卫生A

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 Owls and Larks(猫头鹰与云雀)1 In this article,we look at the importance of sleep for learning. Most healthy adults need eight or more hours of sleep.But why do we need sleep in the first place?We need sleep for the brain to get a chance to rebuild memories stored during the day and associate these with previously learned things.If this process is interrupted by,say,the sound of an alarm clock,it may not be as effective.So if your sleep is cut short by the alarm clock,how damaging is it?The truth is that it's difficult to predict,as so much depends on how much sleep your body actually needs on that particular occasion.2 The popular belief that people are naturally either larks(early risers)or owls is false.The reason why people tend to be one or the other has more to do with lifestyle,age,and personality.Many people who appear to be early birds may have just become so through habit,for example,parents with very young chil-dren.Teenagers can have difficulty falling asleep until late at night and then they naturally have problems getting up the following morning.3 The main reason why owls are owls is that they tend to spend their time over a book,movie,or corn- puter game till the early hours of the morning.They enjoy the quiet of the night when they can pursue their passion.On the other hand,larks can make better use of early morning hours where they can study in quiet at the time when their brains are most refreshed.So which is better for learning一an owl's or a lark's lifestyle? The simple truth is that it is more complex than simply being one or the other. Leading a well-balanced life in terms of work and play and sleeping enough to bring maximum refreshment is probably the secret.4 As for naps , experts on insomnia(失眠)argue against taking naps , as these may keep people up at night. If your nap lasts only five minutes to haff an hour and does not affect your ability to fall asleep in the night,it will probably help you be more alert in evening hours.However,if you are having problems getting to sleep at night , it's not only naps that you should avoid. Try not to drink a lot of alcohol , take nicotine(尼古 丁),do mentally intense activities like preparing for exams or doing exercise in the evening. Some peopleswear that drinking coffee never stops them from sleeping like a log,whereas others will never go near the stuff for fear of being awake all night.However,the best advice for most is to avoid it in the evening,and if you drink coffee before a nap,remember you are likely to awaken as soon as the caffeine starts kicking in. It is good advice for most people to________.
[多选题]共用题干 Mt. Desert IslandThe coast of the State of Maine is one of the most irregular in the world.A straight line running from the southernmost coastal city to the northernmost coastal city would measure about 225 miles.If you followed the coastline between these points,you would travel more than ten times as far. This irregularity is the result of what is called a drowned coastline._________(46)At that time,the whole area that is now Maine was part of a mountain range that towered above the sea. As the glacier(冰川)descended , however , it expendedenormous force on those mountains,and they sank into the sea.As the mountains sank,ocean water charged over the lowest parts of the remaining land,forming a seriesof twisting inlets and lagoons(咸水湖).The highest parts of the former mountain range,nearest the shore, remained as islands._________(47)Marine fossils found here were 225 feet above sea level,indicating thelevel of the shoreline prior to the glacier.The 2,500-mile-long rocky coastline of Maine keeps watch over nearly two thousand islands. Many of these islands are tiny and uninhabited,but many are home to thriving communities.Mt. Desert Island is one of the largest,most beautiful of the Maine coast islands.Measuring 16 miles by 12 miles.Mt.Desert was essentially formed as two distinct islands._________(48)For years,Mt. Desert Island,particularly its major settlement,Bar Harbor,afforded summer homes for the wealthy.Recently though,Bar Harbor has become a rapidly growing arts community as well.But,the best part of the island is the unspoiled forest land known as Acadia National Park.Because the island sits on the boundary line between the temperate(温带)and sub-Arctic zones , the island supports the plants and ani- mals of both zones as well as beach , inland , and alpine(高山的)plants. _________( 49 ) The establishment of Acadia National Park in 1916 means that this natural reserve will be perpetually available to all people,not just the wealthy.Visitors to Acadia may receive nature instruction from the park naturalists as well as enjoy camping,cycling,and boating. Or they may choose to spend time at the archeological museum,learning about the Stone Age inhabitants of the island.The best view on Mt.Desert Island is from the top of Cadillac Mountain._________(50)From the sum- mit,you can gaze back toward the mainland or out over the Atlantic Ocean and contemplate the beauty created by a retreating glacier. _________(50)
[多选题]共用题干 Retirement Brings Most a Big Health BoostThe self-reported health of the newly retired improves so much that most feel eight years younger,a new European study suggests.This happy news was true of almost everyone except a small minority一only 2 percent一who had experi- enced"ideal"conditions in their working life,anyway."The results really say three things:that work puts an extra burden on the health of older workers,that the effects of this extra burden are largely relieved by retirement and,finally,that both the extra burden and the relief are larger when working conditions are poor,"said Hugo Westerlund,lead author of a study pub- lished online Nov. 9 in The Lancet(柳叶刀)." This indicates that there is need to provide opportunities for older workers to decrease the demands in their work out of concern for their health and well-being."But of course,added Westerlund,who is head of epidemiology at the Stress Research Institute at Stockholm University in Sweden,"not all older workers suffer from poor perceived health.Many are indeed remarkably healthy and fit for work.But sooner or later,everyone has to slow down because of old age catch-ing up."Last week,the same group of researchers reported that workers slept better after retirement than before. "Sleep improves at retirement,which suggests that sleeping could be a mediator between work and perception of poor health,"Westerlund said.This study looked at what the same 15,000 French workers,and most of them had to say about their own health up to seven years pre-retirement and up to seven years post-retirement.As participants got closer to retirement age,their perception of their own health declined,but went upagain during the first year of retirement.Those who reported being in poorer health declined from 19.2 percent in the year prior to retirement to 14.3 percent by the end of the first year after retiring. According to the researchers,that means post-retire- ment levels of poor health fell to levels last seen eight years previously.The changes were seen in both men and women,across different occupations,and lasted through the first seven years of not punching the clock.Workers who felt worse before retirement and had lower working conditions reported greater improve- ments as soon as they retired,the team found. Most of the newly retired feel younger and healthier than before.
[多选题]共用题干 Flu Shots Or Not?It sounded like a good idea when New York City's mayor,Rudollph Giuliani,advised New Yorkers recently to get a flu shot.After all,20,000 Americans each year die of influenza. And this year in particular,the mayor suggested,getting a flu shot might be an especially good idea, since it could help doctors distinguish between flu and the deadly inhalational(吸入的)form of anthrax(炭疽).How? Both anthrax and flu exhibit strikingly similar symptoms-fever, chills and muscle aches-in the early days of the infection.Physicians would be quick to suspect anthrax in anyone who was vaccinated(接种疫苗)against flu and still developed fever and chills. That would give them a better chance to identify any new victims of terror while their infection was still in its earliest,most treatable stages.Or so the mayor's reasoning went. Unfortunately,there are a couple of problems with his log-ic .For one thing,getting vaccinated against influenza doesn't guarantee you won't get sick .Al-though highly effective,the flu vaccine(疫苗)protects against only the dominant types of the dis-ease and even then does not provide 100% protection.It takes a couple of weeks for your body to respond to the vaccine with a sufficient number of antibodies(抗体).Each year thousands ofAmericans who get the vaccine nevertheless still get the flu.There are also plenty of reasons you might develop fever,chills and muscle aches that have nothing to do with either anthrax or flu .Indeed,doctors estimate that more than 80%of all flu-like illnesses each winter are caused by other groups of viruses.Getting vaccinated against flu can't protect you against suffering from these other illnesses.In the worst case,asking all healthy adults to get vaccinated could actually have the opposite effect to the one intended,leading to even more deaths if it means we run out of shots for those who are most vulnerable to the infection.Already there have been delays in getting this year's shipment of vaccine to clinics and doctor's offices.Those who should be at the front of the line in-clude folks who are 65 or older,nursing-home residents and adults and children with chronic health problems as well as anyone who cares for or lives with such people .Flu shots are also im- portant for men and women whose immune system is weakened by HIV(艾滋病病毒)or other conditions.The best reason to get the flu vaccine is that it proteets against most flus-not that you're worried about getting anthrax.While inhalational anthrax has killed only five people so far,many more could be at risk from flu-related complications.There's no need to worsen the tragedy by making this year's influenza epidemic any worse. Quite a few New Yorkers took their mayor's recent advice and got a flu shot.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇The United States perceives itself to be a middle-class nation.However,middle class is not a real designation,nor does it carry privileges.It is more of a perception,which probably was as true as it ever could be right after World War Ⅱ.The economy was growing,more and more people owned their own homes,workers had solid contracts with the companies that employed them,and nearly everyone who wanted a higher education could have one.Successfi1l people enjoyed upward social mobility.They may have started out poor,but they could become rich.Successful people also found that they had greater geographic mobility.In other words,they found themselves moving to and living in a variety of places.The middle class collectively holds several values and principles.One strong value is the need to earn enough money to feel that one can determine one's own economic fate.In addition,middle class morality embraces principles of individual responsibility,importance of family,obligations to others,and believing in something outside oneself.But in the 1990s those in the middle class found that there was a price for success.A U. S. News&World Report survey in 1994 indicated that 75 percent of Americans believed that middle class families could no longer make ends meet.Both spouses now worked,as did some of the children;long commutes became routine;the need for child care put strains on the family;and public schools were not as good as they once were.Members of the middle class were no longer financing their lifestyles through earnings but were using credit to stay afloat. The understanding of just what middle class meant was changing. A common middle class value is that________.
[多选题]共用题干 The DeathModern scientists divide the process of dying into two stages一(46)________.Clinical death occurs when the vital organs,such as the heart or lungs,have ceased to function,but have not suffered permanent damage. The organism can still be revived(复活).Biological death occurs when changes in the organism lead to the disintegration(解体)of vital cells and tissues. Death is then irreversible and final.Scientists have been seeking a way to prolong the period of clinical death so that(47) ________.The best method developed so far involves cooling of the organism,combined with narcotic(麻醉的)sleep. By slowing down the body's metabolism(新陈代谢),cooling delays the processes leading to biological death.To illustrate how this works,scientists performed an experiment on a six-year-old female monkey called Keta.(48)_________.Then they surrounded her body with ice-bags and began checking her body temperature.When it had dropped to 28 degrees the scientists began draining blood from its body.The monkey's blood pressure decreased and an hour later both the heart and breathing stopped,clinical death set in.For twenty minutes Keta remained in this state.Her temperature dropped to 22 degrees.At this point the scientists pumped blood into its body in the direction of the heart and started artificial breathing.(49)_______.After fifteen minutes,spontaneous breathing began,and after four hours Keta opened her eyes and lifted her head.After six hours,when the scientists tried to give her a penicillin injection,Keta seized the syringe and ran with it around the room.(50)__________. ________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇If your doctor could give you a drug that would let you live a healthy life for twice as long, would you take it?The good news is that we may be drawing near to that date.Scientists have already extended the lives of flies,worms and mice in laboratories. Many now think that using genetic treatments we will soon be able to extend human life to at least 140 years.This seems a great idea. Think of how much more time we could spend chasing our dreams,spending time with our loved ones,watching our families grow and have families of their own."Longer life would give us a chance to recover from our mistakes and promote long term thinking,"says Dr Gregory Stock of the University of California School of Public Health."It would also raise productivity by adding to the year we can work."Longer lives don't just affect the people who live them. They also affect society as a whole. "We have war,poverty,all sorts of issues around,and I don't think any of them would be at all helped by having people live longer,"says US bioethicist Daniel Callahan,"The question is what we will get as a society?I suspect it won't be a better society."It would certainly be a very different society. People are already finding it more difficult to stay married. Divorce rates are rising. What would happen to marriage in a society where people lived for 140 years? And what would happen to family life if 9 or 10 generations of the same family were all alive at the same time?Research into ageing may enable women to remain fertile for longer. And that raises the prospect of having 100-year-old parents,or brothers and sisters born 50 years apart. We think of an elder sibling as someone who can protect us and offer help and advice. That would be hard to do if that sibling came from a completely different generation.Working life would also be affected,especially if the retirement age was lifted.More people would stay in work for longer. That would give us the benefits of age一skill,wisdom and good judgment.On the other hand,more people working for longer would create greater competition for jobs. It would make it more difficult for younger people to find a job. Top posts would be dominated by the same few individuals,making career progress more difficult. And how easily would a 25-year-old employee be able to communicate with a 125-year-old boss?Young people would be a smaller part of a society in which people lived to 140.It may be that such a society would place less importance on guiding and educating young people,and more on making life comfortable for the old.And society would feel very different if more of its members were older. There would be more wisdom,but less energy.Young people like to move about. Old people like to sit still.Young people tend to act without thinking.Old people tend to think without acting.Young people are curious and like to experience different things.Old people are less enthusiastic about change.In fact,they are less enthusiastic about everything.The effect of anti-ageing technology is deeper than we might think.But as the science advances,we need to think about these changes now."If this could ever happen,then we'd better ask what kind of society we want to get,"says Daniel Callahan."We had better not go anywhere near it until we have figure those problems out." An important feature of a society in which people live a long life is that________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Don't Be WorkaholicWorkaholic and working hard are quite different.Working hard involves being organized,focused,getting a lot of work done,knowing when to stop,and having a life other than work.Workaholics,on the other hand,are often disorganized,always find reasons for working more,feel lost without work to do,hide from problems through work, don't know how or when to relax,bring work home from the office,can't communicate well with fellow workers and family members and have unbalanced,one-dimensional lives.Workaholics,like those who are constantly drunk,suffer from a controlling habit,usually defined as compelling behavior despite negative consequences.They are sometimes pushed into their habit by their work beliefs,by workaholic role models,and by a work system that automatically sanctions workaholism,Despite lip service to the contrary,most employers want loyal employees who work longer hours,rewarding them with higher pay and better benefits.In many companies,workers unwilling to burn the midnight oil are at risk.Certainly,they hazard their jobs by working normal hours.Americans tend to become trapped in a working and spending consumption mode,driven by merchants,that leads them to rack up their expectations.According to some psychology counselors,workaholism can be both good and bad for us.It can fuel a sense of self-worth and accomplishment. And we get paid for it and praised for it,which produces good feelings we may not necessarily be able to attain in other parts of our lives. What does the phrase"lip service"refer to in paragraph 3?
[多选题]共用题干 How honest are Asians today?Do people in the region's smaller communities have more integrity than residents of the megacities?What motivates people to do the right thing?Over a four-month period late last year,we tried to find out with a simple test.We visited 14 cities,towns and communities in nine countries.In each,we"lost"ten ordinary wallets filled with the local equivalent of ¥10 to¥50 in cash,a local address and phone number,classified ads from local newspapers,handwritten shopping lists,everything needed to make the wallets look real.Then we waited to see what would happen.The results were more revealing than we expected.Overall,out of 140 wallets we dropped across Asia,80 were returned一 57 percent. A similar experiment in Europe resulted in almost identical totals.Out of 200 wallets dropped in Europe,116 were returnedes 一58 percent.In the United States,the return rate was slightly higher:80 out of 120一67 percent.In the US,only one person declined to take the money in the wallet when it was offered as a reward for being honest.In Europe,more than a quarter refused to take the money.In Asia,a staggering 72 percent of those who returned the wallets一 58 of 80一said no to any reward."I cannot accept a reward for having done the right thing,"said a university student in Seoul. Among those who did accept the money,several said they intended to donate it to a charity or religious organization.Within Asia we found other interesting results.Two-thirds of all our wallets were retrieved by men.But once the wallet was picked up,it made little difference whether the finder was male or fe-male.In our study,58 percent of the women who picked up wallets returned them and so did 56 percent of the men.Are the people in Asia's giant population centers less honest than in its smaller cities?It seemed so. The lowest combined rate of return一still a respectable 50 percent一was in the three largest cities visited:Seoul,Bombay and Manila. The best rates of return were in the less populous cities一 Singapore;Inchon,Korea;Trivandrum,India;and Kamakura,Japan一with populations ranging from 180,000 to 2.8 million. People in less populous cities tend to be more honest.
[多选题]共用题干 1.If a super-flu strikes,face masks may not protect you.Whether widespread use of masks will help,or harm,during the next worldwide flu outbreak is a question that researchers are studying furiously.No results have come from their mask research yet.However,the government says peoph should consider wearing them in certain situations anyway, just in case.2.But it's a question the public keeps asking while the government are making preparations for the next flu pandemic.So the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions(CDC)came up with preliminary guidelines."We don't want people wearing them everywhere,"said the CDC."The overall recommendation really is to avoid exposure."3.When that's not possible,the guidelines say to consider wearing a simple surgical mask if you are in one of the three following situations.First,you're healthy and can't avoid going to a crowded place.Second,you're sick and think you may have close contact with the healthy,such a, a family member checking on you.Third,you live with someone who's sick and thus might be in the early stages of infection,but still need to go out.4.Influenza pandemics can strike when the easy-to-mutate flu virus shifts to a strain that people never have experienced.Scientists cannot predict when the next pandemic will arrive,although concern is rising that the Asian bird flu might trigger one if it starts spreading easily from person to person.5.During the flu pandemic,you should protect yourself. Avoid crowds,and avoid close contact with the sick unless you must care for someone.Why aren't masks added to this self protection list?Because they can help trap virus-laden droplets flying through the air with a cough or sneeze. Simple surgical masks only filter the larger droplets.Besides,the CDC is afraid masks may create a false sense of security.Perhaps someone who should have stayed home would don an ill fitting mask and hop on the subway instead.6.Nor does flu only spread through the air. Say someone covers a sneeze with his or her hand, then touches a doorknob or subway pole.If you touch that spot next and then put germy hands on your nose or mouth,you've been exposed.It's harder to rub your nose while wearing a mask and so your face may get pretty sweaty under masks.You reach under to wipe that sweat,and may transfer germs caught on the outside of the mask straight to the nose.These are the problems face masks may create for their users.7.Whether people should or should not use face masks still remains a question.The general public has to wait patiently for the results of the mask research scientists are still doing. The scientists are trying to find out if masks may or may not________.
[多选题]共用题干 The DeathModern scientists divide the process of dying into two stages一(46)________.Clinical death occurs when the vital organs,such as the heart or lungs,have ceased to function,but have not suffered permanent damage. The organism can still be revived(复活).Biological death occurs when changes in the organism lead to the disintegration(解体)of vital cells and tissues. Death is then irreversible and final.Scientists have been seeking a way to prolong the period of clinical death so that(47) ________.The best method developed so far involves cooling of the organism,combined with narcotic(麻醉的)sleep. By slowing down the body's metabolism(新陈代谢),cooling delays the processes leading to biological death.To illustrate how this works,scientists performed an experiment on a six-year-old female monkey called Keta.(48)_________.Then they surrounded her body with ice-bags and began checking her body temperature.When it had dropped to 28 degrees the scientists began draining blood from its body.The monkey's blood pressure decreased and an hour later both the heart and breathing stopped,clinical death set in.For twenty minutes Keta remained in this state.Her temperature dropped to 22 degrees.At this point the scientists pumped blood into its body in the direction of the heart and started artificial breathing.(49)_______.After fifteen minutes,spontaneous breathing began,and after four hours Keta opened her eyes and lifted her head.After six hours,when the scientists tried to give her a penicillin injection,Keta seized the syringe and ran with it around the room.(50)__________. ________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 Stage FrightFall down as you come onstage.That's an odd trick.Not recommended.But it saved the pi-anist Vladimir Felts man when he was a teenager back in Moscow.The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance panic,Mr. Felts man said, “All my fright was_______(51).I already fell .What else could happen?”Today,music schools are addressing the problem of anxiety in classes that_______(52) with performance techniques and career preparation.There are a variety of strategies that musici- ans can learn to_______(53)stage fright and its symptoms:icy fingers,shaky limbs,racing heart,blank mind.Teachers and psychologists offer wide-ranging advice,from basics like learning pieces inside out,_______(54)mental discipline,such as visualizing a performance and taking steps to re- lax .Don't_______(55)that you're jittery,they urge;some excitement is natural,even necessa- ry for dynamic playing.And play in public often,simply for the experience.Psychotherapist Diane Nichols suggests some_______(56)for the moments before perform-ance,“Take two deep abdominal breaths,open up your shoulders,then smile,”she says.“And not one of these‘please don't kill me'smiles .Then_______(57)three friendly faces in the au- dience,people you would communicate with and make music to,and make eye contact with them.”She doesn't want performers to think of the audience_______(58)a judge.Extreme demands by mentors or parents are often at the_______(59)of stage fright,says Dorothy Delay,a well-known violin teacher. She tells other teachers to demand only what their students are able to achieve.When Lynn Harrell was 20,he became the principal cellist of the Cleveland Orchestra,and he suffered extreme stage fright.“There were times when I got so_______(60)I was sure the audience could see my chest responding to the throbbing. It was just total panic.I came to a _______(61)where I thought,If I have to go through this to play music,I think I'm going to look for another job.” Recovery,he said,involved developing humility—recognizing that_______(62)his talent,he was fallible,and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster.It is not only young artists who suffer,of course .The legendary pianist Vladimir Horowitz's nerves were famous.The great tenor Franco Corelli is another example.“They had to push him on stage,”Soprano Renata Scotto recalled._______(63),success can make things worse.“In the beginning of your career,when you're scared to death,nobody knows who you are,and they don't have any_______(64),”So-prano June Anderson said.“There's_______(65)to lose .Later on,when you're known,peo-pie are coming to see you,and they have certain expectations.You have a lot to lose.”Anderson added,“I never stop being nervous until I've sung my last note.” 52._________
[多选题]共用题干 ‘Feed Me Better'When British TV chef Jamie Oliver launched his‘Feed Me Better'campaign in 2004 in schools in the Greenwich area of London with the aim of improving the diet of British schoolchildren,some people were skeptical about the impact it would have.Oliver's highly-publicized television campaign to improve school lunches led to dramatic changes in the meals offered to pupils in the Greenwich schools.In order to achieve his aim Oliver needed to show schools how to swap(交换)cheap processed meals , which were high in saturated fat(饱和脂肪),salt , and sugar , for healthier options.Now,research at the Institute for Social and Economic Research(ISER)has shown that Oliver's experiment did not only help pupils eat more healthily,it also resulted in them performing better at school in English and Science and in helping schools reduce their rates of absenteeism(缺勤).The ISER study, carried out by Michele Belol and Jonathan James,showed"substantial"positive effects,with the performance of 1 1 -year-old pupils eating Oliver's meals improving by up to 8% in Science and by as much as 6% in English.In addition,the number of children having authorized absences for sickness since 2004 showed a 14% decrease.The ISER study analysed the academic test results of more than 13,000 children in Greenwich between 2002 and 2007 to evaluate the impact of Oliver's healthier meals on school performance.Pupils who sat exams in 2006-2007 had been on the new diet for at least 12 months,and the researchers found that the number of pupils reaching higher levels of achievement had clearly risen.The study also compared the results of the schools in Greenwich with those of pupils of the same age in seven other London areas who did not eat the meals created by Oliver.The researchers were surprised by the speed of improvements in the Greenwich pupils.They could find no other explanation for the results except for the healthier and more nutritious meals created by Oliver.Commenting on ISER's findings,Oliver said he felt the research proved that he was right in his decision to remove fatty processed food and replace it with nutrient-rich(营养的)foods such as coconut (椰子),fish, and broccoli(花椰菜).He commented that “we could see that it made them calmer and therefore able to learn”. The healthier diet has helped schoolchildren improve academically.
[多选题]共用题干 Multiple Sclerosis(多发性硬化症)1 Multiple Sclerosis ( MS) is a disease in which the patient ' s immune(免疫的)system attacks the central nervous system.This can lead to numerous physical and mental symptoms,as the disease affects the transmission of electrical signals between the body and the brain.However,the human body,being a flexi-ble,adaptable system,can compensate for some level of damage,so a person with MS can look and feel fine even though the disease is present.2 MS patients can have one of two main varieties of the disease : the relapsing form(复发型)and theprimary progressive form.In the relapsing form,the disease progresses in a series of jumps;at times it is in remission(减轻),which means that a person's normal functions return for a period of time before the sys-tem goes into relapse and the disease again becomes more active.This is the most common form of MS; 80%~90% of people have this form of the disease when they are first diagnosed. The relapse-remission cycle can continue for many years.Eventually,however,loss of physical and cognitive functions starts to take place and the remissions become less frequent.3 In the primary progressive form of MS,there are no remissions and a continual but steady loss of physical and cognitive functions takes place.This condition affects about 10%~15% of sufferers atdiagnosis.4 The expected course of the disease,or prognosis(预后),depends on many variables:the subtype of the disease,the patient's individual characteristics and the initial symptoms.Life expectancy of patients, however,is often nearly the same as that of an unaffected person一provided that a reasonable standard of care is received.In some cases a near-normal life span is possible.5 The cause of the disease is unclear ; it seems that some people have a genetic susceptibility(易感 性),which is triggered by some unknown environmental factor. Onset(发作)of the disease usually occurs in young adults between the age of 20 and 40.It is more common in women than men;however,it has also been diagnosed in young children and in elderly people. An MS patient can feel fine for years without being affected much by_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Some People do Not Taste Salt Like OthersLow-salt foods may be harder for some people to like than others,according to a study by a Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences food scientist. The research indicates that genetic factors influence some of the difference in the levels of salt we like to eat.Those conclusions are important because recent,well-publicized efforts to reduce the salt content in food have left many people struggling to accept fare that simply does not taste as good to them as it does to others,pointed out John Hayes,assistant professor of food science,who was lead investigator on the study.Diets high in salt can increase the risk of high blood pressure and stroke.That is why public health ex-perts and food companies are working together on ways to help consumers lower salt intake through foods thatare enjoyable to eat. This study increases understanding of salt preference and consumption.The research involved 87 carefully screened participants who sampled salty foods such as soup and chips,on multiple occasions,spread out over weeks.Test subjects were 45 men and 42 women,reportedly healthy,ranging in age from 20 to 40 years.The sample was composed of individuals who were not actively modifying their dietary intake and did not smoke cigarettes.They rated the intensity of taste on a commonly used scientific scale,ranging from barely detectable to strongest sensation of any kind."Most of us like the taste of salt. However,some individuals eat more salt,both because they like the taste of saltiness more,and also because it is needed to block other unpleasant tastes in food."said Hayes. "Supertasters,people who experience tastes more intensely,consume more salt than do nontasters.Snack foods have saltiness as their primary flavor,and at least for these foods,more is better,so the supertasters seem to like them more."However,supertasters also need higher levels of salt to block unpleasant bitter tastes in foods such as cheese,Hayes noted."For example,cheese is a wonderful blend of dairy flavors from fermented milk,but also bitter tastes from ripening that are blocked by salt,"he said."A supertaster finds low-salt cheese un-pleasant because the bitterness is too pronounced."Hayes cited research done more than 75 years ago by a chemist named Fox and a geneticist named Blakeslee,showing that individuals differ in their ability to taste certain chemicals.As a result,Hayes ex-plained,we know that a wide range in taste acuity exists,and this variation is as normal as variations in eye and hair color."Some people,called supertasters,describe bitter compounds as being extremely bitter,while others, called nontasters,find these same bitter compounds to be tasteless or only weakly bitter."he said."Re- sponse to bitter compounds is one of many ways to identify biological differences in food preference because supertastmg is not limited to bitterness." The fourth paragraph describes briefly_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Love or Hate?We have saved as a final set of emotions to two most important emotions connected with other people:love and its opposite,hate.Love can be seen everywhere.Yet surprisingly,love has been the subject of less scientific research than other emotions,such as anger and fear. The reason for this may be two fold.Firstly,love is a very complex emotion,difficult to describe and measure. Secondly,unlike many radical emotions,radical love is generally not a problem. Thus less medical attention has been paid to it.What is love?This is a complex question and requires a complex answer. Love is a strong,positive attraction and feeling for another person or thing. But it is more than this.It also involves feeling of caring,protection,excitement,and tenderness.When two people are in love,they feel drawn to one another;they greatly enjoy each other's company;and they may be sexually attracted to one another.Sometimes it is easier to think in terms of different kinds of love:romantic love,brotherly love, and so forth.Though they are different in some respects,they share one important characteristic: a strong positive feeling toward another.Our feelings toward other people are often complex.We may love someone and,at the same time,be angry with him.Or we may love someone,even though we are jealous of him.We mighi even love someone and,at the same time,hate for some precise reason.Hate is a strong negative emotion toward someone,and is due to anger,jealousy,or some other factor. Like love,hate can be a very strong emotion.It can also be very dangerous.The question is often asked,"Is it bad to hate?"The best answer is probably" sometimes yes and sometimes no." Usually hate does not help us.It makes us feel unhappy and makes us do things that may hurt others.However,sometimes it may be necessary to hate and hurt someone in order to protect loved ones. Which characteristic is shared by different kinds of love?
[多选题]共用题干 A Biological ClockEvery living thing has what scientists call a biological clock that controls behavior. The bio- logical clock tells______(51)when to form flowers and when the flowers should open. It tells ______(52)when to leave the protective cocoons and fly away,and it tells animals and human beings when to eat,sleep and wake.Events outside the plant and anima______(53)the actions of some biological clocks.Sci- entists recently found,for example,that a tiny animal changes the color of its fur______(54) the number of hours of daylight.In the short______(55)of winter,its fur becomes white.The fur becomes gray brown in color in the longer hours of daylight in summer.Inner signals control other biological clocks.German scientists found that some kind of internal clock seems to order birds to begin their long migration______(56)twice each year. Birds ______(57)flying become restless when it is time for the trip,______(58)they become calm again when the time of the flight has ended.Scientists say they are beginning to learn which______(59)of the brain contain biologica] clocks.An American researcher,Martin Moorhead,said a small group of cells near the front of the brain______(60)to control the timing of some of our actions.These______(61)tell a person when to______(62),when to sleep and when to seek food.Scientists say there proba- bly are other biological clock cells that control other body activities.Dr Moorhead is studying______(63)our biological clocks affect the way we do our work .For example,most of us have great difficulty if we must often change to different work hours.______(64)can take many days for a human body to accept the major change in work hours .Dr. Moorhead said industrial officials should have a better understanding of biological clocks and how they affect workers.He said______(65)understanding could cut sickness and accidents at work and would help increase a factory's production. 60._________
[多选题]共用题干 Prolonging Human Life1. Prolonging human life has increased the size of the human population.Many people alive to-day would have died of childhood diseases if they had been born 100 years ago.Because more people live longer,there are more people around at any given time .In fact,it is a decrease in death rates,not an increase in birthrates,that has led to the population explosion.2. Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency load.In all societies,people who are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them. In hunting and gathering cultures,old people who could not keep up might be left behind to die.In times of famine,infants might be allowed to die because they could not survive if their parents starved,whereas if the parents survived they could have another child.3. In most contemporary societies,people feel a moral obligation to keep people alive whether they can work or not.We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work;we also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age.Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement,somebody else must support them.In the United States many retired people live on social security checks which are so little that they must live in near poverty.Older people have more illness than young or middle-aged people;unless they have wealth or private or government insurance,they must often"go on welfare"if they have a serious illness.4. When older people become senile or too weak and ill to care for themselves,they create grave problems for their families.In the past and in some traditional cultures,they would be cared for at home until they died.Today,with most members of a household working or in school,there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person.To meet this need,a great many nursing homes and convalescent hospitals have been built.These are often profit-making organizations,although some are sponsored by religious and other nonprofit groups.While a few of these institutions arc good,most of them are simply"dumping grounds"for the dying in which"care" is given by poorly paid,overworked,and under-skilled personnel. In______,old people who could not keep up might be abandoned to die.
[多选题]共用题干 A Health ProfileA health profile 15 a portrait ofallofthefactorsthatinfluenceyourhealth.Todrawyourhealth profile,you will_________(51)what diseases run in your family,what health hazards you may be exposed to_________(52)work,how your daily_________(53)compares to the recommended standards,how much time per week you_______(54)exercising and what type of exercise you engage_______(55),how stressful your work and family environments are,what kinds of illnesses you get regularly,and_______(56)or not you have any one of a number of addictions._________ (57)this portrait,your should have a checkup to determine how your blood,heart,and lungs are functioning.This checkup will serve__________(58)a baseline,to which you can then compare later tests.__________(59)this profile 15 thoroughly drawn,you can begin to think about setting health priorities based_________(60)your particular portrait.For example,if you drink two martinis every evening,have a high-stress_________(61),smoke a pack of cigarettes a day,and use marijuana occasionally on weekends,you should quit smoking first,followed_________(62)losing the excess weight,reducing the stress of your job,giving up your marijuana habit,and then finally giving some __________(63)to those martinis if you want to prevent first cancer,and then heart disease.Even for the youthful working person who has never been sick a day in his life,who 15_______(64)excellent health,a good look at all health habits and at work and home environments may suggest changes that will________(65)him in the future. _________(59)
[多选题]共用题干 More About Alzheimer's DiseaseScientists have developed skin tests that may be used in the future to identify people with Alzheimer's disease and may ultimately allow physicians to predict_______(51)is at risk of getting this neurological disorder.The only current means of_____(52)the disease in a living patient is a long and expensive series of tests that eliminate every other cause of dementia(痴呆)."Since Alois Alzheimer described the_____(53)nearly a century ago,people have been trying to find a way to_____(54)diagnose it in its early stages,"said Patricia Grady,acting director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda,Maryland."This discovery,if_____(55),could prove a big step forward in our efforts to deal with and understand the disease."Alzheimer ' 5 is the single greatest _________ ( 56 ) of mental deterioration(退化)in older people, affecting between 2.5 million and 4 million people in the United States_____(57).The devastating disorder gradually destroys memory and the ability to function,and eventually causes death.There is currently no known______(58)for the disease.Researches______(59)that the skin cells of Alzheimer's patients have defects that interfere with their ability to regulate the flow of potassium(钾)in and out of the cells.The fact that the cell defects are present in the skin suggests that Alzheimer's______(60)from physiological changes throughout the body,and that dementia may be the first noticeable effect of these changes as the defects______(61)the cells in the brain,scientists said.The flow of potassium is especially______(62)in cells responsible for memory formation.The scientists also found two other defects that affect the cells'supply, of calcium(钙),another critical element.One test developed by researches calls______(63)growing skin cells in a laboratory culture and then testing them with an electrical detector to determine if the microscopic tunnels that_______(64)the flow of potassium are open.Open potassium channels create a unique electrical signature.A spokesman for the Alzheimer's Association said that if the validity of the diagnostic test can be proven it would be an important______(65),but cautioned that other promising tests for Alzheimer's have been disappointing. _________51
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Stress and Heart Diseaseif you feel stress in your life is spinning out of control,then you may be hurting your heart. If you don't want to break your own heart,you need to learn to take charge of your life where you can and recognize there are many things beyond your control.So says Dr. Robert S.Eliot. He's a clinical professor of medicine at the University of Nebraska.Eliot says there are people in this world whom he calls"hot reactors".For these people,being tense may cause tremendous and rapid increases in their blood pressure.Eliot says researchers have found that stressed people have higher cholesterol levels,among other things."We've done years of work in showing that excess alarm or stress chemicals can literally burst heart muscle fibers.When that happens it happens very quickly,within five minutes.It creates many short circuits,and that causes crazy heart rhythms.The heart beats like a bag of worms instead of a pump.And when that happens,we can't live."Eliot,64,suffered a heart attack at age 44.He attributes some of the cause to stress.For years he was a"hot reactor".On the exterior,he was cool,calm and collected,but on the interior,stress was killing him.He's now doing very well.The main predictors of destructive levels of stress are the FUD factors一fear,uncertainty and doubt一together with perceived lack of control,he says.For many people,the root of their stress is anger,and the trick is to find out where the anger is coming from."Does the anger come from a feeling that everything must be perfect?"Eliot asks.One step to calming down is recognizing you have this tendency.Learn to be less hostile by changing some of your attitudes and negative thinking.Eliot recommends taking charge of your life."If there is one word that should be substituted for stress,it's control.Instead of the FUD factors,what you want is the NICE factors一new,interest-ing,challenging experiences."He suggests that people write down the six things in their lives that they feel are the most important things they'd like to achieve.Ben Franklin did it at age 32."He wrote down things like being a better father,being a better husband,being financially independent, being stimulated intellectually and remaining even-tempered一he wasn't good at that."From Eliot's viewpoint,the other key to controlling stress is to"realize that there are other troublesome parts of your life over which you can have little or no control一like the economy and politicians. According to the passage,for many people,what is the root of stress?
[多选题]共用题干 A Health ProfileA health profile 15 a portrait ofallofthefactorsthatinfluenceyourhealth.Todrawyourhealth profile,you will_________(51)what diseases run in your family,what health hazards you may be exposed to_________(52)work,how your daily_________(53)compares to the recommended standards,how much time per week you_______(54)exercising and what type of exercise you engage_______(55),how stressful your work and family environments are,what kinds of illnesses you get regularly,and_______(56)or not you have any one of a number of addictions._________ (57)this portrait,your should have a checkup to determine how your blood,heart,and lungs are functioning.This checkup will serve__________(58)a baseline,to which you can then compare later tests.__________(59)this profile 15 thoroughly drawn,you can begin to think about setting health priorities based_________(60)your particular portrait.For example,if you drink two martinis every evening,have a high-stress_________(61),smoke a pack of cigarettes a day,and use marijuana occasionally on weekends,you should quit smoking first,followed_________(62)losing the excess weight,reducing the stress of your job,giving up your marijuana habit,and then finally giving some __________(63)to those martinis if you want to prevent first cancer,and then heart disease.Even for the youthful working person who has never been sick a day in his life,who 15_______(64)excellent health,a good look at all health habits and at work and home environments may suggest changes that will________(65)him in the future. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 WaterEarth is like a big blue marble.From high above the Earth and from the moon,the planet gleams and shines.The blue water in the oceans and seas of the Earth makes a dramatic image.The white clouds above the Earth add beauty to the picture.Water is the source of this beauty and the source of life on Earth.It is the reason people can live on this planet. Water is everywhere.(46)_______.It is in the soil,the ground that grows the food.Water is in rock deep under the ground, in natural holding areas一in storage.In a real sense,water keeps Earth alive.Nature has an unchanging amount of water. Nature has a perfect system for recycling water. (47)_____.It falls as rain.Then it goes to one of three places.It might sink slowly through the soil into the natural holding areas in the rock.(48)_______一by becoming vapor,or gas.It might run off into streams,rivers and oceans.By itself,nature can keep the balance and provide plenty of clean water for us.Nature recycles water.However,people cause problems for this natural recycling system.Nature's recycling system can work well(49)________.Some ways that people upset nature are easy to understand.For example, dirty sewage(污水沟系统)water from homes and factories must not mix with drinking water. People get sick from drinking contaminated water. Sometimes water from factories goes into streams and rivers.It enters into the groundwater. It can flow into lakes too.This kind of contamination from industry(waste water from factories) can be dangerous for people.If water contains poisons and chemicals,it is poison.(50)________;some poisons kill people as well as birds and animals.Without knowing,people can upset nature's recycling system.Lakes and rivers add beauty to the world. People enjoy water for entertainment purposes,too. People enjoy swimming and playing in the cool water of a lake in the summer. They like to ride on boats on rivers.Many people enjoy catching fish in the rivers.They fish for food and for sport.However,in some places,the water of the lakes and rivers is no longer safe.These rivers and lakes are contaminated.The fish are dying because of the chemicals from farms and factories.People cannot swim in the polluted water. _________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 Prolonging Human Life1.Prolonging human life has increased the size of the human population.Many people alive today would have died of childhood diseases if they had been born 100 years ago.Because more people live longer,there are more people around at any given time.In fact,it is a decrease in death rates,not an increase in birthrates,that has led to the population explosion.2.Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency load.In all societies,people who are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them. In hunting and gathering cultures,old people who could not keep up might be left behind to die.In times of famine,infants might be allowed to die because they could not survive if their parents starved,whereas if the parents survived they could have another child.3.In most contemporary societies,people feel a moral obligation to keep people alive whether they can work or not. We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work.We also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age.Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement,somebody else must support them.In the United States many retired people live on social security checks which are so little that they must live in near poverty. Older people have more illness than young or middle-aged people.Unless they have wealth or private or government insurance,they must often"go on welfare"if they have a serious illness.4.When older people become senile or too weak and ill to care for themselves,they create grave problems for their families.In the past and in some traditional cultures,they would be cared for at home until they died.Today,with most members of a household working or in school,there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person.To meet this need,a great many nursing homes and convalescent hospitals have been built. These are often profit-making organizations, although some are sponsored by religious and other nonprofit groups.While a few of these institutions are good,most of them are simply"dumping grounds"for the dying in which"care"is given by poorly paid,overworked,and under-skilled personnel. Many people would have died of_______if they had been born 100 years ago.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Stress and Heart Diseaseif you feel stress in your life is spinning out of control,then you may be hurting your heart. If you don't want to break your own heart,you need to learn to take charge of your life where you can and recognize there are many things beyond your control.So says Dr. Robert S.Eliot. He's a clinical professor of medicine at the University of Nebraska.Eliot says there are people in this world whom he calls"hot reactors".For these people,being tense may cause tremendous and rapid increases in their blood pressure.Eliot says researchers have found that stressed people have higher cholesterol levels,among other things."We've done years of work in showing that excess alarm or stress chemicals can literally burst heart muscle fibers.When that happens it happens very quickly,within five minutes.It creates many short circuits,and that causes crazy heart rhythms.The heart beats like a bag of worms instead of a pump.And when that happens,we can't live."Eliot,64,suffered a heart attack at age 44.He attributes some of the cause to stress.For years he was a"hot reactor".On the exterior,he was cool,calm and collected,but on the interior,stress was killing him.He's now doing very well.The main predictors of destructive levels of stress are the FUD factors一fear,uncertainty and doubt一together with perceived lack of control,he says.For many people,the root of their stress is anger,and the trick is to find out where the anger is coming from."Does the anger come from a feeling that everything must be perfect?"Eliot asks.One step to calming down is recognizing you have this tendency.Learn to be less hostile by changing some of your attitudes and negative thinking.Eliot recommends taking charge of your life."If there is one word that should be substituted for stress,it's control.Instead of the FUD factors,what you want is the NICE factors一new,interest-ing,challenging experiences."He suggests that people write down the six things in their lives that they feel are the most important things they'd like to achieve.Ben Franklin did it at age 32."He wrote down things like being a better father,being a better husband,being financially independent, being stimulated intellectually and remaining even-tempered一he wasn't good at that."From Eliot's viewpoint,the other key to controlling stress is to"realize that there are other troublesome parts of your life over which you can have little or no control一like the economy and politicians. What does the term"hot reactor" refer to?
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Love or Hate?We have saved as a final set of emotions to two most important emotions connected with other people:love and its opposite,hate.Love can be seen everywhere.Yet surprisingly,love has been the subject of less scientific research than other emotions,such as anger and fear. The reason for this may be two fold.Firstly,love is a very complex emotion,difficult to describe and measure. Secondly,unlike many radical emotions,radical love is generally not a problem. Thus less medical attention has been paid to it.What is love?This is a complex question and requires a complex answer. Love is a strong,positive attraction and feeling for another person or thing. But it is more than this.It also involves feeling of caring,protection,excitement,and tenderness.When two people are in love,they feel drawn to one another;they greatly enjoy each other's company;and they may be sexually attracted to one another.Sometimes it is easier to think in terms of different kinds of love:romantic love,brotherly love, and so forth.Though they are different in some respects,they share one important characteristic: a strong positive feeling toward another.Our feelings toward other people are often complex.We may love someone and,at the same time,be angry with him.Or we may love someone,even though we are jealous of him.We mighi even love someone and,at the same time,hate for some precise reason.Hate is a strong negative emotion toward someone,and is due to anger,jealousy,or some other factor. Like love,hate can be a very strong emotion.It can also be very dangerous.The question is often asked,"Is it bad to hate?"The best answer is probably" sometimes yes and sometimes no." Usually hate does not help us.It makes us feel unhappy and makes us do things that may hurt others.However,sometimes it may be necessary to hate and hurt someone in order to protect loved ones. Love is a lasting,strong,positive attraction and feeling for another person or thing,the very opposite emotion of which is__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Women with AIDSFor a long time women with HIV were ignored because the focus was totally on HIV men.The gay community was very much in sight and vocal and successfully got support for its cause.Now we are rapidly approaching the point where about one half of all AIDS cases in the world are women .But no one is taking this dangerously high level of infection among women seriously enough.Women usually have a worse time dealing with HIV than men do.In most cases,the woman is taking care of children as well as her sick partner. She may not even have time to take care of her-self. The HIV- positive woman ends up shouldering the family as well as her own personal prob- lems.Men,however,are usually the ones who have insurance income and access to doctors.They get care.Women often do not.The discrimination against HIV-positive women is simply terrible.They are likely to be more inactive than men in home and workplace because too many people think that women are the cause of the discase .This is not at all true.They get it from a man.They don't just simply have HIV.Of cause,there's a social discrimination against all people with HIV.They are scared that other peo- ple will know they are HIV-positive and that they will,therefore be discriminated against.For ex-ample,it's very difficult for people with HIV to travel.They are not allowed to enter many coun- tries,including the United States,China and Russia.The biggest difficulty an HIV-positive woman must face is the isolation.Once the woman knows she's HIV-positive,she lives in fear that other people will find out. She's so frightened she will go into hiding,into an isolated place by herself. It's not at all uncommon to meet a woman who has been HIV-positive for nearly 10 years and has never told anyone,except her doctor. And the resulting stress is enough to make her sick.But HIV-positive women who get support,who can discuss their trouble and then do something about it-whether that means taking better care of them-selves or going to the United Nations to struggle for their rights-are likely to live longer. Active women don't die out of shame in a corner. This happens to too many HIV-positive women. Active women with AIDS tend live longer.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Iron DeficienciesExperts have observed for years that endurance athletes,particularly females,frequently have iron deficiencies.Now a new study by a team of Purdue University researchers suggests that even moderate exercise may lead to reduced iron in the blood of women."We found that women who were normally inactive and then started a program of moderate exercise showed evidence of iron loss,"says Roseanne M.Lyle,associate professor at Purdue.Her study of 62 formerly inactive women who began exercising three times a week for six months was published in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise."Women who consumed additional meat or took iron supplements were able to bounce back,"she notes."But the new exercisers who followed their normal diet showed a significant decrease in iron levels."Iron deficiency is very common among women in general,affecting one in four female teenagers and one in five women aged 18 to 45,respectively.But the ratio is even greater among active women,affecting up to 80 percent of female endurance athletes.This means,Lyle says,that"too many women ignore the amount of iron they take in."Women of childbearing age are at greatest risk,since their monthly bleeding is a major source of iron loss.Plus,many health-conscious women increase their risk by rejecting red meat,which contains the most easily absorbed form of iron.And because women often restrict their diet in an effort to control weight,they may not consume enough iron-rich food,and are liable to experience a deficiency."The average woman takes in only two thirds of the recommended daily allowance of iron," notes another expert."For a woman who already has a poor iron status,any additional iron loss from exercise may be enough to tip her over the edge into a more serious deficiency,"notes the expert. Exercise can result in iron loss through a variety of mechanisms.Some iron is lost in sweat,and,for unknown reasons,intense endurance exercise is sometimes associated with bleeding of the digestive system.The best sources of iron,and the only sources of the form of iron most readily absorbed by the body,are meat,chicken,and fish.Good sources of other forms of iron include dates,beans,and some leafy green vegetables. Who will have a significant decrease in iron levels?
[多选题]共用题干 Retirement Brings Most a Big Health BoostThe self-reported health of the newly retired improves so much that most feel eight years younger,a new European study suggests.This happy news was true of almost everyone except a small minority一only 2 percent一who had experi- enced"ideal"conditions in their working life,anyway."The results really say three things:that work puts an extra burden on the health of older workers,that the effects of this extra burden are largely relieved by retirement and,finally,that both the extra burden and the relief are larger when working conditions are poor,"said Hugo Westerlund,lead author of a study pub- lished online Nov. 9 in The Lancet(柳叶刀)." This indicates that there is need to provide opportunities for older workers to decrease the demands in their work out of concern for their health and well-being."But of course,added Westerlund,who is head of epidemiology at the Stress Research Institute at Stockholm University in Sweden,"not all older workers suffer from poor perceived health.Many are indeed remarkably healthy and fit for work.But sooner or later,everyone has to slow down because of old age catch-ing up."Last week,the same group of researchers reported that workers slept better after retirement than before. "Sleep improves at retirement,which suggests that sleeping could be a mediator between work and perception of poor health,"Westerlund said.This study looked at what the same 15,000 French workers,and most of them had to say about their own health up to seven years pre-retirement and up to seven years post-retirement.As participants got closer to retirement age,their perception of their own health declined,but went upagain during the first year of retirement.Those who reported being in poorer health declined from 19.2 percent in the year prior to retirement to 14.3 percent by the end of the first year after retiring. According to the researchers,that means post-retire- ment levels of poor health fell to levels last seen eight years previously.The changes were seen in both men and women,across different occupations,and lasted through the first seven years of not punching the clock.Workers who felt worse before retirement and had lower working conditions reported greater improve- ments as soon as they retired,the team found. The study analyzed the participants'perception of their own health in a certain period.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Race Car DriversThe men who race the cars are generally small,with a tight,nervous look.They range from the early 20s to the middle 40s,and it is usually their nerves that go first.Fear is the driver's constant companion,and tragedy can be just a step behind.Scarcely a man in the 500 does not carry the scars of ancient crashes.The mark of the plastic surgery is everywhere, and burned skin is common. Sometimes a driver's scars are invisible.Two young drivers,Billy Vukovich and Gary Bettenhausen,raced in their first 500 in 1968.Less than 20 years before,their fathers also competed against one another on the Indy track一and died there.All this the drivers accept. Over the years,they have learned to trust their own techniques,reflexes,and courage.They depend,too,on a trusted servant一scientific engineering. Though they may not have had a great deal of schooling(an exception is New Zealand's Bruce McLaren,who has an engineering degree),many drivers are gifted mechanics,with a feeling for their engines that amount to kinship.A few top drivers have become extremely wealthy,with six-figure incomes from prize money and jobs with auto-product manufacturers.Some have businesses of their own.McLaren designs racing chassis(底盘).Dan Gurney's California factory manufactured the chassis of three of the first four ears in the 1968 Indy 500,including his own second place car.Yet money is not the only reason why men race cars.Perhaps it isn't even the major reason. Three-time Indy winner(1961,1964,1967)A.J. Foyt,for example,can frequently be found cornpeting on dirty tracks in minor-league races,where money,crowds and safety features are limited, and only the danger is not. Why does he do it?Sometimes Foyt answers,"It's in my blood."Other times he says,"It's good practice."Now and then he replies,"Don't ask dumb questions." The invisible scars of the drivers mentioned in the second paragraph refers to________.
[多选题]共用题干 Toads are Arthritic and in PainArthritis(关节炎)is an illness that can cause pain and swelling in your bones. Toads(蟾蛛),a big problem in the north of Australia,are suffering from painful arthritis in their legs and backbone,a new study has shown. The toads that jump the fastest are more likely to be larger and to have longer legs.________(46)The large yellow toads,native to South and Central America,were introduced into the north-eastern Australian state of Queensland in 1935 in an attempt to stop beetles and other insects from destroying sugar- cane crops.Now up to 200 million of the poisonous toads exist in the country,and they are rapidly spreading through the state of Northern Territory at a rate of up to 60 km a year. The toads can now be found across more than one million square kilometres.________(47)A Venezuelan poison virus was tried in the 1990s but had to be abandoned after it was found to also kill native frog species.The toads have severely affected ecosystems in Australia.Animals,and sometimes pets,that eat the toads die immediately from their poison,and the toads themselves eat anything they can fit inside their mouth.________(48)A co-author of the new study,Rick Shine,a professor at the University of Sydney,says that little atten-tion has been given to the problems that toads face.Rick and his colleagues studied nearly 500 toads from Queensland and the Northern Territory and found that those in the latter state were very different.They were active,sprinting down roads and breeding quickly.According to the results of the study,the fastest toads travel nearly one kilometre a night.________(49) But speed and strength come at a price一arthritis of the legs and backbone due to constant pressure placed on them.In laboratory tests,the researchers found that after about 15 minutes of hopping,arthritic toads would travel less distance with each hop(跳跃)._________ ( 50 ) These toads are so programmed to move, apparently,that even when in pain the toads travelled as fast and as far as the healthy ones,continuing their constant march across the landscape. ________(47)
[多选题]共用题干 On May 1,2006,New York's Empire State Building celebrated its 75th birthday.When it was built in 1931 it was over 61 m taller than its nearest rival,the Chrysler Building,and at 381m remained the tallest in the world for 41 years,until the World Trade Center was completed in 1972- 1973.The story of the Empire State Building begins with two men's race to build the highest man-made structure in the world.In 1889 the central feature of the World's Fair in Pairs was Gustav Eiffel's massive tower,constructed with wrought iron,and standing 300m high.Architects in the United States viewed this as something of a challenge,and by the early 20th century the race was on to erect taller buildings than ever before.Soon skyscrapers were springing up along the New York sky-line.In 1928 the founder of the Chrysler Corporation,Walter Chrysler,announced the building of a huge new skyscraper,taller than anything so far constructed in New York.It soon became clear that the new building was part of Chrysler's aim to challenge the motoring giant General Motors.So John Jakob Raskob,of General Motors,decided to race Chrysler to the top.The final height of Chrysler's building was kept secret until it was completed,so Raskob instructed his architects to construct the highest tower they could.Their architectural plans had to be modified as the Chrysler Building grew ever higher,but when it topped 77 stories the Empire State Building team knew that they could beat it.No building project has yet exceeded the Empire State Building's record for speed of construclion.From the beginning of construction in March 1930 it took 410 days and approximately 7 million man-hours to build.It rose at an astonishing speed of 4.5 stories per week,thanks to careful planning and quality of work.The building was officially opened on May 1,1931,by President Hoover. The Architects in the United States viewed the Eiffel towel as something of a challenge,and decided to build something taller.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The Privileged ChildrenLife really should be one long journey of joy for children who are born with a world of wealth at their tiny feet.But experts on psychological research now believe that silver spoons can leave a bitter taste.If suicide statistics are a sign of happiness,then the rich are a miserable lot. Figures show that it is the rich who most often do away with themselves.Dr. Robert Coles,an internationally famous doctor,is the world's top expert on the influence of money on children.He has written a well-received book on the subject,The Privileged Ones,and his research shows that too much money in the family can cause as many problems as too little."Ohviously there are certain advantages to being rich,"says the 53-year-old doctor,"such as better health,education and future work expectations.But most important is the quality of family life. Money can't buy love."It can buy a lot of other things,though,and that's where the trouble starts.Rich kjds have so much to choose from that they often become confused.Their parents' over favoring can make them spoiled.They tend to travel more than other children,from home to home and country to country, which often makes them feel restless."But privileged children do have a better sense of their positions in the world,"adds Mr Coles, "and they are more self-assured."Today's rich parents perhaps have realized that their riches can be more of a burden than a favor to their children.So their priority is to ensure that their families are as rich in love as they are in money. Which of the following statements is not true according to the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Race Car DriversThe men who race the cars are generally small,with a tight,nervous look.They range from the early 20s to the middle 40s,and it is usually their nerves that go first.Fear is the driver's constant companion,and tragedy can be just a step behind.Scarcely a man in the 500 does not carry the scars of ancient crashes.The mark of the plastic surgery is everywhere, and burned skin is common. Sometimes a driver's scars are invisible.Two young drivers,Billy Vukovich and Gary Bettenhausen,raced in their first 500 in 1968.Less than 20 years before,their fathers also competed against one another on the Indy track一and died there.All this the drivers accept. Over the years,they have learned to trust their own techniques,reflexes,and courage.They depend,too,on a trusted servant一scientific engineering. Though they may not have had a great deal of schooling(an exception is New Zealand's Bruce McLaren,who has an engineering degree),many drivers are gifted mechanics,with a feeling for their engines that amount to kinship.A few top drivers have become extremely wealthy,with six-figure incomes from prize money and jobs with auto-product manufacturers.Some have businesses of their own.McLaren designs racing chassis(底盘).Dan Gurney's California factory manufactured the chassis of three of the first four ears in the 1968 Indy 500,including his own second place car.Yet money is not the only reason why men race cars.Perhaps it isn't even the major reason. Three-time Indy winner(1961,1964,1967)A.J. Foyt,for example,can frequently be found cornpeting on dirty tracks in minor-league races,where money,crowds and safety features are limited, and only the danger is not. Why does he do it?Sometimes Foyt answers,"It's in my blood."Other times he says,"It's good practice."Now and then he replies,"Don't ask dumb questions." It can be inferred that a car accident is often coupled with________.
[多选题]共用题干 Retirement Brings Most a Big Health BoostThe self-reported health of the newly retired improves so much that most feel eight years younger,a new European study suggests.This happy news was true of almost everyone except a small minority一only 2 percent一who had experi- enced"ideal"conditions in their working life,anyway."The results really say three things:that work puts an extra burden on the health of older workers,that the effects of this extra burden are largely relieved by retirement and,finally,that both the extra burden and the relief are larger when working conditions are poor,"said Hugo Westerlund,lead author of a study pub- lished online Nov. 9 in The Lancet(柳叶刀)." This indicates that there is need to provide opportunities for older workers to decrease the demands in their work out of concern for their health and well-being."But of course,added Westerlund,who is head of epidemiology at the Stress Research Institute at Stockholm University in Sweden,"not all older workers suffer from poor perceived health.Many are indeed remarkably healthy and fit for work.But sooner or later,everyone has to slow down because of old age catch-ing up."Last week,the same group of researchers reported that workers slept better after retirement than before. "Sleep improves at retirement,which suggests that sleeping could be a mediator between work and perception of poor health,"Westerlund said.This study looked at what the same 15,000 French workers,and most of them had to say about their own health up to seven years pre-retirement and up to seven years post-retirement.As participants got closer to retirement age,their perception of their own health declined,but went upagain during the first year of retirement.Those who reported being in poorer health declined from 19.2 percent in the year prior to retirement to 14.3 percent by the end of the first year after retiring. According to the researchers,that means post-retire- ment levels of poor health fell to levels last seen eight years previously.The changes were seen in both men and women,across different occupations,and lasted through the first seven years of not punching the clock.Workers who felt worse before retirement and had lower working conditions reported greater improve- ments as soon as they retired,the team found. Older workers are generally as fit for work as younger workers.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇on the Trail of the Honey BadgerOn a recent field trip to the Kalahari Desert,a team of researchers learnt a lot more about honey badgers(灌).The team employed a local wildlife expert,Kitso Khama,to help them locate and follow the badgers across the desert.Their main aim was to study the badgers' movements and behaviour as discreetly (谨慎地)as possible,without frightening them away or causing them to change their natural behaviour. They also planned to trap a few and study them close up before releasing them. In view of the animal's repu-tation,this was something that even Khama was reluctant to do."The problem with honey badgers is they are naturally curious animals,especially when they see some- thing new,"he says."That,combined with their unpredictable nature,can be a dangerous mixture.If they sense you have food,for example,they won't be shy about coming right up to you for something to eat. They're actually quite sociable creatures around humans,but as soon as they feel they might be in danger, they can become extremely vicious(凶恶的).Fortunately this is rare , but it does happen."The research confirmed many things that were already known.As expected,honey badgers ate any creatures they could catch and kill.Even poisonous snakes,feared and avoided by most other animals,werenot safe from them.The researchers were surprised,however,by the animal's fondness for local melons, probably because of their high water content. Previously researchers thought that the animal got all of its liquid requirements from its prey(猎物).The team also learnt that,contrary to previous research findings, the badgers occasionally formed loose family groups.They were also able to confirm certain results from pre-vious research,including the fact that female badgers never socialised with each other.Following some of the male badgers was a challenge,since they can cover large distances in a short space of time.Some hunting territories cover more than 500 square kilometres.Although they seem happy to share these territories with other males,there are occasional fights over an important food source,and male badgers can be as aggressive towards each other as they are towards other species.As the badgers became accustomed to the presence of people,it gave the team the chance to get up close to them without being the subject of the animal's curiosity一or their sudden aggression.The badgers' eating patterns,which had been disrupted,returned to normal.It also allowed the team to observe more closely some of the other creatures that form working associations with the honey badger,as these seemed to adopt the badgers'relaxed attitude when near humans. What happened when honey badgers got used to humans around them?
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The IcemanOn a September day in 1991,two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy.High up on a mountain pass,they found the body of a man lying on the ice.At that height(10,499 feet,or 3,200 meters),the ice is usually permanent, but 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice had melted more than usual so the body had come to the surface.It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架)was in perfect condition , except for a wound in the head.There were still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes.The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots. Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮)and a holder for arrows.Who was this man? How and when had he died? Everybody had a different answer to these ques- tions.Some people thought that it was from this century,perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War I,since several soldiers had already been found in the area.A Swiss woman believed it might be her father,who had died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found.The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older,maybe even a thousand years old.With modern dating techniques,the scientists soon learned that the iceman was about 5,300 years old.Born in about 3300 B.C.,he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe.At first scientists thought he was probably a hunter who had died from an accident in the high mountains.More recent evidence,however, tells a different story.A new kind of X-ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. It left only a tinyhole in his skin,but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He certainly died from this wound,and not from the wound on the back of his head.This means that he was probably in some kind of a battle.It might have been part of a larger war,or he might have been fighting bandits.He might even have been a bandit himself.By studying his clothes and tools,scientists have already learned a great deal from the iceman about the times he lived in.We may never know the full story of how he died,but he has given us important clues to the history of those distant times. What can be inferred from Paragraph 2?
[多选题]共用题干 Understanding Autism1. Autism(孤独症)is a life-long developmental disability that prevents individuals from properly understanding what they see,hear,and otherwise sense.This results in severe problems of social relationships , communication , and behavior. Individuals with autism have to painstakingly(费力地)learn normal patterns of speech and communication,and appropriate ways to relate to people, objects,and events,in a similar manner to those who have had a stroke.2. The cause of autism is still unknown.Some research suggests a physical problem affecting those parts of the brain that process language and information coming in from the senses.There may be some imbalance of certain chemicals in the brain. Genetic(遗传的)factors may sometimes be involved .Autism may indeed result from a combination of several"causes".3. Most people with mental retardation(智力迟钝)show relatively even skill development. Individuals with autism , however , typically show uneven skill development , with deficits(欠缺)in certamn areas-most frequently in their ability to communicate and relate to othersand distinct skills in other areas.It is important to distinguish autism from mental retardation or other disorders, since diagnostic(诊断的)confusion may lead to inappropriate and ineffective treatment techniques.4. In general,individuals with autism perform best at jobs which are structured and involve a degree of repetition.Some people who have autism are working as artists,piano tuners,painters,farm workers,office workers,computer operators,dishwashers,assembly line workers,or employees of sheltered workshops or other sheltered work settings. Paragraph 3______
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Cell Phones : Hang Up or Keep Talking?Millions of people are using cell phones today.In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one.In many countries,cell phones are very popular with young people.They find that the phones are more than a means of communication一having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected.The explosions around the world in mobile phone use make some health professionals worried.Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones.In England,there has been a serious debate about this issue. Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas.They say that there is no proof that mobile phones are bad for your health.On the other hand,why do some medical studies show changes in the brain cells of some people who use mobile phones?Signs of change in the tissues of the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning equipment. In one case,a traveling salesman had to retire at a young age because of serious memory loss.He couldn't remember even simple tasks.He would often forget the name of his own son.This man used to talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day,every day of his working week,for a couple of years. His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use,but his employer's doctor didn't agree.What is it that makes mobile phones potentially harmful?The answer is radiation.High-tech machines can detect very small amounts of radiation from mobile phones.Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation,but they say the amount is too small to worry about.As the discussion about their safety continues,it appears that it's best to use mobile phones less often. Use your regular phone if you want to talk for a long time.Use your mobile phone only when you really need it. Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient,especially in emergencies.In the future,mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health.So for now,it's wise not to use your mobile phone too often. The salesman retired young because_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇CaffeineCaffeine is probably the most widely used drug in the world.Humans have been consuming caffeine for hundreds of years,primarily in the form of coffee,tea,and cocoa. Habitual coffee and tea drinkers had longbeen observed to have a lower incidence of non-melanoma(黑色素瘤)skin cancers , although no one knew why.A recent study found that caffeine affects skin cells damaged by ultraviolet radiation,a main cause of skin cancer. Caffeine interferes with a protein that cancerous cells need to survive,leaving the damaged cells to die before they become cancerous. Drinking caffeinated coffee has also been associated with a decreased incidence of endometrial(子宫内膜的)cancer-that is , cancer of the cells lining the uterus. The strongest effect appears to be in overweight women,who are at greatest risk for the disease.Researchers believe blood sugar,fat cells,and estrogen(雌性激素)may play a role. Although the mechanism remains unknown,peo- pie who drink more than two cups of coffee or tea a day reportedly have about half the risk of developing chronic liver disease as those who drink less than one cup of coffee daily;caffeinated coffee has also been as- sociated with lowered risk of cirrhosis(肝硬化)and liver cancer.While many of caffeine's undesirable effects,such as elevated heart rate and blood pressure,are brief, some short-term benefits,including pain relief,increased alertness,and increased physical endurance,have also been attributed to caffeine.As a component of numerous over-the-counter diet pills and pain relievers, caffeine increases their effectiveness and helps the body absorb them more quickly. By constricting(收缩) blood vessels in the brain , it can alleviate headaches一even migraines(偏头痛)一and can help counter the drowsiness(眩晕)caused by antihistamines(抗组胺药).Caffeine does not alter the need for sleep,but it does offer a temporary solution to fatigue for people who need to stay alert. Research has shown that sleep-deprived individuals who consumed caffeine had improved memory and reasoning abilities,at least in the short term. Studies of runners and cyclists have shown that caffeine can improve their stamina一hence its addition to energy-boosting sports drinks.People who consume a lot of caffeine regularly may develop temporary withdrawal symptoms,headache being the most common,if they quit or cut back on it abruptly. Fortunately,these symptoms last only a day or two in most cases.Individuals who are more sensitive to the stimulatory side effects of caffeine may want to avoid it,but most doctors agree that the equivalent of three cups of coffee a day does not harm healthy people.There is no medical basis to give up daily caffeine and many reasons to include a moderate amount in one's diet. Caffeine is used to_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Infection of AIDSAccording to a report of the World Health Organization,this year will see 2.6 million deaths from AIDS,the highest yearly international total since the disease began to take hold in the late 1970s, despite questionable antiretro-viral drugs(抗逆转录酶病毒药)that staved off AIDS deaths in the richer countries.As things stood,the number of deaths was likely to increase for many years before peaking. The report said about half of all people who acquired HIV become infected before they turned 25 and usually died before their 35th birthdays of AIDS,which destroys the body's immune methods.Although ninety-five percent of people with HIV live in the developing world,battling HIV rates was still a challenge in the developed countries of the West,where there are"very worrying facts" that safe sex practices are dropping among gays.While AIDS deaths in the United States dropped by 42 percent between 1996 and 1997,the figure dropped by only half that between 1997 and last year.The report added that in Eastern Europe and Central Asia,the number of infected people had risen by a third this year,to 360,000.This was mainly due to an increase in the use of infected needles to inject drugs in Russia and the Ukraine. More than 2,700 cases of HIV were reported in Moscow in the fitst nine months of this year.Although cases of HIV remain relatively low in the Middle East,increasing use of injected drugs accounted for two thirds of new HIV cases in Bahrian last year,half in Iran and more than a third in Tunisia. There has been an increase in the number of people infected with HIV in Eastern Europe and Central Asia mainly because__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Intelligence一a Changed View1.Intelligence was believed to be a fixed entity,some faculty of the mind that we all possess and which determines in some way the extent of our achievements.its value therefore,was as a predictor of children's future learning.If they differed markedly in their ability to learn complex tasks, then it was clearly necessary to educate them differently and the need for different types of school and even different ability groups within school was obvious.Intelligence tests could be used for streaming children according to ability at an early age,and at 11 these tests were superior to measures of attainment for selecting children for different types of secondary education.2.Today,we are beginning to think differently. In the last few years,research has thrown doubt on the view that innate intelligence can ever be measured and on the very nature of intelligence itself. There is considerable evidence now which shows the great influence of environment both on achievement and intelligence.Children with poor home backgrounds not only do less well in their school work and intelligence tests but their performance tends to deteriorate gradually compared with that of their more fortunate classmates.3.There are evidences that support the view that we have to distinguish between genetic intelligence and observed intelligence.Any deficiency in the appropriate genes will restrict development no matter how stimulating the environment. We cannot observe and measure innate intelligence,whereas we can observe and measure the effects of the interaction of whatever is inherited with whatever stimulation has been received from the environment. Researches have been investigating what happens in this interaction.4.Two major findings have emerged from these researches.Firstly,the greater part of the development of observed intelligence occurs in the earliest years of life.It is estimated that 50 percent of measurable intelligence at age 17 is already predictable by the age of four. Secondly,the most important factors in the environment are language and psychological aspects of the parent-child relationship.Much of the difference in measured intelligence between "privileged" and "disadvantaged" children may be due to the latter's lack of appropriate verbal stimulation and the poverty of their perceptual experiences.5.These research findings have led to a revision in our understanding of the nature of intelligence.Instead of it being some largely inherited fixed power of the mind,we now see it as a set of development skills with which a person copes with any environment. These skills have to be learned and,indeed,one of them is learning how to learn.6.The modern ideas concerning the nature of intelligence are bound to have some effect on our school system. In one respect a change is already occurring. With the move toward comprehensive education and the development of unstreamed classes,fewer children will be given the label "low IQ"which must inevitably condemn a child in his own,if not society's eyes. The idea that we can teach children to be intelligent in the same way that we can teach them reading or arithmetic is accepted by more and more people. Paragraph 6_________
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇First Self-contained Heart ImplantedA patient on the brink(边缘)of death has received the world's first self-contained artificial heart-a battery-powered device about the size of a softball that runs without the need for wires,tubes sticking out of the chest.Two surgeons from the University of Louisville implanted the titanium(钛)and plastic pump during a seven-hour operation at Jewish Hospital Monday.The hospital said the patient was"awake and responsive" Tuesday and resting comfortably.It refused to release personal details.The patient had been expected to die within a month without the operation,and doctors said they expected the artificial heart to extend the person's life by only a month.But the device is considered a major step toward improving the patient's quality of life.The new pump,called AbioCor,is also a technological leap from the mechanical hearts used in the 1980s,which were attached by wires and tubes to bulky machinery outside the body.The most famous of those mechanical hearts,the Jarvic-7,used air as a pumping device and was attached to an apparatus about the size of a washing machine."I think it's potentially a major step forward in the artificial heart development,"said Dr.DavidFaxon,president of the American Heart Association.However,he said the dream of an implantable,perma- nent artificial heart is not yet a reality."This is obviously an experimental device whose long-term success has to be demonstrated."Only about half of the 4,200 Americans on a waiting list for donor hearts received them last year,and most of the rest died.Some doctors,including Robert Higgins,chairman of cardiology at the Medical Col-lege of Virginia in Richmond,said artificial hearts are unlikely to replace donor hearts."A donor heart in a good transplant can last 15 to 30 years."he said,"It's going to be hard to replace that with a machine." We can learn from Paragraph 4 that the Jarvic-7 is_____.
[多选题]共用题干 Hypertension Drugs Found to Cut Risk of StrokeAustralian doctors declared Monday that a cocktail of simple antihypertensive drugs can lower the risk of patients suffering a repeat stroke by more than a third.This is the result of their research.______(46)Strokes kill 5 million people a year,and more than 15 million suffer non-fatal strokes that of-ten leave them with useless limbs,slurred speech and other serious disabilities._______(47)An international six-year study of 6,100 patients directed from Sydney University found that by taking two blood pressure-lowering drugs,the risk of secondary strokes can be reduced by up to 40 percent.Even taking one of the commonly available drugs can cut the risk by a third,the study said .The drugs are the diuretic indapamide and the ACE inhibitor perindopril,better known by its brand name Coversyl._______(48)They even found that the risk of another stroke could be cut by three quarters among the one-in-ten patients who had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage,the worst type of stroke,where there is direct bleeding into the brain,_______(49)“If most of those patients were able to get access to this treatment,it would result in maybe the avoidance of haff a million strokes a year,”the professor told Australia's ABC Radio._______(50)“What we have shown for the first time is that it does not really matter what your blood pressure is;if you have had a stroke,then lowering blood pressure will produce large benefits,to begin with—even for people whose blood pressure is average or below average,”he said.McMahon said the Milan gathering had heralded the research as a“major breakthrough in the care of patients with strokes—perhaps the biggest step forward that we have made in the last cou-ple of decades”. ______(48)
[多选题]共用题干 Sunbath and Skin CancerIn the summer,millions of Americans will offer up their bodies to the sun rays.A tan mndi-cates health and beauty,and most sun worshippers will sacrifice a lot to achieve it,including themselves.With each hour, the sun's ultraviolet radiation (紫外线)produces irreversible(不可逆的) damage,hastening the development of unsightly wrinkles.And with each year on the beach or roof-top,the sunbather increases his risk of getting skin cancer. Skin cancer is by far the most common form of cancer. An estimated 400,000 new cases will be detected this year in the United States, and almost all of them can be blamed on over-exposure to the sun.Fortunately,most of these cancers are highly curable .But they can he disfiguring and take time to treat. For that reason,sun worshippers should treat deity with a good deal of awe(敬畏). Sunburn,of course,is the initial hazard posed by UV radiation.Prolonged exposure to UV,howev-er , interferes with the production of collagen fibers(胶原纤维)in the dermis(真皮层), causing the skin to lose elasticity(弹性)and creating premature wrinkles. Further deterioration(恶化)of the dermis deprives the epidermis(表皮层)of nutrition and causes it to become thin and dry.Cancer is UV's final result.Shortwave radiant energy,especially from the UV-B band,breaks the strands(股、缕)of DNA. Enzymes(酶)work constantly to rearrange the DNA into proper Se-quence,but with repeated UV exposure,the repair process may eventually break down.Then the mutant(变异的)DNA may produce a colony of cancer cells. But skin cancer may be avoided with a good dose of common sense.People with fair skin and blue eyes who burn easily stand the high-est risk .Special danger spots are the parts of the body most constantly exposed to the sun,such as the cheeks , nose , lower lip and the ears. People who have already developed precancerous(癌变前的)lesions(伤害)or had one skin-cancer growth stand a greatly increased chance of developing others.Dermatologists(皮肤科医生)recommend avoiding the sun when it is most intense between 11 a.m.and 3 p.m.Anyone who insists on sunbathing should use a good sun screen.These lotions and salves(药膏)contain chemicals that block out the burning UVB radiation while permitting the tanning rays to reach the skin. According to the passage,over-exposure to the sun may result in______
[多选题]共用题干 Ear BreakthroughNew research published in the journal Current Biology has added significantly to understand-ing of how the ear works,giving hope to millions of deaf and hard of hearing people.The latest research,conducted by Dr. T. Albet,a Deafness Research UK research fel-low at the UCL Ear Institute,together with scientists at the University of Cologne,shows that fruit flies have ears which mechanically amplify sound signals in a remarkably similar way to the senso- ry(感觉的)cells found in the inner ear of vertebrates(脊椎动物)including humans. The finding means that the wealth of genetic techniques already available to study the fruit fly can now be used to target how the ear works.Dr. Albert says.“The biophysical parallels between the ways both fruit flies and humans convert sound into nerve signals are truly amazing.We may be allowed to hope that these mecha- nistic(机械学的)similarities extend further down to the genes and molecules that bring about hearing.But even if it finally should turn out that hearing in fruit flies relies on different mole-cules than does hearing in humans,the little fruit fly can help us find answers to some key ques-tions of hearing research and -what is sometimes even more important -will surely help us ask the right questions.”The work is welcomed by Deafness Research UK,the country's only medical research charity for deaf people.Vivienne Michael,chief executive of Deafness Research UK.says,“This is an important advance that paves the way toward a clear understanding of the genetics of deafness.The charity will continue to support culling-edge(尖端的)research through its Fellowship programme at the UCI.Ear institute and at other top research centres in the UK to achieve our goal of secu-ring audial improvements in the prevention,diagnosis and treatment of all forms of hearing impair-ment.”There are nine million deaf and hard of hearing people in the UK and in most cases deafness results from loss of sensory cells in the inner ear known as“hair” cells.The cells can be damaged and lost through ageing,noise,genetic defects and certain drugs and,because the cells don't re- generate,the result is progressive— and irreversible—hearing loss .Damage to these cells can al-so lead to tinnitus(耳鸣),which affects around five million people in the UK. Vivienne Michael from Deafness Research UK highly appreciates_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Owls and Larks(猫头鹰与云雀)1 In this article,we look at the importance of sleep for learning. Most healthy adults need eight or more hours of sleep.But why do we need sleep in the first place?We need sleep for the brain to get a chance to rebuild memories stored during the day and associate these with previously learned things.If this process is interrupted by,say,the sound of an alarm clock,it may not be as effective.So if your sleep is cut short by the alarm clock,how damaging is it?The truth is that it's difficult to predict,as so much depends on how much sleep your body actually needs on that particular occasion.2 The popular belief that people are naturally either larks(early risers)or owls is false.The reason why people tend to be one or the other has more to do with lifestyle,age,and personality.Many people who appear to be early birds may have just become so through habit,for example,parents with very young chil-dren.Teenagers can have difficulty falling asleep until late at night and then they naturally have problems getting up the following morning.3 The main reason why owls are owls is that they tend to spend their time over a book,movie,or corn- puter game till the early hours of the morning.They enjoy the quiet of the night when they can pursue their passion.On the other hand,larks can make better use of early morning hours where they can study in quiet at the time when their brains are most refreshed.So which is better for learning一an owl's or a lark's lifestyle? The simple truth is that it is more complex than simply being one or the other. Leading a well-balanced life in terms of work and play and sleeping enough to bring maximum refreshment is probably the secret.4 As for naps , experts on insomnia(失眠)argue against taking naps , as these may keep people up at night. If your nap lasts only five minutes to haff an hour and does not affect your ability to fall asleep in the night,it will probably help you be more alert in evening hours.However,if you are having problems getting to sleep at night , it's not only naps that you should avoid. Try not to drink a lot of alcohol , take nicotine(尼古 丁),do mentally intense activities like preparing for exams or doing exercise in the evening. Some peopleswear that drinking coffee never stops them from sleeping like a log,whereas others will never go near the stuff for fear of being awake all night.However,the best advice for most is to avoid it in the evening,and if you drink coffee before a nap,remember you are likely to awaken as soon as the caffeine starts kicking in. Paragraph 4________
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Don't Be WorkaholicWorkaholic and working hard are quite different.Working hard involves being organized,focused,getting a lot of work done,knowing when to stop,and having a life other than work.Workaholics,on the other hand,are often disorganized,always find reasons for working more,feel lost without work to do,hide from problems through work, don't know how or when to relax,bring work home from the office,can't communicate well with fellow workers and family members and have unbalanced,one-dimensional lives.Workaholics,like those who are constantly drunk,suffer from a controlling habit,usually defined as compelling behavior despite negative consequences.They are sometimes pushed into their habit by their work beliefs,by workaholic role models,and by a work system that automatically sanctions workaholism,Despite lip service to the contrary,most employers want loyal employees who work longer hours,rewarding them with higher pay and better benefits.In many companies,workers unwilling to burn the midnight oil are at risk.Certainly,they hazard their jobs by working normal hours.Americans tend to become trapped in a working and spending consumption mode,driven by merchants,that leads them to rack up their expectations.According to some psychology counselors,workaholism can be both good and bad for us.It can fuel a sense of self-worth and accomplishment. And we get paid for it and praised for it,which produces good feelings we may not necessarily be able to attain in other parts of our lives. Which of the following is not the symptom of being workaholic?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇ObesityObesity refers to the medical condition characterized by storage of excess body fat. The human body naturally stores fat tissue under the skin and around organs and joints.Fat is critical for good health because it is a source of energy when the body lacks the energy necessary to sustain life processes,and it provides insulation and protection for internal organs.But too much fat in the body is associated with a variety of health problems.Most physicians use the body mass index(BMI)to determine desirable weights.BMI is calculated as weight divided by height and people with a BMI of 27 or above are considered obese.Weight-height tables,such as those published by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company,are also used as general measures of desirable weight ranges.These tables assign a range of weights for a particular height.For example,a man of 1.8m has a desirable range of 66 to 83 kg,with an average of 75 kg. A woman who is 1.6 m has a desirable range between 53 and 70 kg,with an average of 62 kg.The BMI and weight-height tables only provide rough estimates of desirable weights and scientists recognize that many other factors besides height affect weight. Weight alone may not be an indicator of fat,as in the case of a body-builder who may have a high BMI because of a high percentage of muscle tissue,which weighs more than fat. Likewise,a person with a sedentary lifestyle may be within a desirable weight range but have excess fat tissue.Obesity increases the risk of developing disease.According to some estimates,almost 70 percent of heart disease cases are linked to excess body fat,and obese people are more than twice as likely to develop high blood pressure.Obese women are at nearly twice the risk for developing breast cancer,and all obese people have an estimated 42 percent higher chance of developing colon cancer. The risk of medical complications particularly heart disease increases when body fat is distributed around the waist,especially in the abdomen.This type of upper body fat distribution is more common in men than in women.The social and psychological problems experienced by obese people are also formidable.Stereotypes about"fat"people are often translated into discriminatory practices in education,employment, and social relationships.The consequences of being obese in a world where people had better be "thin"are especially severe for women,whose appearances are often judged against and ideal of exaggerated slimness. If we say that"fat is critical for good health,"we mean that_________.

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