考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 Stage FrightFall down as you come onstage.That's an odd trick.Not recommended.But it saved the pi-anist Vladimir Felts man when he was a teenager back in Moscow.The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance panic,Mr. Felts man said, “All my fright was_______(51).I already fell .What else could happen?”Today,music schools are addressing the problem of anxiety in classes that_______(52) with performance techniques and career preparation.There are a variety of strategies that musici- ans can learn to_______(53)stage fright and its symptoms:icy fingers,shaky limbs,racing heart,blank mind.Teachers and psychologists offer wide-ranging advice,from basics like learning pieces inside out,_______(54)mental discipline,such as visualizing a performance and taking steps to re- lax .Don't_______(55)that you're jittery,they urge;some excitement is natural,even necessa- ry for dynamic playing.And play in public often,simply for the experience.Psychotherapist Diane Nichols suggests some_______(56)for the moments before perform-ance,“Take two deep abdominal breaths,open up your shoulders,then smile,”she says.“And not one of these‘please don't kill me'smiles .Then_______(57)three friendly faces in the au- dience,people you would communicate with and make music to,and make eye contact with them.”She doesn't want performers to think of the audience_______(58)a judge.Extreme demands by mentors or parents are often at the_______(59)of stage fright,says Dorothy Delay,a well-known violin teacher. She tells other teachers to demand only what their students are able to achieve.When Lynn Harrell was 20,he became the principal cellist of the Cleveland Orchestra,and he suffered extreme stage fright.“There were times when I got so_______(60)I was sure the audience could see my chest responding to the throbbing. It was just total panic.I came to a _______(61)where I thought,If I have to go through this to play music,I think I'm going to look for another job.” Recovery,he said,involved developing humility—recognizing that_______(62)his talent,he was fallible,and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster.It is not only young artists who suffer,of course .The legendary pianist Vladimir Horowitz's nerves were famous.The great tenor Franco Corelli is another example.“They had to push him on stage,”Soprano Renata Scotto recalled._______(63),success can make things worse.“In the beginning of your career,when you're scared to death,nobody knows who you are,and they don't have any_______(64),”So-prano June Anderson said.“There's_______(65)to lose .Later on,when you're known,peo-pie are coming to see you,and they have certain expectations.You have a lot to lose.”Anderson added,“I never stop being nervous until I've sung my last note.” 65._________
[多选题]共用题干 Organic Food:Why?1 Europe is now the biggest market for organic food in the world,expanding by 25 percent a year over the past 10 years.So what is the attraction of organic food for some people?The really important thing is that organic sounds more"natural".Eating organic is a way of defining oneself as natural,good,caring, different from the junk-food-eating masses.2 Unlike conventional farming,the organic approach means farming with natural,rather than man- made , fertilisers and pesticides. Techniques such as crop rotation(轮种)improve soil quality and helporganic farmers compensate for the absence of man-made chemicals.As a method of food production,organic is,however,inefficient in its use of labour and land;there are severe limits to how much food can be pro- duced.Also,the environmental benefits of not using artificial fertilisers are tiny compared with the amount of carbon dioxide emitted(排放)by transporting food.3 Organic farming is often claimed to be safer than conventional farming. Yet studies into organic farming worldwide continue to reject this claim.An extensive review by the UK Food Standards Agency foundthat there was no statistically significant difference between organic and conventional crops.Even where re-sults indicated there was evidence of a difference,the reviewers found no sign that these differences would have any noticeable effect on health.4 The simplistic claim that organic food is more nutritious than conventional food was always likely to be misleading. Food is a natural product,and the health value of different foods will vary for a number of rea-sons,including freshness,the way the food is cooked,the type of soil it is grown in,the amount of sunlight and rain crops have received,and so on.Likewise,the flavour of a carrot has less to do with whether it was fertilised with manure(粪便)or something out of a plastic sack than with the variety of carrot and how long ago it was dug up.5 The notion that organic food is safer than"normal"food is also contradicted by the fact that many of our most common foods are full of natural toxins(毒素).As one research expert says : " People think that the more natural something is,the better it is for them.That is simply not the case.In fact,it is the opposite that is true:the closer a plant is to its natural state,the more likely it is that it will poison you.Naturally, many plants do not want to be eaten,so we have spent 10,000 years developing agriculture and breeding out harmful traits from crops." The closer a plant is to its natural state,the less suitable it is to________.
[多选题]共用题干 WaterEarth is like a big blue marble.From high above the Earth and from the moon,the planet gleams and shines.The blue water in the oceans and seas of the Earth makes a dramatic image.The white clouds above the Earth add beauty to the picture.Water is the source of this beauty and the source of life on Earth.It is the reason people can live on this planet. Water is everywhere.(46)_______.It is in the soil,the ground that grows the food.Water is in rock deep under the ground, in natural holding areas一in storage.In a real sense,water keeps Earth alive.Nature has an unchanging amount of water. Nature has a perfect system for recycling water. (47)_____.It falls as rain.Then it goes to one of three places.It might sink slowly through the soil into the natural holding areas in the rock.(48)_______一by becoming vapor,or gas.It might run off into streams,rivers and oceans.By itself,nature can keep the balance and provide plenty of clean water for us.Nature recycles water.However,people cause problems for this natural recycling system.Nature's recycling system can work well(49)________.Some ways that people upset nature are easy to understand.For example, dirty sewage(污水沟系统)water from homes and factories must not mix with drinking water. People get sick from drinking contaminated water. Sometimes water from factories goes into streams and rivers.It enters into the groundwater. It can flow into lakes too.This kind of contamination from industry(waste water from factories) can be dangerous for people.If water contains poisons and chemicals,it is poison.(50)________;some poisons kill people as well as birds and animals.Without knowing,people can upset nature's recycling system.Lakes and rivers add beauty to the world. People enjoy water for entertainment purposes,too. People enjoy swimming and playing in the cool water of a lake in the summer. They like to ride on boats on rivers.Many people enjoy catching fish in the rivers.They fish for food and for sport.However,in some places,the water of the lakes and rivers is no longer safe.These rivers and lakes are contaminated.The fish are dying because of the chemicals from farms and factories.People cannot swim in the polluted water. _________(46)
[多选题]共用题干 Parkinson's Disease1 Parkinson's disease affects the way you move.It happens when there is a problem with certain nerve cells in the brain. Normally , these nerve cells make an important chemical called dopamine(多巴胺). Dopa-mine sends signals to the part of your brain that controls movement.It lets your muscles move smoothly and do what you want them to do.When you have Parkinson's,these nerve cells break down.Then you no longerhave enough dopamine,and you have trouble moving the way you want to.2 No one knows for sure what makes these nerve cells break down.But scientists are doing a lot of re-search to look for the answer. They are studying many possible causes,including aging and poisons in the en- vironment.Abnormal genes seem to lead to Parkinson's disease in some people.But so far,there is not enough proof to show that it is always inherited.3 Tremor(颤抖)may be the first symptom you notice.It is one of the most common signs of the disease,although not everyone has it.Tremor often starts in just one arm or leg or only on one side of the body.It may be worse when you are awake but not moving the affected arm or leg. It may get better when you move the limb or when you are asleep.In time,Parkinson's affects muscles all through your body,so it can lead to problems like trouble swallowing or constipation(便秘).In the later stages of the disease , a person with Parkinson's may have a fixed or blank expression,trouble speaking,and other problems.Some people also have a decrease in mental skills.4 At this time,there is no cure for Parkinson's disease.But there are several types of medicines that can control the symptoms and make the disease easier to live with.You may not even need treatment if your symptoms are mild.Your doctor may wait to prescribe medicines until your symptoms start to get in the way of your daily life.Your doctor will adjust your medicines as your symptoms get worse.You may need to take several medicines to get the best results. Paragraph 2__________
[多选题]共用题干 The Mysteries of NazcaIn the desert of Peru,300 kilometers from Lima,one of the most unusual artworks in the world has mystified(迷惑)people for decades._________(46 ) But from high above,these marks are huge images of birds,fish,seashells,all beautifully carved into the earth.The Nazca lines are so difficult to see from the ground that they weren't discovered until the 1930s, when pilots spotted them while flying over the area. In all,there are about 70 different human and animal figures on the plain,along with 900 triangles,circles,and lines.Researchers have figured out that the lines are at least 1,500 years old,but their purpose is still a mystery._________(47)However,it would probably be very tricky to land a spaceship in the middle ofpictures of dogs and monkeys.In the 1940s,an American explorer named Paul Kosok suggested that the drawings are a chronicle(己 录)of the movement of the stars and planets._________(48)Later,an astronomer tested his theory with a computer,but he couldn't find any relation between the lines and movements in space.Another explanation is that the lines may have been made for religious reasons.British researcher Tony Morrison investigated the customs of people in the Andes Mountain and learned that they sometimes pray by the side of the road.It's possible that in the past,the lines of Nazca were created for a similar purpose. _________(49)But the local people have never constructed anything this big.Recently,two other scientists,David Johnson and Steve Mabee,have speculated that lines could have been related to water. Nazca is one of the driest places in the world and receives only 2cm of rain every year. While Johnson was searching for ancient water sources in the area,he noticed that some waterways built by ancient people were connected with the lines.Johnson believes that the Nazca lines are a giant map of the underground water in the area._________(50) _________(46)
[多选题]共用题干 Life Expectancy in the Last Hundred YearsA hundred years ago,life expectancy in developed countries was about 47;in the early 21 st century,men in the United States and the United Kingdom can expect to live to about 74,women to about 80, and these______(51)are rising all the time .What has brought______(52) these changes?When we look at the life______(53)of people 100 years ago,we need to look at the greatest______(54)of the time .In the early 20th century,these were the acute and of-ten______(55)infectious diseases such as smallpox.Many children died very young from these diseases and others,and the weak and elderly were always at risk.In the______(56)world these diseases are far______(57)today,and in some cases have almost disappcarcd.A number of______(58)have led to this:improvements in sanita- tion and hygiene,the discovery and use of antibiotics,which______(59)bacterial diseases much less dangerous,and vaccinations______(60)common diseases.______(61), people's general health has improved with improvements in our general environment:cleaner air,better means of preserving food,better and warmer housing,and better understanding of nutrition.Genetically,we should all be able to live to about 85 but______(62)people do live longer today,there are still some big killers around that are preventing us from consistently reaching that age .The problems that affect people today are the more chronic illnesses,such as heart disease and strokes,and those______(63)by viruses,such as influenza and AIDS.Of course,cancer is a huge killer as well.In most cases these diseases affect______(64)people,but there are worrying trends in the developed world with problems such as obesity______(65)more heart disease and illnesses such as diabetes at younger ages.The killers today can be classed as"lifestyle diseases",which means that it may be possiblem to halt their progress. 57._________
[多选题]共用题干 Skin CancerMelanoma(黑素瘤),the deadliest kind of skin cancer,is now the most common cancer in__________(51) British women,the country's leading cancer organization said Wednesday.Skin cancer has__________(52) cervical(子宫颈的)cancer as the top cancer striking women in their 20s,according to the latest data from Cancer Research United Kingdom.The trend is particularly_________(53)since younger people are not generally those most susceptible (易患的)to melanoma. Rates of skin cancer are _________( 54 ) highest in people over age 75.But experts worry that increasing numbers of younger people being diagnosed with skin cancer could be the_________(55)of a dangerous trend.Women in their 20s make_________(56)a small percentage of all patients diagnosed with melanoma in Britain,but nearly a third of all cases occur in people younger than 50.Based on current numbers,Cancer Research UK predicts that melanoma will become the fourth _________(57)common cancer for men and women of all ages by 2024,and that cases will jump from about 9,000 a year to more than 15,500.Cancer experts_________(58)the rising number of skin cancer cases largely to the surge in people using tanning salons."Spending time on sun beds is just as_________(59)as staying out too long in the sun,"said Caroline Cerny of Cancer Research UK. The organization is starting a SunSmart_________(60)to warn Britons of the dangers of being too bronzed."The intensity of ultraviolet rays in some sun beds can be more than 10_________(61)stronger than themid-day sun,"Cerny said.In the United States,several states require parental approval________(62)minors can use tanning salons.Wisconsin bans people 16 and________(63)from using tanning beds,and others ban children under 14.At least 29 states have regulations governing minors'use of tanning salons.In the U.K.,Scottish politicians passed legislation banning those under 1 8 from using tanning beds, though it hasn't yet been implemented.There are no plans for________(64)in the rest of the U.K.The World Health Organization has previously recommended that tanning beds be regulated because of their potential to damage DNA in the skin.Experts said most deadly skin cancers could be________(65)if people took the proper precautions when in the sun and avoided tanning beds. _________(52)
[多选题]共用题干 A Country's Standard of LivingThe"standard of living" of any country means the average person's share of the goods and services the country produces.A country's standard of living,________(51),depends first and ________(52)on its capacity to produce wealth."Wealth"in this sense is not money,for we do not live on money________( 53)on things that money can buy:"goods"such as food and clothing, and"services"such as transport and entertainment.A country's capacity to produce wealth depends upon many factors,most of_________(54) have an effect on one another. Wealth depends_________(55)a great extent upon a country's natural resources.Some regions of the world are well supplied with coal and minerals,and have fertile soil and a favorable climate;other regions possess none of them.Next to natural resources_________(56) the ability to turn them to use.Some countries are perhaps as well-off_________(57)the USA in natural resources,but suffered for many years from civil and external wars,and________(58)this and other reasons were________(59)to develop their resources.Sound and stable political conditions,and________(60)from foreign invasions, enable a country to develop its natural resources peacefully and steadily,and to produce more wealth than another country equally well favoured by nature but less well ordered.A country's standard of living does not only depend upon the wealth that is produced and consumed_________(61)its own borders,but also upon what is directly produced through international trade.________(62),Britain's wealth in foodstuffs and other agricultural products would be much less if she had to depend only on________(63)grown at home.Trade makes it possible for her surplus manufactured goods to be traded abroad for the agricultural products that would________(64)be lacking.A country's wealth is,therefore,much influenced by its manufacturing capacity, ______(65)that other countries can be found ready to accept its manufactures. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Gross National HappinessIn the last century,new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries.However,one country resisted these changes.High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia,the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however,was a poor country.People died at a young age.Most of its people could not read,and they did not know much about the outside world.Then,in 1972,a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck decided to help Bhutan to become modern,but without losing its traditions.King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas.He saw that most countries measured their progress by their Gross National Product(GNP).The GNP measures products and money. When the number of products sold increases,people say the country is making progress.King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan.He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness.If the people's happiness increased,the king could say that Bhutan was making progress.To decide if people were happier,he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness.People are happier if they have health care, education,and jobs.They are happier when they live in a healthy,protected environment. They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs.Finally,people are happier when they have agood,stable government.Now there is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan.People are healthier and are living longer. More people are educated and employed.Twenty-five percent of the land has become national parks,and the country has almost no pollution.The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs.Bhutan has also become a democracy.In 2008,King Wangchuck gave his power to his son.Although the country still had a king,it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time.Finally,Bhutan has connected to the rest of the world through television and internet.Bhutan is a symbol for social progress.Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH.These countries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness.They want to create new policies that take care of their people,cultures,and land.Brazil may be the next country to use the principles of GNH.Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration.Brazil is a large country with a diverse population.If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil,perhaps the rest of the world will follow. A country shows its progress with GNP by_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Stage FrightFall down as you come onstage.That's an odd trick.Not recommended.But it saved the pi-anist Vladimir Felts man when he was a teenager back in Moscow.The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance panic,Mr. Felts man said, “All my fright was_______(51).I already fell .What else could happen?”Today,music schools are addressing the problem of anxiety in classes that_______(52) with performance techniques and career preparation.There are a variety of strategies that musici- ans can learn to_______(53)stage fright and its symptoms:icy fingers,shaky limbs,racing heart,blank mind.Teachers and psychologists offer wide-ranging advice,from basics like learning pieces inside out,_______(54)mental discipline,such as visualizing a performance and taking steps to re- lax .Don't_______(55)that you're jittery,they urge;some excitement is natural,even necessa- ry for dynamic playing.And play in public often,simply for the experience.Psychotherapist Diane Nichols suggests some_______(56)for the moments before perform-ance,“Take two deep abdominal breaths,open up your shoulders,then smile,”she says.“And not one of these‘please don't kill me'smiles .Then_______(57)three friendly faces in the au- dience,people you would communicate with and make music to,and make eye contact with them.”She doesn't want performers to think of the audience_______(58)a judge.Extreme demands by mentors or parents are often at the_______(59)of stage fright,says Dorothy Delay,a well-known violin teacher. She tells other teachers to demand only what their students are able to achieve.When Lynn Harrell was 20,he became the principal cellist of the Cleveland Orchestra,and he suffered extreme stage fright.“There were times when I got so_______(60)I was sure the audience could see my chest responding to the throbbing. It was just total panic.I came to a _______(61)where I thought,If I have to go through this to play music,I think I'm going to look for another job.” Recovery,he said,involved developing humility—recognizing that_______(62)his talent,he was fallible,and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster.It is not only young artists who suffer,of course .The legendary pianist Vladimir Horowitz's nerves were famous.The great tenor Franco Corelli is another example.“They had to push him on stage,”Soprano Renata Scotto recalled._______(63),success can make things worse.“In the beginning of your career,when you're scared to death,nobody knows who you are,and they don't have any_______(64),”So-prano June Anderson said.“There's_______(65)to lose .Later on,when you're known,peo-pie are coming to see you,and they have certain expectations.You have a lot to lose.”Anderson added,“I never stop being nervous until I've sung my last note.” 60._________
[多选题]共用题干 Smoke Gets in Your Mind1.Lung cancer,hypertension,heart disease,birth defects一we are all too familiar with the dangers of smoking. But add to that list a frightening new concern一mental illness.According to some controversial new findings,if smoking does not kill you,it may,quite literally,drive you to despair.2.The tobacco industry openly pushes its product as something to lift your mood and soothe anxiety.But the short-term feel-good effect may mask the truth that smoking may worsen or even trigger anxiety disorders,panic attacks and depression,perhaps even schizophrenia.3.Cigarettes and mental illness have always tended to go together. An estimated 1.25 billion people smoke worldwide.Yet people who are depressed or anxious are twice as likely to smoke,and up to 88 percent of those with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are smokers.A recent American survey concluded that around half of all cigarettes burn in the fingers of those with mental illness.4.But the big question is why?The usual story is that the illness comes first. Mentally ill people take up smoking,or smoke more,to alleviate some of their distress.Even when smoking seems to start before the illness,most doctors believe that early but invisible symptoms of the disorder spark the desire to light up.But perhaps something more sinister is going on.5.A growing number of researchers claim that smoking is the cause,not the consequence of clinical depression and several forms of anxiety."We know a lot about the effects of smoking on physical health,and now we are also starting to see the adverse effects in new research on mental illness,"says Naomi Breslau,director of research at the Henry Ford Health Care System in Detroit.6.Breslau was one of the first to consider this heretical possibility.The hint came from studies, published in 1998,which followed a group of just over 1.,000 young adults for a five-year period.The 13 percent who began the study with major depression were around three times more likely to progress from being light smokers to daily smokers during the course of the study,though there was no evidence that depression increased the tendency to take up smoking. But a history of daily smok-- ing before the study commenced roughly doubled the risk of developing major depression during the five-year period. Smoking,it seems,could pre-date illness.7.At first Breslau concluded that whatever prompts people to smoke might also make them depressed.But as the results of other much larger studies began to back the statistical link,she became more convinced than ever that what she was seeing were signs that smoking,perhaps the nicotine itself,could somehow affect the brain and cause depression.8.One of these larger studies was led by Goodman,a pediatrician.She followed the health of two groups of teenagers for a year. The first group of 8,704 adolescents were not depressed,and might or might not have been smokers,while the second group of 6,947 were highly depressed and had not been smokers in the past month.After a year her team found that although depressed teenagers were more likely to have become heavy smokers,previous experimentation with smoking was the strongest predictor of such behaviour,not the depression itself. What is more important is that teenagers who started out mentally fit but smoked at least one packet per week during the study were four times more likely to develop depression than their non一smoking peers.Goodman says that depression does not seem to start before cigarette use among teens."Current cigarette use is,however,a powerful determinant of developing high depressive symptoms."9.Breslau,too,finds that smokers are as much as four times more likely to have an isolated panic attack and three times more likely to develop longer-term panic disorder than non-smokers.It's a hard message to get across,because many smokers say they become anxious when they quit,not when they smoke.But Breslau says that To contradict Breslau's conclusion,many smokers say that they are less anxious when they smoke________.
[多选题]共用题干 Life Expectancy in the Last Hundred YearsA hundred years ago,life expectancy in developed countries was about 47;in the early 21 st century,men in the United States and the United Kingdom can expect to live to about 74,women to about 80, and these______(51)are rising all the time .What has brought______(52) these changes?When we look at the life______(53)of people 100 years ago,we need to look at the greatest______(54)of the time .In the early 20th century,these were the acute and of-ten______(55)infectious diseases such as smallpox.Many children died very young from these diseases and others,and the weak and elderly were always at risk.In the______(56)world these diseases are far______(57)today,and in some cases have almost disappcarcd.A number of______(58)have led to this:improvements in sanita- tion and hygiene,the discovery and use of antibiotics,which______(59)bacterial diseases much less dangerous,and vaccinations______(60)common diseases.______(61), people's general health has improved with improvements in our general environment:cleaner air,better means of preserving food,better and warmer housing,and better understanding of nutrition.Genetically,we should all be able to live to about 85 but______(62)people do live longer today,there are still some big killers around that are preventing us from consistently reaching that age .The problems that affect people today are the more chronic illnesses,such as heart disease and strokes,and those______(63)by viruses,such as influenza and AIDS.Of course,cancer is a huge killer as well.In most cases these diseases affect______(64)people,but there are worrying trends in the developed world with problems such as obesity______(65)more heart disease and illnesses such as diabetes at younger ages.The killers today can be classed as"lifestyle diseases",which means that it may be possiblem to halt their progress. 54._________
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇If your doctor could give you a drug that would let you live a healthy life for twice as long, would you take it?The good news is that we may be drawing near to that date.Scientists have already extended the lives of flies,worms and mice in laboratories. Many now think that using genetic treatments we will soon be able to extend human life to at least 140 years.This seems a great idea. Think of how much more time we could spend chasing our dreams,spending time with our loved ones,watching our families grow and have families of their own."Longer life would give us a chance to recover from our mistakes and promote long term thinking,"says Dr Gregory Stock of the University of California School of Public Health."It would also raise productivity by adding to the year we can work."Longer lives don't just affect the people who live them. They also affect society as a whole. "We have war,poverty,all sorts of issues around,and I don't think any of them would be at all helped by having people live longer,"says US bioethicist Daniel Callahan,"The question is what we will get as a society?I suspect it won't be a better society."It would certainly be a very different society. People are already finding it more difficult to stay married. Divorce rates are rising. What would happen to marriage in a society where people lived for 140 years? And what would happen to family life if 9 or 10 generations of the same family were all alive at the same time?Research into ageing may enable women to remain fertile for longer. And that raises the prospect of having 100-year-old parents,or brothers and sisters born 50 years apart. We think of an elder sibling as someone who can protect us and offer help and advice. That would be hard to do if that sibling came from a completely different generation.Working life would also be affected,especially if the retirement age was lifted.More people would stay in work for longer. That would give us the benefits of age一skill,wisdom and good judgment.On the other hand,more people working for longer would create greater competition for jobs. It would make it more difficult for younger people to find a job. Top posts would be dominated by the same few individuals,making career progress more difficult. And how easily would a 25-year-old employee be able to communicate with a 125-year-old boss?Young people would be a smaller part of a society in which people lived to 140.It may be that such a society would place less importance on guiding and educating young people,and more on making life comfortable for the old.And society would feel very different if more of its members were older. There would be more wisdom,but less energy.Young people like to move about. Old people like to sit still.Young people tend to act without thinking.Old people tend to think without acting.Young people are curious and like to experience different things.Old people are less enthusiastic about change.In fact,they are less enthusiastic about everything.The effect of anti-ageing technology is deeper than we might think.But as the science advances,we need to think about these changes now."If this could ever happen,then we'd better ask what kind of society we want to get,"says Daniel Callahan."We had better not go anywhere near it until we have figure those problems out." All of the following are possible effects living longer might have on working life EXCEPT_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Washoe Learned American Sign Language1.An animal that influenced scientific thought has died.A chimpanzee named Washoe and born in Africa died of natural causes late last month at the age of 42 at a research center in the American state of Washington.Washoe had become known in the scientific community arid around the world for her ability to use American sign language.She was said to be the first non-human to learn a human language.Her skills also led to debate about primates and their ability to understand language.2.Research scientists Allen and Beatrix Gardner began teaching Washoe sign language in 1966.In 1969,the Gardners described Washoe's progress in a scientific report.The people who experimented with Washoe said she grew to understand about 250 words.For example,Washoe made signs to communicate when it was time to eat. She could request foods like apples and bananas.She also asked questions like,"Who is coming to play?"Once the news about Washoe spread,many language scientists began studies of their own into this new and exciting area of research.The whole direction of primate research changed.3. However,critics argued Washoe only learned to repeat sign language movements from watching her teachers.They said she had never developed true language skills.Even now there are some researchers who suggest that primates learn sign language only by memory,and perform the signs only for prizes.Yet Washoe's keepers disagree.Roger Fouts is a former student of the Gardners.He took Washoe to a research center in Ellensburg,Washington.There,Washoe taught sign language to three younger chimpanzees,which are still alive.4.Scientists like private researcher Jane Goodall believe Washoe provided new information about the mental workings of chimpanzees.Today,there are not as many scientists studying language skills with chimps.Part of the reason is that this kind of research takes a very long time.5.Debate continues about chimps' understanding of human communication.Yet,one thing is sure一Washoe changed popular ideas about the possibilities of animal intelligence. Washoe could make signs to communicate________.
[多选题]共用题干 The Mind-Body ConnectionsNorman Cousins was a famous American magazine editor. In 1964,he returned from an overseas trip and then became very ill.In the hospital,he had a terrible pain and couldn't move his body.Doctors told him he had a serious disease called ankylosing spondylitis(强直性脊柱炎)and said he had only 1 chance in 500 of surviving. They gave him powerful drugs,but his condition only got worse.Cousins had read about a theory that negative emotions can harm your health.He believed that positive emotions were good for one's health,and he decided to try an experiment.He would fill his days with good feelings and laughter and see if that might improve his condition.He left the hospital and moved into a hotel room.There,he got a large supply of funny TV programs and copies of old Marx Brothers movies and cartoons.He also hired a nurse to read funny stories to him.His plan was to spend the whole day laughing and thinking about happy things.On his first night in the hotel,Cousins found that laughing at the movies helped his body produce chemicals that reduced pain.For the first time in weeks,he could sleep comfortably for a few hours.Every time the pain came back,he watched anotherfunny movie and laughed until he felt better.Over time,Cousins was able to measure changes in his body with blood tests.He found that the harmful chemicals in his body decreased at least 5 percent every time he watched a funny movie.After a short time, he was able to stop taking all of his medications.Finally his condition improved so much that he could go back to work.Cousins later wrote a book about how laughter and happiness helped him to survive a deadly illness. Many people didn't believe his story and said that his doctors were wrong about his disease.But since then, research has found that emotions do have a strong effect on physical health,and experiments found that laughter can help to reduce pain.Scientists today are working to understand the ways that our minds affect our bodies. Drugs helped to stop the pain of Cousins'disease.
[多选题]共用题干 Parkinson's Disease1 Parkinson's disease affects the way you move.It happens when there is a problem with certain nerve cells in the brain. Normally , these nerve cells make an important chemical called dopamine(多巴胺). Dopa-mine sends signals to the part of your brain that controls movement.It lets your muscles move smoothly and do what you want them to do.When you have Parkinson's,these nerve cells break down.Then you no longerhave enough dopamine,and you have trouble moving the way you want to.2 No one knows for sure what makes these nerve cells break down.But scientists are doing a lot of re-search to look for the answer. They are studying many possible causes,including aging and poisons in the en- vironment.Abnormal genes seem to lead to Parkinson's disease in some people.But so far,there is not enough proof to show that it is always inherited.3 Tremor(颤抖)may be the first symptom you notice.It is one of the most common signs of the disease,although not everyone has it.Tremor often starts in just one arm or leg or only on one side of the body.It may be worse when you are awake but not moving the affected arm or leg. It may get better when you move the limb or when you are asleep.In time,Parkinson's affects muscles all through your body,so it can lead to problems like trouble swallowing or constipation(便秘).In the later stages of the disease , a person with Parkinson's may have a fixed or blank expression,trouble speaking,and other problems.Some people also have a decrease in mental skills.4 At this time,there is no cure for Parkinson's disease.But there are several types of medicines that can control the symptoms and make the disease easier to live with.You may not even need treatment if your symptoms are mild.Your doctor may wait to prescribe medicines until your symptoms start to get in the way of your daily life.Your doctor will adjust your medicines as your symptoms get worse.You may need to take several medicines to get the best results. A lot of research is being done to find out__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Wrongly Convicted Man and His Accuser Tell Their StoryNEW YORK NY,January 5,2010,St.Martin's Press has announced the release of the paperback edi- tion of Picking Cotton,a remarkable true story of what novelist John Grisham calls an"account of violence, rage,redemption(救赎),and,ultimately,forgiveness."The story began in 1987,in Burlington,North Carolina,with the rape of a young white college student named Jennifer Thompson.During her ordeal,Thompson swore to herself that she would never forget the face of her rapist,a man who climbed through the window of her apartment and assaulted her brutally._______(46)When the police asked her if she could identify the assailant(袭击者)from a book of mug shots,she picked one that she was sure was correct and later she identified the same man in a lineup.Based on her convincing eyewitness testimony,a 22-year-old black man named Ronald Cotton was sentenced to prison for two life terms.Cotton's lawyer appealed the decision,and by the time of the appeals hearing,evidence had come to light suggesting that the real rapist might have been a man who looked very like Cotton,an imprisoned criminal named Bobby Poole.______(47)Jennifer Thompson looked at both men face to face,and once again said that Ronald Cotton was the one who raped her.Eleven years later , DNA evidence completely exonerated(证明……清白)Cotton and just as unequivocally(明确地)convicted Poole , who confessed to the crime._________ ( 48 ) " The man I was so sure I had never seen in my life was the man who was inches from my throat,who raped me,who hurt me, who took my spirit away,who robbed me of my soul,"she wrote."And the man I had identified so surely on so many occasions was absolutely innocent."_______(49)Remarkably,both were able to put this tragedy behind them,overcome the racial barrier that divided them,and write a book,which they have subtitled "Our memoir of injustice and redemption."Nevertheless,Thompson says,she still lives"with constant pain that my profound mistake cost him so dearly._______(50)" _______(46)
[多选题]共用题干 A Biological ClockEvery living thing has what scientists call a biological clock that controls behavior. The bio- logical clock tells______(51)when to form flowers and when the flowers should open. It tells ______(52)when to leave the protective cocoons and fly away,and it tells animals and human beings when to eat,sleep and wake.Events outside the plant and anima______(53)the actions of some biological clocks.Sci- entists recently found,for example,that a tiny animal changes the color of its fur______(54) the number of hours of daylight.In the short______(55)of winter,its fur becomes white.The fur becomes gray brown in color in the longer hours of daylight in summer.Inner signals control other biological clocks.German scientists found that some kind of internal clock seems to order birds to begin their long migration______(56)twice each year. Birds ______(57)flying become restless when it is time for the trip,______(58)they become calm again when the time of the flight has ended.Scientists say they are beginning to learn which______(59)of the brain contain biologica] clocks.An American researcher,Martin Moorhead,said a small group of cells near the front of the brain______(60)to control the timing of some of our actions.These______(61)tell a person when to______(62),when to sleep and when to seek food.Scientists say there proba- bly are other biological clock cells that control other body activities.Dr Moorhead is studying______(63)our biological clocks affect the way we do our work .For example,most of us have great difficulty if we must often change to different work hours.______(64)can take many days for a human body to accept the major change in work hours .Dr. Moorhead said industrial officials should have a better understanding of biological clocks and how they affect workers.He said______(65)understanding could cut sickness and accidents at work and would help increase a factory's production. 59._________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Research by the University of Exeter has revealed that ants have a big impact on their local en-vironment as a result of their activity as"ecosystem engineers"and predators.The study,published in the Journal of Animal Ecology,found that ants have two distinct effects on their local environment.Firstly,through moving of soil by nest building activity and by collecting food they affect the level of nutrients in the soil.This can indirectly impact the local populations of many animal groups, from decomposers to species much higher up the food chain.Secondly,they prey on a wide range of other animals,including larger prey which can be at-tacked by vast numbers of ant workers.Dirk Sanders,an author of the study from the university's Centre for Ecology and Conservation, said:"Ants are very effective predators which thrive in huge numbers.They're also very territorial and very aggressive,defending their resources and territory against other predators.All of this means they have a strong influence on their surrounding area.""In this research,we studied for the first time how big this impact is and the subtleties of it. What we found is that despite being predators,their presence can also lead to an increase in density and diversity of other animal groups.They genuinely play a key role in the local environment,haying a big influence on the grassland food web,"Sanders said.The study,carried out in Germany,studied the impact of the presence of different combinations and densities of black garden ants and common red ants,both species which can be found across Eurone.including in the UK.It found that a low density of ants in an area increased the diversity and density of other animals in the local area,particularly the density of herbivores and decomposers.At higher densities ants had no or the opposite effect,showing that predation is counteracting the positive influence.Dr Frank van Veen,another author on the study,said:"What we find is that the impact of ants on soil nutrient levels has a positive effect on animal groups at low levels,but as the number of ants increases,their predatory impacts have the bigger effect一thereby counteracting the positive influence via ecosystem engineering."Ants are important components of ecosystems not only because they constitute a great part of the animal biomass but also because they act as ecosystem engineers.Ant biodiversity is incredibly high and these organisms are highly responsive to human impact,which obviously reduces its richness. However,it is not clear how such disturbance damages the maintenance of ant services to the ecosystem.Ants are important in below ground processes through the alteration of the physical and chemical environment and through their effects on plants,microorganisms,and other soil organisms. As predators,ants_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Owls and Larks(猫头鹰与云雀)1 In this article,we look at the importance of sleep for learning. Most healthy adults need eight or more hours of sleep.But why do we need sleep in the first place?We need sleep for the brain to get a chance to rebuild memories stored during the day and associate these with previously learned things.If this process is interrupted by,say,the sound of an alarm clock,it may not be as effective.So if your sleep is cut short by the alarm clock,how damaging is it?The truth is that it's difficult to predict,as so much depends on how much sleep your body actually needs on that particular occasion.2 The popular belief that people are naturally either larks(early risers)or owls is false.The reason why people tend to be one or the other has more to do with lifestyle,age,and personality.Many people who appear to be early birds may have just become so through habit,for example,parents with very young chil-dren.Teenagers can have difficulty falling asleep until late at night and then they naturally have problems getting up the following morning.3 The main reason why owls are owls is that they tend to spend their time over a book,movie,or corn- puter game till the early hours of the morning.They enjoy the quiet of the night when they can pursue their passion.On the other hand,larks can make better use of early morning hours where they can study in quiet at the time when their brains are most refreshed.So which is better for learning一an owl's or a lark's lifestyle? The simple truth is that it is more complex than simply being one or the other. Leading a well-balanced life in terms of work and play and sleeping enough to bring maximum refreshment is probably the secret.4 As for naps , experts on insomnia(失眠)argue against taking naps , as these may keep people up at night. If your nap lasts only five minutes to haff an hour and does not affect your ability to fall asleep in the night,it will probably help you be more alert in evening hours.However,if you are having problems getting to sleep at night , it's not only naps that you should avoid. Try not to drink a lot of alcohol , take nicotine(尼古 丁),do mentally intense activities like preparing for exams or doing exercise in the evening. Some peopleswear that drinking coffee never stops them from sleeping like a log,whereas others will never go near the stuff for fear of being awake all night.However,the best advice for most is to avoid it in the evening,and if you drink coffee before a nap,remember you are likely to awaken as soon as the caffeine starts kicking in. Paragraph 2________
[多选题]共用题干 Skin CancerMelanoma(黑素瘤),the deadliest kind of skin cancer,is now the most common cancer in__________(51) British women,the country's leading cancer organization said Wednesday.Skin cancer has__________(52) cervical(子宫颈的)cancer as the top cancer striking women in their 20s,according to the latest data from Cancer Research United Kingdom.The trend is particularly_________(53)since younger people are not generally those most susceptible (易患的)to melanoma. Rates of skin cancer are _________( 54 ) highest in people over age 75.But experts worry that increasing numbers of younger people being diagnosed with skin cancer could be the_________(55)of a dangerous trend.Women in their 20s make_________(56)a small percentage of all patients diagnosed with melanoma in Britain,but nearly a third of all cases occur in people younger than 50.Based on current numbers,Cancer Research UK predicts that melanoma will become the fourth _________(57)common cancer for men and women of all ages by 2024,and that cases will jump from about 9,000 a year to more than 15,500.Cancer experts_________(58)the rising number of skin cancer cases largely to the surge in people using tanning salons."Spending time on sun beds is just as_________(59)as staying out too long in the sun,"said Caroline Cerny of Cancer Research UK. The organization is starting a SunSmart_________(60)to warn Britons of the dangers of being too bronzed."The intensity of ultraviolet rays in some sun beds can be more than 10_________(61)stronger than themid-day sun,"Cerny said.In the United States,several states require parental approval________(62)minors can use tanning salons.Wisconsin bans people 16 and________(63)from using tanning beds,and others ban children under 14.At least 29 states have regulations governing minors'use of tanning salons.In the U.K.,Scottish politicians passed legislation banning those under 1 8 from using tanning beds, though it hasn't yet been implemented.There are no plans for________(64)in the rest of the U.K.The World Health Organization has previously recommended that tanning beds be regulated because of their potential to damage DNA in the skin.Experts said most deadly skin cancers could be________(65)if people took the proper precautions when in the sun and avoided tanning beds. _________(59)
[多选题]共用题干 WaterEarth is like a big blue marble.From high above the Earth and from the moon,the planet gleams and shines.The blue water in the oceans and seas of the Earth makes a dramatic image.The white clouds above the Earth add beauty to the picture.Water is the source of this beauty and the source of life on Earth.It is the reason people can live on this planet. Water is everywhere.(46)_______.It is in the soil,the ground that grows the food.Water is in rock deep under the ground, in natural holding areas一in storage.In a real sense,water keeps Earth alive.Nature has an unchanging amount of water. Nature has a perfect system for recycling water. (47)_____.It falls as rain.Then it goes to one of three places.It might sink slowly through the soil into the natural holding areas in the rock.(48)_______一by becoming vapor,or gas.It might run off into streams,rivers and oceans.By itself,nature can keep the balance and provide plenty of clean water for us.Nature recycles water.However,people cause problems for this natural recycling system.Nature's recycling system can work well(49)________.Some ways that people upset nature are easy to understand.For example, dirty sewage(污水沟系统)water from homes and factories must not mix with drinking water. People get sick from drinking contaminated water. Sometimes water from factories goes into streams and rivers.It enters into the groundwater. It can flow into lakes too.This kind of contamination from industry(waste water from factories) can be dangerous for people.If water contains poisons and chemicals,it is poison.(50)________;some poisons kill people as well as birds and animals.Without knowing,people can upset nature's recycling system.Lakes and rivers add beauty to the world. People enjoy water for entertainment purposes,too. People enjoy swimming and playing in the cool water of a lake in the summer. They like to ride on boats on rivers.Many people enjoy catching fish in the rivers.They fish for food and for sport.However,in some places,the water of the lakes and rivers is no longer safe.These rivers and lakes are contaminated.The fish are dying because of the chemicals from farms and factories.People cannot swim in the polluted water. _________(47)
[多选题]共用题干 Research shows we make up our minds about people through unspoken communication within seven seconds of meeting them. Consciously or unconsciously,we show our true feelings with our eyes,faces,bodies and attitudes,causing a chain of reactions,ranging from comfort to fear.Think about some of your most unforgettable meetings:an introduction to your future spouse,a job interview,an encounter with a stranger. Focus on the first seven seconds.What did you feel and think?How did you"read"the other person?How do you think he read you?You are the message.For 25 years I've worked with thousands who want to be successful.I've helped them make persuasive presentations,answer unfriendly questions,communicate more effectively.The secret has always been you are the message.Others will want to be with you and help you if you use your good qualities.They include:physical appearance,energy,rate of speech, pitch and tone of voice,gestures,expression through the eyes,and the ability to hold the interest of others.Others form an impressiont about you based on these. Think of times when you know you made a good impression.What made you successful?You were committed to what you were talking about and so absorbed in the moment you lost all self-con-sciousness.Many books advise you to stride into a room and impress others with your qualities.They instruct you to greet them with"power handshakes"and tell you to fix your eyes on the other person. If you follow all this advice,you'll drive everyone crazy一including yourself.The trick is to be consistent at your best.The most effective people never change from one situation to another. They're the same whether they're having a conversation,addressing their garden club or being interviewed for a job.They communicate with their whole being;the tones of their voices and their gestures match their words. We make up our minds about people through communications with eyes,faces and other body languages.
[多选题]共用题干 Many Children'S Deaths Preventable:WHOOver five million children die each year from disease,infections and accidents related______(51)their environment although many of these deaths are largely preventable,says the World Health Organization.On Monday,the WHO asked governments and citizens around the world to take action to cre-ate healthy______(52)for children as it celebrated World Health Day.“The biggest threats to children's health lurk in the very______( 53)that should be safest-home,school and community,” said Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland,director-general of the WHO at the day's launch in New Delhi,India.“Every child has the right to______(54)up in a healthy home,school and community.The future development of our children-and their world-depends on______(55)enjoying good health now.We have their future in our______(56).Now we must work more effectively together to______(57)the risks from the environment which our children face,”Brundtland said.This year's theme,“Healthy Environments for Children”focuses on the many dangers ______(58)by children in and around the places where they live and play.These include inadequate access to safe drinking______(59)and sanitation,insect- borne diseases,air pollution,chemical hazards and injuries from traffic,falls,burns and drownings.Communities around the world organized events to promote awareness of children's health is-sues,______(60)included drawing contests for schoolchildren in Vietnam,street plays in In-dia,puppet shows in Namibia and professional lectures for policy makers in Germany and else-where.Activities also took______(61)in cities across Canada on Monday,including Calgary, Montreal,Halifax and Ottawa.Although children under five represent only 10 per cent of the world's population,they bear 40 per cent of the global disease______(62),says the WHO.And as much as one-third of the total burden of disease may be caused by environmental______(63).World Health Day has been celebrated on April 7th______(64)1950 .Each year the WHO chooses a theme to highlight areas of particular concern.Last year's______(65),Move for Health,focused on promoting physical activity as part. of healthy living. 60._________
[多选题]共用题干 Beauty or Comfort?People in Beijing wear a lot of clothing during winter to fend off the cold.In the United States, however,people wear(51)________,partly because the car is the primary mode of transportation. Cars take(52)________straight to their workplaces,which are heated well. The American diet is full of calories,so their(53)_______can afford to burn heat more quickly.Fewer layers of clothing give people the opportunity to stay(54)_______.Lots of Yales girls wear skirts(55)________when it's 10 degree Centigrade outside.Some of them at least wear boots,tights,and leg-warmers.Some,however,really just go for the look(56)_________the risk of health.These girls have nothing to prevent their legs(57)_________the wind,and no socks to protect their feet.A mini skirt and a pair of stilettos are all that they wear.Typically,the ones pursuing fashion are(58)_______,with little body fat. Just by the nature of their bodies,they are already at a disadvantage compared with normal people in (59)________ weather. I have always(60)_______whenever I pass these girls,how they manage to refrain from shivering and just smile like spring had arrived.And then there are the guys.The girls can be said to(61)_________health for beauty.But why do guys(62)_________so little?It is not like,once they shed some layers, they suddenly become better-looking. They are not exactly being fashionable when they(63)_________wear sporty shorts and shower slippers in the midst of winter. It's not cute.Of course,people have the freedom to look whatever(64)__________they want. I am just surprised that,given the vast difference between winter and summer temperatures in Connecticut,they can still(65)________like they are partying on the beach in the middle of February. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 Toads are Arthritic and in PainArthritis(关节炎)is an illness that can cause pain and swelling in your bones. Toads(蟾蛛),a big problem in the north of Australia,are suffering from painful arthritis in their legs and backbone,a new study has shown. The toads that jump the fastest are more likely to be larger and to have longer legs.________(46)The large yellow toads,native to South and Central America,were introduced into the north-eastern Australian state of Queensland in 1935 in an attempt to stop beetles and other insects from destroying sugar- cane crops.Now up to 200 million of the poisonous toads exist in the country,and they are rapidly spreading through the state of Northern Territory at a rate of up to 60 km a year. The toads can now be found across more than one million square kilometres.________(47)A Venezuelan poison virus was tried in the 1990s but had to be abandoned after it was found to also kill native frog species.The toads have severely affected ecosystems in Australia.Animals,and sometimes pets,that eat the toads die immediately from their poison,and the toads themselves eat anything they can fit inside their mouth.________(48)A co-author of the new study,Rick Shine,a professor at the University of Sydney,says that little atten-tion has been given to the problems that toads face.Rick and his colleagues studied nearly 500 toads from Queensland and the Northern Territory and found that those in the latter state were very different.They were active,sprinting down roads and breeding quickly.According to the results of the study,the fastest toads travel nearly one kilometre a night.________(49) But speed and strength come at a price一arthritis of the legs and backbone due to constant pressure placed on them.In laboratory tests,the researchers found that after about 15 minutes of hopping,arthritic toads would travel less distance with each hop(跳跃)._________ ( 50 ) These toads are so programmed to move, apparently,that even when in pain the toads travelled as fast and as far as the healthy ones,continuing their constant march across the landscape. ________(46)
[多选题]共用题干 Exercising Your Memory1. Aging does not mean a dramatic decline in memory power,unless you help it happen by letting your mind go.2. That's not to say that memory doesn't change throughout life.Researchers divide memory into categories based on the length of time when memories are stored.One system divides it up as short-term(less than one minute;remembering a telephone number while you dial,for in-stance),long-term(over a period of years)and very long-term memory(over a lifetime).3. Short-term memory isn't mastered until about age 7,but after that you never lose it. Long-term memory,however,involves more effort and skill and changes more through life.It's not until the early teens(十几岁)that most people develop a mature long-term memory.4. First,we must get information into our heads through learning.Learning strategies can get rusty(生锈)without constant use. High school and college students,who are forced to repeated-ly exercise their long-term memory abilities(at least long enough to get them through a final ex- am),usually do well on memory tests.The longer you stay in school,the more chance you get to polish your learning skills.It's no wonder that more highly educated people have more effective memory skills throughout life.5. Although older people in general learn somewhat more slowly than they did when younger,a dramatic difference exists between those who stay intellectually active—reading,discussing,tak- ing classes, thinking—and those who do not. Giving the brain daily workout(锻炼)is just as important as exercising your muscles.Brainwork keeps your learning strategies in shape,and this helps your memory to function at full capacity.6.The next part of a healthy long-term memory is retention(记忆力),the ability to store what you have learned.Memory researchers still do not know whether memories are los—whether they still exist in the brain but our mental searching cannot turn them up,or have disappeared entirely as our brain ages.7. The third necessity for memory is recall,the ability to bring to mind the memories we have stored .Again,while aging has widely different effects on the recall abilities of different people, research indicates that the older we get,the longer it takes to recall facts.But slower recall is still recall.In fact,aging does not seem to have any effect on forgetting at all,which takes place at the same rate in younger and older people. Retention refers to________.
[多选题]共用题干 Intelligence一a Changed View1.Intelligence was believed to be a fixed entity,some faculty of the mind that we all possess and which determines in some way the extent of our achievements.its value therefore,was as a predictor of children's future learning.If they differed markedly in their ability to learn complex tasks, then it was clearly necessary to educate them differently and the need for different types of school and even different ability groups within school was obvious.Intelligence tests could be used for streaming children according to ability at an early age,and at 11 these tests were superior to measures of attainment for selecting children for different types of secondary education.2.Today,we are beginning to think differently. In the last few years,research has thrown doubt on the view that innate intelligence can ever be measured and on the very nature of intelligence itself. There is considerable evidence now which shows the great influence of environment both on achievement and intelligence.Children with poor home backgrounds not only do less well in their school work and intelligence tests but their performance tends to deteriorate gradually compared with that of their more fortunate classmates.3.There are evidences that support the view that we have to distinguish between genetic intelligence and observed intelligence.Any deficiency in the appropriate genes will restrict development no matter how stimulating the environment. We cannot observe and measure innate intelligence,whereas we can observe and measure the effects of the interaction of whatever is inherited with whatever stimulation has been received from the environment. Researches have been investigating what happens in this interaction.4.Two major findings have emerged from these researches.Firstly,the greater part of the development of observed intelligence occurs in the earliest years of life.It is estimated that 50 percent of measurable intelligence at age 17 is already predictable by the age of four. Secondly,the most important factors in the environment are language and psychological aspects of the parent-child relationship.Much of the difference in measured intelligence between "privileged" and "disadvantaged" children may be due to the latter's lack of appropriate verbal stimulation and the poverty of their perceptual experiences.5.These research findings have led to a revision in our understanding of the nature of intelligence.Instead of it being some largely inherited fixed power of the mind,we now see it as a set of development skills with which a person copes with any environment. These skills have to be learned and,indeed,one of them is learning how to learn.6.The modern ideas concerning the nature of intelligence are bound to have some effect on our school system. In one respect a change is already occurring. With the move toward comprehensive education and the development of unstreamed classes,fewer children will be given the label "low IQ"which must inevitably condemn a child in his own,if not society's eyes. The idea that we can teach children to be intelligent in the same way that we can teach them reading or arithmetic is accepted by more and more people. It can be inferred from the passage that a child will________if he has more opportunities to communicate with others by means of language.
[多选题]共用题干 A Country's Standard of LivingThe"standard of living" of any country means the average person's share of the goods and services the country produces.A country's standard of living,________(51),depends first and ________(52)on its capacity to produce wealth."Wealth"in this sense is not money,for we do not live on money________( 53)on things that money can buy:"goods"such as food and clothing, and"services"such as transport and entertainment.A country's capacity to produce wealth depends upon many factors,most of_________(54) have an effect on one another. Wealth depends_________(55)a great extent upon a country's natural resources.Some regions of the world are well supplied with coal and minerals,and have fertile soil and a favorable climate;other regions possess none of them.Next to natural resources_________(56) the ability to turn them to use.Some countries are perhaps as well-off_________(57)the USA in natural resources,but suffered for many years from civil and external wars,and________(58)this and other reasons were________(59)to develop their resources.Sound and stable political conditions,and________(60)from foreign invasions, enable a country to develop its natural resources peacefully and steadily,and to produce more wealth than another country equally well favoured by nature but less well ordered.A country's standard of living does not only depend upon the wealth that is produced and consumed_________(61)its own borders,but also upon what is directly produced through international trade.________(62),Britain's wealth in foodstuffs and other agricultural products would be much less if she had to depend only on________(63)grown at home.Trade makes it possible for her surplus manufactured goods to be traded abroad for the agricultural products that would________(64)be lacking.A country's wealth is,therefore,much influenced by its manufacturing capacity, ______(65)that other countries can be found ready to accept its manufactures. _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 Skin CancerMelanoma(黑素瘤),the deadliest kind of skin cancer,is now the most common cancer in__________(51) British women,the country's leading cancer organization said Wednesday.Skin cancer has__________(52) cervical(子宫颈的)cancer as the top cancer striking women in their 20s,according to the latest data from Cancer Research United Kingdom.The trend is particularly_________(53)since younger people are not generally those most susceptible (易患的)to melanoma. Rates of skin cancer are _________( 54 ) highest in people over age 75.But experts worry that increasing numbers of younger people being diagnosed with skin cancer could be the_________(55)of a dangerous trend.Women in their 20s make_________(56)a small percentage of all patients diagnosed with melanoma in Britain,but nearly a third of all cases occur in people younger than 50.Based on current numbers,Cancer Research UK predicts that melanoma will become the fourth _________(57)common cancer for men and women of all ages by 2024,and that cases will jump from about 9,000 a year to more than 15,500.Cancer experts_________(58)the rising number of skin cancer cases largely to the surge in people using tanning salons."Spending time on sun beds is just as_________(59)as staying out too long in the sun,"said Caroline Cerny of Cancer Research UK. The organization is starting a SunSmart_________(60)to warn Britons of the dangers of being too bronzed."The intensity of ultraviolet rays in some sun beds can be more than 10_________(61)stronger than themid-day sun,"Cerny said.In the United States,several states require parental approval________(62)minors can use tanning salons.Wisconsin bans people 16 and________(63)from using tanning beds,and others ban children under 14.At least 29 states have regulations governing minors'use of tanning salons.In the U.K.,Scottish politicians passed legislation banning those under 1 8 from using tanning beds, though it hasn't yet been implemented.There are no plans for________(64)in the rest of the U.K.The World Health Organization has previously recommended that tanning beds be regulated because of their potential to damage DNA in the skin.Experts said most deadly skin cancers could be________(65)if people took the proper precautions when in the sun and avoided tanning beds. _________(58)
[多选题]共用题干 Washoe Learned American Sign Language1.An animal that influenced scientific thought has died.A chimpanzee named Washoe and born in Africa died of natural causes late last month at the age of 42 at a research center in the American state of Washington.Washoe had become known in the scientific community arid around the world for her ability to use American sign language.She was said to be the first non-human to learn a human language.Her skills also led to debate about primates and their ability to understand language.2.Research scientists Allen and Beatrix Gardner began teaching Washoe sign language in 1966.In 1969,the Gardners described Washoe's progress in a scientific report.The people who experimented with Washoe said she grew to understand about 250 words.For example,Washoe made signs to communicate when it was time to eat. She could request foods like apples and bananas.She also asked questions like,"Who is coming to play?"Once the news about Washoe spread,many language scientists began studies of their own into this new and exciting area of research.The whole direction of primate research changed.3. However,critics argued Washoe only learned to repeat sign language movements from watching her teachers.They said she had never developed true language skills.Even now there are some researchers who suggest that primates learn sign language only by memory,and perform the signs only for prizes.Yet Washoe's keepers disagree.Roger Fouts is a former student of the Gardners.He took Washoe to a research center in Ellensburg,Washington.There,Washoe taught sign language to three younger chimpanzees,which are still alive.4.Scientists like private researcher Jane Goodall believe Washoe provided new information about the mental workings of chimpanzees.Today,there are not as many scientists studying language skills with chimps.Part of the reason is that this kind of research takes a very long time.5.Debate continues about chimps' understanding of human communication.Yet,one thing is sure一Washoe changed popular ideas about the possibilities of animal intelligence. Washoe taught three younger chimps sign language_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Young Adults Who Exercise Get Higher IQ ScoresYoung adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more likely to go on to university,reveals a major new study carried out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)The study involved 1 .2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born be-tween 1950 and 1976 .The research group analyzed the results of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.The study shows a clear link between good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test. The strongest links are for logical thinking and verbal comprehension.But it is only fitness that plays a role in the results for the IQ test,and not strength.“Being fit means that you also have good heart and lung capacity and that your brain gets plenty of oxygen,”says Michael Nilsson, professor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital. “This may be one of the reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness,but not with muscular strength .We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important.”By analyzing data for twins,the researchers have been able to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that explain the link between fitness and higher IQ.“We have also shown that those youngsters who improve their physical fitness between the ages of 15 and 18 increase their cognitive performance,”says Maria Aberg,researcher at the Sahl-grenska Academy and physician at Aby health centre.“This being the case,physical education is a subject that has an important place in schools,and is an absolute must if we want to do well in maths and other theoretical subjects.”The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests during national service with the socio-economic status of the men later in life.Those who were fit at 18 were more likely to go into higher education,and many secured more qualified jobs. The study findings include the following EXCEPT that_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Beauty or Comfort?People in Beijing wear a lot of clothing during winter to fend off the cold.In the United States, however,people wear(51)________,partly because the car is the primary mode of transportation. Cars take(52)________straight to their workplaces,which are heated well. The American diet is full of calories,so their(53)_______can afford to burn heat more quickly.Fewer layers of clothing give people the opportunity to stay(54)_______.Lots of Yales girls wear skirts(55)________when it's 10 degree Centigrade outside.Some of them at least wear boots,tights,and leg-warmers.Some,however,really just go for the look(56)_________the risk of health.These girls have nothing to prevent their legs(57)_________the wind,and no socks to protect their feet.A mini skirt and a pair of stilettos are all that they wear.Typically,the ones pursuing fashion are(58)_______,with little body fat. Just by the nature of their bodies,they are already at a disadvantage compared with normal people in (59)________ weather. I have always(60)_______whenever I pass these girls,how they manage to refrain from shivering and just smile like spring had arrived.And then there are the guys.The girls can be said to(61)_________health for beauty.But why do guys(62)_________so little?It is not like,once they shed some layers, they suddenly become better-looking. They are not exactly being fashionable when they(63)_________wear sporty shorts and shower slippers in the midst of winter. It's not cute.Of course,people have the freedom to look whatever(64)__________they want. I am just surprised that,given the vast difference between winter and summer temperatures in Connecticut,they can still(65)________like they are partying on the beach in the middle of February. _________(54.)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The Privileged ChildrenLife really should be one long journey of joy for children who are born with a world of wealth at their tiny feet.But experts on psychological research now believe that silver spoons can leave a bitter taste.If suicide statistics are a sign of happiness,then the rich are a miserable lot. Figures show that it is the rich who most often do away with themselves.Dr. Robert Coles,an internationally famous doctor,is the world's top expert on the influence of money on children.He has written a well-received book on the subject,The Privileged Ones,and his research shows that too much money in the family can cause as many problems as too little."Ohviously there are certain advantages to being rich,"says the 53-year-old doctor,"such as better health,education and future work expectations.But most important is the quality of family life. Money can't buy love."It can buy a lot of other things,though,and that's where the trouble starts.Rich kjds have so much to choose from that they often become confused.Their parents' over favoring can make them spoiled.They tend to travel more than other children,from home to home and country to country, which often makes them feel restless."But privileged children do have a better sense of their positions in the world,"adds Mr Coles, "and they are more self-assured."Today's rich parents perhaps have realized that their riches can be more of a burden than a favor to their children.So their priority is to ensure that their families are as rich in love as they are in money. This article is written mainly to tell readers that_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Stress and Heart Diseaseif you feel stress in your life is spinning out of control,then you may be hurting your heart. If you don't want to break your own heart,you need to learn to take charge of your life where you can and recognize there are many things beyond your control.So says Dr. Robert S.Eliot. He's a clinical professor of medicine at the University of Nebraska.Eliot says there are people in this world whom he calls"hot reactors".For these people,being tense may cause tremendous and rapid increases in their blood pressure.Eliot says researchers have found that stressed people have higher cholesterol levels,among other things."We've done years of work in showing that excess alarm or stress chemicals can literally burst heart muscle fibers.When that happens it happens very quickly,within five minutes.It creates many short circuits,and that causes crazy heart rhythms.The heart beats like a bag of worms instead of a pump.And when that happens,we can't live."Eliot,64,suffered a heart attack at age 44.He attributes some of the cause to stress.For years he was a"hot reactor".On the exterior,he was cool,calm and collected,but on the interior,stress was killing him.He's now doing very well.The main predictors of destructive levels of stress are the FUD factors一fear,uncertainty and doubt一together with perceived lack of control,he says.For many people,the root of their stress is anger,and the trick is to find out where the anger is coming from."Does the anger come from a feeling that everything must be perfect?"Eliot asks.One step to calming down is recognizing you have this tendency.Learn to be less hostile by changing some of your attitudes and negative thinking.Eliot recommends taking charge of your life."If there is one word that should be substituted for stress,it's control.Instead of the FUD factors,what you want is the NICE factors一new,interest-ing,challenging experiences."He suggests that people write down the six things in their lives that they feel are the most important things they'd like to achieve.Ben Franklin did it at age 32."He wrote down things like being a better father,being a better husband,being financially independent, being stimulated intellectually and remaining even-tempered一he wasn't good at that."From Eliot's viewpoint,the other key to controlling stress is to"realize that there are other troublesome parts of your life over which you can have little or no control一like the economy and politicians. Which statement about Ben Franklin is correct?
[多选题]共用题干 Women with AIDSFor a long time women with HIV were ignored because the focus was totally on HIV men.The gay community was very much in sight and vocal and successfully got support for its cause.Now we are rapidly approaching the point where about one haff of all AIDS cases in the. world are women. But no one is taking this dangerously high level of infection among women seriously enough.Women usually have a worse time dealing with HIV than men do.In most cases,the woman is taking care of children as well as her sick partner. She may not even have time to take care of herself. The HIV-positive woman ends up shouldering the family as well as her own personal problems. Men,however,are usually the ones who have insurance income and access to doctors.They get care.Women often do not.The discrimination against HIV-positive women is simply terrible.They are likely to be more inactive than men in the home and workplace because too many people think that women are the cause of the disease.This is not at all true.They get it from a man.They don't just simply have HIV.Of course,there's a social discrimination against all people with HIV.They are scared that other people will know they are HJV-positive and that they will,therefore be discriminated against. For example,it's very difficult for people with HIV to travel.They are not allowed to enter many countries,including the United States,China and Russia.The biggest difficulty an HIV-positive woman must face is the isolatjon.Once the woman knows she's HIV-positive,she lives in fear that other people will find out.She's so frightened she will go into hiding,into an isolated place by herself. It's not at all uncommon to meet a woman who has been HIV-positive for nearly 10 years and has never told anyone,except her doctor. And the resulting stress is enough to make her sick.But HIV-positive women who get support,who can discuss their trouble and then do something about it一whether that means taking better care of themselves or going to the United Nations to struggle for their rights一are likely to live longer. Active women don't die out of shame in a corner. This happens to too many HIV-positive women. Isolation is the biggest difficulty for HIV-positive women.
[多选题]共用题干 Washoe Learned American Sign Language1.An animal that influenced scientific thought has died.A chimpanzee named Washoe and born in Africa died of natural causes late last month at the age of 42 at a research center in the American state of Washington.Washoe had become known in the scientific community arid around the world for her ability to use American sign language.She was said to be the first non-human to learn a human language.Her skills also led to debate about primates and their ability to understand language.2.Research scientists Allen and Beatrix Gardner began teaching Washoe sign language in 1966.In 1969,the Gardners described Washoe's progress in a scientific report.The people who experimented with Washoe said she grew to understand about 250 words.For example,Washoe made signs to communicate when it was time to eat. She could request foods like apples and bananas.She also asked questions like,"Who is coming to play?"Once the news about Washoe spread,many language scientists began studies of their own into this new and exciting area of research.The whole direction of primate research changed.3. However,critics argued Washoe only learned to repeat sign language movements from watching her teachers.They said she had never developed true language skills.Even now there are some researchers who suggest that primates learn sign language only by memory,and perform the signs only for prizes.Yet Washoe's keepers disagree.Roger Fouts is a former student of the Gardners.He took Washoe to a research center in Ellensburg,Washington.There,Washoe taught sign language to three younger chimpanzees,which are still alive.4.Scientists like private researcher Jane Goodall believe Washoe provided new information about the mental workings of chimpanzees.Today,there are not as many scientists studying language skills with chimps.Part of the reason is that this kind of research takes a very long time.5.Debate continues about chimps' understanding of human communication.Yet,one thing is sure一Washoe changed popular ideas about the possibilities of animal intelligence. Paragraph 3________
[多选题]共用题干 More About Alzheimer's DiseaseScientists have developed skin tests that may be used in the future to identify people with Alzheimer's disease and may ultimately allow physicians to predict_______(51)is at risk of getting this neurological disorder.The only current means of_____(52)the disease in a living patient is a long and expensive series of tests that eliminate every other cause of dementia(痴呆)."Since Alois Alzheimer described the_____(53)nearly a century ago,people have been trying to find a way to_____(54)diagnose it in its early stages,"said Patricia Grady,acting director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda,Maryland."This discovery,if_____(55),could prove a big step forward in our efforts to deal with and understand the disease."Alzheimer ' 5 is the single greatest _________ ( 56 ) of mental deterioration(退化)in older people, affecting between 2.5 million and 4 million people in the United States_____(57).The devastating disorder gradually destroys memory and the ability to function,and eventually causes death.There is currently no known______(58)for the disease.Researches______(59)that the skin cells of Alzheimer's patients have defects that interfere with their ability to regulate the flow of potassium(钾)in and out of the cells.The fact that the cell defects are present in the skin suggests that Alzheimer's______(60)from physiological changes throughout the body,and that dementia may be the first noticeable effect of these changes as the defects______(61)the cells in the brain,scientists said.The flow of potassium is especially______(62)in cells responsible for memory formation.The scientists also found two other defects that affect the cells'supply, of calcium(钙),another critical element.One test developed by researches calls______(63)growing skin cells in a laboratory culture and then testing them with an electrical detector to determine if the microscopic tunnels that_______(64)the flow of potassium are open.Open potassium channels create a unique electrical signature.A spokesman for the Alzheimer's Association said that if the validity of the diagnostic test can be proven it would be an important______(65),but cautioned that other promising tests for Alzheimer's have been disappointing. _________63
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Immune FunctionsThe immune system is equal in complexity to the combined intricacies of the brain and nervous system. The success of the immune system in defending the body relies on a dynamic regulatory communication net- work consisting of millions and millions of cells.Organized into sets and subsets,these cells pass information back and forth like clouds of bees flying around a hive(蜂巢).The result is a sensitive system of checks and balances that produces an immune response that is prompt,appropriate,effective,and self-limiting.At the heart of the immune system is the ability to distinguish between self and nonself. When immune defenders encounter cells or organisms carrying foreign or nonself molecules,the immune troops move quicklyto eliminate the intruders(人侵者).Virtually every body cell carries distinctive molecules that identify it as self. The body's immune defenses do not normally attack tissues that carry a self-marker. Rather,immune cells and other body cells coexist peaceably in a state known as self-tolerance.When a normally functioning immune system attacks a nonself molecule,the system has the ability to"remember"the specifics of the foreign body.Upon subsequent encounters with the same species of molecules,the immune system reacts accordingly. With the possible exception of antibodies(抗体)passed during lactation(授乳期), this so called immune system memory is not inherited.Despite the occurrence of a virus in your family,your immune system must"learn"from experience with the many millions of distinctive nonseif molecules in the sea of microbes(微生物)in which we live. Learning entails producing the appropriate molecules and cells to match up with and counteract each nonseif invader.Any substance capable of triggering an immune response is called an antigen(抗原).Antigens are not to be confused with illergens(过敏原),which are most often harmless substances that provoke the immune system to set off the inappropriate and harmful response known as allergy.An antigen can be a virus,a bacte-rium,or even a portion or product of one of these organisms.Tissues or cells from another individual also act as antigens,because the immune system recognizes transplanted tissues as foreign,it rejects them.The body will even reject nourishing proteins unless they are first broken down by the digestive system into their primary,nonantigenic building blocks.An antigen announces its foreignness by means of intricate and charac- teristic shapes called epitopes(抗原表位), which protrude(突出)from its surface. Most antigens , even the simplest microbes,carry several different kinds of epitopes on their surface;some may even carry several hundreds.Some epitopes will be more effective than others at stimulating an immune response.Only in abnormal situations does the immune system wrongly identify self as nonself and execute a misdirected immune attack. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of this passage?
[多选题]共用题干 Prolonging Human Life1. Prolonging human life has increased the size of the human population.Many people alive to-day would have died of childhood diseases if they had been born 100 years ago.Because more people live longer,there are more people around at any given time .In fact,it is a decrease in death rates,not an increase in birthrates,that has led to the population explosion.2. Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency load.In all societies,people who are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them. In hunting and gathering cultures,old people who could not keep up might be left behind to die.In times of famine,infants might be allowed to die because they could not survive if their parents starved,whereas if the parents survived they could have another child.3. In most contemporary societies,people feel a moral obligation to keep people alive whether they can work or not.We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work;we also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age.Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement,somebody else must support them.In the United States many retired people live on social security checks which are so little that they must live in near poverty.Older people have more illness than young or middle-aged people;unless they have wealth or private or government insurance,they must often"go on welfare"if they have a serious illness.4. When older people become senile or too weak and ill to care for themselves,they create grave problems for their families.In the past and in some traditional cultures,they would be cared for at home until they died.Today,with most members of a household working or in school,there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person.To meet this need,a great many nursing homes and convalescent hospitals have been built.These are often profit-making organizations,although some are sponsored by religious and other nonprofit groups.While a few of these institutions arc good,most of them are simply"dumping grounds"for the dying in which"care" is given by poorly paid,overworked,and under-skilled personnel. Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 We Need Green SpaceDecades ago,any open field,any vacant lot,any group of trees were the places where children played.As families left family farms,small towns,and the countryside,and moved into cities,the places for their children to play in became rarer.(46)_________In fact,all people's lives change a lot when they move to the city. In cities,homes are built on top of one another in enormous apartment buildings.The feeling of private space and ownership no longer exists in houses literally piled one on the other.Psychologists have been studying the changes people experience when they leave rural areas and move into urban environments.(47)________Children can play on paved playgrounds.That's true.(48)_________Without grass and trees and bushes and,yes,dirt and mud to get dirty in, children miss an important part of childhood.The human soul,it seems,needs to stay close to its roots.Adults can plant lots of things like bulbs in window boxes and large containers.(49)_________ The lack of green space is now recognized and understood as a problem.City planners一the people who design neighborhoods一have begun to work on a solution.They want to build more parks,but land in cities is quite costly.So they look for land that no one else wants.Along rivers,under power lines,near ditches and highways—(50)________Why not use these unused spaces for green areas?Neighborhood groups have coordinated their efforts to clean up the trash or garbage.Soil from new building projects in the city has been trucked by lorries into these areas.This soil has been dumped along the sides of rivers,and strong walls have been erected to hold it there.Trees and bushes have been planted;the roots of these plants will hold the soil, too,and the green leaves make the area beautiful. ________(47)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Some People do Not Taste Salt Like OthersLow-salt foods may be harder for some people to like than others,according to a study by a Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences food scientist. The research indicates that genetic factors influence some of the difference in the levels of salt we like to eat.Those conclusions are important because recent,well-publicized efforts to reduce the salt content in food have left many people struggling to accept fare that simply does not taste as good to them as it does to others,pointed out John Hayes,assistant professor of food science,who was lead investigator on the study.Diets high in salt can increase the risk of high blood pressure and stroke.That is why public health ex-perts and food companies are working together on ways to help consumers lower salt intake through foods thatare enjoyable to eat. This study increases understanding of salt preference and consumption.The research involved 87 carefully screened participants who sampled salty foods such as soup and chips,on multiple occasions,spread out over weeks.Test subjects were 45 men and 42 women,reportedly healthy,ranging in age from 20 to 40 years.The sample was composed of individuals who were not actively modifying their dietary intake and did not smoke cigarettes.They rated the intensity of taste on a commonly used scientific scale,ranging from barely detectable to strongest sensation of any kind."Most of us like the taste of salt. However,some individuals eat more salt,both because they like the taste of saltiness more,and also because it is needed to block other unpleasant tastes in food."said Hayes. "Supertasters,people who experience tastes more intensely,consume more salt than do nontasters.Snack foods have saltiness as their primary flavor,and at least for these foods,more is better,so the supertasters seem to like them more."However,supertasters also need higher levels of salt to block unpleasant bitter tastes in foods such as cheese,Hayes noted."For example,cheese is a wonderful blend of dairy flavors from fermented milk,but also bitter tastes from ripening that are blocked by salt,"he said."A supertaster finds low-salt cheese un-pleasant because the bitterness is too pronounced."Hayes cited research done more than 75 years ago by a chemist named Fox and a geneticist named Blakeslee,showing that individuals differ in their ability to taste certain chemicals.As a result,Hayes ex-plained,we know that a wide range in taste acuity exists,and this variation is as normal as variations in eye and hair color."Some people,called supertasters,describe bitter compounds as being extremely bitter,while others, called nontasters,find these same bitter compounds to be tasteless or only weakly bitter."he said."Re- sponse to bitter compounds is one of many ways to identify biological differences in food preference because supertastmg is not limited to bitterness." John Hayes points out in a recent study that_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Wrongly Convicted Man and His Accuser Tell Their StoryNEW YORK NY,January 5,2010,St.Martin's Press has announced the release of the paperback edi- tion of Picking Cotton,a remarkable true story of what novelist John Grisham calls an"account of violence, rage,redemption(救赎),and,ultimately,forgiveness."The story began in 1987,in Burlington,North Carolina,with the rape of a young white college student named Jennifer Thompson.During her ordeal,Thompson swore to herself that she would never forget the face of her rapist,a man who climbed through the window of her apartment and assaulted her brutally._______(46)When the police asked her if she could identify the assailant(袭击者)from a book of mug shots,she picked one that she was sure was correct and later she identified the same man in a lineup.Based on her convincing eyewitness testimony,a 22-year-old black man named Ronald Cotton was sentenced to prison for two life terms.Cotton's lawyer appealed the decision,and by the time of the appeals hearing,evidence had come to light suggesting that the real rapist might have been a man who looked very like Cotton,an imprisoned criminal named Bobby Poole.______(47)Jennifer Thompson looked at both men face to face,and once again said that Ronald Cotton was the one who raped her.Eleven years later , DNA evidence completely exonerated(证明……清白)Cotton and just as unequivocally(明确地)convicted Poole , who confessed to the crime._________ ( 48 ) " The man I was so sure I had never seen in my life was the man who was inches from my throat,who raped me,who hurt me, who took my spirit away,who robbed me of my soul,"she wrote."And the man I had identified so surely on so many occasions was absolutely innocent."_______(49)Remarkably,both were able to put this tragedy behind them,overcome the racial barrier that divided them,and write a book,which they have subtitled "Our memoir of injustice and redemption."Nevertheless,Thompson says,she still lives"with constant pain that my profound mistake cost him so dearly._______(50)" _______(49)
[多选题]共用题干 Organic Food:Why?1 Europe is now the biggest market for organic food in the world,expanding by 25 percent a year over the past 10 years.So what is the attraction of organic food for some people?The really important thing is that organic sounds more"natural".Eating organic is a way of defining oneself as natural,good,caring, different from the junk-food-eating masses.2 Unlike conventional farming,the organic approach means farming with natural,rather than man- made , fertilisers and pesticides. Techniques such as crop rotation(轮种)improve soil quality and helporganic farmers compensate for the absence of man-made chemicals.As a method of food production,organic is,however,inefficient in its use of labour and land;there are severe limits to how much food can be pro- duced.Also,the environmental benefits of not using artificial fertilisers are tiny compared with the amount of carbon dioxide emitted(排放)by transporting food.3 Organic farming is often claimed to be safer than conventional farming. Yet studies into organic farming worldwide continue to reject this claim.An extensive review by the UK Food Standards Agency foundthat there was no statistically significant difference between organic and conventional crops.Even where re-sults indicated there was evidence of a difference,the reviewers found no sign that these differences would have any noticeable effect on health.4 The simplistic claim that organic food is more nutritious than conventional food was always likely to be misleading. Food is a natural product,and the health value of different foods will vary for a number of rea-sons,including freshness,the way the food is cooked,the type of soil it is grown in,the amount of sunlight and rain crops have received,and so on.Likewise,the flavour of a carrot has less to do with whether it was fertilised with manure(粪便)or something out of a plastic sack than with the variety of carrot and how long ago it was dug up.5 The notion that organic food is safer than"normal"food is also contradicted by the fact that many of our most common foods are full of natural toxins(毒素).As one research expert says : " People think that the more natural something is,the better it is for them.That is simply not the case.In fact,it is the opposite that is true:the closer a plant is to its natural state,the more likely it is that it will poison you.Naturally, many plants do not want to be eaten,so we have spent 10,000 years developing agriculture and breeding out harmful traits from crops." Paragraph 1________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The Privileged ChildrenLife really should be one long journey of joy for children who are born with a world of wealth at their tiny feet.But experts on psychological research now believe that silver spoons can leave a bitter taste.If suicide statistics are a sign of happiness,then the rich are a miserable lot. Figures show that it is the rich who most often do away with themselves.Dr. Robert Coles,an internationally famous doctor,is the world's top expert on the influence of money on children.He has written a well-received book on the subject,The Privileged Ones,and his research shows that too much money in the family can cause as many problems as too little."Ohviously there are certain advantages to being rich,"says the 53-year-old doctor,"such as better health,education and future work expectations.But most important is the quality of family life. Money can't buy love."It can buy a lot of other things,though,and that's where the trouble starts.Rich kjds have so much to choose from that they often become confused.Their parents' over favoring can make them spoiled.They tend to travel more than other children,from home to home and country to country, which often makes them feel restless."But privileged children do have a better sense of their positions in the world,"adds Mr Coles, "and they are more self-assured."Today's rich parents perhaps have realized that their riches can be more of a burden than a favor to their children.So their priority is to ensure that their families are as rich in love as they are in money. Which of the following statements is not true according to the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 Trying to Find a PartnerOne of the most striking findings of a recent poll in the UK is that of the people interviewed, one in two believes that it is becoming more difficult to meet someone to start a family with. Why are many finding it increasingly difficult to start and sustain intimate relationships?Does modem life really make it harder to fall in love?or are we making it harder for ourselves?It is certainly the case today that contemporary couples benefit in different ways from relationships .Women no longer rely upon partners for economic security or status.A man doesn't expect his spouse to be in sole charge of running his household and raising his children.But perhaps the knowledge that we can live perfectly well without a partnership means that it takes much more to persuade people to abandon their independence.In theory,finding a partner should be much simpler these days.Only a few generations ago, your choice of soulmate(心上人)was constrained by geography , social convention and family tradition.Although it was never explicit,many marriages were essentially arranged.Now those barriers have been broken down.You can approach a builder or a brain surgeon in any bar in any city on any given evening. When the world is your oyster(牡蛎),you surely have a better chance of finding a pearl.But it seems that the old conventions have been replaced by an even tighter constraint:the tyranny of choice.The expectations of partners are inflated to an unmanageable degree:good looks,impressive salary,kind to grandmother,and right socks.There is no room for error in the first impression.We think that a relationship can be perfect.If it isn't,it is disposable.We work to protect ourselves against future heartache and don't put in the hard emotional labor needed to build a strong relationship .Of course,this is complicated by realities.The cost of housing and childrearing creates pressure to have a stable income and career before a life partnership. Which of the following is NOT expected of a partner according to this passage?
[多选题]共用题干 Life Expectancy in the Last Hundred YearsA hundred years ago,life expectancy in developed countries was about 47;in the early 21 st century,men in the United States and the United Kingdom can expect to live to about 74,women to about 80, and these______(51)are rising all the time .What has brought______(52) these changes?When we look at the life______(53)of people 100 years ago,we need to look at the greatest______(54)of the time .In the early 20th century,these were the acute and of-ten______(55)infectious diseases such as smallpox.Many children died very young from these diseases and others,and the weak and elderly were always at risk.In the______(56)world these diseases are far______(57)today,and in some cases have almost disappcarcd.A number of______(58)have led to this:improvements in sanita- tion and hygiene,the discovery and use of antibiotics,which______(59)bacterial diseases much less dangerous,and vaccinations______(60)common diseases.______(61), people's general health has improved with improvements in our general environment:cleaner air,better means of preserving food,better and warmer housing,and better understanding of nutrition.Genetically,we should all be able to live to about 85 but______(62)people do live longer today,there are still some big killers around that are preventing us from consistently reaching that age .The problems that affect people today are the more chronic illnesses,such as heart disease and strokes,and those______(63)by viruses,such as influenza and AIDS.Of course,cancer is a huge killer as well.In most cases these diseases affect______(64)people,but there are worrying trends in the developed world with problems such as obesity______(65)more heart disease and illnesses such as diabetes at younger ages.The killers today can be classed as"lifestyle diseases",which means that it may be possiblem to halt their progress. 64._________
[多选题]共用题干 Women with AIDSFor a long time women with HIV were ignored because the focus was totally on HIV men.The gay community was very much in sight and vocal and successfully got support for its cause.Now we are rapidly approaching the point where about one half of all AIDS cases in the world are women .But no one is taking this dangerously high level of infection among women seriously enough.Women usually have a worse time dealing with HIV than men do.In most cases,the woman is taking care of children as well as her sick partner. She may not even have time to take care of her-self. The HIV- positive woman ends up shouldering the family as well as her own personal prob- lems.Men,however,are usually the ones who have insurance income and access to doctors.They get care.Women often do not.The discrimination against HIV-positive women is simply terrible.They are likely to be more inactive than men in home and workplace because too many people think that women are the cause of the discase .This is not at all true.They get it from a man.They don't just simply have HIV.Of cause,there's a social discrimination against all people with HIV.They are scared that other peo- ple will know they are HIV-positive and that they will,therefore be discriminated against.For ex-ample,it's very difficult for people with HIV to travel.They are not allowed to enter many coun- tries,including the United States,China and Russia.The biggest difficulty an HIV-positive woman must face is the isolation.Once the woman knows she's HIV-positive,she lives in fear that other people will find out. She's so frightened she will go into hiding,into an isolated place by herself. It's not at all uncommon to meet a woman who has been HIV-positive for nearly 10 years and has never told anyone,except her doctor. And the resulting stress is enough to make her sick.But HIV-positive women who get support,who can discuss their trouble and then do something about it-whether that means taking better care of them-selves or going to the United Nations to struggle for their rights-are likely to live longer. Active women don't die out of shame in a corner. This happens to too many HIV-positive women. There are more AIDS cases in the United States,China and Russi
[多选题]共用题干 1.Flaxseed slowed the growth of prostate tumors in men,while ginseng helped relieve the fatigue that cancer patients often feel,US researchers reported on Saturday in the first scientifically rigorous looks at alternative medicine.2.The studies reflect doctors' efforts to explore the risks and benefits of foods and supplements that are routinely taken by their patients with little scientific proof they help.Americans spend between¥36 billion and¥47 billion a year on complementary and alternative therapies,according to the National Center for Health Statistics."Patients are taking these compounds but we need to know if they are doing any good or any harm,"said Dr. Bruce Cheson of Georgetown University Hospital in Washington who led a panel on alternative therapies at a meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology.3.In the flaxseed study,researchers at Duke University Medical Center in North Carolina and colleagues evaluated the seed's role as a food supplement in 161 men who were scheduled to undergo surgery for prostate cancer."The growth rate was decreased in the men who got flaxseed,"said Dr. Nancy Davidson,an oncologist at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore who is president-elect of ASCO."I think this is fascinating."Flaxseed is rich in omega-3 fatty acids-and lignins,a fiber found on the seed coat."We were looking at flaxseed because of its unique nutrient profile,"said Wendy Demark-Wahnefried,a researcher in Duke's School of Nursing,who led the study.4.Half of the men in the study added 30 grams of fiaxseed daily to their diets for about 30 days.Half of the flaxseed group also went on a low-fat diet.After the surgery,the researchers looked at the men's tumor cells to see how quickly the cancer had multiplied.The cancer cells in both the flaxseed groups grew about 30 to 40 percent slower than the control group.5.But Demark-Wahnefried is not ready to prescribe flaxseed."It's a healthy food.It has a lot of vitamins and a lot of fiber. But we cannot definitively say at this point you should take flaxseed because it is protective against prostate cancer,"she said,adding that flaxseed now needed to be studied to see if it can prevent prostate cancer.6.In the ginseng trial,Debra Barton of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester,Minnesota,and col-leagues tested three different doses of the herb on potency with a variety of cancers who were expected to live at least six months. Twenty-five percent of patients taking a 1,000-mg dose and twenty-seven percent of patients taking a 2,000-mg dose said their fatigue symptoms were"moderately better" or"much better."Only 10 percent of those taking a 750-mg dose reported an improvement, which was about the same as the placebo group.Patients in the trial took Wisconsin ginseng from a single crop that was tested for uniform potency.It was powdered and given in a capsule form."I wouldn't have predicted this,I have to admit,"Davidson said in an interview,"we might want to test this on a large scale."7.The flaxseed study was funded by the National institutes of Health and the ginseng study was supported by US Public Health Service grants. Paragraph 4___________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇In many of the developinlg countries in Africa and Asia,the population is growing fast.The reason for this is simple:Women in these countries have a high birth rate一from 3.0 to 7.0 children per woman.The majority of these women are poor,without the food or resources to care for their families.Why do they have so many children?Why don't they limit the size of the family?The answer may be that they often have no choice.There are several reasons for this.One reason is economic.In a traditional agricultural economy,large families are helpful.Having more children means having more workers in the fields and someone to take care of the parents in old age.In an industrial economy,the situation is different. Many children do not help a family;instead,they are an expense.Thus,industrialization has generally brought down the birth rate.This was the case in Italy,which was industrialized quite recently and rapidly.In the early part of the twentieth century,Italy was a poor,largely agricultural country with a high birth rate.After World War Ⅱ,Italy's economy was rapidly modernized and industrialized.By the end of the century,the birth rate had dropped to 1.3 children per woman,the world's lowest.However,the economy is not the only important factor that influences birth rate.Saudi Arabia, for example,does not have an agriculture-based economy,and it has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.Nevertheless,it also has a very high birth rate(7.0).Mexico and Indonesia, on the other hand,are poor countries,with largely agricultural economies,but they have recently reduced their population growth.Clearly,other factors are involved.The most important of these is the condition of women.A high birth rate almost always goes together with lack of education and low status for women.This would explain the high birth rate of Saudi Arabia.There,the traditional culture gives women little education or independence and few possibilities outside the home.On the other hand,the improved condition of womnen in Mexico,Thailand,and Indonesia explains the decline in birth rates in these countries.Their governments have taken measures to provide more education and opportunities for women.Another key factor in the birth rate is birth control.Women may want to limit their families but have no way to do so. In countries where governments have made birth control easily available and inexpensive ,birth rates have gone down.This is the case in Singapore,Sri Lanka,and India,as well as in Indonesia,Thailand,Mexico,and Brazil.In these countries,women have also been provided with health care and help in planning their families.These trends show that an effective programn to reduce population growth does not have to depend on better economic conditions. It can be effective if it aims to help women and meet theii needs.Only then,in fact,does it have any real chance of success. Saudi Arabia is mentioned in the passage because it shows that________.
[多选题]共用题干 More About Alzheimer's DiseaseScientists have developed skin tests that may be used in the future to identify people with Alzheimer's disease and may ultimately allow physicians to predict_______(51)is at risk of getting this neurological disorder.The only current means of_____(52)the disease in a living patient is a long and expensive series of tests that eliminate every other cause of dementia(痴呆)."Since Alois Alzheimer described the_____(53)nearly a century ago,people have been trying to find a way to_____(54)diagnose it in its early stages,"said Patricia Grady,acting director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda,Maryland."This discovery,if_____(55),could prove a big step forward in our efforts to deal with and understand the disease."Alzheimer ' 5 is the single greatest _________ ( 56 ) of mental deterioration(退化)in older people, affecting between 2.5 million and 4 million people in the United States_____(57).The devastating disorder gradually destroys memory and the ability to function,and eventually causes death.There is currently no known______(58)for the disease.Researches______(59)that the skin cells of Alzheimer's patients have defects that interfere with their ability to regulate the flow of potassium(钾)in and out of the cells.The fact that the cell defects are present in the skin suggests that Alzheimer's______(60)from physiological changes throughout the body,and that dementia may be the first noticeable effect of these changes as the defects______(61)the cells in the brain,scientists said.The flow of potassium is especially______(62)in cells responsible for memory formation.The scientists also found two other defects that affect the cells'supply, of calcium(钙),another critical element.One test developed by researches calls______(63)growing skin cells in a laboratory culture and then testing them with an electrical detector to determine if the microscopic tunnels that_______(64)the flow of potassium are open.Open potassium channels create a unique electrical signature.A spokesman for the Alzheimer's Association said that if the validity of the diagnostic test can be proven it would be an important______(65),but cautioned that other promising tests for Alzheimer's have been disappointing. _________62
[多选题]共用题干 I Know Just How You FeelDo you feel sad?Happy?Angry?You may think that the way you show these emotions is unique.Well, think again.Even the expression of the most personal feelings can be classified,according to Mind Reading, a DVD displaying every possible human emotion.It demonstrates 412 distinct ways in which we feel:the first visual dictionary of the human heart.Attempts to classify expressions began in the mid-1800s,when Darwin divided the emotions into six types一anger,fear,sadness,disgust,surpnse and enjoyment.__________(46)Every other feeling was thought to derive from Darwin's small group.More complex expressions of emotion were probably learned and there- fore more specific to each culture.But now it is believed that many more facial expressions are shared world- wide.__________(47)The Mind Reading DVD is a systematic visual record of these expressions.The project was conceived by a Cambridge professor as an aid for people with autism(孤独症), who have difficulty both reading and expressing emotions.But it quickly became apparent that it had broader uses.Actors and teachers,for example,need to understand a wide range of expressions.The professor and his research team first had to define an"emotion".__________(48)Using this definition,1,5 1 2 emotion terms were identified and discussed.This list was eventually reduced to 412,from"afraid"to"wanting".Once these emotions were defined and classified,a DVD seemed the clearest and most efficient way to display them. In Mind Reading,each expression is acted out by six different actors in three seconds.__________(49)The explanation for this is simple:we may find it difficult to describe emotions using words, but we instantly recognize one when we see it on someone's face."It was really clear when the actors had got it right,"says Cathy Collis,who directed the DVD."Although they were given some directions,"says Ms Collis,"the actors were not told which facial muscles they should move.__________(50)"For example,when someone feels contempt,you can't say for certain that their eyebrows always go down.Someone who has tried to establish such rules is the American Professor Paul Ekman,who has built a database of how the face moves for every emotion.The face can make 43 distinct muscle movements called "action units".These can be combined into more than 10,000 visible facial shapes.Ekman has written out apattern of facial muscular movements to represent each emotion. _________(50)
[多选题]共用题干 More About Alzheimer's DiseaseScientists have developed skin tests that may be used in the future to identify people with Alzheimer's disease and may ultimately allow physicians to predict_______(51)is at risk of getting this neurological disorder.The only current means of_____(52)the disease in a living patient is a long and expensive series of tests that eliminate every other cause of dementia(痴呆)."Since Alois Alzheimer described the_____(53)nearly a century ago,people have been trying to find a way to_____(54)diagnose it in its early stages,"said Patricia Grady,acting director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda,Maryland."This discovery,if_____(55),could prove a big step forward in our efforts to deal with and understand the disease."Alzheimer ' 5 is the single greatest _________ ( 56 ) of mental deterioration(退化)in older people, affecting between 2.5 million and 4 million people in the United States_____(57).The devastating disorder gradually destroys memory and the ability to function,and eventually causes death.There is currently no known______(58)for the disease.Researches______(59)that the skin cells of Alzheimer's patients have defects that interfere with their ability to regulate the flow of potassium(钾)in and out of the cells.The fact that the cell defects are present in the skin suggests that Alzheimer's______(60)from physiological changes throughout the body,and that dementia may be the first noticeable effect of these changes as the defects______(61)the cells in the brain,scientists said.The flow of potassium is especially______(62)in cells responsible for memory formation.The scientists also found two other defects that affect the cells'supply, of calcium(钙),another critical element.One test developed by researches calls______(63)growing skin cells in a laboratory culture and then testing them with an electrical detector to determine if the microscopic tunnels that_______(64)the flow of potassium are open.Open potassium channels create a unique electrical signature.A spokesman for the Alzheimer's Association said that if the validity of the diagnostic test can be proven it would be an important______(65),but cautioned that other promising tests for Alzheimer's have been disappointing. _________64