. And this terrifying disease may ultimately(最终)affect humans in the region,___________(59)wilddogs are its main carriers.Rabies could also spread to other animal species, __________(60)an even greater problem in the future.The need for action is___________(61),so an emergency project has been launched to find a solution to this serious vulture problem?Scientists are trying to___________(62)the disease causing the birds' deaths and,if possible,develop a cure.Large-scale vulture___________(63)were first noticed at the end of the l980s in India. A population survey at that time showed that the three species of vultures had declined___________(64)over 90 percent. All three species are now listed as"critically endangered".As most vultures lay only single eggs and ___________(65)about five years to reach maturity,reversing their population decline will be a long and dif- ficult exercise. _________(64)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇People have been painting pictures for at least 30,000 years.The earliest pictures were painted by people who hunted animals.They used to paint pictures of the animals they wanted to catch and kill.Pictures of this kind have been found on the walls of caves in France and Spain.No one knows why they were painted there.Perhaps the painters thought that their pictures would help them to catch these animals.Or perhaps human beings have always wanted to tell stories in pictures.About 5,000 years ago,the Egyptians and other people in the Near East began to use pictures as kind of writing. They drew simple pictures or signs to represent things and ideas,and also to represent the sounds of their language.The signs there people used became a kind of alphabet.The Egyptians used to record information and to tell stories by putting picture-writing and pictures together. When an important person died,scenes and stories from his life were painted and carved on the walls of the place where he was buried.Some of these pictures are like modern comic strip stones.It has been said that Egypt is the home of the comic strip.But for Egyptians,pictures still had magic power. So they did not try to make their way of writing simple.The ordinary people could not understand it.By the year 1000 BC,people who lived in the area around the Mediterranean Sea had developed a simpler system of writing. The signs they used were very easy to write,and there were fewer of them than in the Egyptian system.This was because each sign,or letter,represented only one sound in their language.The Greeks developed this system and formed the letters of the Greek alphabet.The Romans copied the idea and the Roman alphebet is now used all over the world.These days,we can write down a story,or record information,without using pictures.But we still need pictures of all kinds:drawing,photographs,signs and diagrams.We find them everywhere:in books and newspapers,in the street,and on the walls of the places where we live and work.Pictures help us to understand and remember things more easily,and they can make a story much more interesting. In the last paragraph,the author thinks that pictures______.
[多选题]共用题干 Brain Drain1.Brain drain is a phenomenon under which"people of a nation move to another nation due to financial benefits and also due to economical reasons,but there are many more reasons behind it". If we think deeply to the topic,we would find that this phenomenon has more disadvantages than advantages.2.This phenomenon has many advantages for receiving countries which will automatically benefit from the skills and talents of immigrated people who were educated and qualified in their home countnes.3.However,developing countries are deeply affected by this phenomenon since they are deprived from millions of their skilled workers, doctors,hardworking Engineers,and billions of man power. Those elites represent the backbone of their economies and once they travel abroad,their economies will not flourish and promote.In fact,there are many reasons behind brain drain.Firstly,the Government is the first responsible for brain drain. The salaries paid by local companies are much less than multinational foreign companies,which pushes millions of intelligent,hardworking Engineers to leave their native countries to look for a better life and opportunities.Secondly,the status and facilities provided by foreign companies are much higher in quality and quantity.Also,some people find it a matter of pride and dignity to work as an employee in foreign countries.4.But we have to mention that brain drain does not only affect developing countries but also has some advantages for them.People living abroad help foreigners to know about their cultures and traditions.Also,they give information about various natural beauties and tourist spots in their home countries,which encourages tourists to visit them. This in turn increases tourist income.Brain drain also helps in increasing their foreign exchanges.5.But at last you would find that brain drain has more disadvantages than advantages on developing or poor countries.So,to stop brain drain,local governments should make people aware of its harmful effects.Also Government should provide opportunities to their elites and should provide them with handsome salary so that they can serve their own mother nation. This phenomenon has many advantages for receiving countries which will benefit from the skills and talents of______.
[多选题]共用题干 Local Newspapers in Britain1. Britain has a large circulation(发行量)of the national newspapers. The Daily Mirror and The Daily Express both sell about 4 million copies each day.On average,every family will buy one newspaper in the morning,and take two or three on Sundays.2. Local newspapers are just as popular as the national ones in Britain.Local papers have a week-ly circulation of 13 million .Nearly every town and country area has its own paper,and almost ev-ery local paper is financially holding its own.Many local newspapers are earning good profits.3. Local newspapers have their special characteristics.They mainly satisfy interest in local e-vents-births,weddings,deaths,council meetings,and sports.Editors often rely on a small staff of people who know the district well.Clubs and churches in the neighborhood regularly supply these papers with much local news.Local news does not get out of date as quickly as national news.If there is no room for it in this week's edition,a news item can be held over until the fol- lowing week.4. The editor of a local newspaper never forgets that the success of any newspaper depends on ad-vertising.For this reason,he is keen to keep the good will of local businessmen.If the newspaper sells well with carefully chosen news items to attract local readers,the businessmen will be grateful to the paper for the opportunity of keeping their products in the public eye.5. Local newspapers seldom comment on problems of national importance,and editors rarely take sides on political questions.But they can often provide service to the community in expressing public feeling on local issues.A newspaper can sometimes persuade the council to take action to improve transport,provide better shopping facilities,and preserve local monuments and places of interest. Paragraph 2______
[多选题]共用题干 A Great Quake Coming?Everyone who lives in San Francisco knows that earthquakes are common in the Bay Area一and they can be devastating. In 1906,for example,a major quake destroyed about 28,000 buildings and killed hundreds,perhaps thousands of people.Residents now wonder when the next"Big One"will strike.It's bound to happen someday. At least seven active fault(断层)lines run through the San Francisco area. Faults are places where pieces of Earth ' s crust(地壳)slide past each other. When these pieces slip , the ground shakes.To prepare for that day,scientists are using new techniques to reanalyze the 1906 earthquake and pre-dict how bad the damage might be when the next one happens.One new finding about the 1906 earthquake is that the San Andreas fault split apart faster than scientists had assumed at the time. During small earthquakes,faults rupture(断裂)at about 2.7 kilometers per second. During bigger quakes,however,ruptures can happen at rates faster than 3.5 kilometers per second.At such high speeds,massive amounts of pressure build up,generating underground waves that can cause more damage than the quake itself. Lucky for San Francisco , these pressure pulses(脉冲)traveled away from the city during the 1906 event.As bad as the damage was,it could have been far worse.Looking ahead,scientists are trying to predict when the next major quake will occur. Records show that earthquakes were common before 1906.Since then,the area has been relatively quiet.Patterns in the data, however,suggest that the probability of a major earthquake striking the Bay Area before 2032 is at least 62 percent.New buildings in San Francisco are quite safe in case of future quakes.Still,more than 84 percent of thecity's buildings are old and weak.Analyses suggest that another massive earthquake would cause extensive damage.People who live there today tend to feel safe because San Francisco has remained pretty quiet for a while.According to the new research,however,it's not a matter of"if" the Big One will hit.It's just a mat- ter of when. The highest speed of fault ruptures in the 1906 quake was more than 3.5 kilometers per second.
[多选题]共用题干 Wide World of RobotsEngineers who build and program robots have fascinating jobs. These researchers tinker(修补)with ma- chines in the lab and write computer software to control these devices."They're the best toys out there," says Howie Choset at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh.Choset is a roboticist,a person who designs, builds or programs robots.When Choset was a kid,he was interested in anything that moved-cars,trains,animals.He put motors on Tinkertoy cars to make them move.Later,in high school,he built mobile robots similar to small cars.Hoping to continue working on robots,he studied computer science in college.But when he got to graduate school at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena,Choset's labmates were working on something even cooler than remotely controlled cars:robotic snakes.Some robots can move only forward, backward , left and right. But snakes can twist(扭曲)in many directions and travel over a lot of different types of terrain(地形)."Snakes are far more interesting than the cars,"Choset concluded.After he started working at Carnegie Mellon,Choset and his colleagues there began developing their own snake robots.Choset'5 team programnied robots to perform the same movements as real snakes,such as sliding and inching forward.The robots also moved in ways that snakes usually don't,such as rolling.Choset's snake robots could crawl(爬行)through the grass ,swim in a pond and even climb a flagpole.But Choset wondered if his snakes might be useful for medicine as well. For some heart surgeries,the doctor has to open a patient' s chest ,cutting through the breastbone. Recovering from these surgeries can be very painful. What if the doctor could perform the operation by instead making a small hole in the body and sending in a thin robotic snake?Choset teamed up with Marco Zenati,a heart surgeon now at Harvard Medical School ,to investigate the idea. Zenati practiced using the robot on a plastic model of the chest and they tested the robot in pigs.A company called Medrobotics in Boston is now adapting the technology for surgeries on people.Even after 15 years of working with his team's creations,"I still don't get bored of watching the motionof my robots,"Choset says. The robotic technology for surgeries on people has brought a handsome profit to Medrobotics.
[多选题]共用题干 Why India Needs Its Dying VulturesThe vultures(秃鹰)in question may look ugly and threatening , but the sudden sharp decline in three species of India'S vultures is producing alarm rather than celebration,and it presents the world with a new kind of environmental problem.The dramatic__________(51)in vulture numbers is causing widespread disruption to people living in the__________(52)areas as the birds.It is also causing serious public health problems__________(53)the Indian sub-continent.While their reputation and appearance may be unpleasant to many Indians,vultures have___________(54) played a very important role in keeping towns and villages all over India___________(55).It is because they feed on dead cows.In India,cows are sacred animals and are___________(56) left in the open when they die in thousands upon thousands every year.The disappearance of the vultures has___________(57)an explosion in the numbers of wild dogs feeding on the remains of these___________(58)animals. There are fears that rabies(狂犬症)may increase as a result. And this terrifying disease may ultimately(最终)affect humans in the region,___________(59)wilddogs are its main carriers.Rabies could also spread to other animal species, __________(60)an even greater problem in the future.The need for action is___________(61),so an emergency project has been launched to find a solution to this serious vulture problem?Scientists are trying to___________(62)the disease causing the birds' deaths and,if possible,develop a cure.Large-scale vulture___________(63)were first noticed at the end of the l980s in India. A population survey at that time showed that the three species of vultures had declined___________(64)over 90 percent. All three species are now listed as"critically endangered".As most vultures lay only single eggs and ___________(65)about five years to reach maturity,reversing their population decline will be a long and dif- ficult exercise. _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 By the year 1927,Dr. Andrew Manson had a reputation.His practice of medicine was not large,but all his patients had the greatest confidence in him.He(51)______gave medicines, but when he did so,he gave the newest,best,and often the most(52)______medicines on the market.By his use of modern medicines,Manson once prevented a serious disease from(53)______in his town,although the rest of the town suffered badly.The committee of the Medical Society ought to have been thankful to Manson,but a few of its members,led by Chenkin,were(54)______of his success.Though Manson had many friends, he also had(55)______.Andrew sometimes asked himself why he and Christine had remained in Manchester after the death of their child.His coal dust experiments were his only(56)______for staying,he could not leave the mines till he had completed his experiments.He now had a great deal of information about the(57)______of coal bust on the miners' lungs.But,in order to(58)______his facts,he decided to make a few experiments on small animals,to study the action of the dust on their lungs.Here,his real problem began.Taking care to cause the animals as little(59)______as possible;Andrew made some extremely(60) ______experiments,which proved all his beliefs.He felt proud and excited.But then,a few days later,he had a(61)______.When Andrew returned home from work,he found Christine looking( 62)______."What's the matter?"he asked her. She hesitated,"I had some visitors today.""Oh?Who were they?""Five members of the committee,including Chenkin.They had heard about your experiments on the animals,and wanted to see your(63)_____.I told them that you were not at home,but they pushed me out and went into the room.When they saw the animals,one of the men shouted,"Oh, the poor creatures!"I tried to tell them that the animals had not suffered,but they(64)______to listen.They took the animals with them.""What!"Andrew shouted.He thought for a minute,and then went into the hall to use the phone.But,just as he reached it,the phone bell rang."Hello!"he said angrily.Then his(65) ______changed.It was Owen."Look here,Owen.""I know,I know."Owen interrupted." This is a bad business.I'll come to see you now."Owen came.Before Andrew could speak,he said,"Did you get permission?"Andrew looked at him in surprise,"Permission for what?""To experiment on animals.""Good Heavens,no!I never thought about it!""I'm afraid there will be trouble,"Owen said. "Some members of the committee feel very bitter against you.But don't worry,everything will be ok in the end." _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 By the year 1927,Dr. Andrew Manson had a reputation.His practice of medicine was not large,but all his patients had the greatest confidence in him.He(51)______gave medicines, but when he did so,he gave the newest,best,and often the most(52)______medicines on the market.By his use of modern medicines,Manson once prevented a serious disease from(53)______in his town,although the rest of the town suffered badly.The committee of the Medical Society ought to have been thankful to Manson,but a few of its members,led by Chenkin,were(54)______of his success.Though Manson had many friends, he also had(55)______.Andrew sometimes asked himself why he and Christine had remained in Manchester after the death of their child.His coal dust experiments were his only(56)______for staying,he could not leave the mines till he had completed his experiments.He now had a great deal of information about the(57)______of coal bust on the miners' lungs.But,in order to(58)______his facts,he decided to make a few experiments on small animals,to study the action of the dust on their lungs.Here,his real problem began.Taking care to cause the animals as little(59)______as possible;Andrew made some extremely(60) ______experiments,which proved all his beliefs.He felt proud and excited.But then,a few days later,he had a(61)______.When Andrew returned home from work,he found Christine looking( 62)______."What's the matter?"he asked her. She hesitated,"I had some visitors today.""Oh?Who were they?""Five members of the committee,including Chenkin.They had heard about your experiments on the animals,and wanted to see your(63)_____.I told them that you were not at home,but they pushed me out and went into the room.When they saw the animals,one of the men shouted,"Oh, the poor creatures!"I tried to tell them that the animals had not suffered,but they(64)______to listen.They took the animals with them.""What!"Andrew shouted.He thought for a minute,and then went into the hall to use the phone.But,just as he reached it,the phone bell rang."Hello!"he said angrily.Then his(65) ______changed.It was Owen."Look here,Owen.""I know,I know."Owen interrupted." This is a bad business.I'll come to see you now."Owen came.Before Andrew could speak,he said,"Did you get permission?"Andrew looked at him in surprise,"Permission for what?""To experiment on animals.""Good Heavens,no!I never thought about it!""I'm afraid there will be trouble,"Owen said. "Some members of the committee feel very bitter against you.But don't worry,everything will be ok in the end." _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 Messages From the Media1.The weather forecast,a story about the candidates in an election,and movie reviews are examples of messages from the media. A communication medium, of which the plural(复数的)form is media,is a means of communicating a message.Examples of media are television,radio,newspapers, books and the telephone.The media that can reach many people at once are called mass media.2.It is not difficult to think of other messages we receive through the mass media. Every day we get hundreds of them. Think about advertisements,for example,we see and hear these messages almost everywhere we go.Advertisements are important messages,even though they are sometimes annoying. They help us compare and evaluate products.3.Most of us get more information from the media than from the classroom. Think for a moment,about how you learn about local news and events.Do you depend on other people or the media?What about international news?What is the most important source of information for you? People who are asked this question usually answer,"Television".4.Think of all the messages you received today.Perhaps you read a newspaper during break-fast,or maybe you read advertisements on billboards(露天广告牌)on your way to school. Did you listen to a weather forecast or the sports news on the radio this morning?Right now you are getting information through a very important medium of mass communication一a book.5.We use the information we get from radio,television,newspapers,and other media to make decisions and form opinions.That is why the mass media are so important. Editorials and articles in newspapers help us decide how to vote,consumer reports on television help us decide how to spend our money,and international news on the radio makes us think and form opinions about questions of war and peace. Paragraph 3______
[多选题]共用题干 Natural Gas1 Natural gas is produced from reservoirs deep beneath the earth's surface. It is a fossil fuel(矿物燃 料),meaning that it is derived from organic material buried in the earth millions of years ago.The main corn- ponent of natural gas is methane(甲烷).2 The popularity and use of clean natural gas have increased dramatically over the past 50 years as pipeline infrastructure(基础设施)has been installed to deliver it conveniently and economically to millions of residential,commercial and industrial customers worldwide.Today,natural gas service is available in all 50 states in the U.S.,and is the leading energy choice for fueling American homes and industries.More than 65 million American homes use natural gas.In fact,natural gas is the most economical source for home energyneeds,costing one-third as much as electricity. In addition to heating homes,much of the gas used in the United States is used as a raw material to manufacture a wide variety of products,from paint,to fibers for clothing,to plastics for healthcare,computing and furnishings.Natural gas is also used in a significant number of newelectricity-generating power plants.3 Natural gas is one of the safest and cleanest fuels available. It emits(发出)less pollution than other fossil fuels sources. When natural gas is burned,it produces mostly carbon dioxide(二氧化碳)and water va- por一the same substances emitted when humans breathe.Compared with some other fossil fuels,natural gas emits the least amount of carbon dioxide into the air when combusted(燃烧)一making natural gas the clea-- nest burning fossil fuel of all.4 The United States consumes about one-third of the world's natural gas output,making it the largest gas-consuming region in the world.The U.S.Department of Energy Information Administration forecasts thatnatural gas demand will grow by more than 50 percent by 2025.5 There are huge reserves of natural gas beneath the earth's surface.The largest reserves of natural gas can be found in Russia , West and North Africa and the Middle East. LNG(液化天然气)has been pro- duced domestically and imported in the United States for more than four decades.Today,the leading import-ers of LNG are Japan,Korea,France and Spain. When manufacturing many different products,people commonly use natural gas______________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Therapeutic TouchA nine-year-old schoolgirl single-handedly cooks up a science-fair equipment that ends up debunking a widely practiced medical treatment.Emily Rosa's target was a practice known as therapeutic touch(TF for short),whose advocates manipulate patients'"energy field"to make them feel better and even,say some,to cure them of various ills.Yet Emily's test shows that these energy fields can't be detected,even by trained TT practitioners.Obviously mindful of the publicity value of the situation,Journal editor George Lundberg appeared on TV to declare,"Age doesn't matter. It's good science that matters,and this is good science."Emily's mother Linda Rosa,a registered nurse,has been campaigning against TT for nearly a decade.Linda first thought about TT in the late 80s,when she learned it was on the approval list for continuing nursing deduction in Colorado.Its 100,000 trained practitioners(48,000 in the U.S.)don't even touch their patients.Instead they waved their hands a few inches from the patient's body, pushing energy fields around until they are in"balance".竹advocates say these manipulations can help heal wounds,relative pain and reduce fever. The claims are taken seriously enough that竹 therapists are frequently hired by leading hospitals,at up to $70 an hour,to smooth patients' energy,sometimes during surgery.Yet Rosa cold not find any evidence that it works.To provide such proof,TT therapists would have to sit down for independent testing一something they haven't been eager to do,even though James Randi has offered more than $1 million to anyone who can demonstrate the existence of a human energy field.(He has had one taker so far. She failed.)A skeptic might conclude that TT practitioners are afraid to lay their beliefs on the line.But who could turn down an innocent forth-grader? Says Emily:"I think they didn't take me very seriously because I am a kid."The experiment was straightforward;21 Ti' therapists stuck their hands,palms up,through a screen.Emily held her own hand over one of their left or right一and the practitioners had to say which hand it was.When the results were recorded,they had done no better than they would have by simply guessing. If there was an energy field,they wouldn't feel it. Which of the following is evidence that TT is widely practiced?
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Houses in 18th Century North AmericaSeventeenth-century houses in colonial North America were simple structures that were primarily functional,carrying over traditional designs that went back to the Middle Ages.During the first half of the eighteenth century,however,houses began to show a new elegance.As wealth increased, more and more colonists built fine houses.Since architecture was not yet a specialized profession in the colonies,the design of buildings was left either to amateur designers or to carpenters who undertook to interpret architectural manuals imported from England.Inventories of colonial libraries show an astonishing number of these handbooks for builders,and the houses erected during the eighteenth century show their influence.Nevertheless,most domestic architecture of the first three-quarters of the eighteenth century displays a wide divergence of taste and freedom of application of the rules laid down in these books.Increasing wealth and growing sophistication throughout the colonies resulted in houses of improved design,whether the material was wood,stone or brick.New England still favored wood, though brick houses became common in Boston and towns, where the danger of fire gave an impetus to the use of more durable material. A few houses in New England were built of store,but only in Pennsylvania and adjacent area was stone widely used in dwellings.An increased use of brick in houses and outbuildings is noticeable in Virginia and Maryland,but wood remained the most popular material even in houses built by wealthy landowners.In the Carolinas,even in closely packed Charleston,wooden houses were much more common than brick.Eighteenth-century houses showed great interior improvement over their predecessors.Windows were made larger and shutters removed.Large,clear panes replaced the small leaded glass of the seventeenth century.Doorways were larger and more decorative.Fireplaces became decorative features of rooms.Walls were made of plaster or wood,sometimes elaborately paneled.White paint began to take the place of blues,yellows,greens,and lead colors,which had been popular for walls in the earlier years.After about 1730,advertisements for wallpaper styles in scenic patterns began to appear in colonial newspapers. What does the passage mainly discuss?
[多选题]共用题干 Electronic MailDuring the past few years,scientists all over the world have suddenly found themselves pro-ductively engaged in task they once spent their lives avoiding—writing,any kind of writing,but particularly letter writing. Encouraged by electronic mail's surprisingly high speed,convenience and economy,people who never before touched the stuff are regularly,skillfully,even cheerfully tapping out a great deal of correspondence.Electronic networks,woven into the fabric of scientific communication these days,are the route to colleagues in distant countries,shared data,bulletin boards and electronic journals.Any-one with a personal computer,a modern and the software to link computers over telephone lines can sign on.An estimated five million scientists have done so with more joining every day,most of them communicating through a bundle of interconnected domestic and foreign routes known col-lectively as the Internet,or net.E-mail is starting to edge out the fax,the telephone,overnight mail,and of course,land mail.It shrinks time and distance between scientific collaborators,in part because it is conven-iently asynchronous(异步的)( Writer can type while their colleagues across time zones sleep; their message will be waiting.).If it is not yet speeding discoveries,it is certainly accelerating communication.Jeremy Bernstein,the physicist and science writer,once called E-mail the physicist's umbili-cal cord(脐带).Later other people,too,have been discovering its connective virtues. Physi-cists are using it;college students are using it;everybody is using it;and as a sign that it has come of age,the New Yorker has celebrated its liberating presence with a cartoon—an apprecia-tive dog seated at a keyboard,saying happily,“on the Internet,nobody knows you're a dog.” What will happen to fax,land mail,overnight mail,etc.according to the writer?
[多选题]共用题干 Saving a City's Public ArtAvoiding traffic jams in Los Angeles may be impossible,but the city's colorful freeway mu- rals(壁画)can brighten even the most miserable commute. Paintings that depict(描述)famous people and historic scenes cover office buildings and freeway walls across the city.With a collec-tion of more than 2,000 murals,Los Angeles is the unofficial mural capital of the world.But the combination of graffiti(涂鸦),pollution,and hot sun has left many L. A. murals in terrible condition. ______(46 ) In the past, experts say, little attention was given to caring forpublic art. Artists were even expected to maintain their own works,not an easy task with cars rac- ing by along the freeway. _____( 47)The work started in 2003 . So far, 16 walls have been selected, and more may be added later.Until about 1960,public murals in Los Angeles were rare.But in the 1960s and 1970s, young L. A.artists began to study early 20th-century Mexican mural painting._____(48)The most famous mural in the city is Judith Baca's“The Great Wall,”a 13-foot-high(4-me-ter-high)painting that runs for haff a mile(0.8 kilometer)in North Hollywood.____(49)It took eight years to complete—400 underprivileged teenagers painted the designs—and is probably the longest mural in the world.One of the murals that will be restored now is Kent Twitchell's“Seventh Street Altarpiece.” which he painted for the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984._____(50)Twitchell said,“It was meant as a kind of gateway through which the traveler to L. A.must drive.The open hands represent peace.”Artists often call murals the people's art. Along a busy freeway or hidden in a quiet neighbor-hood,murals can teach people who would never pay money to see fine art in a museum,“Murals give a voice to the silent majority,”said one artist. ______(49 )
[多选题]共用题干 Less Is MoreIt sounds all wrong—drilling holes in a piece of wood to make it more resistant to knocks. But it works because the energy from the blow gets distributed throughout the wood rather than fo-cusing on one weak spot. The discovery should lead to more effective and lighter packaging mate-rials.Carpenters have known______(51)centuries that some woods are tougher than others. Hickory,for example,was turned into axe handles and cartwheel spokes because it can absorb shocks without breaking. White oak,for example,is much more easily damaued,________(52)it is almost as dense.Julian Vincent at Bathe University and his team were convinced the wood's internal structure could explain the differences.Many trees have tubular vessels that run_______(53)the trunk and carry water to the leav- es .In oak they are large,and arranged in narrow bands,but in hickory they are smaller,and more evenly distributed.The researchers________(54)this layout might distribute a blow's en-ergy throughout the wood, soaking up a bigger hit.To test the idea,they drilled holes 0.65 millimetres across into a block of spruce,a wood with_______(55)vessels,and found that_______(56)withstood a harder knock_______(57)when there were more than about 30 holes per square centimeter did the wood's performance drop off.A uniform substance doesn't cope well with knocks because only a small proportion of the material is actually______( 58).All the energy from the blow goes towards breaking the material in one or two places , but often the pieces left _________( 59 ) are pristine(未经破坏的).But instead of the energy being concentrated in one place,the holes provide many weak spots that all absorb energy as they break,says Vincent.“You are controlling the places______(60) the wood breaks,and it can then absorb more______(61),more safely.”The researchers believe the principle could be applied to any material—_________(62)example,to manufacture lighter and more protective packaging.It could_______(63)be used in car bumpers,crash barriers and armor for military vehicles,says Ulrike Wegst,_______(64) the Max Plank Institute for Mental Research in Stuttgart. But she emphasizes that you'd ________(65)to design the substance with the direction of force in mind.“The direction of loading is crucial,”she says. 65._________
[多选题]共用题干 Natural Gas1 Natural gas is produced from reservoirs deep beneath the earth's surface. It is a fossil fuel(矿物燃 料),meaning that it is derived from organic material buried in the earth millions of years ago.The main corn- ponent of natural gas is methane(甲烷).2 The popularity and use of clean natural gas have increased dramatically over the past 50 years as pipeline infrastructure(基础设施)has been installed to deliver it conveniently and economically to millions of residential,commercial and industrial customers worldwide.Today,natural gas service is available in all 50 states in the U.S.,and is the leading energy choice for fueling American homes and industries.More than 65 million American homes use natural gas.In fact,natural gas is the most economical source for home energyneeds,costing one-third as much as electricity. In addition to heating homes,much of the gas used in the United States is used as a raw material to manufacture a wide variety of products,from paint,to fibers for clothing,to plastics for healthcare,computing and furnishings.Natural gas is also used in a significant number of newelectricity-generating power plants.3 Natural gas is one of the safest and cleanest fuels available. It emits(发出)less pollution than other fossil fuels sources. When natural gas is burned,it produces mostly carbon dioxide(二氧化碳)and water va- por一the same substances emitted when humans breathe.Compared with some other fossil fuels,natural gas emits the least amount of carbon dioxide into the air when combusted(燃烧)一making natural gas the clea-- nest burning fossil fuel of all.4 The United States consumes about one-third of the world's natural gas output,making it the largest gas-consuming region in the world.The U.S.Department of Energy Information Administration forecasts thatnatural gas demand will grow by more than 50 percent by 2025.5 There are huge reserves of natural gas beneath the earth's surface.The largest reserves of natural gas can be found in Russia , West and North Africa and the Middle East. LNG(液化天然气)has been pro- duced domestically and imported in the United States for more than four decades.Today,the leading import-ers of LNG are Japan,Korea,France and Spain. Natural gas is stored deep______________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The American IndustryA history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap,but if properly handled,it may become a driving force.When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War,it had a market eight times larger than any competitor,giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale.Its scientists were the world's best,its workers the most skilled.America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed.It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitably,the retreat from predominance proved painful.By the mid-1980s Americans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness.Some huge American industries, such as consumer electronics,had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition.By 1987 there was only one American television maker left,Zenith.(Now there is none:Zenith was bought by South Korea's LG Electronics in July.)Foreign-made cars and textiles were sweeping into the domestic market. America's machine-tool industry was on the ropes.For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors,which America had which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty.All of this caused a crisis of confidence.Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted.They began to believe that their way of doing business was failing,and that their incomes would therefore shortly begin to fall as well. The mid-1980s brought one inquiry after another into the causes of America's industrial decline.Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from overseas.How things have changed!In 1995 the United States can look back on five years of solid growth while Japan has been struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle.Self-doubt has yielded to blind pride."American industry has changed its structure,has gone on a diet,has learnt to be more quick-witted,"according to Richard Cavanagh,executive dean of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government,"It makes me proud to be an American just to see how our businesses are improving their productivity,"says Stephen Moore of the Cato Institute,a think-tank in Washington,DC.And William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School believes that people will look back on this period as"a golden age of business management in the United States." What can be inferred from the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 First Self-contained Heart ImplantedA patient on the brink of death has received the world's first self-contained artificial heart-a battery-powered device about the size of a softball that runs without the need for wires,tubes or hoses sticking out of the chest.Two surgeons from the University of Louisville implanted the titanium and plastic pump dur-ing a seven-hour operation at Jewish Hospital Monday.The hospital said the patient was"awake and responsive"Tuesday and resting comfortably.It refused to release personal details.The patient had been expected to die within a month without the operation,and doctors said they expected the artificial heart to extend the person's life by only a month.But the device is con-sidered a major step toward improving the patient's quality of life.The new pump,called AbioCor,is also a technological leap from the mechanical hearts used in the 1980s,which were attached by wires and tubes to bulky machinery outside the body.The most famous of those,the Jarvic-7,used air as a pumping device and was attached to an appara-tus about the size of a washing machine."I think it's potentially a major step forward in the artificial heart development,"said Dr. David Faxon,president of the American Heart Association.However,he said the dream of an im-plantable,permanent artificial heart is not yet a reality,"This is obviously an experimental device whose long-term success has to be demonstrated."Only about half of the 4,200 Americans on a waiting list for donor hearts received them last year,and most of the rest died.Some doctors,including Robert Higgins,chairman of cardiology at the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond,said artificial hearts are unlikely to replace donor hearts."A donor heart in a good transplant can last 15 to 30 years,"he said."It's going to be hard to replace that with a machine."The AbilCor has a 2-pound pumping unit,and electronic controls that adjust the pumping speed based on the body's needs. It is powered by a small battery pack worn outside the body that transmits current through the skin. Dr. David Faxon believed that the implantable,permanent artificial heart will certainly be developed in the future.