理工C

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Archive Gallery: The Best of Bionics(仿生学)Humans might be the most highly-evolved species on the planet,but most animals possess skills we canonly dream of having.Imagine how much electricity we could save if we could see in the dark the way cats do. Imagine leaping from tree to tree like a monkey.Giraffes(长颈鹿),which are otherwise calm and good-natured,sleep only 4.6 hours a day.We realized a long,long time ago that nature provides the best blueprint(蓝图)for invention.We've borrowed canals from beavers(河狸)and reflectors from cat's eyes.Although the words "bionics" became popular only after the 1960s,history shows that nature has always provided ideas on solving everyday prob- lems. Our archives(档案)don't go back to the time of Leonardo da Vinci and his bird-like flying machines, but we can take you to the late 19th century,where we applied those same principles for building our firstpractical airplanes.To prepare for their flight at Kitty Hawk,the Wright brothers studied the movements of pigeons to figure out how they stayed high up when they were heavier than air. Their success inspired scores of successors to improve on the airplane by studying various aspects of nature,One of Orville Wright’、pupils caught and stuffed seagulls to examine their wingspan.Meanwhile,two French inventors examined spinning sycamore(美 国梧桐)seeds in an effort to apply those same motions,reversed,to a helicopter.Some examples are more obvious than others.The outside of the airplane designed by the Wright brothers looks like a minimalistic(简单抽象艺术)structure. On the other hand , Barney Connett ' s fishsubmarine(潜水艇)actually looks like a fish.Some bio-inspired concepts have yet to be invented.In the 1960s,the US Army commissioned several university professors to conduct research on the motor skills of animals in hope of applying those same abili- ties to tanks. Tanks that run like horses or jump like grasshoppers(蚂昨)一sounds shocking,doesn't it? But imagine how life would change if we could achieve that. "Cats","monkeys"and"giraffes"mentioned in Paragraph 1 are examples to illustrate_______.
[多选题]共用题干 What is the Coolest Gas in the Universe?What is the coldest air temperature ever recorded on Earth?Where was this low temperature recorded ?The coldest recorded temperature on Earth was -91℃, which_____ (51) in Antarctica(南极洲) in 1983.We encounter an interesting situation when we discuss temperatures in_________(52).Temperatures in Earth orbit(轨道)actually range from about +120℃ to -120℃. The temperature depends upon ______(53)you are in direct sunlight or in shade.Obviously,-120℃ is colder than our body can ________ (54)endure.The space temperatures just discussed affect only our area of the solar________(55).Obviously,it is hotter closer to the Sun and colder as we travel__________(56)from the Sun,Scientigtg egtimate tern- peratures at Pluto are about -210℃.How cold is the lowest estimated temperature in the entire universe?Again,it depends upon your_________(57).We are taught it is supposedly__________(58)to have atemperature below absolute zero,which is-273℃,at which atoms do not move.Two scientists,Cornell and Wieman,have successfully______(59)down a gas to a temperature barely above absolute zero. They won a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001 for their work一not a discovery in this case.Why is the two scientists'work so important to science?In the 1920s,Satyendra Nath Bose was studying an interesting_______(60)about special light par-tidles(微粒)we now call photons(光子).Bose had trouble __________(61)other scientists to believe his theory,so he contacted Albert Einstein. Einstein’s calculations helped him theorize that atoms_______(62) behave as Bose thought一but only at very cold temperatures.Scientists have also discovered that ultra-cold(超冷)atoms can help them make the world'S atomic clocks even__________(63)accurate.These clocks are so accurate today they would oniy lose one second _________ (64)six million years!Such accuracy will help us travel in space because digtanee is velocity(速度)times time( d=vt).With the long distances involved in space _______(65),we need to know time as accurately as possibie to get accurate distance. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Too Late to Regret ItWhen I was a junior,I met a second-year student in my department. He wasn't tall or good-looking,but he was very nice,attractive and athletic.He had something that I admired very much. He was natural,warm,and sincere.I disregarded(不顾)my parents' disapproval. We were very happy together. He picked me up from my dorm every morning,and after class we would sit alongside the stream that ran through campus, or sunbathe(晒太阳)on the lawn. At night he would walk me back to my dorm. He came from a poor family,but in order to make me happy,he borrowed money from his friend to buy presents and meals for me.Our fellow students looked up to him as a role model,and the girls envied (妒忌)me. He wasn't a local, but wanted to stay here after graduation. I thought we had a future together.However,I got a part-time job that paid pretty well during the summer vacation.With my good performance at school,I also got admission to graduate school at one of China's best universities.He,on the other hand,did not do so well at school or at work.I had to worry about his living expenses,job and scores.Almost all my colleagues and friends advised me to break up with him. Then we had a quarrel last June.He was in great pain,and my cold words and bad moods started turning him away.Graduation time was drawing near,and he said he wanted to go back to his hometown.He said that he couldn't put up with me anymore.I was shocked and looked at him in despair.True love happens only once,but I found it out too late. Upon learning that he would leave her,she was______.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The Development of BalletBallet is a dance form that has a long history.The fact that it survives to this day shows that it has adjus- ted as times have changed.Ballet began in the royal courts during the Renaissance.At that time it became common for kings and queens,as well us other nobility(贵族),to participate in pageants that included music,poetry,and dance.As these entertainments moved from the Italian courts to the French ones,court ladies began participating in them. Though their long dresses prevented much movement , they were able to perform elaborate (复杂的) walking patterns.It was not until the 1600s that women dancers shortened their skirts,changed to flat shoes, and began doing some of the leaps and turns performed by men.It was also in the 1600,that professional ballet began.King Louis ⅪⅤ of France,himself a devoted dan- cer,founded the Royal Academy of Dance.The five basic feet positions from which all ballet steps begin were finalized.In the late 1700s another important change occurred.Ballet began to tell a story on its own,It was no longer simply dance to be performed between acts of plays.Elaborate wigs(假友)and coetumes were eliminated.By the early 1 800s dancers learned to rise on their toes to make it appear that they were floating. Classical ballet as we know it today was influenced primarily by Russian dancing. The Russians re-mained interested in ballet when it declined in other European countries in the mid-1800s.One of the most influential figures of the early 20th century was Sergei Diaghilev.His dance company,the Ballets Russes, brought a newenergy and excitement to ballet.One of his chief assistants,George Balanchine,went on to found the New York City Ballet in 1948 and to influence new generations of dancers. We can conclude from this passage that ballet________.
[多选题]共用题干 TV Games ShowsOne of the most fascinating things about television is the size of the audience.A novel can be on the best sellers list with a sale of fewer than 100,000 .copies,but a popular TV show might have 70 million TV viewers.TV can make anything or anyone well-known overnight.This is the principle behind quiz or game shows,which put ordinary people on TV to play a game for the prizes and money.A quiz show can make anyone a star,and it can give away thou-sands of dollars just for fun.But all of this money can create problems.For instance,in the 1950s, quiz shows were very popular in the US and almost everyone watched them. Charles Van Doren, an English instructor,became rich and famous after winning money on several shows.He even had a career as a television personality.But one of the losers proved that Charles Van Doren was cheat-ing. It turned out that the show's producers,who were pulling the strings,gave the answers to the most popular contestants beforehand. Why?Because if the audience didn't like the person who won the game,they turned the show off. Based on his story,a movie under the title Quiz Show is on 40 years later.Charles Van Doren is no longer involved with TV.But game shows are still here,though they aren't taken as seriously. In fact,some of them try to be as ridiculous as possible.There are shows that send strangers on vacation trips together,or that try to cause newly-married couples to fight on TV,or that punish losers by humiliating them.The entertainment now is to see what people will do just to be on TV.People still win money,but the real prize is to be in front of an audience of mil-lions. Nowadays game shows are not treated as seriously as they used to be.
[多选题]共用题干 Animal's"Sixth Sense"A tsunami was triggered by an earthquake in the Indian Ocean in December,2004.It killed tens of thousands of people in Asia and East Africa. Wild animals,______(51),seem to have escaped that terrible tsunami .This phenomenon adds weight to notions that they possess a"sixth sense"for______(52),experts said.Sri Lankan wildlife officials have said the giant waves that killed over 24,000 people along the Indian Ocean island's coast clearly______(53)wild beasts,with no dead animals found."No elephants are dead,not______(54)a dead mbbit. I think animals can______(55)dis-aster. They have a sixth sense.They know when things are happening,"H. D. Ratnayake,deputy director of Sri Lanka's Wildlife Department,said about one month after the tsunami attack. The______(56) washed floodwatei up to 2 miles inland at Yala National Park in the ravaged southeast,Sri Lanka's biggest wildlife______(57)and home to hundreds of wild elephants and several leopards."There has been a lot of apparent evidence about dogs barking or birds migrating______(58)volcanic eruptions or earthquakes. But it has not been proven,"said Matthew van Lierop,an animal behavior______(59)at Johannesburg Zoo."There have been no______(60)studies because you can't really test it in a lab or field setting,"he told Reuters.Other authorities concurred with this______(61)."Wildlife seem to be able to pick up certain______(62),especially birds... there are many reports of birds detecting impending disasters,"said Clive Walker,who has written several books on African wildlife.Animals certainly______(63)on the known senses such as smell or hearing to avoid dan-ger such as predators.The notion of an animal"sixth sense”-or______(64)other mythical power-is an endur-ing one which the evidence on Sri Lanka's ravaged coast is likely to add to.The Romans saw owls______(65)omens of impending disaster and many ancient cul- tures viewed elephants as sacred animals endowed with special powers or attributes. 59._________
[多选题]共用题干 ADHD Linked to AIF PollutantsChildren have an increased of attention problems,seen asearly as grade school,if their no-ses inhaled(吸入)a certain type of air pollution when they were pre, ant.That,5 the finding ofa new study.Released when things aren't burned completely,this pollution 15 known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,or PAHs.Tlle higgest sources of these PAHs:the bunling of fossil fuels, wood and trash.Frederica Perera works at Columbia University,5 Mailman School of Public Health in New York City.She researclies how exposure to things in the environment affects children,5 health.In a new study,she and her team studied the exposure to air pollution of 233 nonsmokingpre,ant women in New York City.Because burning tobacco can spew(排放)PAHs into the air and lungs, Perera,5 team focused on nonsmokers.The researchers wanted to probe(探查)other sources of PA Hs,ones that,5 would have been hard for an individual to avoid.The team started by testing the blood of each woman during pregnancy.The reason:Any PA H 5 in a woman's blood would also be available to the baby in her womb.Nine years later,the researchers investigated signs of attention problems in those children,now age 9 .They asked each child’s mother a series of questions.These included whatever her child had prohlems doing things that needed sustained(长期的)mental effort,such as homework or games with friends.The sci-entists also asked if the kids had trouble following instructions or made frequent,careless mis-takes.All of these can be symptoms of a disorder called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.About one in U.5.children has ADHD.Among the women studied,traffic and home heating were the primary sources of air pollution exposure,Pereraand her team suspect.Some of these women had low levels of PAHs in their blood.others had high levels.Those with high levels were five times as likely to have children who showed attention problems by age 9 .The new findings were published November 5 in the journal PLOS ONE. Kids with ADHD commonly fail in school.
[多选题]共用题干 Homosexuals(同性恋者)Many homosexuals prefer to be called gay or,for woman,lesbian.Most of them live quiet lives just______(51)anyone else.Some gay people have always raised children,______(52)or with partners,and the use of artificial insemination(人工受精)is increasing among lesbians.Gay persons are in every kind of job.Some are very open about their homosexuality,and some are more private.Some______(53)their sexual orientation as a biological given and others as a choice.For those women who see it as a choice,one reason often given is the inequality in most heterosexual(异性恋的)relationships.Homosexuality has been common in most cultures throughout history and generally______ (54).As a result,homosexual activity became a crime,______(55)which the penalty in early courts was death.Homosexual behavior is still______(56)in many countries and the United States.Homosexuality later came to be viewed widely as less a sin than a sickness,but now no mentalhealth professional(具有专业资格的人)any longer ______ (57) homosexuality an illness. More recent theories to______(58)for homosexuality have included those based on biological and sociological factors.To date.______(59),there is no conclusive general theory that can explain the cause of homosexuality.Attitudes______(60)homosexuality began to change in the second half of the 20th century. Gays attribute this,in part,to their own struggle for their rights and pride in their orientation. Some large companies now______(61)health-care benefits to the life partners of their gay employees. Many cities also have officially appointed lesbian and gay advisory(咨询的)committees.______(62)some attitudes have changed,however,prejudice(偏见)still exists,and in the late 1980s and early 1990s,there were considerable shouts against homosexuals,with attempt to ______(63)laws forbidding the granting of basic civil rights to gays.The AIDS epidemic,which started in the 1980s,has devastated(毁坏)the gay community and brought it together as never before,The organized gay response to the lack of government financial support for fighting AIDS and to the needs of the thousands of AIDS victim______(64)they be gays or not,has been a model of community action.AIDS,however,has also______(65)people with another reason for their prejudice. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 Earthquake Insurance1.Earthquake insurance is a form of homeowners' insurance which deals with damage caused by earthquakes.In regions where earthquakes are especially common,homeowners may be required to carry earthquake insurance,so that in the event of an earthquake,people rely less on government disaster funds and more on their own insurance policies.As a general rule,earthquake insurance is not a part of standard insurance policies,and it must be purchased separately.2.Earthquakes can cause a variety of damage to a home,ranging from complete destruction to damage which causes the building to become structurally unsound.Indirect damage caused by neigh-boring collapses of structures and freeways can also occur,as can more bizarre forms of earthquake damage,like winding up with a car in the living room or a sinkhole in the back yard.Fires and flooding are also common problems in the wake of earthquakes.3.When homeowners purchase earthquake insurance,they may be protected against both direct damage,such as a structural collapse after an earthquake,and indirect damage,like a fire caused by broken gas lines.More commonly,the insurance only covers structural damage caused directly by the earthquake.The insurance may pay for a complete replacement of the structure,or a remodel, depending on the type of insurance and the nature of the damage.Some policies also cover damaged property like cars,and they may provide living allowances so that the residents of the home can temporarily relocate for the duration of the repairs.4.This type of homeowners' insurance is prone to adverse selection,in which only people in high risk areas purchase the insurance.The problem with adverse selection for insurance companies is that it decreases the pool of customers,making potential payouts very expensive.For this reason, earthquake insurance often has a high deductible,and it can he very expensive.5.Recognizing the need for earthquake insurance,some governments have provided subsidies for earthquake insurance,to reduce the stress on insurance companies.Insurance companies also adjust their risk pools carefully,and there may be stringent requirements for a homeowner to purchase earthquake insurance.For example,a home may need to be retrofitted for earthquake safety, reducing the amount of damage which will be incurred in a quake.For low-income home owners, this can be very difficult,as it drives the cost of earthquake insurance out of reach,which can in turn make it difficult to get home loans,as many banks in earthquake-prone areas insist on earth-quake insurance as a condition for a loan. Insurance companies also adjust their______.
[多选题]共用题干 Eastern Quakes can Trigger Big ShakesIn the first week of November 2011,people in central Oklahoma experienced more than two dozen earthquakes.The largest,a magnitude 5.6 quake,shook thousands of fans in a college football itadium, caused cracks in a few buildings and rattled the nerves of many people who had never felt a quake before. Oklahoma is not an area of the country famous for its quakes.If you watch the news on TV,you will see reports about all sorts of natural disasters一hurricanes,tornadoes,flooding and wildfires,to name a few.But the most dangerous type of natural disaster,and also the most unpredictable,is the earthquake.Researchers at the U.S.Geological Survey estimate that several million earthquakes rattle the globe eachyear. That mnay sound scary,but people don'I feel many of the tremors because they happen in remote and unpopulated regions.Many quakes happen under the ocean,and othlers have a very small magnitude,or shaking intensity..A magnitude 5.8 earthquake that struck central Virginia the afternoon of August 23,2011,was felt from central Georgia to southeastern Canada.In iilany urbanl areas,including Washington,D.C.,dnd New York City(Wall Street shown),people crowded the streets while engineer inspected buildings.Credit: Wikimnedia/Alex Tahak.Scientists know about small,remote quakes only because of very sensitive electronic devices called seis- mometers.These devices detect and measure the size of ground vibrations produced by earthquakes. Altogether,USGS researchers use seismornetero to identify and locate about 20,000 earthquakseach year.Although earthquakes can happen anywhere in the world,really big quakeg occur only in。erttiin areas.The largest ones register a magnitude S or higher and happen, on average,only once each year. Such big ones typically occur along the edges of Earth’s tectonic plates.Tectonic plates are huge pieces of Earth’s crust,sornetinies many kilometers thick.These plates cover our planet'ssurface ike a jigsaw puzzle.Often,jagged edges of these plates temporarily lock together. When riates jostle and serape past each other earthquakes occur. On。、crage,tectonic plates move very slowly一 about the same speed as sour fingernails grow.But sometimes earthquakes rumble through portions of the landscape far from a plate'S edges.Although less cxpcctcd,these"mid-plate"tremors can do substontaI damage,Some of the biggest known examples rattled the eastern haif of the United States two centuries ago.Today,scientists are still puzzling over why the quakes occurred and when similar ones nught occur. Oklahoma is an area often experiencing natural disasters.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Nuclear Power and Its DangerNuclear power's danger to health,safety,and even life itself can be summed up in one word:radiation.Nuclear radiation has a certain mystery about it,partly because it cannot be detected by human senses. It can't be seen or heard,or touched,or tasted,even though it may be all around us.There are other things like that.For example,radio waves are all around us but we can't detect them,sense them,without a radio receiver.Similarly,we can't sense radioactivity without a radiation detector. But unlike common radio waves, nuclear radiation is not harmless to'human beings and other living things.At very high levels,radiation can kill an animal or human being outright by killing masses of cells invital organs.But even the lowest level of radiation can do serious damage.There is no level of radiation that is comnpletely safe.If the radiation does not hit anything important,the damage may not be significant.This is the case when only a few cells are hit,and if they are killed outright.Your body will replace the dead cells with healthy ones.But if the few cells are only damaged,and if they reproduce themselves,you may be in trouble.They reproduce themselves in a deformed way.They can grow into cancer. Sometimes this does notshow up for many years.There is another reason for the mystery of nuclear radiation.Serious damage can be done without the victim being aware at the time that damage occurs. A person can be irradiated and feel fine,then die of cancer five,ten,or twenty years later as a result.Or a child can be born weak or liable to serious illness as a result of radiation absorbed by its grandparents.Radiation can hurt us.We must know the truth. Radiation can cause serious consequences even at the lowest level_______________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Computer LiteracyThere is no denying that students should learn something about how computers work,just as we expect them at least to understand that the internal-combustion engine(内燃机)has something to do with burning fuel, expanding gases and pistons(活塞)being driven. For people should have some basic idea of how the things that they use do what they do.Further,students might be helped by a course that considers the computer's impact on society. But that is not what is meant by computer literacy. For computer literacy is not a form of literacy(读写能力)。It is a trade skill that should not be taught as a liberal art.Learning how to use a computer and learning how to program one are two distinct activities. A case might be made that the competent citizens of tomorrow should free themselves from their fear of computers.But this is quite different from saying that all ought to know how to program one. Leave that to people who have chosen programming as a career. While programming can be lots of fun,and while our society needs some people who are experts at it,the same is true of auto repair and violin-making.Learning how to use a computer is not that difficult,and it gets easier all the time as programs become more"user-friendly".Let us assume that in the future everyone is going to have to know how to use a computer to be a competent citizen.What does the phrase"learning to use a computer" mean? It sounds like"learning to drive a car",that is,it sounds as if there is some set of definite skills that,once acquired,enable one to use a computer.In fact,"learning to use a computer" is much more like"learning to play a game",but learning the rules of one game may not help you play a second game,whose rules may not be the same. There is no such a thing as teaching someone how to use a computer. One can only teach people to use this or that program. To be the competent citizens of tomorrow,people should_______.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Ways to Create Colors in a PhotographThere are two ways to create colors in a photograph.One method called additive,starts with three basic colors and adds them together to produce some other color. The second method,called subtractive,starts with white light(a mixture of all colors in the spectrum)and,by taking away some or all other colors,leaves the one desired.In the additive method,separate colored lights combine to produce various other colors.The three additive primary colors are green,red and blue(each providing about one-third of the wavelengths in the total spectrum).Mixed in varying proportions,they can produce all colors.Green and red light mix to produce yellow,red and blue light mix to produce magenta(a purplish pink);green and blue mix to produce cyan(a bluish green).When equal parts of all three of these primary-colored beams of light overlap(重叠),the mixture appears white to the eye.In the subtractive process colors are produced when dye(染料)absorbs some wavelengths and so passes on only part of the spectrum.The subtractive primaries are cyan,magenta and yellow; these primaries or dyes absorb red,green and blue wavelengths respectively,thus subtracting them from white light. These dye colors are the complementary colors to the three additive primaries of red,green and blue.Properly combined,the subtractive primaries can absorb all colors of light, producing black.But,mixed in varying proportions,they too can produce any color in the spectrum.Whether a particular color is obtained by adding colored lights together or by subtracting some light from the total spectrum,the result looks the same to the eye.The additive process was employed for early color photography. But the subtractive method,while requiring complex chemical techniques,has turned out to be more practical and is the basis of all modern color films. What color filter would absorb red wavelengths?
[多选题]共用题干 About eight million school-age children are home alone after school.These are the hours when the number of violent crimes peaks and when youths are most likely to experiment with alco- hol,tobacco,and drugs. Many older children take care of themselves after school for an hour or two until a parent comes home,and research suggests that some of these children are more at risk of poor grades and risky behaviors.Studies have been done to find out what helps to reduce these kinds of risky behaviors among youths .One study of Chicago neighborhoods showed that after-school programs resulted in less vio- lence even in poor neighborhoods.After-school programs can help to reduce crime and violence because they offer activities to children and youths during their out-of-school time.In addition to helping youths make use of af-ter-school hours,after-school programs provide teens with opportunities to develop caring relation-ships with adults.Studies have found that high-quality relationships with parents and other adults, as well as good use of time,are very important for healthy development in youth.After-school programs can also be used for teens who hang out at friends' houses and play basketball when a parent or other responsible adult is at home.The programs can also be helpful for formal after-school activities,including"drop-in"programs that are provided by organizations.Despite the benefits of after-school programs,there are many reasons why some parents do not use them. Programs may be too expensive,of poor quality,or hard to join.Some older children and young teens may refuse to attend programs that seem like they are just child care.Parents may feel uncertain about how much freedom is proper for children and youths who are beyond the tradition-al child care years.However,research supports the effectiveness of these programs in protecting middle school and high school youths from risk and harm. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 Earthquake Insurance1.Earthquake insurance is a form of homeowners' insurance which deals with damage caused by earthquakes.In regions where earthquakes are especially common,homeowners may be required to carry earthquake insurance,so that in the event of an earthquake,people rely less on government disaster funds and more on their own insurance policies.As a general rule,earthquake insurance is not a part of standard insurance policies,and it must be purchased separately.2.Earthquakes can cause a variety of damage to a home,ranging from complete destruction to damage which causes the building to become structurally unsound.Indirect damage caused by neigh-boring collapses of structures and freeways can also occur,as can more bizarre forms of earthquake damage,like winding up with a car in the living room or a sinkhole in the back yard.Fires and flooding are also common problems in the wake of earthquakes.3.When homeowners purchase earthquake insurance,they may be protected against both direct damage,such as a structural collapse after an earthquake,and indirect damage,like a fire caused by broken gas lines.More commonly,the insurance only covers structural damage caused directly by the earthquake.The insurance may pay for a complete replacement of the structure,or a remodel, depending on the type of insurance and the nature of the damage.Some policies also cover damaged property like cars,and they may provide living allowances so that the residents of the home can temporarily relocate for the duration of the repairs.4.This type of homeowners' insurance is prone to adverse selection,in which only people in high risk areas purchase the insurance.The problem with adverse selection for insurance companies is that it decreases the pool of customers,making potential payouts very expensive.For this reason, earthquake insurance often has a high deductible,and it can he very expensive.5.Recognizing the need for earthquake insurance,some governments have provided subsidies for earthquake insurance,to reduce the stress on insurance companies.Insurance companies also adjust their risk pools carefully,and there may be stringent requirements for a homeowner to purchase earthquake insurance.For example,a home may need to be retrofitted for earthquake safety, reducing the amount of damage which will be incurred in a quake.For low-income home owners, this can be very difficult,as it drives the cost of earthquake insurance out of reach,which can in turn make it difficult to get home loans,as many banks in earthquake-prone areas insist on earth-quake insurance as a condition for a loan. Paragraph 2______
[多选题]共用题干 Google's Solar Energy Gambit(策略)Google is making its largest investment yet in clean energy,setting up a $280 million fund to finance home solar rooftop(屋顶)installations.The search giant announced today it was teaming up with the Silicon Valley's Solar City一a company chaired by Paypal co-founder and Tesla Motors executive Elon Musk一in an effort to break down the biggest barrier to solar energy adoption:the cost."It's a great way to support installations going into more homes,"said Google spokesperson Parag Chokshi.The $280 million fund is the largest fund ever created for residential solar in the United States,according to Solar City,which has raised a total of$I.28 billion in financing capacity during its five-year history.Google over the past several years has invested in large,utility-scale wind and solar,enhanced geothermal(地热)energy,and other renewable energy projects,for a grand total of more than $680 million in the sector. But today's deal is not only Google's largest foray(突袭)into the sector, it is its first investment in distributed energy. Based in San Mateo,California,less than 20 miles north of Google's Mountain View headquarters,Solar City describes itseff as a solar power service provider. The idea is that people want affordable,clean energy一but they often can't afford to buy a photovoltaic system upfront. Solar City is one of a number of companies that have attempted to help people overcome that cost hurdle(障碍)by leasing,instead of owning their rooftop solar systems.Solar City's leases and power-purchase agreements to homeowners,businesses,and schools promise a lower monthly electricity bill(including a set payment to Solar City in addition to utility payments)than customers would get with their usual electricity from the grid.Solar City not only finances these photovoltaic projects,but also designs,installs,monitors,and maintains the systems. Recently,since buying the assets of a company called Business Solutions last year,Solar City has also begun offering energy audits and small home improvements(like installing programmable thermostats)that can make a big difference in energy use.Until now,Solar City has financed most of its 15,000 projects through banks,Chief Executive Lyndon Rive said in an interview. But the problem is only about a half dozen banks are doing solar financing,he said.So in order for Solar City's model to achieve"true scale,"it must"unleash the available capital of corporate America,"he said.Rive is hopeful that Google's move today will set an example for other corporations to make similar investments. Google is the biggest clean energy company in the world.
[多选题]共用题干 Cerms(细菌) on BanknotesPeople in different countries use different types of money:yuan in China,pesos in Mexico,pounds in the United Kingdom,dollars in the United States,Australia and New Zealand.They may use different cur-rencies,but these countries,and probably all countries,still have one thing in ________(51):germs on the banknotes.Scientists have been studying the germs on money for well over 100 years.At the turn of the 20th ______(52),some researchers began to suspect that germs living on money could spread disease.Most studies of germy money have looked at the germs on the currency_________(53)one country. In a new study,Frank Vriesekoop and other researchers compared the germ populations found on bills of dif-ferent ________(54)Vriesekoop is a microbiologist at the University of Ballarat in Australia.He led the study,which corn-pared the germ populations found on money _______(55)from 10 nations.The scientists studied 1,280 banknotes in total;all came from places where people buy food,like supermarkets,street vendors andcafes,________ (56)those businesses often rely on cash.Overall,the Australian dollars hosted the fewest live bacteria一no more than 10 per square centimeter. Chinese yuan had the________(57)一about 100 per square centimeter. Most of the germs on money probably would not cause harm.What we call "paper money"________(58)isn'tmade from paper. The U.S.dollar,for example,is printed on fabric that is mostly cotton.Different countries may use different________(59)to print their money. Some of the currencies studied by Vriesekoop and his team,such as the American dollar,were made from cotton.Others were made from polymers.The three_______(60)with the lowest numbers of bacteria were all printed on polymers.They included the Australian dollar,the New Zealand dollar and some Mexican pesos.The_________(61)currencies were printed on fabric made mostly of cotton.Fewer germs lived on the polymer notes.This_______(62)suggests that germs have a harder time staying alive on polymersurfaces.Scientists need to do more studies to understand _________(63)germs live on money一andwhether or not we need to be concerned.Vriesekoop is now starting a study that will______(64)the amounts of time bacteria can stay alive on different types of bills.Whatever Vriesekoop finds,the fact remains:Paper money_________(65)germs.We should wash our hands after touching it.After all,you never know where your money's been.Or what's living on it. _________(64)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Technological Utopia for Developing CountriesCyberspace(网络空间),data superhighways, multi-media, the linking of computers, television and telephones will change our lives forever. Yet for all the talk of a forthcoming technological utopia(乌托邦),little attention has been given to the implications of these developments for the poor. As with all new high technology,the West concerns itself with the"how to benefit".The question of"for whom"is put aside once again.Economists are only now realizing the full extent to which the communications revolution has affected the world economy.Information technology allows the extension of trade across geographical and industrial boundaries,and transnational corporations take full advantage of it. Terms of trade ex-change,interest rates and money movements are more important than the production of goods.The electronic economy made possible by information revolution.Technology allows the haves to increase their control on global markets and with destructive impact on the have-nots.For them the result is instability. Developing countries which rely on the production of a small range of goods for export are made to feel like small parts in the international economic machine.As "futures"(期货)are traded on computer screens, developing countries simply have less and less control of their destinies.So what are the options for regaining control?One alternative is for developing countries to buy in the latest computers and telecommunications themselves一so-called"development communications"modernization.Yet this leads to long-term dependency and perhaps permanent constraints on developing countries' economies.Communications technology is generally exported from the U.S.,Europe or Japan.The patents, skills and ability to manufacture remain in the hands of a few industrialized countries.Furthermore,when new technology is introduced,there is often too low a level of expertise to exploit native development.This means that while local elites,foreign communities and subsidiaries of transitional corporations may benefit,but not developing countries. It can be inferred from the passage that______.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇A Sunshade(遮阳伞)for the PlanetEven with the best will in the world,reducing our carbon emissions is not going to prevent global warming. It has become clear that even if we take the most strong measures to control emissions, the uncertainties in our climate models still leave open the possibility of extreme warming and rises in sea level. At the same time,resistance by governments and special interest groups makes it quite possible that the actions suggested by climate scientists might not be implemented soon enough.Fortunately,if the worst comes to the worst,scientists still have a few tricks up their sleeves. For the most part they have strongly resisted discussing these options for fear of inviting a sense of complacency that might thwart efforts to tackle the root of the problem. Until now,that is a growing number of researchers are taking a fresh look at large-scale"geoengineering"projects that might be used to counteract global warming."I use the analogy of methadone,"says Stephen Schneider,a climate researcher at Stanford University in California who was among the first to draw attention to global warming."If you have a heroin addict,the correct treatment is hospitalization,and a long rehab. But if they absolutely refuse,methadone is better than heroin."Basically the idea is to apply"sunscreen"to the whole planet. One astronomer has come up with a radical plan to cool Earth:launch trillions of feather-light discs into space,where they would form a vast cloud that would block the sun's rays.It's controversial,but recent studies suggest there are ways to deflect just enough of the sunlight reaching the Earth's surface to counteract the warming produced by the greenhouse effect. Global climate models show that blocking just 1.8 percent of the incident energy in the sun's rays would cancel out the warming effects produced by a doubling of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.That could be crucial,because even the most severe emissions control measures being proposed would leave us with a doubling of carbon dioxide by the end of this century,and that would last for at least a century more. According to the first two paragraphs,the author thinks that______.
[多选题]共用题干 Transport and Trade1. Transport is one of the aids to trade.By moving goods from places where they are plentiful to places where they are scarce,transport adds to their value.The more easily goods can be brought over the distance that separates producer and consumer,the better for trade.When there were no railways,no good roads,no canals,and only small sailing ships,trade was on a small scale.2. The great advances made in transport during the last two hundred years were accompanied by a big increase in trade.Bigger and faster ships enabled a trade in meat to develop between Britain and New Zealand,for instance.Quicker transport makes possible mass-production and big business,drawing supplies from,and selling goods to,all parts of the globe.Big factories could not exist without transport to carry the large number of workers they need to and from their homes. Big city stores could not have developed unless customers could travel easily from the suburbs and goods were delivered to their homes.Big cities could not survive unless food could be brought from a distance.3. Transport also prevents waste.Much of the fish landed at the ports would be wasted if it could not be taken quickly to inland towns.Transport has given us a much greater variety of foods and goods since we no longer have to live on what is produced locally.Foods which at one time could be obtained only during a part of the year can now be obtained all through the year. Transport has raised the standard of living.4. By moving fuel,raw materials,and even power,for example,through electric cables,transport has led to the establishment of industries and trade in areas where they would have been impossible before. Districts and countries can concentrate on making things which they can do better and more cheaply than others and can then exchange them with one another. The cheaper and quicker transport becomes,the longer the distance over which goods can profitably be earned. Countries with poor transport have a lower standard of living.5. Commerce requires not only the moving of goods and people but also the carrying of messages and information .Means of communication,like telephones,cables and radio,send information about prices,supplies,and changing conditions in different parts of the world. In this way,advanced communication systems also help to develop trade. Only when goods can be carried to all parts of the world quickly______.
[多选题]共用题干 Cell PhonesI Believe it or not,cell phones have been around for over a quarter of a century.The first commercial cell phone systemfl was developed by the Japancoc in I 979.But cell phones have changed a lotsince that time.The early cell phones were big and heavy but they have developed into small and light palm-sized mod- els.There have been huge (lcveloprnents in their functions,too;we have had call forwarding,text messaging, answering services and hands-free use for years,but now there are countless new facilities,su,ch as instant ac- cess to the Internet and receiving and sending photos.2 Cell phones have become very common in our lives;recent statistics suggest as many as one in three people cii the planet now have a cell phone,and most of them say they couldn't live without one.Cell phones are used in every area of our lives and have become a necessary tool,used for essential arrangements,socialcontact and business.They have made it easier to call for help on the highway.They have made it possible tokeep in touch with people"on the move”一when people are traveling.3 Cell phones have made communication easier and have reduced the need for family arguments.Wecan use cell phones to let our family know we'11 be late or if there’。a sudden change of tian or an emergen- cy.Cell phones have eased the worries of millions of parents when their teenagers are out late,they can nowcontact their children at any time.4 This does not mean that cell phones are all good news.They have brought with them a number of new headaches for their owners;it costs a lot to replace stolen phones,something that is becoming a frequent occurrence,and have you ever seen such huge phone bills? More serious,however,is the potential healthproblem they bring:there are fears that radiation from the phones may cause brain tumor(肿瘤).This may be a time bomb waiting to happen to younger people who have grown up with cell phones that they simply can'tlive without! Nowadays cell phones are equipped with_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Car Thieves Could Be Stopped RemotelySpeeding off in a stolen car,the thief thinks he has got a great catch.But he is in a nasty surprise .The car is fitted with a remote immobilizer,and a radio signal from a control center miles away will ensure that once the thief switches the engine______(51),he will not be able to start it again.For now,such devices______(52)only available for fleets of trucks and specialist vehi- dles used on construction sites. But remote immobilization technology could soon start to trickle down to ordinary cars,and ______(53)be available to ordinary cars in the UK______(54)two months.The idea goes like this.A control box fitted to the car incorporates______(55)miniature cellphone, a microprocessor and memory, and a GPS satellite positioning receiver.______(56)the car is stolen,a coded cellphone signal will tell the unit to block the vehicle's engine management system and prevent the engine______(57)restarted.There are even plans for immobilizers______(58)shut down vehicles on the move, though there are fears over the safety implications of such a system.In the UK,an array of technical fixes is already making______(59)harder for car thieves."The pattern of vehicles crime has changed,"says Martyn Randall of Thatcham,a secur- ity research organization based in Berkshire that is funded in part______(60)the motor insur-ance industry.He says it would only take him a few minutes to______(61)a novice how to steal a car, using a bare minimum of tools.But only if the car is more than 10 years old.Modern cars are a far tougher proposition,as their engine management computer will not______(62)them to start unless they receive a unique ID code beamed out by the ignition key .In the UK,technologies like this______(63)achieve a 3 1 percent drop in vehicle-related crime since 1997.But determined criminals are still managing to find other ways to steal cars. Often by getting hold of the owner's keys in a burglary. In 2000,12 percent of vehicles stolen in the UK were taken by using the owner's keys,which doubles the previous year's figure.Remote-controlled immobilization system would______(64)a major new obstacle in the criminal's way by making such thefts pointless.A group that includes Thatcham,the police,insur-ance companies and security technology firms have developed standards for a system that could go on the market sooner than the______(65)expects. 60._________
[多选题]共用题干 Men Too May Suffer from Domestic ViolenceNearly three in 10 men have experienced violence at the hands of an intimate(亲密的)partner during their lifetimes,according to one of the few studies to look______(51)domestic violence and health among men."Many men actually do experience domestic violence,although we don't hear about it ______(52),"Dr. Robert J. Reid of the University of Washington in Seattle,one of the authors,told Reuters Health."They often don't tell______(53)we don't ask. We want to message out(传达这样一个信息)to men who______(54)experience domestic violence that they are not alone and there are resources available to______(55)."The researchers asked study participants about physical abuse(伤害)and non-physical ______(56)such as threats that made them______(57)for their safety,controlling behavior (for example,being told who they could associate with and where they could go),and constant name-calling(辱骂).Among men 1 8 to 54 years old,14.2 percent said they had experienced intimate partner______(58)in the past five years,while 6.1 percent reported domestic violence in the previous year.Rates were lower for men 55 and______(59),with 5.3 percent reporting violence in the past five years and 2.4 percent having experienced it in the past 12 months.Overall,30.5 percent of men younger than 55 and 26.5 percent of older men said they had been victims of______(60)violence at some point in their lives.About half of the violence men______(61)was physical.However,the physical violence men reported wasn't as harsh as______(62)suffered by women in a previous study;20 percent to 40 percent of the men rated it as severe,compare to 61 percent of______(63).Men who reported experiencing domestic violence had more emotional and mental problems ______(64)those who had not,especially older men,the______(65)found. _________(65)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Sharing SilenceDeaf teenagers Orlando Chavez and German Resendiz have been friends since kindergarten(幼儿园). Together the boys,who go to Escondido Hight School in California,have had the difficult job of learning in schools where the majority of?the students can speak and hear.Orlando lost hearing at the age of one.cerman was born deaf,and his parents moved from Mexico to finda school where he could learn sign language.He met Orlando on their first day of kindergarten."We were in a special class with about 25 other deaf kids,"German remembers."Before then,I didn'tknow I was deaf and that I was different.""Being young and deaf in regular classes was very hard,"signs Orlando,"The other kids didn't under-stand us and we didn't understand them,But we'ye all grown up together,and today,I'm popular becauseI'm deaf. Kids try hard to communicate with me.”Some things are very difficult for the two boys."We can't talk on the phone,so if we need help,wecan't call an emergency service,"German signs."And we can't order food in drive-thru."Despite their difficulties,the two boys have found work putting food in bags at a local supermarket. Theygot their jobs through a"workability"program,designed for teenagers from local schools with different types oflearning disabilities.German has worked in the supermarket since August,and Orlando started in November."The other people who work here have been very nice to us,"Orlando signs."They even sign some-times.At first,we were nervous,but we'ye learned a lot and we're getting better."The opportunity to earn money has been exciting,both boys sign.After high school。they hope to attendthe National Technical Institute for the Deaf in New York. Orlando and German have been _________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Recycling Around the WorldRecycling is one of the best environmental success stories of the late 20th century.But we could do more.People must not see recycling as fashionable,but essential.The Japanese are very good at recycling because they live in a crowded country. They do not have much space.They do not want to share their limited space with rubbish.But even so,Tokyo area alone is estimated to have three million tons of leftover rubbish at present.In 1996, the United States recycled and composted(制成肥料)57 million tons of waste (27%of the nation's solid waste).This is 57 million tons of waste which did not go into landfills and incinerators(焚化炉).In doing this,7,000 rubbish collection programs and recycling centers helped the authorities.In Rockford,a city in Illinois,U.S.,its officials choose one house each week and check its garbage(废物).If the garbage does not contain an newspapers or aluminum(铝)cans,then the resident of the house gets a prize of at least$1,000.In Japan,certain cities give children weekly supplies of tissue paper and toilet paper in exchange for a weekly collection of newspapers.In one year Britain recycles:——1 out of every 3 newspapers.——1 out of every 4 glass bottles and jars(罐子).——1 out of every 4 items of clothing.——1 out of every 3 aluminum drink cans.In 1999,Hong Kong transported 1.3 million tons of waste to mainland China for recycling. Around 535,000 tons of waste was recycled in Hong Kong itself.Over half the things we throw away could be recycled.That means we could recycle 10 times as much as we do now.However,recycling needs a lot of organization and special equipment. Also,there is not much use for some recycled material. In Japan,the newspapers collected by children______.
[多选题]共用题干 Wide World of RobotsEngineers who build and program robots have fascinating jobs. These researchers tinker(修补)with ma- chines in the lab and write computer software to control these devices."They're the best toys out there," says Howie Choset at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh.Choset is a roboticist,a person who designs, builds or programs robots.When Choset was a kid,he was interested in anything that moved一cars,trains,animals.He put motors on Tinkertoy cars to make them move.Later,in high school,he built mobile robots similar to small cars,Hoping to continue working on robots,he studied computer science in college.But when he got to graduate school at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena,Choset’。labmates were working on something even cooler than remotely controlled cars:robotic snakes.Some robots can move only forward, hackward, left and right. But snakes can twist(扭曲)in many directions and travel over a lot of different types of terrain(地形)."Snakes are far more interesting than the cars,"Choset concluded.After he started working at Carnegie Mellon,Choset and his colleagues there began developing their own snake robots.Choset's team programmed robots to perform the same movements as real snakes,such as sliding and inching forward.The robot、also moved in ways that snakes usually don't,such as rolling. Choset’s snake robots could crawl(爬行)through the grass,swini in a pond and even climb a flagpole.But Choset wondered if his snakes might be useful for medicine as well.For some heart surgeries,the doctor has to open a patient's chest,cutting through the breastbone.Recovering from these surgeries can be very painful.What if the doctor could perform the operation by instead making a small hole in the body and sending in a thin robotic snake?Choset teamed up with Marco Zenati,a heart surgeon now at Harvard Medical School,to investigate theidea.Zenati practiced using the robot on a plastic model of the chest and they tested the robot in pigs. A company caikd Medrobotics in Boston is now adapting the technology for g urgerie9 on people-Even after 15 years of working with his team’s creations,"I still don't get bored of watching the motionof my robots,"Clioset says. Choset began to build robots in high school.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The Best Way to Reduce Your WeightYou hear this:"No wonder you are fat. All you ever do is eat."You feel sad:"I skip my breakfast and supper. I run every morning and evening. What else can I do?"Basically you can do nothing. Your genes,not your life habits,determine your weight and your body constantly tries to maintain it.Albert Stunkard of the University of Pennsylvania found from experiments that,"80 percent of the children of two obese parents become obese,as compared with no more than 14 percent of the offspring of two parents of normal weight."How can obese people become normal or even thin through dieting?Well,dieting can be effective,but the health costs are tremendous.Jules Hirsch,a research physician at Rockefeller University,did a study of eight fat people.They were given a liquid formula providing 600 calories a day.After more than 10 weeks,the subjects lost 45kg on average.But after leaving the hospital,they all regained weight. The results were surprising:by metabolic measurement,fat people who lost large amounts of weight seemed like they were starving. They had psychiatric problems.They dreamed of food or breaking their diet.They were anxious and depressed;some were suicidal. They hid food in their rooms.Researchers warn that it is possible that weight reduction doesn't result in normal weight,but in an abnormal state resembling that of starved non-obese people.Thin people,however,suffer from the opposite:They have to make a great effort to gain weight. Ethan Sims,of the University of Vermont,got prisoners to volunteer to gain weight. In four to six months,they ate as much as they could.They succeeded in increasing their weight by 20 to 25 percent. But months after the study ended,they were back to normal weight and stayed there.This did not mean that people are completely without hope in controlling their weight. It means that those who tend to be fat will have to constantly battle their genetic inheritance if they want to significantly lower their weight.The findings also provide evidence for something scientists thought was true一each person has a comfortable weight range. The range might be as much as 9kg. Someone might weigh 60-69kg without too much effort.But going above or below the natural weight range is difficult. The body resists by feeling hungry or full and changing the metabolism to push the weight back to the range it seeks. What did Jules Hirsch do in his study?
[多选题]共用题干 Ecosystem1 The word " ecosystem" is short for ecological(生态的)system. An ecosystem is where living crea- tures expand within a given area.You can say that an ecosystem is the natural environment where biologicalorganisms(生物)such as plants,animals and humans co-exist in this world. So naturally that includes you and mne.Yes,we are all members of an ecosystem!2 There are different kinds of ecosystems depending on the type of suiface or environment. Most are naturally made 5uch as the ocean or lake and the desert or rainforest.Some are man-made or artificial to en- courage co-habitation(共居)between living and non-living things in a monitored environment,such as azoo or garden.3 Plants make up the biggest group of biological creatures within an ecosystem,and that's because they are the natural food producers for everyone.Plants raised in the earth need air and collect sunlight to help them grow.When they grow,the plants and their加its or flowers eventually become a source of food to animals,microorganisms (微生物)and even humans, of course. Food is then converted to energy for the rest of us to function,and this happens in a never-ending cycle until the living creatures die and break up back in the earth.4 Ecosystems are the basis of survival for all living things.We depend on plants and animals for food. In order for us to exist,we need to grow and care about other organisms.We also need tO care for the non一living things within our environment like our air and water so we can continue living as a population.Since plants, animals and humans are all of various species(物种),we all play a role in maintaining the ecosystem.5 To preserve our ecosystems,we should stop using too much energy,which happens汕en we consume more than our share of resources. Humans should not disturb the natural habitat(栖息地)of plants and animals, and should allow them to grow healthily for the cycle to continue.Too many people in a habitat can mean dis- placement(搬迁):imagine being thrown out of your home because there is no more space for everyone. Worse,overpopulation can also ruin the environment and cause destruction of existing plants and animals. Paragraph 3_______
[多选题]共用题干 Seeing Red Means Danger AheadThe color red often means danger一and by paying attention,accidents can be prevented.In the future, the color red also may help_________(51)danger at construction sites.Thanks to new work by engineers, bridge supports一or________(52)kinds of materials一could one day contain a color-changing material.It will turn red_________(53)a structure collapses or falls apart.The secret__________(54)the color-switching material is。particular typo of molecule(分子).A mole-cule is a group of atoms(原子)held together by chemical bonds. Molecules come_________(55)all shapesand sizes,and make up __________ (56)you can see,touch or feel.How a molecule behaves depends on _________(57) kinds of atoms it contains,and how they're held together.When a polymer(聚合物)containing a color-changing molecule called a mechanophore (机械响应性聚 合物)which is about to break,it produces a_________(58).When a polymer with mechanophore molecules becomes" injured" or__________(59),one of the mechanophore bonds________(60)and the material turns red."It'S a really simple detection method,"says Nancy Sottos,one of the scientists who worked on the pro- ject.Sottos and her team tested the color-changing polymers in their lab.The test_________(61)proved encouraging,There is a way to get rid of the red color:light. When a bright light is shone on the mechanophore,the broken bond is fixed,and the red color________(62).This"self-healing"may be a problem for mngi-neers.They need to use the color-changer in big construction projects that will be_________(63)in sun- light. And sunlight will make the rnechanophore'S warning system______(64).Sottos and her fellow scientists still have _________(65)work to do before the color-changing mole-cules can be used outside the lab. _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 EarthquakeHow does an earthquake start?What makes an earthquake happen? The rock of the earth's crust(地壳)may have a "fault",a kind of break in the surface.The blocks which make up the earth move,and sometimes this may cause the sides of the fault to move up and down or lengthways(纵向地)against each other. When one piece of rock starts to rub on another with great force,a lot of energy is used. This energy is changed into vibrations(振动)and it is these vibrations that we feel as an earthquake.The vibrations can travel thousands of kilometers and so an earthquake in Turkey may be felt in Greece.What to do during an earthquake?At schoolAs soon as the earthquake starts,students should get under the desks immediately and wait until the teacher tells them it is safe to come out.The teacher should,at the same time, go immediately to the teacher's desk, get underneath(在……下面)it and stay there till the danger is over. Students must not argue with the teacher or question instructions.As soon as the tremors(震动)stop, all students should walk towards the exit and go straight to the school playground or any open space such as a square or a park.They must wait there until the teacher tells them it is safe to go.At homeIf you are at home when the earthquake occurs,get immediately under the table in the living room or kitchen.Choose the biggest and strongest table you can find.You must not go anywhere near the window and don't go out onto the balcony(阳台).Once the tremors have stopped,you can come out from under the table but you must leave the building straight away.You should walk down the stairs and should not use the lift一there may be a power cut as a result of the earthquake and you could find yourself trapped inside the lift for hours.In the streetIf you are in the street when the earthquake takes place,do not stand near buildings, fences or walls一move away as quickly as possible and try to find a large open space to wait in.Standing under trees could also be dangerous. If you are at home when an earthquake occurs,stand near a big table.
[多选题]共用题干 An Intelligent CarDriving needs sharp eyes, keen ears, quick brain, and coordination(协调)between hands and the brain.Many human drivers have all_________(1)and can control a fast-moving car. But how does an intelligent car control itself?There is a virtual(虚拟的)driver in the smart car. This virtual driver has "eyes", "brains","hands"and"feet",too.The minicameras_________(2)each side of the car are his"eyes",which_________(3)the road conditions ahead of it.They watchthe_________(4)to the car's left and right.There is also a highly automatic driving _________(5)in the car. It is the built-in computer,which is the virtual driver's "brain".His"brain"_________(6)the speeds of other moving cars near it andanalyzes their positions.Basing on this information,it chooses the_________(7)path for the intelligent car,and gives instructions to the"hands"and"feet"to act accordingly. In this way,the virtual driver_________(8)his car.What is the virtual driver's best advantage?He reacts_________(9).The minicameras are bringing_________(10)continuously to the"brain".It completes the processing of the images within 100 milliseconds._________(11),the world's best driver needs at least one second to react.Besides,when he takes_________(12),he needs one more second.The virtual driver is really wonderful.He can reduce the accident_________(13) considerably on expressways(高速公路).In this_________(14),can we let him have the wheel at any time and in any place?Experts_________(15)that we cannot do that just yet.His ability to recognize things is still limited.He can now only drive an intelligent car on expressways. _________(7)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇A Tale of Scottish Rural LifeLewis Grassic Gibbon's Sunset Song(1932)was voted"the best Scottish novel of all time"by Scottish's reading public in 2005.Once considered shocking for its frank description of aspects of the lives of Scotland's poor rural farmers,it has been adapted for stage,film,TV and radio in recent decades.The novel is set on the fictional estate of Kinr Addie,in the farming country of the Scottish northwest in the years up to and beyond World War I.At its heart is the story of Chris,who is both part of the community and a little outside it.Grassic Gibbon gives us the most detailed and intimate account of the life of his heroine.We watch her grow through a childhood dominated by her cruel but hard-working father;experience tragedy(her mother's suicide and murder of her twin children);and learn about her feelings as she grows into woman. We see her marry,lose her husband,then marry again.Chris has seemed so convincing a figure to some female readers that they cannot believe that she is the creation of a man.But it would be misleading to suggest that this book is just about Chris.It is truly a novel of a place and its people.Its opening section tells of Kinr Addie's long history,in a language that imitates the place's changing patterns of speech and writing.The story itself is amazingly full of characters and incidents.It is told from Chris' point of view but also from that of the gossiping community,a community where everybody knows everybody else's business and nothing is ever forgotten.Sunset Song has a social theme too. It is concerned with what Grassic Gibbon perceives as the destruction of traditional Scottish rural life first by modernization and then by World War I. Gibbon tried hard to show how certain characters resist the war. Despite this,the war takes the young men away,a number of them to their deaths. In particular,it takes away Chris' husband,Evan Tavendale.The war finally kills Evan,but not in the way his widow told. In fact,the Germans aren't responsible for his death,but his own side.He is shot because he is said to have run away from a battle.If the novel is about the end of one way of life it also looks ahead.It is a Sunset Song but is concerned too with the new Kinr Addie,indeed of the new European world.Grassic Gibbon went on to publish two other novels about the place that continue its story. The word sunset occurring in the title of the novel most probably means______.
[多选题]共用题干 Computers in CarsYou're far from home on a lonely road .Shadowy forests stretch away on both sides. A thick mist(雾)makes it difficult to see far beyond your car's windshield(挡风玻璃).“Can this be route 90A?”you wonder. if it is,you should be near a town. Yet there's no hint of one.Night is closing in. And you're low on gasoline.This is a situation where an in-car computer that can navigate would be a big help.A car computer that navigates?Yes!Such computers exist. Several experimental models are being tested by General Motors,Ford,Chrysler,and several foreign car makers.These computers vary in detail.But they all contain series of maps on videodiscs or videotapes.For example,one computer system contains 13,300 maps covering the continental US.Before starting out on a trip,a driver can type in the code for the region he or she plans to drive through.The computer then shows a map of that region. At the same time,a tiny radio re-ceiver linked to the computer goes to work.It picks up signals from navigation satellites such as the NAVSTAR network.Using these signals,the computer shows the car's position at all times and displays this position on the map.The computer can also calculate and display the best route to follow.A navigation computer may also receive and use data about road construction,weather condi-tions,and traffic jams. This information would be displayed to the driver and the computer would also use the information to work out alternate(交替的)routes.Most cars nowadays also contain computers that help cars run more efficiently. Microproces- sors(微处理机)control certain engine functions by regulating the mixing of fuel. Data on car speed,oil pressure,revolutions per minute,engine temperature,and fuel level can be displayed as digital data(numbers)or warning lights.Some auto designers suggest that a central computer display be used to clearly present such timely information as car speed and fuel level.Warning lights would indicate a drop in oil pressure or a sudden rise in engine temperature.To get more information on these conditions,the driver could call it up on the computer display screen.When needed,the computer could be “asked”to provide navigation aid or information about the car's condition. Without signals from navigation satellites,the in-car computer______.
[多选题]共用题干 Wide World of RobotsEngineers who build and program robots have fascinating jobs. These researchers tinker(修补)with ma- chines in the lab and write computer software to control these devices."They're the best toys out there," says Howie Choset at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh.Choset is a roboticist,a person who designs, builds or programs robots.When Choset was a kid,he was interested in anything that moved一cars,trains,animals.He put motors on Tinkertoy cars to make them move.Later,in high school,he built mobile robots similar to small cars,Hoping to continue working on robots,he studied computer science in college.But when he got to graduate school at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena,Choset’。labmates were working on something even cooler than remotely controlled cars:robotic snakes.Some robots can move only forward, hackward, left and right. But snakes can twist(扭曲)in many directions and travel over a lot of different types of terrain(地形)."Snakes are far more interesting than the cars,"Choset concluded.After he started working at Carnegie Mellon,Choset and his colleagues there began developing their own snake robots.Choset's team programmed robots to perform the same movements as real snakes,such as sliding and inching forward.The robot、also moved in ways that snakes usually don't,such as rolling. Choset’s snake robots could crawl(爬行)through the grass,swini in a pond and even climb a flagpole.But Choset wondered if his snakes might be useful for medicine as well.For some heart surgeries,the doctor has to open a patient's chest,cutting through the breastbone.Recovering from these surgeries can be very painful.What if the doctor could perform the operation by instead making a small hole in the body and sending in a thin robotic snake?Choset teamed up with Marco Zenati,a heart surgeon now at Harvard Medical School,to investigate theidea.Zenati practiced using the robot on a plastic model of the chest and they tested the robot in pigs. A company caikd Medrobotics in Boston is now adapting the technology for g urgerie9 on people-Even after 15 years of working with his team’s creations,"I still don't get bored of watching the motionof my robots,"Clioset says. The robotic technology for surgeries on people has brought a handsome profit to Medrobotics.
[多选题]共用题干 So Many"Earths"The Milky Way(银河)contains billions of Earth-sized planets that could support life.That's the finding of a new study.It draws on data that came from NASA's top planet-hunting telescope.A mechanical failure recently put that Kepler space telescope out of service.Kepler had played a big role in creating a census of planets orbiting some 170,000 stars.Its data have been helping astronomers predict how common planets are in our galaxy.The telescope focused on hunting planets that might have conditions similar to those on Earth.The authors of a study,published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,conclude that between 14 and 30 out of every 100 stars,with a mass and temperature similar to the Sun,may host a planet that could support life as we know it.Such a planet would have a diameter at least as large as Earth's,but no more than twice that big.The planet also would have to orbit in a star's habitable zone.That's where the surface temperature would allow any water to exist as a liquid.The new estimate of how many planets might fit these conditions comes from studying more than 42,000 stars and identifying suitable worlds orbiting them.The scientists used those numbers to extrapolate(推算) to the rest of the stars that the telescope could not see.The estimate is rough,the authors admit.If applied to the solar system,it would define as habitable a zone starting as close to the Sun as Venus and running to as far away as Mars.Neither planet is Earthlike (although either might have been in the distant past).Using tighter limits,the researchers estimate that between 4 and 8 out of every 100 sunlike stars could host an Earth-sized world.These are ones that would take 200 to 400 days to complete a yearly orbit.Four out of every 100 sunlike stars doesn't sound like a big number.It would mean,however,that the Milky Way could host more than a billion Earth-sized planets with a chance for life. The planet that could support life might be a little bit smaller than Earth.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Approaches to Understanding IntelligencesIt pays to be smart,but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician,but you might not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on all tests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelligent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believes thai all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathematical,spatial,musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic. Which of the following statements is true concerning general intelligence?
[多选题]共用题干 The History of the Fridge 1 The fridge is considered a necessity.It has been so since the l960s when packaged food first appeared with the label:"store in the refrigerator." 2 In my fridgeless fifties childhood,I was fed well and healthily.The milkman came daily,the grocer, the butcher,the baker,and the ice-cream man delivered two or three times a week.The Sunday meat would last until Wednesday and surplus bread and milk became all kinds of cakes.Nothing was wasted and we were never troubled by rotten food.Thirty years on,food deliveries have ceased,fresh vegetables are almost unobtainable in the country. 3 The invention of the fridge contributed comparatively little to the art of food preservation.A vast variety of well-tried techniques already existed-natural cooling,drying'smoking'salting'sugaring,bottling… 4 What refrigeration did promote was marketing-marketing hardware and electricity,marketing soft drinks,marketing dead bodies of animals around the globe in search of。good price. 5 Consequently,most of the world's fridges are to be found,not in the tropics where they might prove useful,but in the wealthy countries with mild temperatures where they are climatically almost unnecessary.Every winter,millions of fridges hum away continuously and at vast expense,busily maintaining an artificially-cooled space inside an artificially-heated house-while outside,nature provides the desired temperature free of charge. 6 The fridge's effect upon the environment has been evident,while its contribution to human happiness has been insignificant.If you don't believe me,try it yourself.Invest in。food cabinet(橱柜)and turn off your fridge next winter.You may miss the hamburgers but at least you’ll get rid of that terrible hum. Before fridges came into use,it was still possible for people to have fresh foods because______.
[多选题]共用题干 Eastern Quakes can Trigger Big ShakesIn the first week of November 2011,people in central Oklahoma experienced more than two dozen earthquakes.The largest,a magnitude 5.6 quake,shook thousands of fans in a college football itadium, caused cracks in a few buildings and rattled the nerves of many people who had never felt a quake before. Oklahoma is not an area of the country famous for its quakes.If you watch the news on TV,you will see reports about all sorts of natural disasters一hurricanes,tornadoes,flooding and wildfires,to name a few.But the most dangerous type of natural disaster,and also the most unpredictable,is the earthquake.Researchers at the U.S.Geological Survey estimate that several million earthquakes rattle the globe eachyear. That mnay sound scary,but people don'I feel many of the tremors because they happen in remote and unpopulated regions.Many quakes happen under the ocean,and othlers have a very small magnitude,or shaking intensity..A magnitude 5.8 earthquake that struck central Virginia the afternoon of August 23,2011,was felt from central Georgia to southeastern Canada.In iilany urbanl areas,including Washington,D.C.,dnd New York City(Wall Street shown),people crowded the streets while engineer inspected buildings.Credit: Wikimnedia/Alex Tahak.Scientists know about small,remote quakes only because of very sensitive electronic devices called seis- mometers.These devices detect and measure the size of ground vibrations produced by earthquakes. Altogether,USGS researchers use seismornetero to identify and locate about 20,000 earthquakseach year.Although earthquakes can happen anywhere in the world,really big quakeg occur only in。erttiin areas.The largest ones register a magnitude S or higher and happen, on average,only once each year. Such big ones typically occur along the edges of Earth’s tectonic plates.Tectonic plates are huge pieces of Earth’s crust,sornetinies many kilometers thick.These plates cover our planet'ssurface ike a jigsaw puzzle.Often,jagged edges of these plates temporarily lock together. When riates jostle and serape past each other earthquakes occur. On。、crage,tectonic plates move very slowly一 about the same speed as sour fingernails grow.But sometimes earthquakes rumble through portions of the landscape far from a plate'S edges.Although less cxpcctcd,these"mid-plate"tremors can do substontaI damage,Some of the biggest known examples rattled the eastern haif of the United States two centuries ago.Today,scientists are still puzzling over why the quakes occurred and when similar ones nught occur. Seismorneters can identify and locate most of the earthquakes in Chin
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Narcotic Addiction(麻醉品依赖)Heroin(海洛因)addiction today is found chiefly among young people in ghetto areas(贫民区). Of the more than 60,000 known addicts,more than half live in New York State.Most of these live in New York City. Recent figures show that more than half of the addicts are less than 30 years of age.Narcotic(麻醉剂)addiction in the United States is not limited to heroin users. Some middle-aged and older persons who take narcotic drugs regularly to relieve pain can also become addicted. So do some people who can get drugs easily,such as doctors,nurses and druggists. Studies show that this type of addict has personality and emotional problems very similar to those of other regular narcotic users.Many addicts admit that getting a continued supply is the main objective of their lives.His concentration on getting drugs often prevents the addict from continuing his education or his job.His health is often poor. He may be sick one day from effects of withdrawal(撤退,这里指不吸毒)and sick the next from an overdose(吸毒过量).Statistics show that his life span(寿命)may. be shorted by 15 to 20 years.He is usually in trouble with his family and almost always in trouble with the law.Some studies suggest that many of the known narcotic addicts had some trouble with the law before they became addicted.Once addicted,they may even become more involved with crime because it costs so much to support the heroin habit.Most authorities agree that the addict's involvement with crime is not a direct effect of the drug itself. Turning to crime is usually the only way he has of getting that much money.His crimes are always thefts or other crimes against property.Federal penalties for illegal usage of narcotics were established under the Harrison Act (《哈里森法案》)of 1914. The Act provides(规定)that illegal possession of narcotics is punished by fines and/or imprisonment. Sentences can range from 2 to 10 years for further offences.Illegal sale of narcotics can mean a fine of $20,000 and a sentence from 20 to 40 years for later offences.A person who Sells narcotics to someone under 18 is refused parole(假释)and probation(缓刑), even for the first offences. if the drug is heroin,he can be sentenced to life imprisonment or to death. We can infer from the second paragraph that______.
[多选题]共用题干 Paper or plastic?Take a walk along the Chesapeake Bay,and you are likely to see plastic bags floating in the water. Ever since these now ubiquitous symbols of American super-consumption showed up in the supermarkets,plastic shopping bags have made their______(51)into local waterways,and from there,into the bay,where they can______(52)wildlife. Piles of them一the______(53)takes centuries to decompose一show up in landfills and on city streets.Plastic bags also take an environmental toll in the form of millions of barrels of oil expended every year to produce them.Enter Annapolis______(54)you will see plastic bags distributed free in department stores and supermarkets.Alderman Sam Shropshire has introduced a well-meaning proposal to ban retailers ______(55) distributing plastic shopping bags in Maryland's capital. Instead,retailers would be required to offer bags______(56)recycled paper and to sell reusable bags.The city of Baltimore is considering a similar measure.Opponents of the idea,however,argue that______(57)bags are harmful,too:they cost more to make,they consume more______(58)to transport,and recycling them causes more pollution than recycling plastic.The argument for depriving Annapolis residents of their plastic bags is.______(59)accepted.Everyone in this______(60)is right about one thing:disposable shopping bags of any type are______(61),and the best outcome would be for customers to reuse bags instead.Annapolis's mayor is investigating how to hand out free,reusable shopping bags to city residents,a proposal that can proceed regardless of whether other bags are banned.A less-expensive______(62)would be to encourage retailers to give discounts to customers______(63)bring their own,reusable bags,a policy that a spokesman for the supermarket Giant Food says its chain already has in place.And this policy would be more______(64)if stores imitated furniture mega-retailer Ikea and charged for disposable bags at the checkout counter. A broad ban on the use of plastic shopping bags,which would merely replace some forms of pollution with others,is not the______(65). _________(59)
[多选题]共用题干 Squishy Cellphones Add a Buzz to CallsVibrating rubber could be the next big thing in mobile communications.They allow people to communicate by squishing the phone to transmit_______(51)along with their spoken words. According to a research team at the MIT Medical Lab in Cambridge,Massachusetts,the idea will make_______(52)more fun.Many mobile phones can already be made to vibrate(振动)_______(53 ) ring when you do not want people to know you are getting a call. But these vibrations,_______(54)by a motor spinning an eccentric(离心的、偏离的)weight inside the device, are too crude for subtle com-munication,says Angela Chang of the lab's Tangible Media Group.“They're_______(55)on or off,”she says.But when you grip Chang's prototype(样机)latex(橡胶)celiphone,your fingers and thumb wrap around five_______(56)speakers. They vibrate_______(57)your skin around 250 times per second.Beneath these speakers sit pressure sensors,so you can transmit vibration as well as_______(58)it. When you squeeze with a finger,a vibration signal is transmitted _______(59)your caller's corresponding finger. Its_______(60)depends on how hard you squeeze.She says that within a few minutes of being given_______(61)the phones,students were using the vibration feature to add emphasis to what they were saying or to interrupt the other speaker. Over time, people even began to transmit their_______ (62) kind of ad hoc(特别的)“Morse code”,which they would repeat back to show they were following what the other person was saying.“It was pretty easy to communicate,though we didn't specifically pre-arrange _______(63),”says David Milovich,one of the students who tried out the device.Chang thinks“vibralanguages”could_______(64)for the same reason as texting:some-times people want to communicate something_______(65)everyone nearby knowing what they are saying.“And imagine actually being able to shake someone's hand when you close a business seal,”she says. 57._________
[多选题]共用题干 An Intelligent CarDriving needs sharp eyes, keen ears, quick brain, and coordination(协调)between hands and the brain.Many human drivers have all_________(1)and can control a fast-moving car. But how does an intelligent car control itself?There is a virtual(虚拟的)driver in the smart car. This virtual driver has "eyes", "brains","hands"and"feet",too.The minicameras_________(2)each side of the car are his"eyes",which_________(3)the road conditions ahead of it.They watchthe_________(4)to the car's left and right.There is also a highly automatic driving _________(5)in the car. It is the built-in computer,which is the virtual driver's "brain".His"brain"_________(6)the speeds of other moving cars near it andanalyzes their positions.Basing on this information,it chooses the_________(7)path for the intelligent car,and gives instructions to the"hands"and"feet"to act accordingly. In this way,the virtual driver_________(8)his car.What is the virtual driver's best advantage?He reacts_________(9).The minicameras are bringing_________(10)continuously to the"brain".It completes the processing of the images within 100 milliseconds._________(11),the world's best driver needs at least one second to react.Besides,when he takes_________(12),he needs one more second.The virtual driver is really wonderful.He can reduce the accident_________(13) considerably on expressways(高速公路).In this_________(14),can we let him have the wheel at any time and in any place?Experts_________(15)that we cannot do that just yet.His ability to recognize things is still limited.He can now only drive an intelligent car on expressways. _________(8)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Don't Count on Dung(粪便)Conservationists(自然保护主义者)may be miscalculating the numbers of the threatened animals such as elephants,say African and American researchers. The error occurs because of a flaw in the way they estimate animal numbers from the piles of dung(粪)the creatures leave behind.The mistake could lead researchers to think that there are twice as many elephants as there really are in some regions according to Andrew Plumptre of the Wildlife Conservation Society(WCS)in New York.Biologist Katy Payne of Cornell University in Ithaca,New York,agrees,"We really need to know elephant numbers and the evidence that we have is quite indirect,"says Payne,who electronically tracks elephants.Counting elephants from planes is impossible in the vast rainforests of Central Africa. So researchers often estimate elephant numbers by counting dung piles in a given area. They also need to know the rate at which dung decays because it's extremely difficult to determine these rates. However,researchers counting elephants in one region tend to rely on standard decay rates established elsewhere.But researchers at the WCS have found that this decay rate varies from region to region depending on the climate and environment. "Using the wrong values can lead the census astray(离开正道),"says Plumptre.He and his colleague Anthony Chifu Nchanji studied decaying elephant dung in the forests of Cameroon.They found that the dung decayed between 55 and 65 percent more slowly than the dung in the rainforests of neighbouring Gabon.If researchers use decay rates from Gabon to count elephants in Cameroon,they would probably find more elephants than are actually around.This could mean estimates in Cameroon are at least twice as high as those derived from decay rates calculated locally,says Plumptre"However accurate your dung density estimate might be,the decay rate can severely affect the result."Plumptre also says that the dung-pile census should be carried out over a region similar in size to an elephant's natural range.The usual technique of monitoring only small,protected areas distorts numbers because elephants move in and out of these regions,he says"If the elephant population increases within the protected area,you cannot determine whether it is a real increase or whether it is due to elephants moving in because they are being poached(入侵偷猎)outside."Plumptre says that similar problems may also affect other animal census studies that rely on indirect evidence such as nests,tracks or burrows(地洞). The word"threatened"in the first sentence of the first paragraph could be best replaced by______.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Arctic MeltEarth’s North and South Poles are famous for being cold and icy.Last year,however,the amnount of ice in the Arctic Ocean(北冰洋)fell to a record low.Normally,ice builds in Arctic waters around the North Pole each winter and shrinks(缩小)during the summer. But for many years,the amount of ice left by the end of summer has been declining.Since 1979,each decade has seen an 11.4 percent drop in end?of-summer ice cover. Between 1981 and 2000,ice in the Arctic lost 22 percent of its thickness,becoming I.13 meters thinner.Last summer,Arctic sea ice reached its thinnest levels yet.By the end of summer 2007,the ice had shrunk to cover just 4.2 million square kilometers.That's 38 percent less area than the average cover at that time of year. And it's a very large 23 percent below the previous record low,which was set just 2 years ago. This continuing trend has made scientists concerned.There may be several reasons for the ice melt, says Jinlun Zhang, an oceanographer(海洋学家)at the University of Washington at Seattle.Unusually strong winds blew through the Arctic last summer. The winds pushed much of the ice out of the central Arctic,leaving a large area of thin ice and open water.Scientists also suspect that fewer clouds cover the Arctic now than in the past.Clearer skies allow more sunlight to reach the ocean.The extra heat warms both the water and the atmosphere.In parts of the Arctic Ocean last year,surface temperatures were 3.5℃warmer than average and 1.5℃warmer than the previous record high.With both air and water getting warmer,the ice is melting from both above and below. In some parts of the Beaufort Sea,north of Alaska and western Canada,ice that measured 3.3 meters thick at the beginning of the summer measured just 50 centimeters by season's end.The new measurements suggest that melting is far more severe than scientists have seen by just looking at ice covcrfrom above,says Donald K. Perovich,a geophysicist at the U.S.Army Cold Regions Researchand Engineering Laboratory in Hanover,N.H.Some scientists fear that the Arctic is stuck in a warming trend from which it may never recover. It can be learned from the last sentence that _________.
[多选题]共用题干 Homosexuals(同性恋者)Many homosexuals prefer to be called gay or,for woman,lesbian.Most of them live quiet lives just______(51)anyone else.Some gay people have always raised children,______(52)or with partners,and the use of artificial insemination(人工受精)is increasing among lesbians.Gay persons are in every kind of job.Some are very open about their homosexuality,and some are more private.Some______(53)their sexual orientation as a biological given and others as a choice.For those women who see it as a choice,one reason often given is the inequality in most heterosexual(异性恋的)relationships.Homosexuality has been common in most cultures throughout history and generally______ (54).As a result,homosexual activity became a crime,______(55)which the penalty in early courts was death.Homosexual behavior is still______(56)in many countries and the United States.Homosexuality later came to be viewed widely as less a sin than a sickness,but now no mentalhealth professional(具有专业资格的人)any longer ______ (57) homosexuality an illness. More recent theories to______(58)for homosexuality have included those based on biological and sociological factors.To date.______(59),there is no conclusive general theory that can explain the cause of homosexuality.Attitudes______(60)homosexuality began to change in the second half of the 20th century. Gays attribute this,in part,to their own struggle for their rights and pride in their orientation. Some large companies now______(61)health-care benefits to the life partners of their gay employees. Many cities also have officially appointed lesbian and gay advisory(咨询的)committees.______(62)some attitudes have changed,however,prejudice(偏见)still exists,and in the late 1980s and early 1990s,there were considerable shouts against homosexuals,with attempt to ______(63)laws forbidding the granting of basic civil rights to gays.The AIDS epidemic,which started in the 1980s,has devastated(毁坏)the gay community and brought it together as never before,The organized gay response to the lack of government financial support for fighting AIDS and to the needs of the thousands of AIDS victim______(64)they be gays or not,has been a model of community action.AIDS,however,has also______(65)people with another reason for their prejudice. _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 Losing WeightGirls as young as 10 years old are dieting and in danger of developing unhealthy attitudes about weight,body image and food,a group of Toronto researchers reported Tuesday.Their study of 2,279 girls aged 10 to 14 showed that while the vast majority had healthy weights,nearly a third felt they were overweight and were trying to lose pounds. Even at the tender age of 10,nearly 32 percent of girls felt"too fat"and 3 1 percent said they were trying to diet.McVey,a researcher at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto,and her colleagues analyzed data collected in a number of surveys of southern Ontario school girls between 1993 and 2003,reporting their findings in Tuesday's issue of the Canadian Medical Association Journal.Nearly 80 percent of the girls had a healthy body weight and only 7.2 percent were considered overweight using standard weight-to-height ratios.Most researchers suggest the rate of overweight children in this country is several times higher than that figure.Nearly 30 percent of the girls reported they were currently trying to lose weight,though few admitted to dangerous behavior such as self-induced vomiting.Still,a test that measured attitudes towards eating showed 10.5 percent of survey participants were already at risk of developing an eating disorder."We're not talking about kids who've been prescribed a diet because they're above average weight or overweight. We're talking about children who are within a healthy weight range.And they have taken it upon themselves to diet to lose weight,"McVey said,acknowledging she found the rates disturbing. She said striking a balance between healthy weights and healthy attitudes towards food and body image is a complex task,with no easy solutions. The study showed that most of the girls______.
[多选题]共用题干 Cerms(细菌) on BanknotesPeople in different countries use different types of money:yuan in China,pesos in Mexico,pounds in the United Kingdom,dollars in the United States,Australia and New Zealand.They may use different cur-rencies,but these countries,and probably all countries,still have one thing in ________(51):germs on the banknotes.Scientists have been studying the germs on money for well over 100 years.At the turn of the 20th ______(52),some researchers began to suspect that germs living on money could spread disease.Most studies of germy money have looked at the germs on the currency_________(53)one country. In a new study,Frank Vriesekoop and other researchers compared the germ populations found on bills of dif-ferent ________(54)Vriesekoop is a microbiologist at the University of Ballarat in Australia.He led the study,which corn-pared the germ populations found on money _______(55)from 10 nations.The scientists studied 1,280 banknotes in total;all came from places where people buy food,like supermarkets,street vendors andcafes,________ (56)those businesses often rely on cash.Overall,the Australian dollars hosted the fewest live bacteria一no more than 10 per square centimeter. Chinese yuan had the________(57)一about 100 per square centimeter. Most of the germs on money probably would not cause harm.What we call "paper money"________(58)isn'tmade from paper. The U.S.dollar,for example,is printed on fabric that is mostly cotton.Different countries may use different________(59)to print their money. Some of the currencies studied by Vriesekoop and his team,such as the American dollar,were made from cotton.Others were made from polymers.The three_______(60)with the lowest numbers of bacteria were all printed on polymers.They included the Australian dollar,the New Zealand dollar and some Mexican pesos.The_________(61)currencies were printed on fabric made mostly of cotton.Fewer germs lived on the polymer notes.This_______(62)suggests that germs have a harder time staying alive on polymersurfaces.Scientists need to do more studies to understand _________(63)germs live on money一andwhether or not we need to be concerned.Vriesekoop is now starting a study that will______(64)the amounts of time bacteria can stay alive on different types of bills.Whatever Vriesekoop finds,the fact remains:Paper money_________(65)germs.We should wash our hands after touching it.After all,you never know where your money's been.Or what's living on it. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 New Comet FoundThere's a newfound comet closing in on the sun,and when it gets here in 2013,you may be able to see it with your naked eye.Astronomers stumbled upon the icy interloper on June 5 while searching for potentially hazardous asteroids(小行星).Equipped with the world's largest digital camera , the University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS team snagged a faint image of the odd object while it was more than 700 million miles away , between the orbits of Jupiter(木星)and Saturn(土星)."Almost everything we find is an asteroid,but this object was suspicious,"said Richard Wainscoat,co-discoverer of the comet and an astronomer at the University of Hawaii."Unlike asteroids, which appear point-like in images,the telltale sign that gave it away was its fuzzy appearance."By March 2013 the comet,named C/2011 L4(PANSTARRS),is expected to come within 30 million miles of the sun一closer even than the innermost(最深处)planet, Mercury(水星).When the comet makes its closest approach to the sun,most of its ices will vaporize,adding to its hazy envelope of gas and dust and producing the familiar tail. This denser envelope,or coma, should boost the comet to peak brightness,making it potentially visible to the naked eye low in the western horizon just after sunset.While there is no danger of collision with Earth,preliminary calculations of the comet's orbit show that this may be its first and final trip through the solar system."It may be coming around the sun for the first and only time,only to be ejected from the solar system,never to return,"Wainscoat said."Since we don't have a lot of data on it,we really don't know the orbit well enough right now, and it will take up to two months of observations to find out."Astronomers believe C/2011 L4 may be a runaway from the Oort cloud(奥尔特云),a reservoir of billions of hibernating(蛰伏)comets that orbits about 100,000 times farther than the distance between Earth and the sun.The fact that it's going around the back of the sun from our point of view may ultimately affect the comet's visibility,but a lot will depend on how close the body actually gets to the sun.Also, whether the comet is north or south of the sun when it reaches peak brightness will determine which hemisphere on Earth gets the better view. C/2011 L4 will hit Earth in 2013.
[多选题]共用题干 Earthquake Insurance1.Earthquake insurance is a form of homeowners' insurance which deals with damage caused by earthquakes.In regions where earthquakes are especially common,homeowners may be required to carry earthquake insurance,so that in the event of an earthquake,people rely less on government disaster funds and more on their own insurance policies.As a general rule,earthquake insurance is not a part of standard insurance policies,and it must be purchased separately.2.Earthquakes can cause a variety of damage to a home,ranging from complete destruction to damage which causes the building to become structurally unsound.Indirect damage caused by neigh-boring collapses of structures and freeways can also occur,as can more bizarre forms of earthquake damage,like winding up with a car in the living room or a sinkhole in the back yard.Fires and flooding are also common problems in the wake of earthquakes.3.When homeowners purchase earthquake insurance,they may be protected against both direct damage,such as a structural collapse after an earthquake,and indirect damage,like a fire caused by broken gas lines.More commonly,the insurance only covers structural damage caused directly by the earthquake.The insurance may pay for a complete replacement of the structure,or a remodel, depending on the type of insurance and the nature of the damage.Some policies also cover damaged property like cars,and they may provide living allowances so that the residents of the home can temporarily relocate for the duration of the repairs.4.This type of homeowners' insurance is prone to adverse selection,in which only people in high risk areas purchase the insurance.The problem with adverse selection for insurance companies is that it decreases the pool of customers,making potential payouts very expensive.For this reason, earthquake insurance often has a high deductible,and it can he very expensive.5.Recognizing the need for earthquake insurance,some governments have provided subsidies for earthquake insurance,to reduce the stress on insurance companies.Insurance companies also adjust their risk pools carefully,and there may be stringent requirements for a homeowner to purchase earthquake insurance.For example,a home may need to be retrofitted for earthquake safety, reducing the amount of damage which will be incurred in a quake.For low-income home owners, this can be very difficult,as it drives the cost of earthquake insurance out of reach,which can in turn make it difficult to get home loans,as many banks in earthquake-prone areas insist on earth-quake insurance as a condition for a loan. Paragraph 3______
[多选题]共用题干 A Doctor in the HouseBrushing your teeth twice a day should keep the dentist away.But if a group of scientific researchershave their wish,it will make the rest of your body healthy too._________ (46)It is one of many gadgets (小装置)proposed by engineers and doctors at the Center for Future Health in New York一others include a pair of glasses that help to jog your memory,and a home camera designed to check for cancer.The devices seem fanciful,but the basic principles are simple.The gadgets should make it easy for peo-pie to detect illness long before it strikes and so seek treatment far earlier than normal.______(47)In the long run,the technology may even prevent illness by encouraging us to lead healthier lives.Intelligent bandages(绷带)are a good example. Powerful sensors within the bandage could quickly identify tiny amounts of bacteria in a wound and determine which antibiotics(抗生素)would work best. _________(48)Socks are long overdue for a makeover. In the future they will be able to automatically detect the amount of pressure in your foot and alert you when an ulcer(溃疡)is coming up.All the projects should have far-reaching implications,but the biggest single development is a melanoma(黑瘤)monitor designed to give early warnings of cancer.__________(49)If a problem is found,the sys-tern would advise you to get a check-up at your doctor's surgery.If all this sounds troublesome,then help is at hand.________ (50)A standard computer would beable to understand your voice and answer questions about your symptoms in plain English and in a way whichwould calm your nerves. _________(46)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇How to be a Successful BusinesspersonHave you ever wondered why some people are successful in business and others are not? Here’s a story about one successful businessperson.He started out washing dishes and today he owns 168 restaurants.Zubair Kazi was born in Bhatkal,a small town in southwest India. His dream was to he an airplane pilot,and when he was 16 years old,he learned to fly a small plane.At the age of 23 and with just a little money in his pocket,Mr. Ka2i moved to the United States.He hoped to get a job in the airplane industry in California. Instead,he ended up working for a company that rented cars.While Mr. Kazi was working at the car rental(租赁的)company, he frequently ate at a nearby KFC res- taurant.To save money on food,he decided to get a job with KFC.For two months,he worked as a cook’s assistant. His job was to clean the kitchen and help the cook. "I didn't like it." Mr. Kazi says." but Ialways did the best I could."One day,Mr. Kazi’s two co-workers failed to come to work.That day,Mr. Kazi did the work of all three people in the kitchen.This really impressed the owners of the restaurant.A few months later,the own- ers needed a manager for a new restaurant.They gave the job to Mr. Kazi.He worked hard as the manager and soon the restaurant was making a profit.A few years later,Mr. Kazi heard about a restaurant that was losing money.The restaurant was dirty in- side and the food was terrible.Mr. Kazi borrowed money from a bank and bought the restaurant.For the first six months,Mr. Kazi worked in the restaurant from. 8 a. m.to 10 p.m.,seven days a week.He and his wife cleaned up the restaurant,remodeled the front of the building,and improved the cooking. They also tried hard to please the customers.If someone had to wait more than ten minutes for their food,Mrs.Kazi gave them a free soda. Before long the restaurant was making a profit.A year later Mr. Kazi sold his restaurant for a profit. With the money he earned,he bought three more restaurants that were losing money.Again,he cleaned them up,improved the food,and retrained the em- ployces.Before long these restaurants were making a profit,too.Today Mr. Kazi owns 168 restaurants,but he isn't planning to stop there.He’s looking fur more poorlymanaged restaurants to buy."I love it when I go to buy a restaurant and find it's a mess,"Mr. Kazi says."The only way it can go is up." Mr. Kazi became the manager of a new restaurant because________.
[多选题]共用题干 An Intelligent CarDriving needs sharp eyes, keen ears, quick brain, and coordination(协调)between hands and the brain.Many human drivers have all_________(1)and can control a fast-moving car. But how does an intelligent car control itself?There is a virtual(虚拟的)driver in the smart car. This virtual driver has "eyes", "brains","hands"and"feet",too.The minicameras_________(2)each side of the car are his"eyes",which_________(3)the road conditions ahead of it.They watchthe_________(4)to the car's left and right.There is also a highly automatic driving _________(5)in the car. It is the built-in computer,which is the virtual driver's "brain".His"brain"_________(6)the speeds of other moving cars near it andanalyzes their positions.Basing on this information,it chooses the_________(7)path for the intelligent car,and gives instructions to the"hands"and"feet"to act accordingly. In this way,the virtual driver_________(8)his car.What is the virtual driver's best advantage?He reacts_________(9).The minicameras are bringing_________(10)continuously to the"brain".It completes the processing of the images within 100 milliseconds._________(11),the world's best driver needs at least one second to react.Besides,when he takes_________(12),he needs one more second.The virtual driver is really wonderful.He can reduce the accident_________(13) considerably on expressways(高速公路).In this_________(14),can we let him have the wheel at any time and in any place?Experts_________(15)that we cannot do that just yet.His ability to recognize things is still limited.He can now only drive an intelligent car on expressways. _________(13)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Sharing SilenceDeaf teenagers Orlando Chavez and German Resendiz have been friends since kindergarten(幼儿园). Together the boys,who go to Escondido Hight School in California,have had the difficult job of learning in schools where the majority of?the students can speak and hear.Orlando lost hearing at the age of one.cerman was born deaf,and his parents moved from Mexico to finda school where he could learn sign language.He met Orlando on their first day of kindergarten."We were in a special class with about 25 other deaf kids,"German remembers."Before then,I didn'tknow I was deaf and that I was different.""Being young and deaf in regular classes was very hard,"signs Orlando,"The other kids didn't under-stand us and we didn't understand them,But we'ye all grown up together,and today,I'm popular becauseI'm deaf. Kids try hard to communicate with me.”Some things are very difficult for the two boys."We can't talk on the phone,so if we need help,wecan't call an emergency service,"German signs."And we can't order food in drive-thru."Despite their difficulties,the two boys have found work putting food in bags at a local supermarket. Theygot their jobs through a"workability"program,designed for teenagers from local schools with different types oflearning disabilities.German has worked in the supermarket since August,and Orlando started in November."The other people who work here have been very nice to us,"Orlando signs."They even sign some-times.At first,we were nervous,but we'ye learned a lot and we're getting better."The opportunity to earn money has been exciting,both boys sign.After high school。they hope to attendthe National Technical Institute for the Deaf in New York. The word "emergency" in Paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to______.
[多选题]共用题干 Squishy Cellphones Add a Buzz to CallsVibrating rubber could be the next big thing in mobile communications.They allow people to communicate by squishing the phone to transmit_______(51)along with their spoken words. According to a research team at the MIT Medical Lab in Cambridge,Massachusetts,the idea will make_______(52)more fun.Many mobile phones can already be made to vibrate(振动)_______(53 ) ring when you do not want people to know you are getting a call. But these vibrations,_______(54)by a motor spinning an eccentric(离心的、偏离的)weight inside the device, are too crude for subtle com-munication,says Angela Chang of the lab's Tangible Media Group.“They're_______(55)on or off,”she says.But when you grip Chang's prototype(样机)latex(橡胶)celiphone,your fingers and thumb wrap around five_______(56)speakers. They vibrate_______(57)your skin around 250 times per second.Beneath these speakers sit pressure sensors,so you can transmit vibration as well as_______(58)it. When you squeeze with a finger,a vibration signal is transmitted _______(59)your caller's corresponding finger. Its_______(60)depends on how hard you squeeze.She says that within a few minutes of being given_______(61)the phones,students were using the vibration feature to add emphasis to what they were saying or to interrupt the other speaker. Over time, people even began to transmit their_______ (62) kind of ad hoc(特别的)“Morse code”,which they would repeat back to show they were following what the other person was saying.“It was pretty easy to communicate,though we didn't specifically pre-arrange _______(63),”says David Milovich,one of the students who tried out the device.Chang thinks“vibralanguages”could_______(64)for the same reason as texting:some-times people want to communicate something_______(65)everyone nearby knowing what they are saying.“And imagine actually being able to shake someone's hand when you close a business seal,”she says. 64._________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The Magic of SoundMusic is one of the most beautiful forms of artistic expressions ever invented.In movies and plays, music has an added function:it not only moves people but also can shock people.Our eardrums can withstand sound within 20 to 80 decibels(分贝).Once sound exceeds this limit , even beautiful music will become ear-splitting noise and harm health.A strong blast(响声)of high sound can twist and break a solid iron sheet.High sound of 150 decibels can kill a healthy rat.In movies,sometimes the hero can produce a sound that ordinary people can't hear and only those whohave the same ability can feel.In nature,there is actually sound that is beyond our hearing.In physics,the sound that exceeds 20,000Hz is called ultrasonic(超音波的).Dolphins, whales and bats can make such high-frequency sound.It does no harm to health.Sound less than 20Hz is called infrasonic(次声)waves.When we move, the air will vibrate.The vibration of air can produce infrasonic waves.As the frequency of infrasonic waves is close to that of people's internal organs, infrasonic wave may cause resonance(共振)in human bodies.As a result,people's vision may weaken and internal organs may rupture(断裂).However,whether an infrasonic wave can be used as a weapon depends on its intensity.If its intensity is very low,it won't damage internal organs or a person's health.If the intensity of infrasonic wave exceeds 160 decibels,it is extremely harmful.When wind blows at a force of 3 or 4 over the sea,it will produce infrasonic waves of several decibels.Only typhoons can produce infrasonic waves of over 100 decibels.At present,scientists can only produce infrasonic weapons in the lab with the help of advanced scientific tools and powerful electric power. It can be found from the last paragraph that infrasonic waves______.

相关课程