卫生A

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 Prolonging Human Life1. Prolonging human life has increased the size of the human population.Many people alive to-day would have died of childhood diseases if they had been born 100 years ago.Because more people live longer,there are more people around at any given time .In fact,it is a decrease in death rates,not an increase in birthrates,that has led to the population explosion.2. Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency load.In all societies,people who are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them. In hunting and gathering cultures,old people who could not keep up might be left behind to die.In times of famine,infants might be allowed to die because they could not survive if their parents starved,whereas if the parents survived they could have another child.3. In most contemporary societies,people feel a moral obligation to keep people alive whether they can work or not.We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work;we also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age.Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement,somebody else must support them.In the United States many retired people live on social security checks which are so little that they must live in near poverty.Older people have more illness than young or middle-aged people;unless they have wealth or private or government insurance,they must often"go on welfare"if they have a serious illness.4. When older people become senile or too weak and ill to care for themselves,they create grave problems for their families.In the past and in some traditional cultures,they would be cared for at home until they died.Today,with most members of a household working or in school,there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person.To meet this need,a great many nursing homes and convalescent hospitals have been built.These are often profit-making organizations,although some are sponsored by religious and other nonprofit groups.While a few of these institutions arc good,most of them are simply"dumping grounds"for the dying in which"care" is given by poorly paid,overworked,and under-skilled personnel. Paragraph 1______
[多选题]共用题干 We Need Green SpaceDecades ago,any open field,any vacant lot,any group of trees were the places where children played.As families left family farms,small towns,and the countryside,and moved into cities,the places for their children to play in became rarer.(46)_________In fact,all people's lives change a lot when they move to the city. In cities,homes are built on top of one another in enormous apartment buildings.The feeling of private space and ownership no longer exists in houses literally piled one on the other.Psychologists have been studying the changes people experience when they leave rural areas and move into urban environments.(47)________Children can play on paved playgrounds.That's true.(48)_________Without grass and trees and bushes and,yes,dirt and mud to get dirty in, children miss an important part of childhood.The human soul,it seems,needs to stay close to its roots.Adults can plant lots of things like bulbs in window boxes and large containers.(49)_________ The lack of green space is now recognized and understood as a problem.City planners一the people who design neighborhoods一have begun to work on a solution.They want to build more parks,but land in cities is quite costly.So they look for land that no one else wants.Along rivers,under power lines,near ditches and highways—(50)________Why not use these unused spaces for green areas?Neighborhood groups have coordinated their efforts to clean up the trash or garbage.Soil from new building projects in the city has been trucked by lorries into these areas.This soil has been dumped along the sides of rivers,and strong walls have been erected to hold it there.Trees and bushes have been planted;the roots of these plants will hold the soil, too,and the green leaves make the area beautiful. ________(46)
[多选题]共用题干 Single-parent Kids Do BestSingle mums are better at raising their kids than two parents-at least in the bird world.Mother zebra finches have to work harder and raise fewer chicks on their own,but they also produce more attractive sons who are more likely to get a mate.The finding shows that family conflict is as important an evolutionary driving force as ecological factors such as hunting and food supply.______(46)In evolutionary terms,the best strategy for any parent in the animal world is to find someone else to care for their offspring,so they can concentrate on breeding again.Soit's normal for parents to try to pass the buck to each other.But Ian Hartley from the University of Lancaster and his team wondered how families solve this conflict,and how the conflict itself affects the offspring.______(47)They compared single females with pairs,by monitoring the amount of food each parent collected,and removing or adding chicks so that each pair of birds was raising four chicks,and each single mum had two-supposedly the same amount of work.But single mums,they found,put in about 25 per cent more effort than females rearing with their mate. ______(48)"The offspring suffer some of the cost of this conflict,"says Hartley.The cost does not show in any obvious decrease in size or weight,but in how attractive they are to the opposite sex.When the chicks were mature,the researchers tested the"fitness"of the male offspring by offering females their choice of partner.______( 49)Sexual conflict has long been thought to affect the quality of care given to offspring,says zoologist Rebecca Kilner at Cambridge University,who works on conflict of parents in birds."But the experimental evidence is not great.The breakthrough here is showing it empirically."More surprising,says Kilner,is Hartley',S statement that conflict may be a strong influence on the evolution of behaviour,clutch size and even appearance."People have not really made that link,"says Hartley.A female's reproductive strategy is usually thought to be affected by hunting and food supply.______(50) ______(50)
[多选题]共用题干 A Biological ClockEvery living thing has what scientists call a biological clock that controls behavior. The bio- logical clock tells______(51)when to form flowers and when the flowers should open. It tells ______(52)when to leave the protective cocoons and fly away,and it tells animals and human beings when to eat,sleep and wake.Events outside the plant and anima______(53)the actions of some biological clocks.Sci- entists recently found,for example,that a tiny animal changes the color of its fur______(54) the number of hours of daylight.In the short______(55)of winter,its fur becomes white.The fur becomes gray brown in color in the longer hours of daylight in summer.Inner signals control other biological clocks.German scientists found that some kind of internal clock seems to order birds to begin their long migration______(56)twice each year. Birds ______(57)flying become restless when it is time for the trip,______(58)they become calm again when the time of the flight has ended.Scientists say they are beginning to learn which______(59)of the brain contain biologica] clocks.An American researcher,Martin Moorhead,said a small group of cells near the front of the brain______(60)to control the timing of some of our actions.These______(61)tell a person when to______(62),when to sleep and when to seek food.Scientists say there proba- bly are other biological clock cells that control other body activities.Dr Moorhead is studying______(63)our biological clocks affect the way we do our work .For example,most of us have great difficulty if we must often change to different work hours.______(64)can take many days for a human body to accept the major change in work hours .Dr. Moorhead said industrial officials should have a better understanding of biological clocks and how they affect workers.He said______(65)understanding could cut sickness and accidents at work and would help increase a factory's production. 58._________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇In many of the developinlg countries in Africa and Asia,the population is growing fast.The reason for this is simple:Women in these countries have a high birth rate一from 3.0 to 7.0 children per woman.The majority of these women are poor,without the food or resources to care for their families.Why do they have so many children?Why don't they limit the size of the family?The answer may be that they often have no choice.There are several reasons for this.One reason is economic.In a traditional agricultural economy,large families are helpful.Having more children means having more workers in the fields and someone to take care of the parents in old age.In an industrial economy,the situation is different. Many children do not help a family;instead,they are an expense.Thus,industrialization has generally brought down the birth rate.This was the case in Italy,which was industrialized quite recently and rapidly.In the early part of the twentieth century,Italy was a poor,largely agricultural country with a high birth rate.After World War Ⅱ,Italy's economy was rapidly modernized and industrialized.By the end of the century,the birth rate had dropped to 1.3 children per woman,the world's lowest.However,the economy is not the only important factor that influences birth rate.Saudi Arabia, for example,does not have an agriculture-based economy,and it has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.Nevertheless,it also has a very high birth rate(7.0).Mexico and Indonesia, on the other hand,are poor countries,with largely agricultural economies,but they have recently reduced their population growth.Clearly,other factors are involved.The most important of these is the condition of women.A high birth rate almost always goes together with lack of education and low status for women.This would explain the high birth rate of Saudi Arabia.There,the traditional culture gives women little education or independence and few possibilities outside the home.On the other hand,the improved condition of womnen in Mexico,Thailand,and Indonesia explains the decline in birth rates in these countries.Their governments have taken measures to provide more education and opportunities for women.Another key factor in the birth rate is birth control.Women may want to limit their families but have no way to do so. In countries where governments have made birth control easily available and inexpensive ,birth rates have gone down.This is the case in Singapore,Sri Lanka,and India,as well as in Indonesia,Thailand,Mexico,and Brazil.In these countries,women have also been provided with health care and help in planning their families.These trends show that an effective programn to reduce population growth does not have to depend on better economic conditions. It can be effective if it aims to help women and meet theii needs.Only then,in fact,does it have any real chance of success. In a traditional agricultural economy,a large family_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Smoke Gets in Your Mind1.Lung cancer,hypertension,heart disease,birth defects一we are all too familiar with the dangers of smoking. But add to that list a frightening new concern一mental illness.According to some controversial new findings,if smoking does not kill you,it may,quite literally,drive you to despair.2.The tobacco industry openly pushes its product as something to lift your mood and soothe anxiety.But the short-term feel-good effect may mask the truth that smoking may worsen or even trigger anxiety disorders,panic attacks and depression,perhaps even schizophrenia.3.Cigarettes and mental illness have always tended to go together. An estimated 1.25 billion people smoke worldwide.Yet people who are depressed or anxious are twice as likely to smoke,and up to 88 percent of those with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are smokers.A recent American survey concluded that around half of all cigarettes burn in the fingers of those with mental illness.4.But the big question is why?The usual story is that the illness comes first. Mentally ill people take up smoking,or smoke more,to alleviate some of their distress.Even when smoking seems to start before the illness,most doctors believe that early but invisible symptoms of the disorder spark the desire to light up.But perhaps something more sinister is going on.5.A growing number of researchers claim that smoking is the cause,not the consequence of clinical depression and several forms of anxiety."We know a lot about the effects of smoking on physical health,and now we are also starting to see the adverse effects in new research on mental illness,"says Naomi Breslau,director of research at the Henry Ford Health Care System in Detroit.6.Breslau was one of the first to consider this heretical possibility.The hint came from studies, published in 1998,which followed a group of just over 1.,000 young adults for a five-year period.The 13 percent who began the study with major depression were around three times more likely to progress from being light smokers to daily smokers during the course of the study,though there was no evidence that depression increased the tendency to take up smoking. But a history of daily smok-- ing before the study commenced roughly doubled the risk of developing major depression during the five-year period. Smoking,it seems,could pre-date illness.7.At first Breslau concluded that whatever prompts people to smoke might also make them depressed.But as the results of other much larger studies began to back the statistical link,she became more convinced than ever that what she was seeing were signs that smoking,perhaps the nicotine itself,could somehow affect the brain and cause depression.8.One of these larger studies was led by Goodman,a pediatrician.She followed the health of two groups of teenagers for a year. The first group of 8,704 adolescents were not depressed,and might or might not have been smokers,while the second group of 6,947 were highly depressed and had not been smokers in the past month.After a year her team found that although depressed teenagers were more likely to have become heavy smokers,previous experimentation with smoking was the strongest predictor of such behaviour,not the depression itself. What is more important is that teenagers who started out mentally fit but smoked at least one packet per week during the study were four times more likely to develop depression than their non一smoking peers.Goodman says that depression does not seem to start before cigarette use among teens."Current cigarette use is,however,a powerful determinant of developing high depressive symptoms."9.Breslau,too,finds that smokers are as much as four times more likely to have an isolated panic attack and three times more likely to develop longer-term panic disorder than non-smokers.It's a hard message to get across,because many smokers say they become anxious when they quit,not when they smoke.But Breslau says that Paragraph 4________
[多选题]共用题干 Multiple Sclerosis(多发性硬化症)1 Multiple Sclerosis ( MS) is a disease in which the patient ' s immune(免疫的)system attacks the central nervous system.This can lead to numerous physical and mental symptoms,as the disease affects the transmission of electrical signals between the body and the brain.However,the human body,being a flexi-ble,adaptable system,can compensate for some level of damage,so a person with MS can look and feel fine even though the disease is present.2 MS patients can have one of two main varieties of the disease : the relapsing form(复发型)and theprimary progressive form.In the relapsing form,the disease progresses in a series of jumps;at times it is in remission(减轻),which means that a person's normal functions return for a period of time before the sys-tem goes into relapse and the disease again becomes more active.This is the most common form of MS; 80%~90% of people have this form of the disease when they are first diagnosed. The relapse-remission cycle can continue for many years.Eventually,however,loss of physical and cognitive functions starts to take place and the remissions become less frequent.3 In the primary progressive form of MS,there are no remissions and a continual but steady loss of physical and cognitive functions takes place.This condition affects about 10%~15% of sufferers atdiagnosis.4 The expected course of the disease,or prognosis(预后),depends on many variables:the subtype of the disease,the patient's individual characteristics and the initial symptoms.Life expectancy of patients, however,is often nearly the same as that of an unaffected person一provided that a reasonable standard of care is received.In some cases a near-normal life span is possible.5 The cause of the disease is unclear ; it seems that some people have a genetic susceptibility(易感 性),which is triggered by some unknown environmental factor. Onset(发作)of the disease usually occurs in young adults between the age of 20 and 40.It is more common in women than men;however,it has also been diagnosed in young children and in elderly people.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇On 8th November 1974 Lord Lucan,a British aristocrat,vanished.The day before,his children's nanny had been brutally murdered and his wife had been attacked too.To this day the British public are still interested in the murder case because Lucan has never been found.Now,over 30 years later,the police have reopened the case,hoping that new DNA techniques will help solve this murder mystery.People suspected that"Lucky",as he was called by friends,wanted to kill his wife he no longer lived with.They say that Lucan entered his old house and in the dark,killed the nanny by mistake. His estranged wife heard noises,came downstairs and was also attacked,but managed to escape. Seven months after the murder,a jury concluded that Lucan had killed the nanny.What happened next is unclear,but there are several theories which fall into one of three categories:he may have killed himself,he could have escaped or he might have been killed.It appears that the night after the murder,"Lucky"borrowed a car and drove it,Lucan's friend Aspinall said in an interview that he thought Lucan had committed suicide by sinking his boat in the English Channel.Another version of events says that"Lucky"left the blood-soaked car on the coast and took a ferry to France.He was met there by someone who drove him to safety in another country.However, after a time,his rescuers became worried that they would become involved in the murder too and so Lucan was killed.A further fascinating theory was made in the book Dead Lucky by Duncan Mac Laiwhlin.a former detective.He believes that Lucan traveled to Goa,India,where he assumed the identity of a Mr. Barry Haplin. Lucan then lived in Goa till his death in 1996.In the end the claim turned out to be a case of mistaken identity. The man who died in 1996 was really Haplin,an ex-school teacher turned hippy. So what is the truth about Lucky?DNA testing has solved many murder cases,but who knows if it can close the book on this one. Ex-detective Mac Laughlin claimed that Mr. Barry Haplin___________.
[多选题]共用题干 One-third of Parents Lack Facts about Child DevelopmentOne-third of parents of babies have a surprisingly low knowledge of child development,in-cluding basic concepts about what their children should know or how they should act,a new study finds.For instance,the study found that many parents don't know that 1 -year-olds can't tell the difference between right and wrong,and often don't cooperate or share when playing with other children.The results are surprising because the parents who took part in the survey had young chil- dren,said lead author Dr. Heather Paradis,a pediatric fellow at the University of Rochester Med-ical Center in New York.“They were watching or had just watched their kids go through this de-velopment,and they were probably the most knowledgeable of anybody.”Paradis and her colleagues examined the results of a survey of parents—98 .6 percent of whom were mothers—of more than 10,000 9-month-old babies. As part of the survey,the parents were asked 1 1 questions designed to test their knowledge of a baby's development.The researchers also examined what the parents said about their interactions with their chil- dren,and watched videotapes of how the parents taught new things to their kids.One-third of those surveyed incorrectly answered four or more of the questions.Even when the researchers ad-justed the statistics to account for such factors as education levels and income,those parents were still less likely to enjoy“healthy interactions”with their children.A lack of proper understanding of a child's development can cause assorted problems,Para-dis said. For example,she said,a mother might expect an 18-month-old child to sit still for a doctor's appointment,even though children that age are normally curious and like to wander around.“A mom could misinterpret a child's normal curiosity as intentionally being defiant,and could respond with harsh discipline,withdrawal of affection and repetition of that pattern over time,”Paradis said.“That could hinder the child's potential for full growth and development.”The findings were to be presented Sunday at the Pediatric Academic Societies' meeting in Honolulu.One solution,Paradis said,is for pediatricians to take a more active role in educating new parents.“By improving knowledge of child development among all parents,not just those who are at highest risk,there's an opportunity to enhance parent-child interaction,”she said.“It can ul-timately lead to better parenting.” Most mothers with young children prefer to stay at home.
[多选题]共用题干 In Your FaceWhy is this man so angry?We don't know the reason,but we can see the emotion in his face.What- ever culture you come from,you can understand the feeling that he is expressing.Forty years ago,psychologist Paul Ekman of the University of California,San Francisco,became interested in how people's faces show their feelings.He took photographs of Americans expressing various emotions.Then he showed them to the Fore people,who live in the jungle in New Guinea. Most of the Fore had never seen foreign faces,but they easily understood Americans' expressions of anger,happiness,sad- ness,disgust,fear,and surprise.Then Ekman did the same experiment in reverse.He showed pictures of Fore faces to Americans,and the results were similar. Americans had no problems reading the emotions on the Fore people's faces. Ekman's research gave powerful support to the theory that facial expressions for basic emotions are the same everywhere.He did more research in Japan,Brazil,and Argentina,and got the same results.According to Ekman,these six emotions are universal because they are built into our brains.Theydeveloped to help us deal with things quickly that might hurt us.Some emotional triggers are universal as well.When something suddenly comes into sight,people feel fear,because it might be dangerous.But most emotional triggers are learned.For example,two people might smell newly cut grass.One person spent won- derful summers in the country as a child,so the smell makes him happy.The other person remembers work- ing very hard on a farm and being hungry,so he feels sad.Once we make an emotional association in our brain,it is difficult,and sometimes impossible,to change it."Emotion is the least changeable part of the brain,"says Ekman.But we can learn to manage our emotions better. For instance,we can be more aware of things that make us angry,and we can think before we react.There are many differences between cultures,in their languages and customs.But a smile is exactly the same everywhere. People of different cultures smile when they understand each other.
[多选题]共用题干 Eating Potatoes Gives Your Immune System a BoostEating potatoes is not only good for bowel health,but also for the whole immune system,especially when they come in the form of a potato salad or eaten cold.In a study on an animal model,researchers in Spain found that pigs fed large quantities of raw potato starch(RPS)not only had a healthier bowel,but also decreased levels of white blood cells,such as leucocytes and lymphocytes in their blood .White blood cells are produced as a result of inflammation or disease, generally when the body is challenged.The general down-regulation of leucocytes observed by the Spanish researchers suggests an overali beneficial effect,a generally more healthy body.The reduction in leucocyte levels was about 15 percent. Lower lymphocyte levels are also indicative of reduced levels of inflammation, but the observed reduction in both lymphocyte density and lymphocyte apoptosis is surprising.In what was the longest study of its kind,pigs were fed RPS over 14 weeks to find out the effect of starch on bowel health."The use of raw potato starch in this experiment is designed to simulate the effects of a diet high in resistant starch,"said study leader Jose Francisco Perez at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona,Spain.Humans do not eat raw potatoes,but they do eat a lot of foods that contain resistant starch,such as cold boiled potatoes,legumes,grains,green bananas,pasta and cereals.About 1 0 percent of the starch eaten by human is resistant starch-starch that is not digested in the small intestine and so is shunted into the large intestine where it ferments .Starch consumption is thought to reduce the risk of large bowel cancer and may also have an effect on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).Immunology expert Lena Ohman's team previously found that the overall lymphocyte levels do not vary for IBS patients,but that lymphocytes are transferred from the peripheral blood to the gut,which support the hypothesis of IBS being at least partially an inflammatory disorder. She says the decrease in lymphocytes observed by the Spanish is therefore interesting,and a diet of resistant starch may be worth trying in lBS patients.Ohman is currently at the Department of Internal Medicine,Goteborg University,Sweden.The study is published in the journal Chemistry and Industry,the magazine of the SCI. What a kind of starch is resistant starch after all?
[多选题]共用题干 In Your FaceWhy is this man so angry?We don't know the reason,but we can see the emotion in his face.What- ever culture you come from,you can understand the feeling that he is expressing.Forty years ago,psychologist Paul Ekman of the University of California,San Francisco,became interested in how people's faces show their feelings.He took photographs of Americans expressing various emotions.Then he showed them to the Fore people,who live in the jungle in New Guinea. Most of the Fore had never seen foreign faces,but they easily understood Americans' expressions of anger,happiness,sad- ness,disgust,fear,and surprise.Then Ekman did the same experiment in reverse.He showed pictures of Fore faces to Americans,and the results were similar. Americans had no problems reading the emotions on the Fore people's faces. Ekman's research gave powerful support to the theory that facial expressions for basic emotions are the same everywhere.He did more research in Japan,Brazil,and Argentina,and got the same results.According to Ekman,these six emotions are universal because they are built into our brains.Theydeveloped to help us deal with things quickly that might hurt us.Some emotional triggers are universal as well.When something suddenly comes into sight,people feel fear,because it might be dangerous.But most emotional triggers are learned.For example,two people might smell newly cut grass.One person spent won- derful summers in the country as a child,so the smell makes him happy.The other person remembers work- ing very hard on a farm and being hungry,so he feels sad.Once we make an emotional association in our brain,it is difficult,and sometimes impossible,to change it."Emotion is the least changeable part of the brain,"says Ekman.But we can learn to manage our emotions better. For instance,we can be more aware of things that make us angry,and we can think before we react.There are many differences between cultures,in their languages and customs.But a smile is exactly the same everywhere. Ekman thinks that some basic emotions are the same everywhere.
[多选题]共用题干 ‘Feed Me Better'When British TV chef Jamie Oliver launched his‘Feed Me Better'campaign in 2004 in schools in the Greenwich area of London with the aim of improving the diet of British schoolchildren,some people were skeptical about the impact it would have.Oliver's highly-publicized television campaign to improve school lunches led to dramatic changes in the meals offered to pupils in the Greenwich schools.In order to achieve his aim Oliver needed to show schools how to swap(交换)cheap processed meals , which were high in saturated fat(饱和脂肪),salt , and sugar , for healthier options.Now,research at the Institute for Social and Economic Research(ISER)has shown that Oliver's experiment did not only help pupils eat more healthily,it also resulted in them performing better at school in English and Science and in helping schools reduce their rates of absenteeism(缺勤).The ISER study, carried out by Michele Belol and Jonathan James,showed"substantial"positive effects,with the performance of 1 1 -year-old pupils eating Oliver's meals improving by up to 8% in Science and by as much as 6% in English.In addition,the number of children having authorized absences for sickness since 2004 showed a 14% decrease.The ISER study analysed the academic test results of more than 13,000 children in Greenwich between 2002 and 2007 to evaluate the impact of Oliver's healthier meals on school performance.Pupils who sat exams in 2006-2007 had been on the new diet for at least 12 months,and the researchers found that the number of pupils reaching higher levels of achievement had clearly risen.The study also compared the results of the schools in Greenwich with those of pupils of the same age in seven other London areas who did not eat the meals created by Oliver.The researchers were surprised by the speed of improvements in the Greenwich pupils.They could find no other explanation for the results except for the healthier and more nutritious meals created by Oliver.Commenting on ISER's findings,Oliver said he felt the research proved that he was right in his decision to remove fatty processed food and replace it with nutrient-rich(营养的)foods such as coconut (椰子),fish, and broccoli(花椰菜).He commented that “we could see that it made them calmer and therefore able to learn”. The‘Feed Me Better'campaign targeted a healthier diet at schoolchildren.
[多选题]共用题干 Mt. Desert IslandThe coast of the State of Maine is one of the most irregular in the world.A straight line running from the southernmost coastal city to the northernmost coastal city would measure about 225 miles.If you followed the coastline between these points,you would travel more than ten times as far. This irregularity is the result of what is called a drowned coastline._________(46)At that time,the whole area that is now Maine was part of a mountain range that towered above the sea. As the glacier(冰川)descended , however , it expendedenormous force on those mountains,and they sank into the sea.As the mountains sank,ocean water charged over the lowest parts of the remaining land,forming a seriesof twisting inlets and lagoons(咸水湖).The highest parts of the former mountain range,nearest the shore, remained as islands._________(47)Marine fossils found here were 225 feet above sea level,indicating thelevel of the shoreline prior to the glacier.The 2,500-mile-long rocky coastline of Maine keeps watch over nearly two thousand islands. Many of these islands are tiny and uninhabited,but many are home to thriving communities.Mt. Desert Island is one of the largest,most beautiful of the Maine coast islands.Measuring 16 miles by 12 miles.Mt.Desert was essentially formed as two distinct islands._________(48)For years,Mt. Desert Island,particularly its major settlement,Bar Harbor,afforded summer homes for the wealthy.Recently though,Bar Harbor has become a rapidly growing arts community as well.But,the best part of the island is the unspoiled forest land known as Acadia National Park.Because the island sits on the boundary line between the temperate(温带)and sub-Arctic zones , the island supports the plants and ani- mals of both zones as well as beach , inland , and alpine(高山的)plants. _________( 49 ) The establishment of Acadia National Park in 1916 means that this natural reserve will be perpetually available to all people,not just the wealthy.Visitors to Acadia may receive nature instruction from the park naturalists as well as enjoy camping,cycling,and boating. Or they may choose to spend time at the archeological museum,learning about the Stone Age inhabitants of the island.The best view on Mt.Desert Island is from the top of Cadillac Mountain._________(50)From the sum- mit,you can gaze back toward the mainland or out over the Atlantic Ocean and contemplate the beauty created by a retreating glacier. _________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Love or Hate?We have saved as a final set of emotions to two most important emotions connected with other people:love and its opposite,hate.Love can be seen everywhere.Yet surprisingly,love has been the subject of less scientific research than other emotions,such as anger and fear. The reason for this may be two fold.Firstly,love is a very complex emotion,difficult to describe and measure. Secondly,unlike many radical emotions,radical love is generally not a problem. Thus less medical attention has been paid to it.What is love?This is a complex question and requires a complex answer. Love is a strong,positive attraction and feeling for another person or thing. But it is more than this.It also involves feeling of caring,protection,excitement,and tenderness.When two people are in love,they feel drawn to one another;they greatly enjoy each other's company;and they may be sexually attracted to one another.Sometimes it is easier to think in terms of different kinds of love:romantic love,brotherly love, and so forth.Though they are different in some respects,they share one important characteristic: a strong positive feeling toward another.Our feelings toward other people are often complex.We may love someone and,at the same time,be angry with him.Or we may love someone,even though we are jealous of him.We mighi even love someone and,at the same time,hate for some precise reason.Hate is a strong negative emotion toward someone,and is due to anger,jealousy,or some other factor. Like love,hate can be a very strong emotion.It can also be very dangerous.The question is often asked,"Is it bad to hate?"The best answer is probably" sometimes yes and sometimes no." Usually hate does not help us.It makes us feel unhappy and makes us do things that may hurt others.However,sometimes it may be necessary to hate and hurt someone in order to protect loved ones.
[多选题]共用题干 A Biological ClockEvery living thing has what scientists call a biological clock that controls behavior. The bio- logical clock tells______(51)when to form flowers and when the flowers should open. It tells ______(52)when to leave the protective cocoons and fly away,and it tells animals and human beings when to eat,sleep and wake.Events outside the plant and anima______(53)the actions of some biological clocks.Sci- entists recently found,for example,that a tiny animal changes the color of its fur______(54) the number of hours of daylight.In the short______(55)of winter,its fur becomes white.The fur becomes gray brown in color in the longer hours of daylight in summer.Inner signals control other biological clocks.German scientists found that some kind of internal clock seems to order birds to begin their long migration______(56)twice each year. Birds ______(57)flying become restless when it is time for the trip,______(58)they become calm again when the time of the flight has ended.Scientists say they are beginning to learn which______(59)of the brain contain biologica] clocks.An American researcher,Martin Moorhead,said a small group of cells near the front of the brain______(60)to control the timing of some of our actions.These______(61)tell a person when to______(62),when to sleep and when to seek food.Scientists say there proba- bly are other biological clock cells that control other body activities.Dr Moorhead is studying______(63)our biological clocks affect the way we do our work .For example,most of us have great difficulty if we must often change to different work hours.______(64)can take many days for a human body to accept the major change in work hours .Dr. Moorhead said industrial officials should have a better understanding of biological clocks and how they affect workers.He said______(65)understanding could cut sickness and accidents at work and would help increase a factory's production. 60._________
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Immune FunctionsThe immune system is equal in complexity to the combined intricacies of the brain and nervous system. The success of the immune system in defending the body relies on a dynamic regulatory communication net- work consisting of millions and millions of cells.Organized into sets and subsets,these cells pass information back and forth like clouds of bees flying around a hive(蜂巢).The result is a sensitive system of checks and balances that produces an immune response that is prompt,appropriate,effective,and self-limiting.At the heart of the immune system is the ability to distinguish between self and nonself. When immune defenders encounter cells or organisms carrying foreign or nonself molecules,the immune troops move quicklyto eliminate the intruders(人侵者).Virtually every body cell carries distinctive molecules that identify it as self. The body's immune defenses do not normally attack tissues that carry a self-marker. Rather,immune cells and other body cells coexist peaceably in a state known as self-tolerance.When a normally functioning immune system attacks a nonself molecule,the system has the ability to"remember"the specifics of the foreign body.Upon subsequent encounters with the same species of molecules,the immune system reacts accordingly. With the possible exception of antibodies(抗体)passed during lactation(授乳期), this so called immune system memory is not inherited.Despite the occurrence of a virus in your family,your immune system must"learn"from experience with the many millions of distinctive nonseif molecules in the sea of microbes(微生物)in which we live. Learning entails producing the appropriate molecules and cells to match up with and counteract each nonseif invader.Any substance capable of triggering an immune response is called an antigen(抗原).Antigens are not to be confused with illergens(过敏原),which are most often harmless substances that provoke the immune system to set off the inappropriate and harmful response known as allergy.An antigen can be a virus,a bacte-rium,or even a portion or product of one of these organisms.Tissues or cells from another individual also act as antigens,because the immune system recognizes transplanted tissues as foreign,it rejects them.The body will even reject nourishing proteins unless they are first broken down by the digestive system into their primary,nonantigenic building blocks.An antigen announces its foreignness by means of intricate and charac- teristic shapes called epitopes(抗原表位), which protrude(突出)from its surface. Most antigens , even the simplest microbes,carry several different kinds of epitopes on their surface;some may even carry several hundreds.Some epitopes will be more effective than others at stimulating an immune response.Only in abnormal situations does the immune system wrongly identify self as nonself and execute a misdirected immune attack. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of this passage?
[多选题]共用题干 Life Expectancy in the Last Hundred YearsA hundred years ago,life expectancy in developed countries was about 47;in the early 21 st century,men in the United States and the United Kingdom can expect to live to about 74,women to about 80, and these______(51)are rising all the time .What has brought______(52) these changes?When we look at the life______(53)of people 100 years ago,we need to look at the greatest______(54)of the time .In the early 20th century,these were the acute and of-ten______(55)infectious diseases such as smallpox.Many children died very young from these diseases and others,and the weak and elderly were always at risk.In the______(56)world these diseases are far______(57)today,and in some cases have almost disappcarcd.A number of______(58)have led to this:improvements in sanita- tion and hygiene,the discovery and use of antibiotics,which______(59)bacterial diseases much less dangerous,and vaccinations______(60)common diseases.______(61), people's general health has improved with improvements in our general environment:cleaner air,better means of preserving food,better and warmer housing,and better understanding of nutrition.Genetically,we should all be able to live to about 85 but______(62)people do live longer today,there are still some big killers around that are preventing us from consistently reaching that age .The problems that affect people today are the more chronic illnesses,such as heart disease and strokes,and those______(63)by viruses,such as influenza and AIDS.Of course,cancer is a huge killer as well.In most cases these diseases affect______(64)people,but there are worrying trends in the developed world with problems such as obesity______(65)more heart disease and illnesses such as diabetes at younger ages.The killers today can be classed as"lifestyle diseases",which means that it may be possiblem to halt their progress. 55._________
[多选题]共用题干 Adaptation of Living ThingsCertain animals and plants develop characteristics that help them cope with their environment better than others of their kind.This natural biological process is called adaptation.Among the superior characteristics developed through adaptation are those that may help in getting food or shelter,in providing protection,and in producing and protecting the young. That results in the evolution of more and more organisms(生物体)that are better fitted to their environments.Each living thing is adapted to its way of life in a general way,but each is adapted especially to its own distinct class.A plant,for example,depends upon its roots to fix itself firmly and toabsorb water and inorganic chemicals(无机物).It depends upon its green leaves for using the sun's energy to make food from inorganic chemicals.These are general adaptations,common to most plants .In addition,there are special adaptations that only certain kinds of plants have.Many animals have adaptations that help them escape from their enemies.Some are hidden by their body color or shape,and many look like a leaf or a little branch.The coats of deer are colored to mix with the surroundings .Many animals .have the ability to remain completely still when an enemy is near.Organisms have a great variety of ways of adapting.They may adapt in their structure,func-tion,and genetics;in their development and production of the young;and in other respects.An organism may create its own environment, as do warm-blooded mammals(哺乳动物),which have the ability to adjust body heat exactly to maintain their ideal temperature despite changing weather.Usually adaptations are an advantage,but sometimes an organism is so well adapted to a particular environment that if conditions change,it finds it difficult or impossible to readapt to the new conditions. Which of the following is NOT directly mentioned in the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Harmless RevengeRevenge is one of those things that everyone enjoys.People don't like to talk about it,though.Just thesame,there is nothing more satisfying or more rewarding than revenge.The purpose is not to harm your vic-tims but to let them know that you are upset about something that they are doing to you.Careful plotting can provide you with relief from bothersome co-workers,gossiping friends,or nagging family members.Co-workers who make comments about the fact that you are always fifteen minutes late for work can be taken care of very simply.All you have to do is get up extra early one day.Before the sun comes up,drive to each coworker's house.Reach under the hood of your coworker's car and disconnect the center wire that leads to the distributor cap,the car will be unharmed,but it will not start,and your friends at work will all be late for work on the same day.If you're lucky,your boss might notice that you are the only one there and will give you a raise.Gossiping friends at school are also perfect targets for a simple act of revenge.A way to trap either male or female friends is to leave phony messages on their lockers.If the friend that you want to get is male,leave a message that a certain girl would like him to stop by her house later that day.With any luck,her boyfriend will be there.The girl won't know what's going on,and the victim will be so embarrassed that he probably won't leave his home for a month.When Mom and Dad and your sisters and brothers really begin to annoy you,harmless revenge may be just the way to make them quiet down for a while.The dinner table is a likely place.Just before the meal begins,throw a handful of raisins into the food.Wait about five minutes and,after everyone has begun to eat,cover your mouth with your hand and begin to make odd noises.When they ask you what the matter is, point to a raisin and yell,"Bugs!"They dump their food in the disposal,jump into the car,and head for McDonald'a.That night,you'll have your first quiet,peaceful meal in a long time.A well-planned revenge does not have to hurt anyone.The object is simply to let other people know thatthey are beginning to bother you.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Research by the University of Exeter has revealed that ants have a big impact on their local en-vironment as a result of their activity as"ecosystem engineers"and predators.The study,published in the Journal of Animal Ecology,found that ants have two distinct effects on their local environment.Firstly,through moving of soil by nest building activity and by collecting food they affect the level of nutrients in the soil.This can indirectly impact the local populations of many animal groups, from decomposers to species much higher up the food chain.Secondly,they prey on a wide range of other animals,including larger prey which can be at-tacked by vast numbers of ant workers.Dirk Sanders,an author of the study from the university's Centre for Ecology and Conservation, said:"Ants are very effective predators which thrive in huge numbers.They're also very territorial and very aggressive,defending their resources and territory against other predators.All of this means they have a strong influence on their surrounding area.""In this research,we studied for the first time how big this impact is and the subtleties of it. What we found is that despite being predators,their presence can also lead to an increase in density and diversity of other animal groups.They genuinely play a key role in the local environment,haying a big influence on the grassland food web,"Sanders said.The study,carried out in Germany,studied the impact of the presence of different combinations and densities of black garden ants and common red ants,both species which can be found across Eurone.including in the UK.It found that a low density of ants in an area increased the diversity and density of other animals in the local area,particularly the density of herbivores and decomposers.At higher densities ants had no or the opposite effect,showing that predation is counteracting the positive influence.Dr Frank van Veen,another author on the study,said:"What we find is that the impact of ants on soil nutrient levels has a positive effect on animal groups at low levels,but as the number of ants increases,their predatory impacts have the bigger effect一thereby counteracting the positive influence via ecosystem engineering."Ants are important components of ecosystems not only because they constitute a great part of the animal biomass but also because they act as ecosystem engineers.Ant biodiversity is incredibly high and these organisms are highly responsive to human impact,which obviously reduces its richness. However,it is not clear how such disturbance damages the maintenance of ant services to the ecosystem.Ants are important in below ground processes through the alteration of the physical and chemical environment and through their effects on plants,microorganisms,and other soil organisms. Why are ants compared to ecosystem engineers?
[多选题]共用题干 Organic Food:Why?1 Europe is now the biggest market for organic food in the world,expanding by 25 percent a year over the past 10 years.So what is the attraction of organic food for some people?The really important thing is that organic sounds more"natural".Eating organic is a way of defining oneself as natural,good,caring, different from the junk-food-eating masses.2 Unlike conventional farming,the organic approach means farming with natural,rather than man- made , fertilisers and pesticides. Techniques such as crop rotation(轮种)improve soil quality and helporganic farmers compensate for the absence of man-made chemicals.As a method of food production,organic is,however,inefficient in its use of labour and land;there are severe limits to how much food can be pro- duced.Also,the environmental benefits of not using artificial fertilisers are tiny compared with the amount of carbon dioxide emitted(排放)by transporting food.3 Organic farming is often claimed to be safer than conventional farming. Yet studies into organic farming worldwide continue to reject this claim.An extensive review by the UK Food Standards Agency foundthat there was no statistically significant difference between organic and conventional crops.Even where re-sults indicated there was evidence of a difference,the reviewers found no sign that these differences would have any noticeable effect on health.4 The simplistic claim that organic food is more nutritious than conventional food was always likely to be misleading. Food is a natural product,and the health value of different foods will vary for a number of rea-sons,including freshness,the way the food is cooked,the type of soil it is grown in,the amount of sunlight and rain crops have received,and so on.Likewise,the flavour of a carrot has less to do with whether it was fertilised with manure(粪便)or something out of a plastic sack than with the variety of carrot and how long ago it was dug up.5 The notion that organic food is safer than"normal"food is also contradicted by the fact that many of our most common foods are full of natural toxins(毒素).As one research expert says : " People think that the more natural something is,the better it is for them.That is simply not the case.In fact,it is the opposite that is true:the closer a plant is to its natural state,the more likely it is that it will poison you.Naturally, many plants do not want to be eaten,so we have spent 10,000 years developing agriculture and breeding out harmful traits from crops." The weather conditions during the growth of crops________.
[多选题]共用题干 Trying to Find a PartnerOne of the most striking findings of a recent poll in the UK is that of the people interviewed, one in two believes that it is becoming more difficult to meet someone to start a family with. Why are many finding it increasingly difficult to start and sustain intimate relationships?Does modem life really make it harder to fall in love?or are we making it harder for ourselves?It is certainly the case today that contemporary couples benefit in different ways from relationships .Women no longer rely upon partners for economic security or status.A man doesn't expect his spouse to be in sole charge of running his household and raising his children.But perhaps the knowledge that we can live perfectly well without a partnership means that it takes much more to persuade people to abandon their independence.In theory,finding a partner should be much simpler these days.Only a few generations ago, your choice of soulmate(心上人)was constrained by geography , social convention and family tradition.Although it was never explicit,many marriages were essentially arranged.Now those barriers have been broken down.You can approach a builder or a brain surgeon in any bar in any city on any given evening. When the world is your oyster(牡蛎),you surely have a better chance of finding a pearl.But it seems that the old conventions have been replaced by an even tighter constraint:the tyranny of choice.The expectations of partners are inflated to an unmanageable degree:good looks,impressive salary,kind to grandmother,and right socks.There is no room for error in the first impression.We think that a relationship can be perfect.If it isn't,it is disposable.We work to protect ourselves against future heartache and don't put in the hard emotional labor needed to build a strong relationship .Of course,this is complicated by realities.The cost of housing and childrearing creates pressure to have a stable income and career before a life partnership. Which of the following was NOT a constraint on one's choice of soulmate in the old days?
[多选题]共用题干 Organic Food:Why?1 Europe is now the biggest market for organic food in the world,expanding by 25 percent a year over the past 10 years.So what is the attraction of organic food for some people?The really important thing is that organic sounds more"natural".Eating organic is a way of defining oneself as natural,good,caring, different from the junk-food-eating masses.2 Unlike conventional farming,the organic approach means farming with natural,rather than man- made , fertilisers and pesticides. Techniques such as crop rotation(轮种)improve soil quality and helporganic farmers compensate for the absence of man-made chemicals.As a method of food production,organic is,however,inefficient in its use of labour and land;there are severe limits to how much food can be pro- duced.Also,the environmental benefits of not using artificial fertilisers are tiny compared with the amount of carbon dioxide emitted(排放)by transporting food.3 Organic farming is often claimed to be safer than conventional farming. Yet studies into organic farming worldwide continue to reject this claim.An extensive review by the UK Food Standards Agency foundthat there was no statistically significant difference between organic and conventional crops.Even where re-sults indicated there was evidence of a difference,the reviewers found no sign that these differences would have any noticeable effect on health.4 The simplistic claim that organic food is more nutritious than conventional food was always likely to be misleading. Food is a natural product,and the health value of different foods will vary for a number of rea-sons,including freshness,the way the food is cooked,the type of soil it is grown in,the amount of sunlight and rain crops have received,and so on.Likewise,the flavour of a carrot has less to do with whether it was fertilised with manure(粪便)or something out of a plastic sack than with the variety of carrot and how long ago it was dug up.5 The notion that organic food is safer than"normal"food is also contradicted by the fact that many of our most common foods are full of natural toxins(毒素).As one research expert says : " People think that the more natural something is,the better it is for them.That is simply not the case.In fact,it is the opposite that is true:the closer a plant is to its natural state,the more likely it is that it will poison you.Naturally, many plants do not want to be eaten,so we have spent 10,000 years developing agriculture and breeding out harmful traits from crops." Paragraph 4________
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇ObesityObesity refers to the medical condition characterized by storage of excess body fat. The human body naturally stores fat tissue under the skin and around organs and joints.Fat is critical for good health because it is a source of energy when the body lacks the energy necessary to sustain life processes,and it provides insulation and protection for internal organs.But too much fat in the body is associated with a variety of health problems.Most physicians use the body mass index(BMI)to determine desirable weights.BMI is calculated as weight divided by height and people with a BMI of 27 or above are considered obese.Weight-height tables,such as those published by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company,are also used as general measures of desirable weight ranges.These tables assign a range of weights for a particular height.For example,a man of 1.8m has a desirable range of 66 to 83 kg,with an average of 75 kg. A woman who is 1.6 m has a desirable range between 53 and 70 kg,with an average of 62 kg.The BMI and weight-height tables only provide rough estimates of desirable weights and scientists recognize that many other factors besides height affect weight. Weight alone may not be an indicator of fat,as in the case of a body-builder who may have a high BMI because of a high percentage of muscle tissue,which weighs more than fat. Likewise,a person with a sedentary lifestyle may be within a desirable weight range but have excess fat tissue.Obesity increases the risk of developing disease.According to some estimates,almost 70 percent of heart disease cases are linked to excess body fat,and obese people are more than twice as likely to develop high blood pressure.Obese women are at nearly twice the risk for developing breast cancer,and all obese people have an estimated 42 percent higher chance of developing colon cancer. The risk of medical complications particularly heart disease increases when body fat is distributed around the waist,especially in the abdomen.This type of upper body fat distribution is more common in men than in women.The social and psychological problems experienced by obese people are also formidable.Stereotypes about"fat"people are often translated into discriminatory practices in education,employment, and social relationships.The consequences of being obese in a world where people had better be "thin"are especially severe for women,whose appearances are often judged against and ideal of exaggerated slimness. What is obesity?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇The United States perceives itself to be a middle-class nation.However,middle class is not a real designation,nor does it carry privileges.It is more of a perception,which probably was as true as it ever could be right after World War Ⅱ.The economy was growing,more and more people owned their own homes,workers had solid contracts with the companies that employed them,and nearly everyone who wanted a higher education could have one.Successfi1l people enjoyed upward social mobility.They may have started out poor,but they could become rich.Successful people also found that they had greater geographic mobility.In other words,they found themselves moving to and living in a variety of places.The middle class collectively holds several values and principles.One strong value is the need to earn enough money to feel that one can determine one's own economic fate.In addition,middle class morality embraces principles of individual responsibility,importance of family,obligations to others,and believing in something outside oneself.But in the 1990s those in the middle class found that there was a price for success.A U. S. News&World Report survey in 1994 indicated that 75 percent of Americans believed that middle class families could no longer make ends meet.Both spouses now worked,as did some of the children;long commutes became routine;the need for child care put strains on the family;and public schools were not as good as they once were.Members of the middle class were no longer financing their lifestyles through earnings but were using credit to stay afloat. The understanding of just what middle class meant was changing. The word"collectively"means__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Parkinson's Disease1 Parkinson's disease affects the way you move.It happens when there is a problem with certain nerve cells in the brain. Normally , these nerve cells make an important chemical called dopamine(多巴胺). Dopa-mine sends signals to the part of your brain that controls movement.It lets your muscles move smoothly and do what you want them to do.When you have Parkinson's,these nerve cells break down.Then you no longerhave enough dopamine,and you have trouble moving the way you want to.2 No one knows for sure what makes these nerve cells break down.But scientists are doing a lot of re-search to look for the answer. They are studying many possible causes,including aging and poisons in the en- vironment.Abnormal genes seem to lead to Parkinson's disease in some people.But so far,there is not enough proof to show that it is always inherited.3 Tremor(颤抖)may be the first symptom you notice.It is one of the most common signs of the disease,although not everyone has it.Tremor often starts in just one arm or leg or only on one side of the body.It may be worse when you are awake but not moving the affected arm or leg. It may get better when you move the limb or when you are asleep.In time,Parkinson's affects muscles all through your body,so it can lead to problems like trouble swallowing or constipation(便秘).In the later stages of the disease , a person with Parkinson's may have a fixed or blank expression,trouble speaking,and other problems.Some people also have a decrease in mental skills.4 At this time,there is no cure for Parkinson's disease.But there are several types of medicines that can control the symptoms and make the disease easier to live with.You may not even need treatment if your symptoms are mild.Your doctor may wait to prescribe medicines until your symptoms start to get in the way of your daily life.Your doctor will adjust your medicines as your symptoms get worse.You may need to take several medicines to get the best results. Paragraph 1__________
[多选题]共用题干 FDA : Human , Animal Waste Threatens ProduceThe biggest food safety risk for fresh fruits and vegetables as they are grown,picked or processed comes from human and animal waste,the US Food and Drug Administration(FDA)said Friday.More than 9,000 Americans die each year from food-borne diseases and some scientists believe fresh produce is the biggest carrier of contamination.The FDA issued a set of draft guidelines for US and foreign growers to carefully monitor worker hygiene, water quality,manure management and transportation.These 34-page draft guidelines urged growers to give workers lessons on basic hygiene such as using soap to wash their hands,covering wounds that could come into contact with produce,and using only clean toilets.The FDA guidelines identified"the major source of contamination"for fresh produce as human or animal feces."We think just proper controls and proper attention to detail would make a big difference in food safety,"said an FDA official."It is our belief that these guidelines would not be very costly."But grower groups disagreed with the FDA's assessment."Most food-borne disease outbreaks that happen further down the distribution line are due to contamination because people preparing food are not properly washing their hands,"said Stacey Zawal,an official with United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association."That is not necessarily true for growers and packers."Some US grower organizations have expressed concern that the agency is interfering with on-farm practices.Others object to the FDA's proposal to have growers formally document the picking,handling and transportation of produce so that health officials could quickly recall foods if necessary.Consumer groups criticized the FDA guidelines as of little use because they will not carry the force of law.But stricter regulations could evolve as researchers find new technology or methods to kill harmful bacteria or parasites,the FDA said.The FDA recommendations are due to be made final by the FDA later this year for use by US and foreign growers.The matter of encouraging foreign growers to adopt the guidelines remains somewhat tricky but FDA officials say it is vital because of the huge amount of imported produce.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Around 45%of the UK's carbon dioxide emissions come from the energy people use every day-at home and when they travel.In order to generate that energy,fossil fuels(coal oil,and gas)are burnt,and these produce greenhouse gases-in particular carbon dioxide(CO2).Car emissions are a major problem, but the truth is that more CO2 comes from the energy used at home.The average household creates aroundfive and a half tonnes of CO2 a year,and it is the same CO2 that is changing the climate and damaging the environment.CO2 and various other gases wrap the earth in an invisible blanket helping to prevent heat from escaping.Without this greenhouse effect,the average temperature on Earth would be around-18℃, compared with the current average of around+15℃.The composition of this blanket of gases has remained relatively constant for many thousands of years.However,since the industrial revolution began around 200 years ago,people have been burning increasing amounts of fossil fuels,thus releasing more CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the process.This has increased the heating effect of the blanket,trapping more of the sun's energy inside the Earth's atmosphere in turn the Earth's temperature has increased more rapidly in a shorter period of time than it has for thousands of years.In 2008,the total UK CO2 emissions were 533 million tonnes.27%(144 million tonnes)of those emissions came from the energy used to heat,light,and power homes.Transport emissions caused by passenger cars,buses and motorcycles accounted for a further 16%(87 million tonnes)of the UK's CO2 emissions.These figures show that a significant amount of CO2 results from ordinary citizens carbon footprint in their daily activities and lifestyle.The effects of climate change can be seen all around us.Weather patterns are becoming more and more fractured and uncertain,and over the last century trends in warm weather have become increasingly common.In the UK in the last 40 years,winters have grown warmer,with much heavier rainfall.One of the clearest shifts over the last 200 years is towards summers that are hotter and drier,causing pervasive(普遍的)water shortages.Recent years have been the hottest since records began and during August 2003,the hottest ever outdoor temperature in the UK was recorded-38.5℃. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇In many of the developinlg countries in Africa and Asia,the population is growing fast.The reason for this is simple:Women in these countries have a high birth rate一from 3.0 to 7.0 children per woman.The majority of these women are poor,without the food or resources to care for their families.Why do they have so many children?Why don't they limit the size of the family?The answer may be that they often have no choice.There are several reasons for this.One reason is economic.In a traditional agricultural economy,large families are helpful.Having more children means having more workers in the fields and someone to take care of the parents in old age.In an industrial economy,the situation is different. Many children do not help a family;instead,they are an expense.Thus,industrialization has generally brought down the birth rate.This was the case in Italy,which was industrialized quite recently and rapidly.In the early part of the twentieth century,Italy was a poor,largely agricultural country with a high birth rate.After World War Ⅱ,Italy's economy was rapidly modernized and industrialized.By the end of the century,the birth rate had dropped to 1.3 children per woman,the world's lowest.However,the economy is not the only important factor that influences birth rate.Saudi Arabia, for example,does not have an agriculture-based economy,and it has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.Nevertheless,it also has a very high birth rate(7.0).Mexico and Indonesia, on the other hand,are poor countries,with largely agricultural economies,but they have recently reduced their population growth.Clearly,other factors are involved.The most important of these is the condition of women.A high birth rate almost always goes together with lack of education and low status for women.This would explain the high birth rate of Saudi Arabia.There,the traditional culture gives women little education or independence and few possibilities outside the home.On the other hand,the improved condition of womnen in Mexico,Thailand,and Indonesia explains the decline in birth rates in these countries.Their governments have taken measures to provide more education and opportunities for women.Another key factor in the birth rate is birth control.Women may want to limit their families but have no way to do so. In countries where governments have made birth control easily available and inexpensive ,birth rates have gone down.This is the case in Singapore,Sri Lanka,and India,as well as in Indonesia,Thailand,Mexico,and Brazil.In these countries,women have also been provided with health care and help in planning their families.These trends show that an effective programn to reduce population growth does not have to depend on better economic conditions. It can be effective if it aims to help women and meet theii needs.Only then,in fact,does it have any real chance of success. When countries become industrialized,________.
[多选题]共用题干 A Biological ClockEvery living thing has what scientists call a biological clock that controls behavior. The bio- logical clock tells______(51)when to form flowers and when the flowers should open. It tells ______(52)when to leave the protective cocoons and fly away,and it tells animals and human beings when to eat,sleep and wake.Events outside the plant and anima______(53)the actions of some biological clocks.Sci- entists recently found,for example,that a tiny animal changes the color of its fur______(54) the number of hours of daylight.In the short______(55)of winter,its fur becomes white.The fur becomes gray brown in color in the longer hours of daylight in summer.Inner signals control other biological clocks.German scientists found that some kind of internal clock seems to order birds to begin their long migration______(56)twice each year. Birds ______(57)flying become restless when it is time for the trip,______(58)they become calm again when the time of the flight has ended.Scientists say they are beginning to learn which______(59)of the brain contain biologica] clocks.An American researcher,Martin Moorhead,said a small group of cells near the front of the brain______(60)to control the timing of some of our actions.These______(61)tell a person when to______(62),when to sleep and when to seek food.Scientists say there proba- bly are other biological clock cells that control other body activities.Dr Moorhead is studying______(63)our biological clocks affect the way we do our work .For example,most of us have great difficulty if we must often change to different work hours.______(64)can take many days for a human body to accept the major change in work hours .Dr. Moorhead said industrial officials should have a better understanding of biological clocks and how they affect workers.He said______(65)understanding could cut sickness and accidents at work and would help increase a factory's production. 65._________
[多选题]共用题干 Mt. Desert IslandThe coast of the State of Maine is one of the most irregular in the world.A straight line running from the southernmost coastal city to the northernmost coastal city would measure about 225 miles.If you followed the coastline between these points,you would travel more than ten times as far. This irregularity is the result of what is called a drowned coastline._________(46)At that time,the whole area that is now Maine was part of a mountain range that towered above the sea. As the glacier(冰川)descended , however , it expendedenormous force on those mountains,and they sank into the sea.As the mountains sank,ocean water charged over the lowest parts of the remaining land,forming a seriesof twisting inlets and lagoons(咸水湖).The highest parts of the former mountain range,nearest the shore, remained as islands._________(47)Marine fossils found here were 225 feet above sea level,indicating thelevel of the shoreline prior to the glacier.The 2,500-mile-long rocky coastline of Maine keeps watch over nearly two thousand islands. Many of these islands are tiny and uninhabited,but many are home to thriving communities.Mt. Desert Island is one of the largest,most beautiful of the Maine coast islands.Measuring 16 miles by 12 miles.Mt.Desert was essentially formed as two distinct islands._________(48)For years,Mt. Desert Island,particularly its major settlement,Bar Harbor,afforded summer homes for the wealthy.Recently though,Bar Harbor has become a rapidly growing arts community as well.But,the best part of the island is the unspoiled forest land known as Acadia National Park.Because the island sits on the boundary line between the temperate(温带)and sub-Arctic zones , the island supports the plants and ani- mals of both zones as well as beach , inland , and alpine(高山的)plants. _________( 49 ) The establishment of Acadia National Park in 1916 means that this natural reserve will be perpetually available to all people,not just the wealthy.Visitors to Acadia may receive nature instruction from the park naturalists as well as enjoy camping,cycling,and boating. Or they may choose to spend time at the archeological museum,learning about the Stone Age inhabitants of the island.The best view on Mt.Desert Island is from the top of Cadillac Mountain._________(50)From the sum- mit,you can gaze back toward the mainland or out over the Atlantic Ocean and contemplate the beauty created by a retreating glacier. _________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 Many Children'S Deaths Preventable:WHOOver five million children die each year from disease,infections and accidents related______(51)their environment although many of these deaths are largely preventable,says the World Health Organization.On Monday,the WHO asked governments and citizens around the world to take action to cre-ate healthy______(52)for children as it celebrated World Health Day.“The biggest threats to children's health lurk in the very______( 53)that should be safest-home,school and community,” said Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland,director-general of the WHO at the day's launch in New Delhi,India.“Every child has the right to______(54)up in a healthy home,school and community.The future development of our children-and their world-depends on______(55)enjoying good health now.We have their future in our______(56).Now we must work more effectively together to______(57)the risks from the environment which our children face,”Brundtland said.This year's theme,“Healthy Environments for Children”focuses on the many dangers ______(58)by children in and around the places where they live and play.These include inadequate access to safe drinking______(59)and sanitation,insect- borne diseases,air pollution,chemical hazards and injuries from traffic,falls,burns and drownings.Communities around the world organized events to promote awareness of children's health is-sues,______(60)included drawing contests for schoolchildren in Vietnam,street plays in In-dia,puppet shows in Namibia and professional lectures for policy makers in Germany and else-where.Activities also took______(61)in cities across Canada on Monday,including Calgary, Montreal,Halifax and Ottawa.Although children under five represent only 10 per cent of the world's population,they bear 40 per cent of the global disease______(62),says the WHO.And as much as one-third of the total burden of disease may be caused by environmental______(63).World Health Day has been celebrated on April 7th______(64)1950 .Each year the WHO chooses a theme to highlight areas of particular concern.Last year's______(65),Move for Health,focused on promoting physical activity as part. of healthy living. 60._________
[多选题]共用题干 Surgery Involving the Heart1 The heart-lung machine(pump-oxygenator)is a valuable addition to the modern operating room. This machine has made it possible to perform many operations on the heart and other thoracic organs which could not otherwise be done.There are several types of machines in use,all of which serve as a temporary substitute for the patient's heart and lungs.2 The machine siphons off the blood from the large vessels entering the heart on the right side so that no blood passes through the heart and lungs.The blood is returned to the general circulation for body distribution through one of the large arteries.While passing through the machine,the blood is oxygenated by means of an oxygen inlet,and carbon dioxide is removed by various chemical means.These are the processes that normally take place between the blood and the air in the lung tissue.While in the machine,the blood is also deformed to be sure that all air bubbles are removed,since such bubbles could be fatal to the patient byobstructing blood vessels.An electric motor in the machine serves as a pump during the surgical procedure to distribute the processed blood throughout the body by means of the artery mentioned above.3 Diseased valves may become deformed and scarred from endocarditis so that they are ineffective and often obstructive.In some cases a special small knife can be inserted into the heart chamber and the valve can be cut so that it no longer obstructs the blood flow. The valve may even become partially functional.In other cases there may be so much damage that replacement is the only resort. Substitute valves,made of plastic materials have proved to be a lifesaving measure for many patients.Very thin butterfly valves made of dacron(涤纶)or other synthetic material have also been successfully used.4 Artificial hearts or parts of hearts designed to assist the ventricles in their pumping function have not proved as successful as the artificial valves.However,research continues and it is quite possible that an effective device may soon be ready for use.More spectacular is the transplantation of a human heart from the body of a person who has recently died.Tissues of the donor and the recipient should be as closely matched as possible to avoid rejection by the recipient's antibody mechanism.This rejection syndrome is the most serious problem related to heart transplants. Paragraph 2________
[多选题]共用题干 Migrant WorkersIn the past twenty years,there has been an increasing tendency for workers to move from one country to another.______(51)some newly independent countries have understandably restricted most jobs to localpeople,others have attracted and welcomed migrant workers.This is particularly the case in the Middle East,______(52)increased oil incomes have enabled many countries to______(53)outsiders to improve local facilities.______(54)the Middle East has attracted oil-workers from the USA and Europe.It has brought in construction workers and technicians from many countries,______(55)South Korea and Japan.In view of the difficult living and working conditions in the Middle East,it is not______(56)that the pay is high to attract suitable workers.Many engineers and technicians can earn at least______(57) money in the Middle East as they can in their own country,and this is a major attraction.An allied benefit is the low taxation or complete lack of it.This increases the net amount of pay received by visiting workers and is very popular with them.Sometimes a disadvantage has a compensating advantage.______(58),the difficult living conditions often lead to increased friendship when workers have to depend on each other______(59)safety and comfort.______(60),many migrant workers can save large sums of money partly______(61)the lack of entertainment facilities.The work is often complex and full of problems but this merely presents greater challenge to engineers who prefer to find solutions______(62)problems rather than do routine work in their home country.One major problem which______(63)migrant workers in the Middle East is that their jobs are temporary ones.They are nearly always on contract,so it is not easy for them to plan ahead with great confidence.This is to be expected since no country welcomes a large number of foreign workers as permanent residents.______(64),migrant workers accept this disadvantage,along with others,because of the ______(65)financial benefits which they receive. 56._________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Love or Hate?We have saved as a final set of emotions to two most important emotions connected with other people:love and its opposite,hate.Love can be seen everywhere.Yet surprisingly,love has been the subject of less scientific research than other emotions,such as anger and fear. The reason for this may be two fold.Firstly,love is a very complex emotion,difficult to describe and measure. Secondly,unlike many radical emotions,radical love is generally not a problem. Thus less medical attention has been paid to it.What is love?This is a complex question and requires a complex answer. Love is a strong,positive attraction and feeling for another person or thing. But it is more than this.It also involves feeling of caring,protection,excitement,and tenderness.When two people are in love,they feel drawn to one another;they greatly enjoy each other's company;and they may be sexually attracted to one another.Sometimes it is easier to think in terms of different kinds of love:romantic love,brotherly love, and so forth.Though they are different in some respects,they share one important characteristic: a strong positive feeling toward another.Our feelings toward other people are often complex.We may love someone and,at the same time,be angry with him.Or we may love someone,even though we are jealous of him.We mighi even love someone and,at the same time,hate for some precise reason.Hate is a strong negative emotion toward someone,and is due to anger,jealousy,or some other factor. Like love,hate can be a very strong emotion.It can also be very dangerous.The question is often asked,"Is it bad to hate?"The best answer is probably" sometimes yes and sometimes no." Usually hate does not help us.It makes us feel unhappy and makes us do things that may hurt others.However,sometimes it may be necessary to hate and hurt someone in order to protect loved ones. The word"saved"in the first sentence of this passage means___________.
[多选题]共用题干 A Health ProfileA health profile 15 a portrait ofallofthefactorsthatinfluenceyourhealth.Todrawyourhealth profile,you will_________(51)what diseases run in your family,what health hazards you may be exposed to_________(52)work,how your daily_________(53)compares to the recommended standards,how much time per week you_______(54)exercising and what type of exercise you engage_______(55),how stressful your work and family environments are,what kinds of illnesses you get regularly,and_______(56)or not you have any one of a number of addictions._________ (57)this portrait,your should have a checkup to determine how your blood,heart,and lungs are functioning.This checkup will serve__________(58)a baseline,to which you can then compare later tests.__________(59)this profile 15 thoroughly drawn,you can begin to think about setting health priorities based_________(60)your particular portrait.For example,if you drink two martinis every evening,have a high-stress_________(61),smoke a pack of cigarettes a day,and use marijuana occasionally on weekends,you should quit smoking first,followed_________(62)losing the excess weight,reducing the stress of your job,giving up your marijuana habit,and then finally giving some __________(63)to those martinis if you want to prevent first cancer,and then heart disease.Even for the youthful working person who has never been sick a day in his life,who 15_______(64)excellent health,a good look at all health habits and at work and home environments may suggest changes that will________(65)him in the future. _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 Pandemic(大面积流行的)H1N1 2009The most active areas of pandemic influenza transmission currently are in central and eastern Europe. Focal(集中的)increases in rates during recent weeks were _________( 5 1 ) in at least two eastern Europeancountries. A high intensity of respiratory(呼吸的)disease activity with concurrent(同时存在的)circulation of pandemic influenza still_________(52)in parts of southern and eastern Europe,_________(53)in Greece, Poland,and Ukraine.In Western Europe,influenza transmission remains_________(54)and widespread,but overall disease activity has peaked. All influenza viruses in Western Europe were pandemic H1N1 2009._________(55),very small numbers of seasonal influenza viruses covering less than 1%of all influenza viruses found,were reported in Russia. In_________(56),limited available data indicate that active,high intensity transmission is occurring in Northern African countries_________(57)the Mediterranean coast.In Central Asia,limited data_________(58)that influenza virus circulation remains active,but transmis-sion may have recently peaked in some places.In West Asia,Israel,Iran,and Iraq also appear to have passed their_________(59)period of transmission within the past month though both areas continue to have some active transmission and levels of respiratory disease activity have not yet_________(60)to baseline levels.In East Asia,influenza transmission remains active but appears to be_________(61)overall. Slight increases in ILI were reported in Mongolia after weeks of declining activity following a large peak of activity_________(62)one month ago.In North America,influenza transmission_________(63)widespread but has declined quickly in all countries.In the tropical regions of Central and South America and the Caribbean,influenza transmission re- mains geographically widespread but overall disease_________(64)has been declining or remains unchanged in most parts,_________(65)for focal increases in respiratory disease activity in a few countries. _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 A Country's Standard of LivingThe"standard of living" of any country means the average person's share of the goods and services the country produces.A country's standard of living,________(51),depends first and ________(52)on its capacity to produce wealth."Wealth"in this sense is not money,for we do not live on money________( 53)on things that money can buy:"goods"such as food and clothing, and"services"such as transport and entertainment.A country's capacity to produce wealth depends upon many factors,most of_________(54) have an effect on one another. Wealth depends_________(55)a great extent upon a country's natural resources.Some regions of the world are well supplied with coal and minerals,and have fertile soil and a favorable climate;other regions possess none of them.Next to natural resources_________(56) the ability to turn them to use.Some countries are perhaps as well-off_________(57)the USA in natural resources,but suffered for many years from civil and external wars,and________(58)this and other reasons were________(59)to develop their resources.Sound and stable political conditions,and________(60)from foreign invasions, enable a country to develop its natural resources peacefully and steadily,and to produce more wealth than another country equally well favoured by nature but less well ordered.A country's standard of living does not only depend upon the wealth that is produced and consumed_________(61)its own borders,but also upon what is directly produced through international trade.________(62),Britain's wealth in foodstuffs and other agricultural products would be much less if she had to depend only on________(63)grown at home.Trade makes it possible for her surplus manufactured goods to be traded abroad for the agricultural products that would________(64)be lacking.A country's wealth is,therefore,much influenced by its manufacturing capacity, ______(65)that other countries can be found ready to accept its manufactures. _________(60)
[多选题]共用题干 Beauty or Comfort?People in Beijing wear a lot of clothing during winter to fend off the cold.In the United States, however,people wear(51)________,partly because the car is the primary mode of transportation. Cars take(52)________straight to their workplaces,which are heated well. The American diet is full of calories,so their(53)_______can afford to burn heat more quickly.Fewer layers of clothing give people the opportunity to stay(54)_______.Lots of Yales girls wear skirts(55)________when it's 10 degree Centigrade outside.Some of them at least wear boots,tights,and leg-warmers.Some,however,really just go for the look(56)_________the risk of health.These girls have nothing to prevent their legs(57)_________the wind,and no socks to protect their feet.A mini skirt and a pair of stilettos are all that they wear.Typically,the ones pursuing fashion are(58)_______,with little body fat. Just by the nature of their bodies,they are already at a disadvantage compared with normal people in (59)________ weather. I have always(60)_______whenever I pass these girls,how they manage to refrain from shivering and just smile like spring had arrived.And then there are the guys.The girls can be said to(61)_________health for beauty.But why do guys(62)_________so little?It is not like,once they shed some layers, they suddenly become better-looking. They are not exactly being fashionable when they(63)_________wear sporty shorts and shower slippers in the midst of winter. It's not cute.Of course,people have the freedom to look whatever(64)__________they want. I am just surprised that,given the vast difference between winter and summer temperatures in Connecticut,they can still(65)________like they are partying on the beach in the middle of February. _________(54.)
[多选题]共用题干 Fermi ProblemOn a Monday morning in July,the world's first atom bomb exploded in New Mexico desert. Forty seconds later,the shock waves reached the base camp where the Italian-American physicist Enrico Fermi and his team stood.After a mental calculation,Fermi announced to his team that the bomb's energy had equated 10,000 tons of TNT. The bomb team was impressed,but not sur-prised.Fermi's genius was known throughout the scientific world.In 1938 he had won a Nobel Prize.Four years later he produced the first nuclear chain reaction,leading us into the nuclear age .Since Fermi's death in 1954,no physicist has been at once a master experimentalist(实验室)and a leading theoretician(理论学家).Like all virtuosos(大师),Fermi had a distinctive style. He preferred the most direct route to an answer. He was very good at dividing difficult problems into small,manageable bits talent we all can use in our daily lives.To develop this talent in his students,Fermi would suggest a type of question now known as a Fermi problem.Upon first hearing one of these,you haven't the remotest notion of the answer, and you feel certain that too little information had been given to solve it. Yet when the problem is broken into sub-problems,each answerable without the help of experts or books,you can come close to the exact solution.Suppose you want to determine earth's circumference without looking it up.Everyone knows that New York and Los Angeles are about 3,000 miles apart and that the time difference between them is three hours.Three hours is one-eighth of a day,and a day is the time it takes the planet to complete one rotation(旋转),so its circumference must be eight times 3 ,000 or 24,000 mi-les .This answer differs from the true value,24,902 .45 miles,by less than four percent.Ultimately the value of dealing with everyday problems the way Fermi did lies in the rewards of making independent discoveries and inventions.It doesn't matter whether the discovery is as important as determining the power of an atom or as small as measuring the distance between New York and Los Angeles.Looking up the answer,or letting someone else find it,deprives you of the pleasure and pride that accompany creativity,and deprives you of an experience that builds up self-confidence.Thus,approaching personal dilemmas as Fermi problems can become a habit that enriches your life. The last paragraph concludes the whole writing by stressing the value of important inventions and small discoveries.
[多选题]共用题干 Hypertension Drugs Found to Cut Risk of StrokeAustralian doctors declared Monday that a cocktail of simple antihypertensive drugs can lower the risk of patients suffering a repeat stroke by more than a third.This is the result of their research.The research, presented at a medical conference in Italy over the weekend,has been valued highly as a major breakthrough in stroke prevention.Strokes kill 5 million people a year,and more than 15 million suffer non-fatal strokes that often leave them with useless limbs,slurred speech and other serious disabilities.One in five stroke survivors goes on to have a second,often fatal,stroke within five years of the first.An international six-year study of 6,100 patients directed from Sydney University found that by taking two blood pressure-lowering drugs,the risk of secondary strokes can be reduced by up to 40 percent.Even taking one of the commonly available drugs can cut the risk by a third,the study said.The drugs are the diuretic indapamide ( 吲达帕胺)and the ACE inhibitor perindopril , better known by its brand name Cover- syl.The combination was effective even in patients who did not have high blood pressure,the researchers said.They even found that the risk of another stroke could be cut by three quarters among the one-in-ten pa- tients who had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage(出血), the worst type of stroke , where there is direct bleeding into the brain.Stephen McMahon,who presented the research at the Milan congress of the European Society of Hypertension,said about 50 million people were alive who had suffered at least one stroke."If most of those patients were able to get access to this treatment,it would result in maybe the avoidance of half a million strokes a year,"the professor told Australia's ABC Radio.McMahon said doctors had long known that lowering the blood pressure of those with hypertension could help prevent strokes."What we have shown for the first time is that it does not really matter what your blood pressure is;if you have had a stroke,then lowering blood pressure will produce large benefits,to begin with-even for people whose blood pressure is average or below average,"he said.McMahon said the Milan gathering had heralded the research as a"major breakthrough in the care of patients with strokes-perhaps the biggest step forward that we have made in the last couple of decades." Taking two blood pressure-lowering drugs may produce______less risk of secondary stroke than taking only one such drug.
[多选题]共用题干 Energy CycleDo you find getting up in the morning so difficult that it's painful?This might be called laziness, but Dr. Kleitman has a new explanation.He has proved that everyone has a daily energy cycle.During the hours when you labor through your work you may say that you are"hot".That's true.The time of day when you feel most energetic is when your cycle of body temperature is at this peak.For some people the peak comes during the morning. For others it comes in the afternoon or evening. No one has discovered why this is so,but it leads to such familiar words as:"Get up, John!You'll be late for work again!"The possible explanation to the trouble is he is at his tempera-ture-and-energy peak in the evening. Much family quarrelling ends when husbands and wives realize what these energy cycles mean,and which cycle each member of the family has.You can't change your energy cycle,but you can learn to make your life fit it better. Habit can help,Dr. Kleitman believes.Maybe you're sleepy in the evening but feel you must stay up late anyway.Counteract your cycle to some extent by habitually staying up later than you want to.If your energy is low in the morning but you have an important job to do early in the day,rise before your usual hour. This won't change your cycle,but you'll get up steam and work better at your low point.Get off to a slow start,which saves your energy.Get up with a leisurely yawn and stretch.Sit on the edge of the bed a minute before putting your feet on the floor. Avoid the troublesome search for clean clothes by laying them out the night before.Whenever possible,do routine work in the afternoon and save tasks requiring more energy for your sharper hours. if you rise earlier than usual,you will be more efficient at your low point in the morning.
[多选题]共用题干 In Your FaceWhy is this man so angry?We don't know the reason,but we can see the emotion in his face.What- ever culture you come from,you can understand the feeling that he is expressing.Forty years ago,psychologist Paul Ekman of the University of California,San Francisco,became interested in how people's faces show their feelings.He took photographs of Americans expressing various emotions.Then he showed them to the Fore people,who live in the jungle in New Guinea. Most of the Fore had never seen foreign faces,but they easily understood Americans' expressions of anger,happiness,sad- ness,disgust,fear,and surprise.Then Ekman did the same experiment in reverse.He showed pictures of Fore faces to Americans,and the results were similar. Americans had no problems reading the emotions on the Fore people's faces. Ekman's research gave powerful support to the theory that facial expressions for basic emotions are the same everywhere.He did more research in Japan,Brazil,and Argentina,and got the same results.According to Ekman,these six emotions are universal because they are built into our brains.Theydeveloped to help us deal with things quickly that might hurt us.Some emotional triggers are universal as well.When something suddenly comes into sight,people feel fear,because it might be dangerous.But most emotional triggers are learned.For example,two people might smell newly cut grass.One person spent won- derful summers in the country as a child,so the smell makes him happy.The other person remembers work- ing very hard on a farm and being hungry,so he feels sad.Once we make an emotional association in our brain,it is difficult,and sometimes impossible,to change it."Emotion is the least changeable part of the brain,"says Ekman.But we can learn to manage our emotions better. For instance,we can be more aware of things that make us angry,and we can think before we react.There are many differences between cultures,in their languages and customs.But a smile is exactly the same everywhere. Fear is the most difficult emotion to change.
[多选题]共用题干 First Self-contained Heart ImplantedA patient on the brink of death has received the world's first self-contained artificial heart一a battery- powered device about the size of a softball that runs without the need for wires,tubes or hoses sticking out of the chest.Two surgeons from the University of Louisville implanted the titanium and plastic pump during a seven-hour operation at Jewish Hospital Monday.The hospital said the patient was"awake and responsive" Tuesday and resting comfortably.It refused to release personal details.The patient had been expected to die within a month without the operation,and doctors said they expected the artificial heart to extend the person's life by only a month.But the device is considered a major step toward improving the patient's quality of life.The new pump,called AbioCor,is also a technological leap from the mechanical hearts used in the 1980s,which were attached by wires and tubes to bulky machinery outside the body. The most famous of those,the Jarvic-7,used air as a pumping device and was attached to an apparatus about the size of a washingmachine."I think it's potentially a major step forward in the artificial heart development,"said Dr. David Faxon, president of the American Heart Association.However,he said the dream of an implantable,permanent artificial heart is not yet a reality:"This is obviously an experimental device whose long-term success has to be demonstrated."Only about half of the 4,200 Americans on a waiting list for donor hearts received them last year,and most of the rest died.Some doctors ,including Robert Higgins, chairman of cardiology(心脏病学)at the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond,said artificial hearts are unlikely to replace donor hearts."A donor heart in a good transplant can last 15 to 30 years,"he said."It's going to be hard to replace that with a machine."The AbioCor has a 2-pound pumping unit,and electronic controls that adjust the pumping speed based on the body's needs.It is powered by a small battery pack worn outside the body that transmits current through the skin. The patient's life was expected to last several years longer by implanting the artificial heart.
[多选题]共用题干 Many Older Doctors Plan to Phase out Their PracticeThe results of a new survey indicate that 48 percent of physicians between 50 and 65 years of age are planning to reduce or end their clinical practice in the next 1 to 3 years.The findings also suggest that many older physicians believe that their younger counterparts do not have the work ethic they do.The survey,which was conducted by Merritt Hawkins&Associates,a Texas-based physician search and consulting firm,suggests that many older physicians are simply unhappy with the chan- ges that have taken place in medicine over the years."When Baby Boom doctors entered medicine they had control over how they practiced and the fee they charged .But the rules changed on them in mid-stream and now many are looking for a ticket out."Mark Smith,executive vice president of Merritt Hawkins&Associates,said in a state-ment."Our study is the only one I am aware of that examines the career plans of physicians in the 50-65 age group."This age group represents more than one-third of all physicians in the U.S. If they stop working in the coming years,it will have a"significant impact"on the overall supply of physicians,Smith told Reuters Health.The results of the survey ,which included 1,170 respondents(调查对象),show that 24 per-cent of older physicians are planning to leave clinical practice all together in the next 1 to 3 years. Specifically,14 percent said they were planning on retiring,7 percent said they were looking for a medical job a non-patient care setting,and 3 percent said they were seeking a job in a non-medi-cal field.For those physicians not leaving clinical practice,many said they would make changes to re- duce the number of patients they treat. For instance,12 percent said they would begin working part-time,8 percent said they planned to stop taking new patients or markedly reduce their patient load,and 4 percent expressed a desire to work on a temporary basis.When asked about the work ethic of physicians entering practice today,68 percent of the re-spondents said that these younger doctors are not as dedicated or as hard working as physicians who entered practice 20 to 30 years ago.Fifty-seven percent of older physicians said they would not recommend medicine as a career to their own children.Similarly,44 percent said they would not select medicine as a career if they were starting out today." The most ominous(不祥的)finding is that about one half of physicians surveyed plant to ei-ther abandon patient care in the next 1 to 3 years,or significantly reduce the number of patients they see."Smith said."The U .S.already is facing a widespread shortage of physicians,should ol- der,‘workhorse’physicians choose to opt out of patient care access to medical services will be fur-ther restricted." Many older physicians in the U .S.view the work ethic of their younger counterparts______.
[多选题]共用题干 Listening to BirdsongA male zebra finch chirps away to himself. Suddenly he notices a female bird nearby.He realizes he has an audience and immediately changes his song. Can the female tell the difference in his perfonnance?According to a new study,the female zebra finch knows.And she prefers the special trills he creates when he sings to her. A male zebra finch changes his song when singing to a female in ways that people can barely detect.But the female finch can tell the difference.Scientists had noticed slight variations in the songs of male zebra finches based on whether they were singing alone or whether there was a female(and potential mate)nearby.With an audience,the males sped up the pace of their songs and controlled the notes they used.For this study,researchers Sarah C .Woolley and Allison Doupe at the University of California,San Francisco decided to focus attention on the listening females,which have not been well studied in the past.In the study,Woolley and Doupe set up,a long cage with a sound speaker at each end.One broadcast the sound of a male zebra finch singing to himself,like someone singing in the shower.The other speaker broadcast a male performing for a female audience,as if he was giving a concert.Female birds were placed between the two speakers.Some of the birds had mates.Others didn't. The females shifted around a bit,and then most of them hopped over to sit beside just one speaker. All the birds that made a clear choice liked songs meant for a female audience,even if they'd never met the male.Mated females also had a chance to listen to two different performance songs,one from an unknown male,and one from their mate .They spent more time listening to the concert version of their mates' songs.This suggests that after a while,females learn to recognize-and prefer-the songs of their mates.Scientists then studied the brains of the females.They found certain areas of the brain perked up when the birds listened to the concert songs.These brain areas may be involved in recognizing and evaluating the songs,and storing the memories of them.This research deals with what's called directed communication,when the communicator,or sender,focuses the message for a specific audience.One example is the way moms speak to their babies. Mothers around the world use the same sort of high-pitched sing-song chatter,and the babies respond best to those sounds.Songbirds are one of the only other species known to learn their communication,in this case their songs. Which of the following can best reflect the theme of the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 One-third of Parents Lack Facts about Child DevelopmentOne-third of parents of babies have a surprisingly low knowledge of child development,in-cluding basic concepts about what their children should know or how they should act,a new study finds.For instance,the study found that many parents don't know that 1 -year-olds can't tell the difference between right and wrong,and often don't cooperate or share when playing with other children.The results are surprising because the parents who took part in the survey had young chil- dren,said lead author Dr. Heather Paradis,a pediatric fellow at the University of Rochester Med-ical Center in New York.“They were watching or had just watched their kids go through this de-velopment,and they were probably the most knowledgeable of anybody.”Paradis and her colleagues examined the results of a survey of parents—98 .6 percent of whom were mothers—of more than 10,000 9-month-old babies. As part of the survey,the parents were asked 1 1 questions designed to test their knowledge of a baby's development.The researchers also examined what the parents said about their interactions with their chil- dren,and watched videotapes of how the parents taught new things to their kids.One-third of those surveyed incorrectly answered four or more of the questions.Even when the researchers ad-justed the statistics to account for such factors as education levels and income,those parents were still less likely to enjoy“healthy interactions”with their children.A lack of proper understanding of a child's development can cause assorted problems,Para-dis said. For example,she said,a mother might expect an 18-month-old child to sit still for a doctor's appointment,even though children that age are normally curious and like to wander around.“A mom could misinterpret a child's normal curiosity as intentionally being defiant,and could respond with harsh discipline,withdrawal of affection and repetition of that pattern over time,”Paradis said.“That could hinder the child's potential for full growth and development.”The findings were to be presented Sunday at the Pediatric Academic Societies' meeting in Honolulu.One solution,Paradis said,is for pediatricians to take a more active role in educating new parents.“By improving knowledge of child development among all parents,not just those who are at highest risk,there's an opportunity to enhance parent-child interaction,”she said.“It can ul-timately lead to better parenting.”
[多选题]共用题干 Fermi ProblemOn a Monday morning in July,the world's first atom bomb exploded in New Mexico desert. Forty seconds later,the shock waves reached the base camp where the Italian-American physicist Enrico Fermi and his team stood.After a mental calculation,Fermi announced to his team that the bomb's energy had equated 10,000 tons of TNT. The bomb team was impressed,but not sur-prised.Fermi's genius was known throughout the scientific world.In 1938 he had won a Nobel Prize.Four years later he produced the first nuclear chain reaction,leading us into the nuclear age .Since Fermi's death in 1954,no physicist has been at once a master experimentalist(实验室)and a leading theoretician(理论学家).Like all virtuosos(大师),Fermi had a distinctive style. He preferred the most direct route to an answer. He was very good at dividing difficult problems into small,manageable bits talent we all can use in our daily lives.To develop this talent in his students,Fermi would suggest a type of question now known as a Fermi problem.Upon first hearing one of these,you haven't the remotest notion of the answer, and you feel certain that too little information had been given to solve it. Yet when the problem is broken into sub-problems,each answerable without the help of experts or books,you can come close to the exact solution.Suppose you want to determine earth's circumference without looking it up.Everyone knows that New York and Los Angeles are about 3,000 miles apart and that the time difference between them is three hours.Three hours is one-eighth of a day,and a day is the time it takes the planet to complete one rotation(旋转),so its circumference must be eight times 3 ,000 or 24,000 mi-les .This answer differs from the true value,24,902 .45 miles,by less than four percent.Ultimately the value of dealing with everyday problems the way Fermi did lies in the rewards of making independent discoveries and inventions.It doesn't matter whether the discovery is as important as determining the power of an atom or as small as measuring the distance between New York and Los Angeles.Looking up the answer,or letting someone else find it,deprives you of the pleasure and pride that accompany creativity,and deprives you of an experience that builds up self-confidence.Thus,approaching personal dilemmas as Fermi problems can become a habit that enriches your life. Fermi problem is to develop the talent of breaking a seemingly unanswerable problem into sub-problems and finding the solution to it,which is a typical Fermi problem.
[多选题]共用题干 1.If a super-flu strikes,face masks may not protect you.Whether widespread use of masks will help,or harm,during the next worldwide flu outbreak is a question that researchers are studying furiously.No results have come from their mask research yet.However,the government says peoph should consider wearing them in certain situations anyway, just in case.2.But it's a question the public keeps asking while the government are making preparations for the next flu pandemic.So the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions(CDC)came up with preliminary guidelines."We don't want people wearing them everywhere,"said the CDC."The overall recommendation really is to avoid exposure."3.When that's not possible,the guidelines say to consider wearing a simple surgical mask if you are in one of the three following situations.First,you're healthy and can't avoid going to a crowded place.Second,you're sick and think you may have close contact with the healthy,such a, a family member checking on you.Third,you live with someone who's sick and thus might be in the early stages of infection,but still need to go out.4.Influenza pandemics can strike when the easy-to-mutate flu virus shifts to a strain that people never have experienced.Scientists cannot predict when the next pandemic will arrive,although concern is rising that the Asian bird flu might trigger one if it starts spreading easily from person to person.5.During the flu pandemic,you should protect yourself. Avoid crowds,and avoid close contact with the sick unless you must care for someone.Why aren't masks added to this self protection list?Because they can help trap virus-laden droplets flying through the air with a cough or sneeze. Simple surgical masks only filter the larger droplets.Besides,the CDC is afraid masks may create a false sense of security.Perhaps someone who should have stayed home would don an ill fitting mask and hop on the subway instead.6.Nor does flu only spread through the air. Say someone covers a sneeze with his or her hand, then touches a doorknob or subway pole.If you touch that spot next and then put germy hands on your nose or mouth,you've been exposed.It's harder to rub your nose while wearing a mask and so your face may get pretty sweaty under masks.You reach under to wipe that sweat,and may transfer germs caught on the outside of the mask straight to the nose.These are the problems face masks may create for their users.7.Whether people should or should not use face masks still remains a question.The general public has to wait patiently for the results of the mask research scientists are still doing. The CDC is afraid that the public may_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The Privileged ChildrenLife really should be one long journey of joy for children who are born with a world of wealth at their tiny feet.But experts on psychological research now believe that silver spoons can leave a bitter taste.If suicide statistics are a sign of happiness,then the rich are a miserable lot. Figures show that it is the rich who most often do away with themselves.Dr. Robert Coles,an internationally famous doctor,is the world's top expert on the influence of money on children.He has written a well-received book on the subject,The Privileged Ones,and his research shows that too much money in the family can cause as many problems as too little."Ohviously there are certain advantages to being rich,"says the 53-year-old doctor,"such as better health,education and future work expectations.But most important is the quality of family life. Money can't buy love."It can buy a lot of other things,though,and that's where the trouble starts.Rich kjds have so much to choose from that they often become confused.Their parents' over favoring can make them spoiled.They tend to travel more than other children,from home to home and country to country, which often makes them feel restless."But privileged children do have a better sense of their positions in the world,"adds Mr Coles, "and they are more self-assured."Today's rich parents perhaps have realized that their riches can be more of a burden than a favor to their children.So their priority is to ensure that their families are as rich in love as they are in money. This article is written mainly to tell readers that_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇First Self-contained Heart ImplantedA patient on the brink(边缘)of death has received the world's first self-contained artificial heart-a battery-powered device about the size of a softball that runs without the need for wires,tubes sticking out of the chest.Two surgeons from the University of Louisville implanted the titanium(钛)and plastic pump during a seven-hour operation at Jewish Hospital Monday.The hospital said the patient was"awake and responsive" Tuesday and resting comfortably.It refused to release personal details.The patient had been expected to die within a month without the operation,and doctors said they expected the artificial heart to extend the person's life by only a month.But the device is considered a major step toward improving the patient's quality of life.The new pump,called AbioCor,is also a technological leap from the mechanical hearts used in the 1980s,which were attached by wires and tubes to bulky machinery outside the body.The most famous of those mechanical hearts,the Jarvic-7,used air as a pumping device and was attached to an apparatus about the size of a washing machine."I think it's potentially a major step forward in the artificial heart development,"said Dr.DavidFaxon,president of the American Heart Association.However,he said the dream of an implantable,perma- nent artificial heart is not yet a reality."This is obviously an experimental device whose long-term success has to be demonstrated."Only about half of the 4,200 Americans on a waiting list for donor hearts received them last year,and most of the rest died.Some doctors,including Robert Higgins,chairman of cardiology at the Medical Col-lege of Virginia in Richmond,said artificial hearts are unlikely to replace donor hearts."A donor heart in a good transplant can last 15 to 30 years."he said,"It's going to be hard to replace that with a machine."

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