考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 What is the Coolest Gas in the Universe?What is the coldest air temperature ever recorded on Earth?Where was this low temperature recorded ?The coldest recorded temperature on Earth was -91℃, which_____ (51) in Antarctica(南极洲) in 1983.We encounter an interesting situation when we discuss temperatures in_________(52).Temperatures in Earth orbit(轨道)actually range from about +120℃ to -120℃. The temperature depends upon ______(53)you are in direct sunlight or in shade.Obviously,-120℃ is colder than our body can ________ (54)endure.The space temperatures just discussed affect only our area of the solar________(55).Obviously,it is hotter closer to the Sun and colder as we travel__________(56)from the Sun,Scientigtg egtimate tern- peratures at Pluto are about -210℃.How cold is the lowest estimated temperature in the entire universe?Again,it depends upon your_________(57).We are taught it is supposedly__________(58)to have atemperature below absolute zero,which is-273℃,at which atoms do not move.Two scientists,Cornell and Wieman,have successfully______(59)down a gas to a temperature barely above absolute zero. They won a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001 for their work一not a discovery in this case.Why is the two scientists'work so important to science?In the 1920s,Satyendra Nath Bose was studying an interesting_______(60)about special light par-tidles(微粒)we now call photons(光子).Bose had trouble __________(61)other scientists to believe his theory,so he contacted Albert Einstein. Einstein’s calculations helped him theorize that atoms_______(62) behave as Bose thought一but only at very cold temperatures.Scientists have also discovered that ultra-cold(超冷)atoms can help them make the world'S atomic clocks even__________(63)accurate.These clocks are so accurate today they would oniy lose one second _________ (64)six million years!Such accuracy will help us travel in space because digtanee is velocity(速度)times time( d=vt).With the long distances involved in space _______(65),we need to know time as accurately as possibie to get accurate distance. _________(60)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The Best Way to Reduce Your WeightYou hear this:"No wonder you are fat. All you ever do is eat."You feel sad:"I skip my breakfast and supper. I run every morning and evening. What else can I do?"Basically you can do nothing. Your genes,not your life habits,determine your weight and your body constantly tries to maintain it.Albert Stunkard of the University of Pennsylvania found from experiments that,"80 percent of the children of two obese parents become obese,as compared with no more than 14 percent of the offspring of two parents of normal weight."How can obese people become normal or even thin through dieting?Well,dieting can be effective,but the health costs are tremendous.Jules Hirsch,a research physician at Rockefeller University,did a study of eight fat people.They were given a liquid formula providing 600 calories a day.After more than 10 weeks,the subjects lost 45kg on average.But after leaving the hospital,they all regained weight. The results were surprising:by metabolic measurement,fat people who lost large amounts of weight seemed like they were starving. They had psychiatric problems.They dreamed of food or breaking their diet.They were anxious and depressed;some were suicidal. They hid food in their rooms.Researchers warn that it is possible that weight reduction doesn't result in normal weight,but in an abnormal state resembling that of starved non-obese people.Thin people,however,suffer from the opposite:They have to make a great effort to gain weight. Ethan Sims,of the University of Vermont,got prisoners to volunteer to gain weight. In four to six months,they ate as much as they could.They succeeded in increasing their weight by 20 to 25 percent. But months after the study ended,they were back to normal weight and stayed there.This did not mean that people are completely without hope in controlling their weight. It means that those who tend to be fat will have to constantly battle their genetic inheritance if they want to significantly lower their weight.The findings also provide evidence for something scientists thought was true一each person has a comfortable weight range. The range might be as much as 9kg. Someone might weigh 60-69kg without too much effort.But going above or below the natural weight range is difficult. The body resists by feeling hungry or full and changing the metabolism to push the weight back to the range it seeks. What determines your weight?
[多选题]共用题干 Migrant(移民的)WorkersIn the past twenty years,there has been an increasing tendency for workers to move from one country to another. While some countries have restricted(限制)most ___________(1)to local people,others have attracted and welcomed migrant workers. This is particularly the case in the Middle East,___________(2)increased oil incomes have enabled many countries to call in outsiders to improve local facilities(设施).Thus the Middle East has attracted oil-workers___________(3)the U. S. A. and Europe.It has also brought in workers from many other countries,___________(4)South Korea andJapan.In view of the difficul州lying and working___________(5)in the Middle East,it is not surprising that the pay is high to attract suitable workers.Many engineers and technicians can___________(6)at least twice as much money the Middle East as they can in theirown country, and this is a major ___________(7).Sometimes a disadvantage has a compensating(补偿的) advantage.For example, the___________(8)living conditions often lead to increased friendship when workers have to___________(9)on each other for safety and comfort. In a similar way,many migrant workers can save large sums of money partly because of the___________(10)of entertainment(娱乐)facilities. The work is often complex and full of problems but this merely presents greater challenge to engineers who prefer to find solutions to problems rather than do___________(11)work in their home country.One major problem which___________(12)migrant workers in the Middle East is that their jobs are temporary ones.They are nearly always on___________(13),so it is not easy for them to plan ahead with great confidence.This is to be___________(14)since no country welcomes a large number of foreign workers as permanent residents.In any___________ (15),migrant workers accept this disadvantage,along with others, because of the considerable financial benefits which they receive. _________(3)
[多选题]共用题干 Early Ideas about the Universe1 Early man got his ideas about the universe by looking at the stars as you do.He observed carefully,and learned many things about the sun,the moon,and the stars.2 Suppose you were asked to collect evidence about the sun as early man did.You might go out morning after morning and see it come up in the east.Even on cloudy mornings,youwould observe that the darkness goes away and the world becomes light.You might not see the sun but would be sure it is there,because you notice that the earth warms up.As you continued,the sun climbs higher in the sky each day during part of the year. It stays in the sky longer. The earth gets warmer. Things begin to grow. It is spring and then summer.3 After a while the sun stays in the sky for shorter and shorter periods.Many plants begin to die.Leaves fall.Winter comes.Year after year this is repeated and you cannot tell exactly why it happens.But you realize that the sun seems to make the difference. Primitive(原始的)man felt that since the sun was so powerful it must be a god. It may seem silly to us now to worship(崇拜)a sun-god, but primitive man was right about the importance of the sun to life on earth.4 You have been told that the world is round.But suppose no one had ever taught you that the world was like a huge ball.Would you have ever thought of it yourself?You cannot see the curve(曲线)of the earth at once. You would have no idea of how big it was. That's why early man believed that the earth was small and flat.Such ideas appeared from the evidence they had.5 If you watch the stars night after night,you will see them rise and set.As you look at the sky,it is not difficult to imagine that you are in the center of a vast collection of twinkling(闪烁)lights. Some early astronomers(天文学家)believed the sky was a crystal shell or series of crystal shells,one inside the other. They believed this because that is what the night sky looked like.For many centuries,men believed that the earth was the center of the universe and that the sun,the moon,and the stars circled around it. Primitive man believed the sun was a god because_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Artificial SpeechBecause speech is the most convenient form of communication,in the future we want essentially natural conversations with computers.The primary point of contact will be a simple device that will act as our window into the world. It will have to be small enough to slip into our pocket,so there will be a screen but no keyboard:you will simply talk to it. The device will be permanently connected to the Internet and will keep relevant information up to you as it comes in. Such devices will evolve naturally in the next five to ten years.Just how quickly people will adapt to a voice-based Internet world is uncertain.Many believe that,initially at least,we will need similar conventions for the voice to those we use at present on screen:click,back,forward,and so on.But soon you will undoubtedly be able to interact by voice with all those IT-based services you currently connect with over the Internet by means of a keyboard. This will help the Internet serve the entire population.Changes like this will encompass(围绕,包围)the whole world. Because English is the language of science,it will probably remain the language in which the technology is most advanced,but most speech-recognition techniques are transferable to other languages provided(假如)there is sufficient motivation to undertake the work.Of course,in any language there are still huge problems for us to solve.Carefully dictated, clear speech can now be understood by computers with only a 4-5 percent error rate,but even the most advanced technology still records 30-40 percent errors with spontaneous speech.Within ten years we will have computers that respond to goal-directed conversation,but for a computer to have a conversation that takes into account human social behaviors is probably 50 years off. We are not going to be chatting to the big screen in the living room just yet.In the past,insufficient speed and memory have held us back,but these days they are less of an issue.However,there are those in the IT community who believe that current techniques will eventually hit a brick wall. Personally, I believe that incremental(不断增长的)developments in performance are more likely. But it is true that by about 2040 or so,computer architectures will need to become highly parallel(并行的)if performance is to keep increasing. Perhaps that will inspire some radically new approaches to speech understanding that will replace the methods we are developing now. According to the writer,current technique has no room for improvement.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇A Tale of Scottish Rural LifeLewis Grassic Gibbon's Sunset Song(1932)was voted"the best Scottish novel of all time"by Scottish's reading public in 2005.Once considered shocking for its frank description of aspects of the lives of Scotland's poor rural farmers,it has been adapted for stage,film,TV and radio in recent decades.The novel is set on the fictional estate of Kinr Addie,in the farming country of the Scottish northwest in the years up to and beyond World War I.At its heart is the story of Chris,who is both part of the community and a little outside it.Grassic Gibbon gives us the most detailed and intimate account of the life of his heroine.We watch her grow through a childhood dominated by her cruel but hard-working father;experience tragedy(her mother's suicide and murder of her twin children);and learn about her feelings as she grows into woman. We see her marry,lose her husband,then marry again.Chris has seemed so convincing a figure to some female readers that they cannot believe that she is the creation of a man.But it would be misleading to suggest that this book is just about Chris.It is truly a novel of a place and its people.Its opening section tells of Kinr Addie's long history,in a language that imitates the place's changing patterns of speech and writing.The story itself is amazingly full of characters and incidents.It is told from Chris' point of view but also from that of the gossiping community,a community where everybody knows everybody else's business and nothing is ever forgotten.Sunset Song has a social theme too. It is concerned with what Grassic Gibbon perceives as the destruction of traditional Scottish rural life first by modernization and then by World War I. Gibbon tried hard to show how certain characters resist the war. Despite this,the war takes the young men away,a number of them to their deaths. In particular,it takes away Chris' husband,Evan Tavendale.The war finally kills Evan,but not in the way his widow told. In fact,the Germans aren't responsible for his death,but his own side.He is shot because he is said to have run away from a battle.If the novel is about the end of one way of life it also looks ahead.It is a Sunset Song but is concerned too with the new Kinr Addie,indeed of the new European world.Grassic Gibbon went on to publish two other novels about the place that continue its story. Which statement is NOT true of Chris?
[多选题]共用题干 New Comet FoundThere's a newfound comet closing in on the sun,and when it gets here in 2013,you may be able to see it with your naked eye.Astronomers stumbled upon the icy interloper on June 5 while searching for potentially hazardous asteroids(小行星).Equipped with the world's largest digital camera , the University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS team snagged a faint image of the odd object while it was more than 700 million miles away , between the orbits of Jupiter(木星)and Saturn(土星)."Almost everything we find is an asteroid,but this object was suspicious,"said Richard Wainscoat,co-discoverer of the comet and an astronomer at the University of Hawaii."Unlike asteroids, which appear point-like in images,the telltale sign that gave it away was its fuzzy appearance."By March 2013 the comet,named C/2011 L4(PANSTARRS),is expected to come within 30 million miles of the sun一closer even than the innermost(最深处)planet, Mercury(水星).When the comet makes its closest approach to the sun,most of its ices will vaporize,adding to its hazy envelope of gas and dust and producing the familiar tail. This denser envelope,or coma, should boost the comet to peak brightness,making it potentially visible to the naked eye low in the western horizon just after sunset.While there is no danger of collision with Earth,preliminary calculations of the comet's orbit show that this may be its first and final trip through the solar system."It may be coming around the sun for the first and only time,only to be ejected from the solar system,never to return,"Wainscoat said."Since we don't have a lot of data on it,we really don't know the orbit well enough right now, and it will take up to two months of observations to find out."Astronomers believe C/2011 L4 may be a runaway from the Oort cloud(奥尔特云),a reservoir of billions of hibernating(蛰伏)comets that orbits about 100,000 times farther than the distance between Earth and the sun.The fact that it's going around the back of the sun from our point of view may ultimately affect the comet's visibility,but a lot will depend on how close the body actually gets to the sun.Also, whether the comet is north or south of the sun when it reaches peak brightness will determine which hemisphere on Earth gets the better view. Richard Wainscoat is one of the discoverers of the comet.
[多选题]共用题干 What is the Coolest Gas in the Universe?What is the coldest air temperature ever recorded on Earth?Where was this low temperature recorded ?The coldest recorded temperature on Earth was -91℃, which_____ (51) in Antarctica(南极洲) in 1983.We encounter an interesting situation when we discuss temperatures in_________(52).Temperatures in Earth orbit(轨道)actually range from about +120℃ to -120℃. The temperature depends upon ______(53)you are in direct sunlight or in shade.Obviously,-120℃ is colder than our body can ________ (54)endure.The space temperatures just discussed affect only our area of the solar________(55).Obviously,it is hotter closer to the Sun and colder as we travel__________(56)from the Sun,Scientigtg egtimate tern- peratures at Pluto are about -210℃.How cold is the lowest estimated temperature in the entire universe?Again,it depends upon your_________(57).We are taught it is supposedly__________(58)to have atemperature below absolute zero,which is-273℃,at which atoms do not move.Two scientists,Cornell and Wieman,have successfully______(59)down a gas to a temperature barely above absolute zero. They won a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001 for their work一not a discovery in this case.Why is the two scientists'work so important to science?In the 1920s,Satyendra Nath Bose was studying an interesting_______(60)about special light par-tidles(微粒)we now call photons(光子).Bose had trouble __________(61)other scientists to believe his theory,so he contacted Albert Einstein. Einstein’s calculations helped him theorize that atoms_______(62) behave as Bose thought一but only at very cold temperatures.Scientists have also discovered that ultra-cold(超冷)atoms can help them make the world'S atomic clocks even__________(63)accurate.These clocks are so accurate today they would oniy lose one second _________ (64)six million years!Such accuracy will help us travel in space because digtanee is velocity(速度)times time( d=vt).With the long distances involved in space _______(65),we need to know time as accurately as possibie to get accurate distance. _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 Seeing Red Means Danger AheadThe color red often means danger一and by paying attention,accidents can be prevented.In the future, the color red also may help_________(51)danger at construction sites.Thanks to new work by engineers, bridge supports一or________(52)kinds of materials一could one day contain a color-changing material.It will turn red_________(53)a structure collapses or falls apart.The secret__________(54)the color-switching material is。particular typo of molecule(分子).A mole-cule is a group of atoms(原子)held together by chemical bonds. Molecules come_________(55)all shapesand sizes,and make up __________ (56)you can see,touch or feel.How a molecule behaves depends on _________(57) kinds of atoms it contains,and how they're held together.When a polymer(聚合物)containing a color-changing molecule called a mechanophore (机械响应性聚 合物)which is about to break,it produces a_________(58).When a polymer with mechanophore molecules becomes" injured" or__________(59),one of the mechanophore bonds________(60)and the material turns red."It'S a really simple detection method,"says Nancy Sottos,one of the scientists who worked on the pro- ject.Sottos and her team tested the color-changing polymers in their lab.The test_________(61)proved encouraging,There is a way to get rid of the red color:light. When a bright light is shone on the mechanophore,the broken bond is fixed,and the red color________(62).This"self-healing"may be a problem for mngi-neers.They need to use the color-changer in big construction projects that will be_________(63)in sun- light. And sunlight will make the rnechanophore'S warning system______(64).Sottos and her fellow scientists still have _________(65)work to do before the color-changing mole-cules can be used outside the lab. _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 Early Ideas about the Universe1 Early man got his ideas about the universe by looking at the stars as you do.He observed carefully,and learned many things about the sun,the moon,and the stars.2 Suppose you were asked to collect evidence about the sun as early man did.You might go out morning after morning and see it come up in the east.Even on cloudy mornings,youwould observe that the darkness goes away and the world becomes light.You might not see the sun but would be sure it is there,because you notice that the earth warms up.As you continued,the sun climbs higher in the sky each day during part of the year. It stays in the sky longer. The earth gets warmer. Things begin to grow. It is spring and then summer.3 After a while the sun stays in the sky for shorter and shorter periods.Many plants begin to die.Leaves fall.Winter comes.Year after year this is repeated and you cannot tell exactly why it happens.But you realize that the sun seems to make the difference. Primitive(原始的)man felt that since the sun was so powerful it must be a god. It may seem silly to us now to worship(崇拜)a sun-god, but primitive man was right about the importance of the sun to life on earth.4 You have been told that the world is round.But suppose no one had ever taught you that the world was like a huge ball.Would you have ever thought of it yourself?You cannot see the curve(曲线)of the earth at once. You would have no idea of how big it was. That's why early man believed that the earth was small and flat.Such ideas appeared from the evidence they had.5 If you watch the stars night after night,you will see them rise and set.As you look at the sky,it is not difficult to imagine that you are in the center of a vast collection of twinkling(闪烁)lights. Some early astronomers(天文学家)believed the sky was a crystal shell or series of crystal shells,one inside the other. They believed this because that is what the night sky looked like.For many centuries,men believed that the earth was the center of the universe and that the sun,the moon,and the stars circled around it. Paragraph 4_________
[多选题]共用题干 Where Did the Earth's Water Come From?Earth is located within the"snow line"of the solar system,the region closest to the Sun where H2 0 is primarily in liquid or gaseous form,if at all.______(46)The snow line phenomena is reflected in the water content of planets like Mercury,Venus,and Mars. Water is absent on Mercury.On Venus,H2O only exists as a trace element in the atmosphere.Mars only has a thin veneer of ice in its polar regions.In general,water is rare within the snow line.Why does Earth have so much water relative to the other inner planets?71%of the surface is covered in the oceans,more than half of which is deeper than 3,000 meters,with an approximate total volume of 1.3 billion cu km.______(47)There are various theories as to where all the Earth's water came from,but several theories have fared better than the others.______(48)When the Earth was in the process of forming,with a radius just 40%smaller than at present,it would have had enough gravity to hold on to a tenuous atmosphere with water vapor. The first water vapor on the planet would have come from the planet's internals,where volatile(low weight)chemicals would have a tendency to float to the top,and heavy chemicals(iron and nickel)would sink.Though the first of Earth's water came about through volcanism,this alone probably didn't produce enough to form stable pools on the surface.______(49)Comparing the isotope ratios of water on Earth and water from comets and asteroids has revealed that the majority of the Earth's water comes from asteroids.Throughout its history,Earth's water has increased in volume due to biological processes. In the early seas of Earth,hydrogen sulfide would have been in great supply,which,when reacted with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis in sulfide-reducing bacteria,would have produced hydrogen,sulfur,and water.______(50) ________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 Benefits of Playing Games1.Why play games?Because they are fun,and have more benefits.Following the rules…planning your next move…acting as a team member…these are all"game"ideas that you will come across throughout your life.2.Think about some of the games you played as a young child,such as rope-jumping and hide-and-seek.Such games are entertaining and fun.But perhaps more importantly,they translate life into exciting dramas that teach children some of the basic rules they will be expected to follow the rest of their lives,such as taking turns and cooperating(合作).3.Many children's games have a practical side.Children around the world play games that prepare them for work they will do as grown-ups.For instance,some Saudi Arabian children play a game called bones,which sharpens the hand-eye coordination(协调)needed in hunting.4.Many sports encourage national or local pride.The most famous games of all,the Olympic Games,bring athletes from around the world together to take part in friendly competition.People who are watching the event and waving flags know that a gold medal is a win for an entire country,not just the athlete who earned it. For countries experiencing natural disasters or war,an Olympic win can mean so much.5.Sports are also an event that unites people.Soccer is the most popular sport in the world. People on all continents play it一some for fun and some for a living. Nicolette Iribarne,a Californian soccer player,has discovered a way to spread hope through soccer. He created a foundation to provide poor children with not only soccer balls but also a promising future.6.Next time you play your favorite game or sport,think about why you enjoy it,what skills are needed,and whether these skills will help you in other aspects of your life. Rope-jumping and hide-and-seek teach children of taking turns and_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Why Buy Shade-Grown Coffee?When people argue about whether coffee is good for health,they're usually thinking of the health of the coffee drinker. Is it good for your heart?Does it increase blood pressure?Does it help you concentrate?However,coffee affects the health of the human population in other ways,too.Traditionally,coffee bushes were planted under the canopy(树冠)of taller indigenous(土生土长的) trees. However, more and more farmers in Latin America are deforesting the land to grow full-sun coffees.At first,this increases production because more coffee bushes can be plan-ted if there aren't any trees.With increased production come increased profits.Unfortunately,deforesting for coffee production immediately decreases local wildlife habitat. Native birds nest and hide from predators(捕食者)in the tall trees and migrating birds rest there.Furthermore,in the long term,the full-sun method also damages the ecosystem because more chemical fertilizers and pesticides are needed to grow the coffee.The fertilizers and pesti-cides kill insects that eat coffee plant,but then the birds eat the poisoned insects and also die. The chemicals kill or sicken other animals as well,and can even enter the water that people will eventually drink.Fortunately,farmers in Central and South America are beginning to grow more coffee bushes in the shade.We can support these farmers by buying coffee with such labels as“shade grown”and“bird friendly.”Sure,these varieties might cost a little more.But we're paying for the health of the birds,the land,ourselves,and the planet. I think it's worth it. How do farmers find more land for growing full-sun coffee?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇A Sunshade(遮阳伞)for the PlanetEven with the best will in the world,reducing our carbon emissions is not going to prevent global warming. It has become clear that even if we take the most strong measures to control emissions, the uncertainties in our climate models still leave open the possibility of extreme warming and rises in sea level. At the same time,resistance by governments and special interest groups makes it quite possible that the actions suggested by climate scientists might not be implemented soon enough.Fortunately,if the worst comes to the worst,scientists still have a few tricks up their sleeves. For the most part they have strongly resisted discussing these options for fear of inviting a sense of complacency that might thwart efforts to tackle the root of the problem. Until now,that is a growing number of researchers are taking a fresh look at large-scale"geoengineering"projects that might be used to counteract global warming."I use the analogy of methadone,"says Stephen Schneider,a climate researcher at Stanford University in California who was among the first to draw attention to global warming."If you have a heroin addict,the correct treatment is hospitalization,and a long rehab. But if they absolutely refuse,methadone is better than heroin."Basically the idea is to apply"sunscreen"to the whole planet. One astronomer has come up with a radical plan to cool Earth:launch trillions of feather-light discs into space,where they would form a vast cloud that would block the sun's rays.It's controversial,but recent studies suggest there are ways to deflect just enough of the sunlight reaching the Earth's surface to counteract the warming produced by the greenhouse effect. Global climate models show that blocking just 1.8 percent of the incident energy in the sun's rays would cancel out the warming effects produced by a doubling of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.That could be crucial,because even the most severe emissions control measures being proposed would leave us with a doubling of carbon dioxide by the end of this century,and that would last for at least a century more. What does Stephen Schneider say about a heroin addict and methadone?
[多选题]共用题干 New research from NASA scientists suggests emissions of black soot after the way sunlight re- flects off snow.According to a computer simulation,black soot may be responsible for 25 percent of observed global warming over the past century. Soot in the higher latitudes(维度)of the Earth,where ice is more common , absorbs more of the sun's energy and warmth than an icy,white background. Dark-colored black carbon,or soot, absorbs sunlight,while lighter colored ice reflects sunlight.Soot in areas with snow and ice may play an important role in climate change.Also,if snow and ice covered areas begin melting,the warming effect increase,as the soot becomes more con-centrated on the snow surface.“This provides a positive feedback,as glaciers and ice sheets melt, they tend to get even dirtier.”said Dr. James Hansen,a researcher at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies,New York.Hansen found soot's effect on snow albedo(反照率),which may be contributing to trends to-ward early springs in the Northern Hemisphere,such as thinning Arctic sea ice and melting glac-iers permafrost. Soot also is believed to play a role in changes in the atmosphere above the oceans and land.“Black carbon reduces the amount of energy reflected by snow back into space,thus heating the snow surface more than if there were no black carbon,”Hansen said. Soot's increased absorp-tion of solar energy is especially effective in warming the world's climate.“ This forcing is unusual-ly effective,causing twice as much global warming as a carbon-dioxide forcing of the same magni-tude.”Hansen noted.Hansen cautioned,although the role of soot in altering global climate is substantial,it does not alter the fact that greenhouse gases are the primary cause of climate warming during the past century .Such gases are expected to be the largest climate forcing for the rest of the century.The researchers found that observed warming in the Northern Hemisphere was large in the winter and spring at middle and high latitudes. These observations were coherent with the researchers' climate model situations,which showed some of the largest warming effects occurred when there were heavy snow cover and sufficient sunlight. The largest warming effects happened in the Northern Hemisphere with_____.
[多选题]共用题干 The Need to RememberSome people say they have no memory at all:"I just can't remember a thing!"But of course we all have a memory.Our memory tells us who we are.Our memory helps us to make use in the present of what we have learnt in the past.In fact we have different types of memory.For example,our visual memory helps us recall facts and places.Some people have such a strong visual memory that they can remember exactly what they have seen,for example,pages of a book,as a complete picture.Our verbal(言语的)memory helps us remember words and figures we may have heard but not seen or written:Items of a shopping list,a chemical formula,dates,or a recipe.With our emotional(情感的)memory, we recall situations or places where we had; strong feelings,perhaps of happiness or unhappiness. We also have special memories for smell,taste, touch and sound,and for performing physical movements.We have two ways of storing any of these memories. Our short-term memory stores items for up to thirty seconds-enough to remember a telephone number while we dial.Our long-term mem-ory,on the other hand,may store items for a lifetime. Older people in fact have a much biter long-term memory than short-term .They may forget what they have done only a few hours ago,but have the clearest remembrance(记忆)of when they were very young.Psychologists tell us that we only remember a few facts about our past,and that we invent the rest. It is as though we remember only the outline of a story.We then make up the details. We of-ten do this in the way we want to remember them,usually so that we appear as the heroes of our own past , or maybe victims needing sympathy(同情). Emotional memory is used when we perform physical movements.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Puerto Rican Cuisine(菜肴)Puerto Rico , a Caribbean(加勒比海区)island rich in history and remarkable natural beauty , has a cuisine all its own. Immigratjon(移民)to the island has helped to shape itscui、i ne, with people from all over the world making various contributions to it.However,before time arrival of these immigrants,the Taino people lived on the island of Puerto Rico. Taino cuisine included such foods as rodents(啮齿动物),fresh shellfish and fish fried in corn oil.Many aspects of Taino cuisine continue today in Puerto Rican cooking,but it has been heavily influ- enced by the Spanish,who invaded Puerto Rico in 1508,and Africans,who were initially brought to PuertoRico to work as slaves.Taino cooking styles were mixed with ideas brought by the Spanish arid Africono to create new dishes.The Spanish extended food choices by bringing cattle,pigs,goats,and sheep to the island.Africans also added to the island's food culture by introducing powerful,contrasting tastes in dishes. In fact,much of the food Puerto Rico is now famous for一coffee,coconuts,and oranges一was actually im- ported by foreigners to the island.A common assumption many people make about Puerto Rican food, is that it is very spic)(辛辣的).It's true that chili peppers are popular;aij caballero in particular is a very hot chili pepper that Puerto Ricansenjoy.However,milder(微辣的)tastes are popular too,such as sofrito. As the base of many Puerto Rican dishes,sofrito is a sauce made from chopped onions,green bell peppers,sweet chili peppers,and a handful of other spices.It is fried in oil and then added to other dishes. Which of the following is NOT true?
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Don't Count on Dung(粪便)Conservationists(自然保护主义者)may be miscalculating the numbers of the threatened animals such as elephants,say African and American researchers. The error occurs because of a flaw in the way they estimate animal numbers from the piles of dung(粪)the creatures leave behind.The mistake could lead researchers to think that there are twice as many elephants as there really are in some regions according to Andrew Plumptre of the Wildlife Conservation Society(WCS)in New York.Biologist Katy Payne of Cornell University in Ithaca,New York,agrees,"We really need to know elephant numbers and the evidence that we have is quite indirect,"says Payne,who electronically tracks elephants.Counting elephants from planes is impossible in the vast rainforests of Central Africa. So researchers often estimate elephant numbers by counting dung piles in a given area. They also need to know the rate at which dung decays because it's extremely difficult to determine these rates. However,researchers counting elephants in one region tend to rely on standard decay rates established elsewhere.But researchers at the WCS have found that this decay rate varies from region to region depending on the climate and environment. "Using the wrong values can lead the census astray(离开正道),"says Plumptre.He and his colleague Anthony Chifu Nchanji studied decaying elephant dung in the forests of Cameroon.They found that the dung decayed between 55 and 65 percent more slowly than the dung in the rainforests of neighbouring Gabon.If researchers use decay rates from Gabon to count elephants in Cameroon,they would probably find more elephants than are actually around.This could mean estimates in Cameroon are at least twice as high as those derived from decay rates calculated locally,says Plumptre"However accurate your dung density estimate might be,the decay rate can severely affect the result."Plumptre also says that the dung-pile census should be carried out over a region similar in size to an elephant's natural range.The usual technique of monitoring only small,protected areas distorts numbers because elephants move in and out of these regions,he says"If the elephant population increases within the protected area,you cannot determine whether it is a real increase or whether it is due to elephants moving in because they are being poached(入侵偷猎)outside."Plumptre says that similar problems may also affect other animal census studies that rely on indirect evidence such as nests,tracks or burrows(地洞). Piles of dung can't be relied upon when it comes to estimating elephant numbers because______.
[多选题]共用题干 Animal's"Sixth Sense"A tsunami was triggered by an earthquake in the Indian Ocean in December,2004.It killed tens of thousands of people in Asia and East Africa. Wild animals,______(51),seem to have escaped that terrible tsunami .This phenomenon adds weight to notions that they possess a"sixth sense"for______(52),experts said.Sri Lankan wildlife officials have said the giant waves that killed over 24,000 people along the Indian Ocean island's coast clearly______(53)wild beasts,with no dead animals found."No elephants are dead,not______(54)a dead mbbit. I think animals can______(55)dis-aster. They have a sixth sense.They know when things are happening,"H. D. Ratnayake,deputy director of Sri Lanka's Wildlife Department,said about one month after the tsunami attack. The______(56) washed floodwatei up to 2 miles inland at Yala National Park in the ravaged southeast,Sri Lanka's biggest wildlife______(57)and home to hundreds of wild elephants and several leopards."There has been a lot of apparent evidence about dogs barking or birds migrating______(58)volcanic eruptions or earthquakes. But it has not been proven,"said Matthew van Lierop,an animal behavior______(59)at Johannesburg Zoo."There have been no______(60)studies because you can't really test it in a lab or field setting,"he told Reuters.Other authorities concurred with this______(61)."Wildlife seem to be able to pick up certain______(62),especially birds... there are many reports of birds detecting impending disasters,"said Clive Walker,who has written several books on African wildlife.Animals certainly______(63)on the known senses such as smell or hearing to avoid dan-ger such as predators.The notion of an animal"sixth sense”-or______(64)other mythical power-is an endur-ing one which the evidence on Sri Lanka's ravaged coast is likely to add to.The Romans saw owls______(65)omens of impending disaster and many ancient cul- tures viewed elephants as sacred animals endowed with special powers or attributes. 55._________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇A Tale of Scottish Rural LifeLewis Grassic Gibbon's Sunset Song(1932)was voted"the best Scottish novel of all time"by Scottish's reading public in 2005.Once considered shocking for its frank description of aspects of the lives of Scotland's poor rural farmers,it has been adapted for stage,film,TV and radio in recent decades.The novel is set on the fictional estate of Kinr Addie,in the farming country of the Scottish northwest in the years up to and beyond World War I.At its heart is the story of Chris,who is both part of the community and a little outside it.Grassic Gibbon gives us the most detailed and intimate account of the life of his heroine.We watch her grow through a childhood dominated by her cruel but hard-working father;experience tragedy(her mother's suicide and murder of her twin children);and learn about her feelings as she grows into woman. We see her marry,lose her husband,then marry again.Chris has seemed so convincing a figure to some female readers that they cannot believe that she is the creation of a man.But it would be misleading to suggest that this book is just about Chris.It is truly a novel of a place and its people.Its opening section tells of Kinr Addie's long history,in a language that imitates the place's changing patterns of speech and writing.The story itself is amazingly full of characters and incidents.It is told from Chris' point of view but also from that of the gossiping community,a community where everybody knows everybody else's business and nothing is ever forgotten.Sunset Song has a social theme too. It is concerned with what Grassic Gibbon perceives as the destruction of traditional Scottish rural life first by modernization and then by World War I. Gibbon tried hard to show how certain characters resist the war. Despite this,the war takes the young men away,a number of them to their deaths. In particular,it takes away Chris' husband,Evan Tavendale.The war finally kills Evan,but not in the way his widow told. In fact,the Germans aren't responsible for his death,but his own side.He is shot because he is said to have run away from a battle.If the novel is about the end of one way of life it also looks ahead.It is a Sunset Song but is concerned too with the new Kinr Addie,indeed of the new European world.Grassic Gibbon went on to publish two other novels about the place that continue its story. What is the opening section of the novel mainly concerned with?
[多选题]共用题干 Wide World of RobotsEngineers who build and program robots have fascinating jobs. These researchers tinker(修补)with ma- chines in the lab and write computer software to control these devices."They're the best toys out there," says Howie Choset at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh.Choset is a roboticist,a person who designs, builds or programs robots.When Choset was a kid,he was interested in anything that moved一cars,trains,animals.He put motors on Tinkertoy cars to make them move.Later,in high school,he built mobile robots similar to small cars,Hoping to continue working on robots,he studied computer science in college.But when he got to graduate school at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena,Choset’。labmates were working on something even cooler than remotely controlled cars:robotic snakes.Some robots can move only forward, hackward, left and right. But snakes can twist(扭曲)in many directions and travel over a lot of different types of terrain(地形)."Snakes are far more interesting than the cars,"Choset concluded.After he started working at Carnegie Mellon,Choset and his colleagues there began developing their own snake robots.Choset's team programmed robots to perform the same movements as real snakes,such as sliding and inching forward.The robot、also moved in ways that snakes usually don't,such as rolling. Choset’s snake robots could crawl(爬行)through the grass,swini in a pond and even climb a flagpole.But Choset wondered if his snakes might be useful for medicine as well.For some heart surgeries,the doctor has to open a patient's chest,cutting through the breastbone.Recovering from these surgeries can be very painful.What if the doctor could perform the operation by instead making a small hole in the body and sending in a thin robotic snake?Choset teamed up with Marco Zenati,a heart surgeon now at Harvard Medical School,to investigate theidea.Zenati practiced using the robot on a plastic model of the chest and they tested the robot in pigs. A company caikd Medrobotics in Boston is now adapting the technology for g urgerie9 on people-Even after 15 years of working with his team’s creations,"I still don't get bored of watching the motionof my robots,"Clioset says. Choset's snake robots could make more movements than the ones others developed.
[多选题]共用题干 Paper or plastic?Take a walk along the Chesapeake Bay,and you are likely to see plastic bags floating in the water. Ever since these now ubiquitous symbols of American super-consumption showed up in the supermarkets,plastic shopping bags have made their______(51)into local waterways,and from there,into the bay,where they can______(52)wildlife. Piles of them一the______(53)takes centuries to decompose一show up in landfills and on city streets.Plastic bags also take an environmental toll in the form of millions of barrels of oil expended every year to produce them.Enter Annapolis______(54)you will see plastic bags distributed free in department stores and supermarkets.Alderman Sam Shropshire has introduced a well-meaning proposal to ban retailers ______(55) distributing plastic shopping bags in Maryland's capital. Instead,retailers would be required to offer bags______(56)recycled paper and to sell reusable bags.The city of Baltimore is considering a similar measure.Opponents of the idea,however,argue that______(57)bags are harmful,too:they cost more to make,they consume more______(58)to transport,and recycling them causes more pollution than recycling plastic.The argument for depriving Annapolis residents of their plastic bags is.______(59)accepted.Everyone in this______(60)is right about one thing:disposable shopping bags of any type are______(61),and the best outcome would be for customers to reuse bags instead.Annapolis's mayor is investigating how to hand out free,reusable shopping bags to city residents,a proposal that can proceed regardless of whether other bags are banned.A less-expensive______(62)would be to encourage retailers to give discounts to customers______(63)bring their own,reusable bags,a policy that a spokesman for the supermarket Giant Food says its chain already has in place.And this policy would be more______(64)if stores imitated furniture mega-retailer Ikea and charged for disposable bags at the checkout counter. A broad ban on the use of plastic shopping bags,which would merely replace some forms of pollution with others,is not the______(65). _________(62)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Computer LiteracyThere is no denying that students should learn something about how computers work,just as we expect them at least to understand that the internal-combustion engine(内燃机)has something to do with burning fuel, expanding gases and pistons(活塞)being driven. For people should have some basic idea of how the things that they use do what they do.Further,students might be helped by a course that considers the computer's impact on society. But that is not what is meant by computer literacy. For computer literacy is not a form of literacy(读写能力)。It is a trade skill that should not be taught as a liberal art.Learning how to use a computer and learning how to program one are two distinct activities. A case might be made that the competent citizens of tomorrow should free themselves from their fear of computers.But this is quite different from saying that all ought to know how to program one. Leave that to people who have chosen programming as a career. While programming can be lots of fun,and while our society needs some people who are experts at it,the same is true of auto repair and violin-making.Learning how to use a computer is not that difficult,and it gets easier all the time as programs become more"user-friendly".Let us assume that in the future everyone is going to have to know how to use a computer to be a competent citizen.What does the phrase"learning to use a computer" mean? It sounds like"learning to drive a car",that is,it sounds as if there is some set of definite skills that,once acquired,enable one to use a computer.In fact,"learning to use a computer" is much more like"learning to play a game",but learning the rules of one game may not help you play a second game,whose rules may not be the same. There is no such a thing as teaching someone how to use a computer. One can only teach people to use this or that program. The author's purpose in writing this passage is______.
[多选题]共用题干 More Than 8 Hours Sleep Too Much of a Good ThingAlthough the dangers of too little sleep are widely known,new research suggests that people who sleep too much may also suffer the consequences.Investigators at the University of California in San Diego found that people who clock up 9 or 10 hours each weeknight appear to have more trouble falling and staying asleep,as well as a number of other sleep problems,than people who sleep 8 hours a night. People who slept only 7 hours each night also said they had more trouble falling asleep and feeling refreshed after a night's sleep than 8-hour sleepers.These findings,which DL Daniel Kripke reported in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine, demonstrate that people who want to get a good night's rest may not need to set aside more than 8 hours a night. He added that it might be a good idea for people who sleep more than 8 hours each night to consider reducing the amount of time they spend in bed,but cautioned that more research is needed to confirm this.Previous studies have shown the potential dangers of chronic shortages of sleep,for instance, one report demonstrated that people who habitually sleep less than 7 hours each night have a higher risk of dying within a fixed period than people who sleep more.For the current report,Kripke reviewed the responses of 1,004 adults to sleep questionnaires,in which participants indicated how much they slept during the week and whether they experienced any sleep problems.Sleep problems included waking in the middle of the night,arising early in the morning and being unable to fall back to sleep,and having fatigue interfere with day-to-day functioning.Kripke found that people who slept between 9 and 10 hours each night were more likely to report experiencing each sleep problem than people who slept 8 hours.In an interview,Kripke noted that long sleepers may struggle to get rest at night simply because they spend too much time in bed. As evidence,he added that one way to help insomnia is to spend less time in bed."It stands to reason that if a person spends too long a time in bed,then they'll spend a higher percentage of time awake,"he said. Long sleepers are reported to be more likely to______.
[多选题]共用题干 Migrant(移民的)WorkersIn the past twenty years,there has been an increasing tendency for workers to move from one country to another. While some countries have restricted(限制)most ___________(1)to local people,others have attracted and welcomed migrant workers. This is particularly the case in the Middle East,___________(2)increased oil incomes have enabled many countries to call in outsiders to improve local facilities(设施).Thus the Middle East has attracted oil-workers___________(3)the U. S. A. and Europe.It has also brought in workers from many other countries,___________(4)South Korea andJapan.In view of the difficul州lying and working___________(5)in the Middle East,it is not surprising that the pay is high to attract suitable workers.Many engineers and technicians can___________(6)at least twice as much money the Middle East as they can in theirown country, and this is a major ___________(7).Sometimes a disadvantage has a compensating(补偿的) advantage.For example, the___________(8)living conditions often lead to increased friendship when workers have to___________(9)on each other for safety and comfort. In a similar way,many migrant workers can save large sums of money partly because of the___________(10)of entertainment(娱乐)facilities. The work is often complex and full of problems but this merely presents greater challenge to engineers who prefer to find solutions to problems rather than do___________(11)work in their home country.One major problem which___________(12)migrant workers in the Middle East is that their jobs are temporary ones.They are nearly always on___________(13),so it is not easy for them to plan ahead with great confidence.This is to be___________(14)since no country welcomes a large number of foreign workers as permanent residents.In any___________ (15),migrant workers accept this disadvantage,along with others, because of the considerable financial benefits which they receive. _________(5)
[多选题]共用题干 New Comet FoundThere's a newfound comet closing in on the sun,and when it gets here in 2013,you may be able to see it with your naked eye.Astronomers stumbled upon the icy interloper on June 5 while searching for potentially hazardous asteroids(小行星).Equipped with the world's largest digital camera , the University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS team snagged a faint image of the odd object while it was more than 700 million miles away , between the orbits of Jupiter(木星)and Saturn(土星)."Almost everything we find is an asteroid,but this object was suspicious,"said Richard Wainscoat,co-discoverer of the comet and an astronomer at the University of Hawaii."Unlike asteroids, which appear point-like in images,the telltale sign that gave it away was its fuzzy appearance."By March 2013 the comet,named C/2011 L4(PANSTARRS),is expected to come within 30 million miles of the sun一closer even than the innermost(最深处)planet, Mercury(水星).When the comet makes its closest approach to the sun,most of its ices will vaporize,adding to its hazy envelope of gas and dust and producing the familiar tail. This denser envelope,or coma, should boost the comet to peak brightness,making it potentially visible to the naked eye low in the western horizon just after sunset.While there is no danger of collision with Earth,preliminary calculations of the comet's orbit show that this may be its first and final trip through the solar system."It may be coming around the sun for the first and only time,only to be ejected from the solar system,never to return,"Wainscoat said."Since we don't have a lot of data on it,we really don't know the orbit well enough right now, and it will take up to two months of observations to find out."Astronomers believe C/2011 L4 may be a runaway from the Oort cloud(奥尔特云),a reservoir of billions of hibernating(蛰伏)comets that orbits about 100,000 times farther than the distance between Earth and the sun.The fact that it's going around the back of the sun from our point of view may ultimately affect the comet's visibility,but a lot will depend on how close the body actually gets to the sun.Also, whether the comet is north or south of the sun when it reaches peak brightness will determine which hemisphere on Earth gets the better view. The newfound comet is made from mercury.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Archive Gallery: The Best of Bionics(仿生学)Humans might be the most highly-evolved species on the planet,but most animals possess skills we canonly dream of having.Imagine how much electricity we could save if we could see in the dark the way cats do. Imagine leaping from tree to tree like a monkey.Giraffes(长颈鹿),which are otherwise calm and good-natured,sleep only 4.6 hours a day.We realized a long,long time ago that nature provides the best blueprint(蓝图)for invention.We've borrowed canals from beavers(河狸)and reflectors from cat's eyes.Although the words "bionics" became popular only after the 1960s,history shows that nature has always provided ideas on solving everyday prob- lems. Our archives(档案)don't go back to the time of Leonardo da Vinci and his bird-like flying machines, but we can take you to the late 19th century,where we applied those same principles for building our firstpractical airplanes.To prepare for their flight at Kitty Hawk,the Wright brothers studied the movements of pigeons to figure out how they stayed high up when they were heavier than air. Their success inspired scores of successors to improve on the airplane by studying various aspects of nature,One of Orville Wright’、pupils caught and stuffed seagulls to examine their wingspan.Meanwhile,two French inventors examined spinning sycamore(美 国梧桐)seeds in an effort to apply those same motions,reversed,to a helicopter.Some examples are more obvious than others.The outside of the airplane designed by the Wright brothers looks like a minimalistic(简单抽象艺术)structure. On the other hand , Barney Connett ' s fishsubmarine(潜水艇)actually looks like a fish.Some bio-inspired concepts have yet to be invented.In the 1960s,the US Army commissioned several university professors to conduct research on the motor skills of animals in hope of applying those same abili- ties to tanks. Tanks that run like horses or jump like grasshoppers(蚂昨)一sounds shocking,doesn't it? But imagine how life would change if we could achieve that. What happened after the Wright brothers' success?
[多选题]共用题干 Robots may Allow Surgery in SpaceSmall robots designed by University of Nebraska researchers may______(51)doctors on Earth to help perform surgery on patients in space.The______(52),wheeled robots,which are about 3 inches tall and as wide as lipstick case, can be slipped into small incisions and computer-controlled by surgeons in different______(53). Some robots are equipped with______(54)and lights and can send images back to surgeons and others have surgical tools attached that can be controlled______(55)."We think this is going to replace open surgery," Dr. Dmitry Oleynikov said at a news ______(56).Oleynikov is a specialist in computer-assisted surgery at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha.Officials hope that NASA will teach______(57)to use the robots soon enough so that surgeries could one day be performed in space.On earth,the surgeons could control the robots themselves from other locations.For example, the robots could enable surgeons in other places to work on injured______(58)on the front line. Researchers plan to seek federal regulatory approval early next year. Tests on______(59)have been successful,and tests on humans in England will begin very soon.The camera-carrying robots can provide views of______(60)areas and the ones with surgical tools will be able to maneuver inside the body in______(61)surgeons' hands can't. The views fromthe camera-carrying robots are better than the naked eye,because they send back color images that are______(62).Because several robots can be inserted through one incision,they could reduce the amount and______(63)of cuts needed for surgery,which would decrease______(64)time. This is particularly helpful to those patients who have been debilitated by long illness.______(65),Oleynikov said,the tiny robots may enable surgeons to work without even placing their hands in patients' bodies."That's the goal,"Oleynikov said."It's getting easier and easier. We can do even more with these devices. _________(60)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Long Bus RideLong bus rides are like television shows.They have a beginning,a middle,and an end with commercials thrown in every three or four minutes.The commercials are unavoidable.They happen whether you want them or not. Every couple of minutes a billboard glides by outside the bus window."Buy Super Clean Toothpaste.""Drink Good'n Wet Root Beer.""Fill up with Pacific Gas." Only if you sleep,which is equal to turning the television set off,are you spared the unending cry of "You Need It!Buy It Now!"The beginning of the ride is comfortable and somewhat exciting,even if you've traveled that way before.Usually some things have changed一new houses,new buildings,sometimes even a new road.The bus driver has a style of driving and it's fun to try to figure it out the first hour or so.if the driver is particularly reckless or daring,the ride can be as thrilling as a suspense story.Will the driver pass the truck in time?Will the driver move into the right or the left-hand lane?After a while,of course,the excitement dies down.Sleeping for a while helps pass the middle hours of the ride.Food always makes bus rides more interesting. But you've got to be careful of what kind of food you eat. Too much salty food can make you very thirsty between stops.The end of the ride is somewhat like the beginning. You know it will soon be over and there's a kind of expectation and excitement in that. The seat,of course,has become harder as the hours have passed.By now you've sat with you legs crossed,with your hands crossed behind your head. The end comes just at the right time.There are just no more ways to sit. The writer thinks that the end of the ride is somewhat like the beginning because both are______.
[多选题]共用题干 Vibrating Rubber CeliphonesVibrating rubber celiphones could be the next big thing in mobile communications.They allow people to press the phone to transmit vibrations along with their______(51)words.According to a research team at the MIT Media Lab in Cambridge,Massachusetts,the idea will make______ (52)more fun.Many mobile phones can already vibrate instead of ringing______(53)you do not want people to know you are getting a call. "But these______ (54) are too simple for subtle(敏感的) communication".______(55)Angela Chang of the lab's Tangible Media Group."They're either on or off,"she says.But when you hold Chang's rubber cellphone your fingers and thumb wrap around five ______(56)speakers. They vibrate______(57)your skin around 250 times per second.Beneath these speakers sit pressure sensors(传感器),so you can transmit vibration as well as ______(58)it. When you squeeze with a finger,a vibration signal is transmitted______(59) your caller's corresponding finger,its speed______(60)on how hard you squeeze.Chang says that within a few minutes of being given the phones,students were using the vibration feature to______(61)emphasis to what they were saying. Over time,people even began to transmit their own kind of ad hoc(特别的)" Morse code " , which they would repeat back to show they were______(62)what the other person was saying.Chang thinks"vibralanguages"could function for the same______(63)as texting:sometimes people want to communicate______(64)without everyone nearby knowing what they're saying."And______(65)actually being able to shake someone's hand when you close a business deal,"she says. _________(62)
[多选题]共用题干 Transport and Trade1. Transport is one of the aids to trade.By moving goods from places where they are plentiful to places where they are scarce,transport adds to their value.The more easily goods can be brought over the distance that separates producer and consumer,the better for trade.When there were no railways,no good roads,no canals,and only small sailing ships,trade was on a small scale.2. The great advances made in transport during the last two hundred years were accompanied by a big increase in trade.Bigger and faster ships enabled a trade in meat to develop between Britain and New Zealand,for instance.Quicker transport makes possible mass-production and big business,drawing supplies from,and selling goods to,all parts of the globe.Big factories could not exist without transport to carry the large number of workers they need to and from their homes. Big city stores could not have developed unless customers could travel easily from the suburbs and goods were delivered to their homes.Big cities could not survive unless food could be brought from a distance.3. Transport also prevents waste.Much of the fish landed at the ports would be wasted if it could not be taken quickly to inland towns.Transport has given us a much greater variety of foods and goods since we no longer have to live on what is produced locally.Foods which at one time could be obtained only during a part of the year can now be obtained all through the year. Transport has raised the standard of living.4. By moving fuel,raw materials,and even power,for example,through electric cables,transport has led to the establishment of industries and trade in areas where they would have been impossible before. Districts and countries can concentrate on making things which they can do better and more cheaply than others and can then exchange them with one another. The cheaper and quicker transport becomes,the longer the distance over which goods can profitably be earned. Countries with poor transport have a lower standard of living.5. Commerce requires not only the moving of goods and people but also the carrying of messages and information .Means of communication,like telephones,cables and radio,send information about prices,supplies,and changing conditions in different parts of the world. In this way,advanced communication systems also help to develop trade. Transport has made it possible for people to eat whatever food they want______.
[多选题]共用题干 Migrant(移民的)WorkersIn the past twenty years,there has been an increasing tendency for workers to move from one country to another. While some countries have restricted(限制)most ___________(1)to local people,others have attracted and welcomed migrant workers. This is particularly the case in the Middle East,___________(2)increased oil incomes have enabled many countries to call in outsiders to improve local facilities(设施).Thus the Middle East has attracted oil-workers___________(3)the U. S. A. and Europe.It has also brought in workers from many other countries,___________(4)South Korea andJapan.In view of the difficul州lying and working___________(5)in the Middle East,it is not surprising that the pay is high to attract suitable workers.Many engineers and technicians can___________(6)at least twice as much money the Middle East as they can in theirown country, and this is a major ___________(7).Sometimes a disadvantage has a compensating(补偿的) advantage.For example, the___________(8)living conditions often lead to increased friendship when workers have to___________(9)on each other for safety and comfort. In a similar way,many migrant workers can save large sums of money partly because of the___________(10)of entertainment(娱乐)facilities. The work is often complex and full of problems but this merely presents greater challenge to engineers who prefer to find solutions to problems rather than do___________(11)work in their home country.One major problem which___________(12)migrant workers in the Middle East is that their jobs are temporary ones.They are nearly always on___________(13),so it is not easy for them to plan ahead with great confidence.This is to be___________(14)since no country welcomes a large number of foreign workers as permanent residents.In any___________ (15),migrant workers accept this disadvantage,along with others, because of the considerable financial benefits which they receive. _________(8)
[多选题]共用题干 The History of the Fridge 1 The fridge is considered a necessity.It has been so since the l960s when packaged food first appeared with the label:"store in the refrigerator." 2 In my fridgeless fifties childhood,I was fed well and healthily.The milkman came daily,the grocer, the butcher,the baker,and the ice-cream man delivered two or three times a week.The Sunday meat would last until Wednesday and surplus bread and milk became all kinds of cakes.Nothing was wasted and we were never troubled by rotten food.Thirty years on,food deliveries have ceased,fresh vegetables are almost unobtainable in the country. 3 The invention of the fridge contributed comparatively little to the art of food preservation.A vast variety of well-tried techniques already existed-natural cooling,drying'smoking'salting'sugaring,bottling… 4 What refrigeration did promote was marketing-marketing hardware and electricity,marketing soft drinks,marketing dead bodies of animals around the globe in search of。good price. 5 Consequently,most of the world's fridges are to be found,not in the tropics where they might prove useful,but in the wealthy countries with mild temperatures where they are climatically almost unnecessary.Every winter,millions of fridges hum away continuously and at vast expense,busily maintaining an artificially-cooled space inside an artificially-heated house-while outside,nature provides the desired temperature free of charge. 6 The fridge's effect upon the environment has been evident,while its contribution to human happiness has been insignificant.If you don't believe me,try it yourself.Invest in。food cabinet(橱柜)and turn off your fridge next winter.You may miss the hamburgers but at least you’ll get rid of that terrible hum. Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 Pathways to Research:Problem-solving1.Pittsburgh's many hills aren't kind to bikers.Anyone hoping to pedal to work there has to contend with steep streets like Canton Avenue,which famously climbs at a nearly 40-degree angle.As a result,some residents avoid biking altogether.2.But University of Pittsburgh graduate Micah Toll,23,and a few friends recently launched an invention that they hope will, increase the city's pedal power:An electric bike called a Pulse PEVO.AM super-strong battery powers the bicycle.Able to hit nearly 20 miles per hour without pedaling,it zips up the city' s most daunting(令人却步的)hills.Toll hopes it will persuade people in Pittsburgh and elsewhere to get out of their cars and onto bikes.3.If it sounds like Toll has a knack(窍门)for fixing problems,that's because he does.In high school,he designed a new type of construction beam.It weighs no more than a feather pillow but can be used to build sturdy(坚固的)homes for refugees fleeing war or natural disaster.For his work , Toll was invited to attend the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair(ISEF)-twice,in 2006 and 2007.The annual competition for young researchers is a program of Society for Science&the Public(that's the parent organization of Science News for Kids).Toll says that when it comes to science,he keeps it simple:"You see a problem and say,‘How could I solve that?’",4.He's not the only one to take that approach.Many young researchers get their start by trying to solve a problem or fulfill a need in their own communities.When students dedicate themselves to finding a solution that may benefit their community , " a passion is ignited,(点燃),"says Wendy Hawkins , executive director of the Intel Foundation,which sponsors Intel ISEF."Finding that passion and fostering it can be the key to many students'future success."she says. Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 Homosexuals(同性恋者)Many homosexuals prefer to be called gay or,for woman,lesbian.Most of them live quiet lives just______(51)anyone else.Some gay people have always raised children,______(52)or with partners,and the use of artificial insemination(人工受精)is increasing among lesbians.Gay persons are in every kind of job.Some are very open about their homosexuality,and some are more private.Some______(53)their sexual orientation as a biological given and others as a choice.For those women who see it as a choice,one reason often given is the inequality in most heterosexual(异性恋的)relationships.Homosexuality has been common in most cultures throughout history and generally______ (54).As a result,homosexual activity became a crime,______(55)which the penalty in early courts was death.Homosexual behavior is still______(56)in many countries and the United States.Homosexuality later came to be viewed widely as less a sin than a sickness,but now no mentalhealth professional(具有专业资格的人)any longer ______ (57) homosexuality an illness. More recent theories to______(58)for homosexuality have included those based on biological and sociological factors.To date.______(59),there is no conclusive general theory that can explain the cause of homosexuality.Attitudes______(60)homosexuality began to change in the second half of the 20th century. Gays attribute this,in part,to their own struggle for their rights and pride in their orientation. Some large companies now______(61)health-care benefits to the life partners of their gay employees. Many cities also have officially appointed lesbian and gay advisory(咨询的)committees.______(62)some attitudes have changed,however,prejudice(偏见)still exists,and in the late 1980s and early 1990s,there were considerable shouts against homosexuals,with attempt to ______(63)laws forbidding the granting of basic civil rights to gays.The AIDS epidemic,which started in the 1980s,has devastated(毁坏)the gay community and brought it together as never before,The organized gay response to the lack of government financial support for fighting AIDS and to the needs of the thousands of AIDS victim______(64)they be gays or not,has been a model of community action.AIDS,however,has also______(65)people with another reason for their prejudice. _________(58)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Nuclear Power and Its DangerNuclear power's danger to health,safety,and even life itself can be summed up in one word:radiation.Nuclear radiation has a certain mystery about it,partly because it cannot be detected by human senses. It can't be seen or heard,or touched,or tasted,even though it may be all around us.There are other things like that.For example,radio waves are all around us but we can't detect them,sense them,without a radio receiver.Similarly,we can't sense radioactivity without a radiation detector. But unlike common radio waves, nuclear radiation is not harmless to'human beings and other living things.At very high levels,radiation can kill an animal or human being outright by killing masses of cells invital organs.But even the lowest level of radiation can do serious damage.There is no level of radiation that is comnpletely safe.If the radiation does not hit anything important,the damage may not be significant.This is the case when only a few cells are hit,and if they are killed outright.Your body will replace the dead cells with healthy ones.But if the few cells are only damaged,and if they reproduce themselves,you may be in trouble.They reproduce themselves in a deformed way.They can grow into cancer. Sometimes this does notshow up for many years.There is another reason for the mystery of nuclear radiation.Serious damage can be done without the victim being aware at the time that damage occurs. A person can be irradiated and feel fine,then die of cancer five,ten,or twenty years later as a result.Or a child can be born weak or liable to serious illness as a result of radiation absorbed by its grandparents.Radiation can hurt us.We must know the truth. Radiation can hurt us in the way that it can _______________.
[多选题]共用题干 Ecosystem1 The word " ecosystem" is short for ecological(生态的)system. An ecosystem is where living crea- tures expand within a given area.You can say that an ecosystem is the natural environment where biologicalorganisms(生物)such as plants,animals and humans co-exist in this world. So naturally that includes you and mne.Yes,we are all members of an ecosystem!2 There are different kinds of ecosystems depending on the type of suiface or environment. Most are naturally made 5uch as the ocean or lake and the desert or rainforest.Some are man-made or artificial to en- courage co-habitation(共居)between living and non-living things in a monitored environment,such as azoo or garden.3 Plants make up the biggest group of biological creatures within an ecosystem,and that's because they are the natural food producers for everyone.Plants raised in the earth need air and collect sunlight to help them grow.When they grow,the plants and their加its or flowers eventually become a source of food to animals,microorganisms (微生物)and even humans, of course. Food is then converted to energy for the rest of us to function,and this happens in a never-ending cycle until the living creatures die and break up back in the earth.4 Ecosystems are the basis of survival for all living things.We depend on plants and animals for food. In order for us to exist,we need to grow and care about other organisms.We also need tO care for the non一living things within our environment like our air and water so we can continue living as a population.Since plants, animals and humans are all of various species(物种),we all play a role in maintaining the ecosystem.5 To preserve our ecosystems,we should stop using too much energy,which happens汕en we consume more than our share of resources. Humans should not disturb the natural habitat(栖息地)of plants and animals, and should allow them to grow healthily for the cycle to continue.Too many people in a habitat can mean dis- placement(搬迁):imagine being thrown out of your home because there is no more space for everyone. Worse,overpopulation can also ruin the environment and cause destruction of existing plants and animals. Paragraph 3_______
[多选题]共用题干 Homosexuals(同性恋者)Many homosexuals prefer to be called gay or,for woman,lesbian.Most of them live quiet lives just______(51)anyone else.Some gay people have always raised children,______(52)or with partners,and the use of artificial insemination(人工受精)is increasing among lesbians.Gay persons are in every kind of job.Some are very open about their homosexuality,and some are more private.Some______(53)their sexual orientation as a biological given and others as a choice.For those women who see it as a choice,one reason often given is the inequality in most heterosexual(异性恋的)relationships.Homosexuality has been common in most cultures throughout history and generally______ (54).As a result,homosexual activity became a crime,______(55)which the penalty in early courts was death.Homosexual behavior is still______(56)in many countries and the United States.Homosexuality later came to be viewed widely as less a sin than a sickness,but now no mentalhealth professional(具有专业资格的人)any longer ______ (57) homosexuality an illness. More recent theories to______(58)for homosexuality have included those based on biological and sociological factors.To date.______(59),there is no conclusive general theory that can explain the cause of homosexuality.Attitudes______(60)homosexuality began to change in the second half of the 20th century. Gays attribute this,in part,to their own struggle for their rights and pride in their orientation. Some large companies now______(61)health-care benefits to the life partners of their gay employees. Many cities also have officially appointed lesbian and gay advisory(咨询的)committees.______(62)some attitudes have changed,however,prejudice(偏见)still exists,and in the late 1980s and early 1990s,there were considerable shouts against homosexuals,with attempt to ______(63)laws forbidding the granting of basic civil rights to gays.The AIDS epidemic,which started in the 1980s,has devastated(毁坏)the gay community and brought it together as never before,The organized gay response to the lack of government financial support for fighting AIDS and to the needs of the thousands of AIDS victim______(64)they be gays or not,has been a model of community action.AIDS,however,has also______(65)people with another reason for their prejudice. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Graphene' s SuperstrengthBig technology comes in tiny packages.New ccii phones and personal computers get snialler every year, which means these electronics require even smaller components on the inside.Engineer; are looking for creative ways to build these components,and they'ye turned their eyes to graphene,a superthin material, made of carbon,that could change the future of electronics.This year's Nobel Prize for Physics has been awarded to Andre Geim and Kostya Novoselov from the University of Manchester,U.K.for the discovery of graphene.Graphdne isn't just small;it's "the thinnest possible material in this world"says Novosclov.iJe calls it a “wonder material".It’s so thin that you would need to stack about 25,000 sheets just to make a pile as thick as a piece of' ordinary white paper. If you were to hold a sheet of graphene in your fingers,you'ci have no idea because you wouldn't be able to see it.Carbon is one of the most abundant elements in the universe.Every known kind of life contains carbon. Graphene is a sheet of earboti,but only one atom thick.You don't have to look far to find graphene一it's all around you.If you want this high-tech wonder stuff,all you need is a pencil,paper and a little adhesive tape.Use the pencil to shade a small area on the paper,and then apply a small piece of adhesive tape over the area. When you pull up the tape,you'll see that it pulls up a thin layer of some of the shading from your pencil. That layer is called graphite,one of the softest mninerals in the world.Now stick the same piece of tape on another sheet of paper and pull the tape up一there should be an even thinner layer,this time left on the paper. Now imagine that you do this over and over,until you get the thinnest possible layer of material on the paper. This layer would he only one atom thick,and you wouldn't be able to see it. Graphite is made of layers of graphene.So when you get to the thinnest possible layer, you've found graphene. What does the writer tell in the lust two paragraphm?
[多选题]共用题干 A Record-Breaking RoverNASA's Mars rover Opportunity has boldly gone where no rover has gone before—at least in terms of distance. Since arriving on the Red Planet in 2004,Opportunity has traveled 25 .01 miles,more than any other wheeled vehicle has on another world.“This is so remarkable considering Opportunity was intended to drive about 1 kilometer and was never designed for distance,”says John Callas,the Mars Exploration Rover Project Manager.He works at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena,California.“But what is really importantly is not how many miles the rover has racked up,but how much exploration and discovery we have accomplished over that distance.”The solar-powered Opportunity and its twin rover,Spirit,landed on Mars 10 years ago on a mission expected to last 3 months. The objective of the rovers was to help scientists learn more about the planet and to search for signs of life,such as the possible presence of water.Spirit stopped communicating with Earth in March 2010,a few months after it got stuck in a sand pit. But Opportunity has continued to collect and analyze Martian soil and rocks.During its mission,Opportunity has captured,and sent back to Earth,some 187,000 panoramic and microscopic images of Mars with its cameras. It has also provided scientists with data on the planet's atmosphere,soil,rocks,aid terrain.The rover doesn't seem to be ready to stop just yet. If Opportunity can continue on,it will reach another major investigation site when its odometer hits 26.2 miles. Opportunity has beer working on Mars since January 2004.Researchers believe that clay minerals exposed near Marathon Valley could hold clues to Mars's ancient environment. Opportunity's continuing travels will also help researchers as the, plan for an eventual human mission to the Red Planet. Which of the following statements is true of Opportunity?
[多选题]共用题干 Renewable Energy SourcesToday petroleum(石油)provides around 40% of the world's energy needs, mostly fuelling automobiles .Coal is still used,mostly in power stations,to cover one-quarter of our energy needs, but it is the least efficient, unhealthiest and most environmentally damaging fossil fuel(矿物燃料).Natural gas reserves could fill some of the gap from oil,but reserves of that will not last into the 22nd century either. Most experts predict we will exhaust easily accessible reserves within 50 years. Less-polluting renewable energy sources offer a more practical long-term energy solution. "Renewable"refers to the fact that these resources are not used faster than they can be replaced.Hydroelectric(水力发电的)power is now the most common form of renewable energy , supplying around 20% of world electricity.China's Three Gorges Dam is the largest ever. At five times the size of the U. S. 's Hoover Dam,its 26 turbines (涡轮机)will generate the equivalent energy of 18 coal-fired power stations. It will satisfy 3%of China's entire electricity demand.In 2003,the first commercial power station to use tidal(潮汐的)currents in the open sea opened in Norway. It is designed like windmill(风车),but others take the form of turbines.As prices fall,wind power has become the fastest growing type of electricity generation-quadrupling(翻两番)worldwide between 1 999 and 2005 . Modern wind farms consist of turbines that generate electricity. Though it will be more expensive,there is more than enough wind to provide the world's entire energy needs.Wind farms come in onshore and offshore forms. They can often end up at spots of natural beauty,and are often unpopular with residents. And turbines are not totally harmless-they can interfere with radar,alter climate and kill sea birds.Scotland is building Europe's largest wind farm,which will power 200 ,000 homes. The U.K. 's goal is to generate one-fifth of power from renewable sources,mainly wind,by 2020 .But this may cause problems, because wind is unreliable. According to the passage,which of the following is the most polluting energy resource?
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The Barbie DollsIn the mid l940's,the young ambitious duo Ruth and Elliot Handler,owned a company that made wooden picture frames.It was in 1945 that Ruth and Elliot Handler joined with their close friend Harold Mattson to form a company that would be known for the most famous and successful doll ever created.This company would be named Mattel,MATT for Mattson,and EL for Elliot.In the mid 1950s,while visiting Switzerland,Ruth Handler purchased a German Lilli doll.Lilli was a shapely,pretty fashion doll first made in 1955.She was originally fashioned after a famous cartoon character in the West German Newsletter,Build.Lilli is the doll that would inspire Ruth Handler to design the Barbie doll. With the help of her technicians and engineers at Mattel,Barbie was born.Ruth then hired Charlotte Johnson,a fashion designer,to create Barbies wardrobe.It was in 1958 that the patent for Barbie was obtained.This would be a fashion doll unlike any of her time.She would be long limbed,shapely,beautiful,and only 11.5 inches tall. Ruth and Elliot would name their new fashion doll after their own daughter, Barbie.In 1959,the Barbie doll would make her way to the New York Toy Show and receive a cool reception from the toy buyers.Barbie has undergone a lot of changes over the years and has managed to keep up with current trends in hairstyles,make-up and clothing. She is a reflection of the history of fashion since her introduction to the toy market.Barbie has a universal appeal and collectors.Both young and old enjoy time spent and memories made with their dolls. Which of the following statements is NOT true of the Barbie doll?
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇A Tale of Scottish Rural LifeLewis Grassic Gibbon's Sunset Song(1932)was voted"the best Scottish novel of all time"by Scottish's reading public in 2005.Once considered shocking for its frank description of aspects of the lives of Scotland's poor rural farmers,it has been adapted for stage,film,TV and radio in recent decades.The novel is set on the fictional estate of Kinr Addie,in the farming country of the Scottish northwest in the years up to and beyond World War I.At its heart is the story of Chris,who is both part of the community and a little outside it.Grassic Gibbon gives us the most detailed and intimate account of the life of his heroine.We watch her grow through a childhood dominated by her cruel but hard-working father;experience tragedy(her mother's suicide and murder of her twin children);and learn about her feelings as she grows into woman. We see her marry,lose her husband,then marry again.Chris has seemed so convincing a figure to some female readers that they cannot believe that she is the creation of a man.But it would be misleading to suggest that this book is just about Chris.It is truly a novel of a place and its people.Its opening section tells of Kinr Addie's long history,in a language that imitates the place's changing patterns of speech and writing.The story itself is amazingly full of characters and incidents.It is told from Chris' point of view but also from that of the gossiping community,a community where everybody knows everybody else's business and nothing is ever forgotten.Sunset Song has a social theme too. It is concerned with what Grassic Gibbon perceives as the destruction of traditional Scottish rural life first by modernization and then by World War I. Gibbon tried hard to show how certain characters resist the war. Despite this,the war takes the young men away,a number of them to their deaths. In particular,it takes away Chris' husband,Evan Tavendale.The war finally kills Evan,but not in the way his widow told. In fact,the Germans aren't responsible for his death,but his own side.He is shot because he is said to have run away from a battle.If the novel is about the end of one way of life it also looks ahead.It is a Sunset Song but is concerned too with the new Kinr Addie,indeed of the new European world.Grassic Gibbon went on to publish two other novels about the place that continue its story. What is Sunset Song mainly about?
[多选题]共用题干 Homosexuals(同性恋者)Many homosexuals prefer to be called gay or,for woman,lesbian.Most of them live quiet lives just______(51)anyone else.Some gay people have always raised children,______(52)or with partners,and the use of artificial insemination(人工受精)is increasing among lesbians.Gay persons are in every kind of job.Some are very open about their homosexuality,and some are more private.Some______(53)their sexual orientation as a biological given and others as a choice.For those women who see it as a choice,one reason often given is the inequality in most heterosexual(异性恋的)relationships.Homosexuality has been common in most cultures throughout history and generally______ (54).As a result,homosexual activity became a crime,______(55)which the penalty in early courts was death.Homosexual behavior is still______(56)in many countries and the United States.Homosexuality later came to be viewed widely as less a sin than a sickness,but now no mentalhealth professional(具有专业资格的人)any longer ______ (57) homosexuality an illness. More recent theories to______(58)for homosexuality have included those based on biological and sociological factors.To date.______(59),there is no conclusive general theory that can explain the cause of homosexuality.Attitudes______(60)homosexuality began to change in the second half of the 20th century. Gays attribute this,in part,to their own struggle for their rights and pride in their orientation. Some large companies now______(61)health-care benefits to the life partners of their gay employees. Many cities also have officially appointed lesbian and gay advisory(咨询的)committees.______(62)some attitudes have changed,however,prejudice(偏见)still exists,and in the late 1980s and early 1990s,there were considerable shouts against homosexuals,with attempt to ______(63)laws forbidding the granting of basic civil rights to gays.The AIDS epidemic,which started in the 1980s,has devastated(毁坏)the gay community and brought it together as never before,The organized gay response to the lack of government financial support for fighting AIDS and to the needs of the thousands of AIDS victim______(64)they be gays or not,has been a model of community action.AIDS,however,has also______(65)people with another reason for their prejudice. _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Recycling Around the WorldRecycling is one of the best environmental success stories of the late 20th century.But we could do more.People must not see recycling as fashionable,but essential.The Japanese are very good at recycling because they live in a crowded country. They do not have much space.They do not want to share their limited space with rubbish.But even so,Tokyo area alone is estimated to have three million tons of leftover rubbish at present.In 1996, the United States recycled and composted(制成肥料)57 million tons of waste (27%of the nation's solid waste).This is 57 million tons of waste which did not go into landfills and incinerators(焚化炉).In doing this,7,000 rubbish collection programs and recycling centers helped the authorities.In Rockford,a city in Illinois,U.S.,its officials choose one house each week and check its garbage(废物).If the garbage does not contain an newspapers or aluminum(铝)cans,then the resident of the house gets a prize of at least$1,000.In Japan,certain cities give children weekly supplies of tissue paper and toilet paper in exchange for a weekly collection of newspapers.In one year Britain recycles:——1 out of every 3 newspapers.——1 out of every 4 glass bottles and jars(罐子).——1 out of every 4 items of clothing.——1 out of every 3 aluminum drink cans.In 1999,Hong Kong transported 1.3 million tons of waste to mainland China for recycling. Around 535,000 tons of waste was recycled in Hong Kong itself.Over half the things we throw away could be recycled.That means we could recycle 10 times as much as we do now.However,recycling needs a lot of organization and special equipment. Also,there is not much use for some recycled material. Where can people get a big prize for contributing to recycling?
[多选题]共用题干 So Many"Earths"The Milky Way(银河)contains billions of Earth-sized planets that could support life.That's the finding of a new study.It draws on data that came from NASA's top planet-hunting telescope.A mechanical failure recently put that Kepler space telescope out of service.Kepler had played a big role in creating a census of planets orbiting some 170,000 stars.Its data have been helping astronomers predict how common planets are in our galaxy.The telescope focused on hunting planets that might have conditions similar to those on Earth.The authors of a study,published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,conclude that between 14 and 30 out of every 100 stars,with a mass and temperature similar to the Sun,may host a planet that could support life as we know it.Such a planet would have a diameter at least as large as Earth's,but no more than twice that big.The planet also would have to orbit in a star's habitable zone.That's where the surface temperature would allow any water to exist as a liquid.The new estimate of how many planets might fit these conditions comes from studying more than 42,000 stars and identifying suitable worlds orbiting them.The scientists used those numbers to extrapolate(推算) to the rest of the stars that the telescope could not see.The estimate is rough,the authors admit.If applied to the solar system,it would define as habitable a zone starting as close to the Sun as Venus and running to as far away as Mars.Neither planet is Earthlike (although either might have been in the distant past).Using tighter limits,the researchers estimate that between 4 and 8 out of every 100 sunlike stars could host an Earth-sized world.These are ones that would take 200 to 400 days to complete a yearly orbit.Four out of every 100 sunlike stars doesn't sound like a big number.It would mean,however,that the Milky Way could host more than a billion Earth-sized planets with a chance for life. The main task of the Kepler space telescope is to find out planets with similar conditions to Earth's.
[多选题]共用题干 Water and its importance to human life were the center of the world's attention last week. March 22 was World Water Day and______(51)the theme"Water for Life”.There are more than one billion people in the world who live without______(52)drinking water. The United Nations______(53)to cut this number in half by 2015.Solving such a big problem seems like a(n)______(54)challenge.But everyone,even teenagers,can do something to help.A teenage girl in the US has set an example to the______(55)of her age around the world.Rene Haggerty,13,was awarded the 2004 Gloria Barron Prize for her work—_______(56) discarded(废弃的)batteries(电池)which pollute water.In 2003,Haggerty went on a field trip to the Great Lakes Science Centre in Ohio.There she saw an exhibit about how______(57)in old batteries harm the water of Lake Erie.Haggerty learnt that______(58)the batteries was an easy solution."I think everybody can do it,because everyone uses batteries,and it can make a big difference."With these words,she began to.______(59)awareness in her area.She______(60)her county government and school board. She got permission to start a re-cycling program in schools,hospital,churches______(61)the public library. With the help from her family,friends and local waste-management______(62),she gathered containers,arranged transportation,and made an educational video.Over the past two years,she collected four tons of batteries and drew the attention of officials, who were in charge of a battery recycling program but had made______(63)progress.When asked______(64)she feels like a hero,Haggerty is quite modest."Not really. Well,maybe for the fish I saved!"Every year the Gloria Barron Prize is______(65)to young Americans aged 8 to 1 8 who have shown leadership and courage in serving the public and the planet. Each year ten winners receive US MYM 2,000 each,to help with their education costs or their public service work. _________(64)
[多选题]共用题干 Easy LearningStudents should be jealous.Not only do babies get to doze their days away,but they've also mastered the fine art of learning in their sleep.By the time babies are a year old they can recognize a lot of sounds and even simple words. Marie Cheour at the University of Turku in Finland suspected that they might progress this fast because they learn language while they sleep as well as when they are awake.To test the theory,Cheour and her colleagues studied 45 newborn babies in the first days of their lives. They exposed all the infants to an hour of Finnish vowel sounds一one that sounds like "oo",another like"ee"and a third boundary vowel peculiar to Finnish and similar languages that sounds like something in between. EEG recordings of the infants brains before and after the session showed that the newborns could not distinguish the sounds.Fifteen of the babies then went back with their mothers,while the rest were split into two sleepstudy groups.One group was exposed throughout their night-time sleeping hours to the same three vowels,while the others listened to the other,easier-to-distinguish vowel sounds.When tested in the morning,and again in the evening,the babies who'd heard the tricky boundary vowels all night showed brainwave activity indicating that they could now recognize this sound.They could identify the sound even when its pitch was changed,while none of the other babies could pick up the boundary vowel at all.Cheour doesn't know how babies accomplish this night-time learning,but she suspects that the special ability might indicate that unlike adults,babies don't"turn off" their cerebral cortex while they sleep.The skill probably fades in the course of the first years of life,she adds,so forget the idea that you can pick up the tricky French vowels as an adult just by slipping a language tape under your pillow. But while it may not help grown-ups,Cheour is hoping to use the sleeping hours to give remedial help to babies who are genetically at risk of language disorders. If an adult wants to learn a language faster,he can put a language tape under his pillow.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Archive Gallery: The Best of Bionics(仿生学)Humans might be the most highly-evolved species on the planet,but most animals possess skills we canonly dream of having.Imagine how much electricity we could save if we could see in the dark the way cats do. Imagine leaping from tree to tree like a monkey.Giraffes(长颈鹿),which are otherwise calm and good-natured,sleep only 4.6 hours a day.We realized a long,long time ago that nature provides the best blueprint(蓝图)for invention.We've borrowed canals from beavers(河狸)and reflectors from cat's eyes.Although the words "bionics" became popular only after the 1960s,history shows that nature has always provided ideas on solving everyday prob- lems. Our archives(档案)don't go back to the time of Leonardo da Vinci and his bird-like flying machines, but we can take you to the late 19th century,where we applied those same principles for building our firstpractical airplanes.To prepare for their flight at Kitty Hawk,the Wright brothers studied the movements of pigeons to figure out how they stayed high up when they were heavier than air. Their success inspired scores of successors to improve on the airplane by studying various aspects of nature,One of Orville Wright’、pupils caught and stuffed seagulls to examine their wingspan.Meanwhile,two French inventors examined spinning sycamore(美 国梧桐)seeds in an effort to apply those same motions,reversed,to a helicopter.Some examples are more obvious than others.The outside of the airplane designed by the Wright brothers looks like a minimalistic(简单抽象艺术)structure. On the other hand , Barney Connett ' s fishsubmarine(潜水艇)actually looks like a fish.Some bio-inspired concepts have yet to be invented.In the 1960s,the US Army commissioned several university professors to conduct research on the motor skills of animals in hope of applying those same abili- ties to tanks. Tanks that run like horses or jump like grasshoppers(蚂昨)一sounds shocking,doesn't it? But imagine how life would change if we could achieve that. "Cats","monkeys"and"giraffes"mentioned in Paragraph 1 are examples to illustrate_______.