考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 Albert Einstein,whose theories on space time and matter helped unravel the secrets of the atom and of the universe,was chosen as"Person of the Century"by Time Magazine on Sunday.A man whose very name is synonymous with scientific genius,Einstein has come to represent more than any other person the flowering of 20th century scientific thought that set the stage for the age of technology."The world has changed far more in the past 100 years than in any other century in history. The reason is not political or economic,but technological一technologies that flowed directly from advances in basic science,"wrote theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking in a Time essay explaining Einstein's significance._________(46)Time chose as runner-up President Franklin Roosevelt to represent the triumph of freedom and democracy over fascism,and Mahatma Gandhi as an icon for a century when civil and human rights became crucial factors in global politics."What we saw Franklin Roosevelt embodying the great theme of freedoms fight against totalitarianism,Gandhi personifying the great theme of individuals struggling for their rights,and Einstein being both a great genius and a great symbol of a scientific revolution that brought with it amazing technological advances that helped expand the growth of freedom."said Time Magazine Editor Walter Isaacson.Einstein was born in Ulm,Germany in 1879._________(47)He was slow to learn to speak and did not do well in elementary school.He could not stomach organized learning and loathed taking exams.In 1905,however,he was to publish a theory which stands as one of the most intricate examples of human imagination in history._________(48)Everything else一mass,weight,space,even time itself—is a variable.And he offered the world his now-famous equation:energy equals mass times the speed of light squared,E=mc2._________(49)"There was less faith in absolutes,not only of time and space but also of truth and morality."Einstein's famous equation was also the seed that led to the development of atomic energy and weapons.In 1939,six years after he fled European fascism and settled at Princeton University,Einstein,an avowed pacifist,signed a letter to President Roosevelt urging the United States to develop an atomic bomb before Nazi Germany did.________(50)Einstein did not work on the project.Einstein died in Princeton,New Jersey in 1955. ________(50)
[多选题]共用题干 Hospital MistreatmentAccording to a study,most medical interns report experiencing mistreatment,including hu-miliation by senior doctors,______(51)threatened,or physical abuse in their first year out of medical school.The findings come from analysis of the______(52)a 13-page survey mailed in January 1991 to 1,733 second-year residents.The survey and______(53)appear in the April 15th is-sue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.Overall,out of the 1,277 residents______(54)completed surveys,1,185 said that they had experienced at least one incident of mistreatment in their intern year.______(55)reporting incidents where they were abused,more than 45%of the residents said they had witnessed at least one incident where other persons______(56)false medical records.Moreover,nearly three quarters of the residents said they had witnessed mistreatment of patients by other residents, attending physicians,or nurses. Almost 40% said patient mistreatment was a frequent______(57).More than 10%of the residents said they were______(58)to have enough sleep,and the average number of hours______(59)sleep was 37 .6 .The average on-call time during a______(60)week was 56 .9 hours,but about 25%of the residents said their on-call assign-ments were more than 80 hours some weeks.______(61)30%of the residents said they experienced some type of sexual harassment or discrimination,verbal abuse was the most common problem cited.When abusive incidents were limited to events occurring three or more times,53% of the respondents reported that they ______(62)belittled or humiliated by more senior residents,while just over 21% reported someone taking credit for their work .Being"______(63)tasks for punishment," "being pushed,kicked or hit,"and______(64)someone"threatening your reputation or career," were reported as a more______(65)occurrence by over 10%of the responding residents. 55._________
[多选题]共用题干 1. Do you know a child who survived leukemia(白血病)?Do you have a mother , sister or aunt whose breast cancer was found early thanks to a mammogram(乳腺X光照片)?Do you have a friend or coworker who quit smoking to reduce their risk of lung cancer? Each of these individuals benefited from the American Cancer Society's research program.2.Each day scientists supported by the American Cancer Society work to find breakthroughs that will take US one step closer to a cure.The American Cancer Society has long recognized that research holds the ultimate answers to the prevention,diagnosis and treatment of cancer.3.As the largest source of nonprofit cancer research funds in the United States,the American Cancer Society devotes over $100 million each year to research.Since 1946,they've invested more than $2. 4 billion in research. The investment has paid rich dividends(回报、效益).In 1946,only one in four cancer patients was alive five years after diagnosis;today 60 percent live longer than five years.4.Investigators and health professionals in universities,research institutes and hospitals throughout the country receive grants from the American Cancer Society.Of the more than 1,300 new applications received each year,only 11 percent can be funded.If the American Cancer Society had more money available for research funding,nearly 200 more applications considered outstanding could be funded each year.5.You can help fund more of these applications by participating in the American Cancer Society Relay(接力)for Life,a team event to fight cancer. More funding means more cancer breakthroughs and more lives being saved.To learn more,call Donna Hood,chair with the Neosho Relay for Life of the American Cancer Society at 451-4880. Many outstanding applications are turned down each year for__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The next big breakthrough in artificial intelligence could come from giving machines not just more logical capacity,but emotional capacity as well.Feeling aren't usually associated with inanimate(无生命的)machines, but Posalind Picard, a professor of computer technology at MIT,believes emotion may be just the thing computes need to work effectively.Computers need artificial emotion both to understand their human users better and to achieve self-analysis and self-improvement,says Picard."If we want computers to be genuinely intelligent,to adapt to us,and to interact naturally with us,then they will need the ability to recognize and express emotions,to have emotions,and to have what has come to be called emotional intelligence,"Picard says.One way that emotions can help computers,she suggests,is by helping keep them from crashing. Today's computers produce error messages,but they do not have a "gut feeling" of knowing when something is wrong or doesn't make sense.A healthy fear of death could motivate a computer to stop trouble as soon as it starts.On the other hand, self-preservation would need to be subordinate to service to humans.It was fear of its own death that promoted RAL,the fictional computer in the film 2002 :A Space Odyssey, to extermine(消灭)most of its human associates.Similarly,computers that could"read"their users would accumulate a store of highly personal information about us一not just what we said and did,but what we likely thought and felt."Emotion not only contribute to a richer quality of interaction,but they directly impact a person's ability to interact in an intelligent way,"Picard says."Emotional skills,especially the ability to recognize and express emotions,are essential for natural communication with humans." An emotionally intelligent computer is likely to__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Most of us walk and carry items in our hands every day.These are seemingly simple activities that the majority of us don't question.But an international team of researchers,including Dr. Richmond from GW's Columbian College of Arts and Sciences,have discovered that human walking upright, may have originated millions of years ago as an adaptation to carrying scarce(稀有的),high-quality resources.The team of researchers from the U.S.,England,Japan and Portugal investigated the behavior of modern-day chimpanzees(黑猩猩)as they competed for food resources,in an effort to understand what ecological settings would lead a large ape(类人猿)一one that resembles the 6 million-year old ancestor we shared in common with living chimpanzees一to walk on two legs."These chimpanzees provide a model of the ecological conditions under which our earliest ancestors might have begun walking on two legs",said Dr. Richmond.The research findings suggest that chimpanzees switch to moving on two limbs instead of four in situations where they need to monopolize a resource.Standing on two legs allows them to carry much more at one time because it frees up their hands. Over time , intense bursts of bipedal(二足的)activity may have led to anatomical(解剖学的)changes that in turn became the subject of natural selection where competition for food or other resources was strong.Two studies were conducted by the team in Guinea. The first study was conducted by the team in Kyoto University's "outdoor laboratory" in a natural clearing in Bossou Forest. Researchers allowed the wild chimpanzees access to different combinations of two different types of nut一the oil palm nut,which is naturally widely available,and the coula nut,which is not.The chimpanzees' behavior was monitored in three situations:(a)when only oil palm nuts were available,(b)when a small number of coula nuts were available,and(c)when coula nuts were the majority available resource.When the rare coula nuts were available only in small numbers,the chimpanzees transported more at one time.Similarly,when coula nuts were the majority resource,the chimpanzees ignored the oil palm nuts altogether. The chimpanzees regarded the coula nuts as a more highly-prized resource and competed for them more intensely.In such high-competition settings,the frequency of cases in which the chimpanzees started moving on two legs increased by a factor of four. Not only was it obvious that bipedal movement allowed them to carry more of this precious resource,but also that they were actively trying to move as much as they could in one go by using everything available一even their mouths.The second study,by Kimberley Hockings of Oxford Brookes University,was a 14-month study of Bossou chimpanzees crop-raiding,a situation in which they have to compete for rare and unpredictable resources.Here,35 percent of the chimpanzees activity involved some sort of bipedal movement,and once again,this behavior appeared to be linked to a clear attempt to carry as much as possible at one time. Standing on two legs allows them to carry much more at one time.
[多选题]共用题干 Organ Donation and Transplantation1 Organ donation(捐献)and transplantation(移植)refers to the process by which organs or tissuesfrom one person are put into another person's body.2 The number of people needing a transplant continues to rise faster than the number of donors.About 3,700 transplant candidates are added to the national waiting list each month.Each day,about 77 people receive organ transplants.However,18 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.3 There are rio age limits on who can donate.Newborns as well as senior citizens have been organ donors. If you are under age 18 , you must have a parent's or guardian's consent(同意).If you are 18 years or older,you can show you want to be an organ and tissue donor by signing a donor card.4 Many people think that if they agree to donate their organs,the doctor or the emergency room staff won't work as hard to save their life.This is not true.The transplant team is completely separate from the medical staff working to save your life.The transplant team does not become involved with you until doctors have determined that all possible efforts to save your life have failed.5 If you need an organ transplant,your doctor will help you get on the national waiting list.Your name will be added to a pool of names.When an organ donor becomes available,all the patients in the pool are compared to that donor. Factors such as blood and tissue type, size of the organ, medical urgency(紧急)of the patient's illness , time already spent on the waiting list, and distance between donor and recipient(接受 者)are considered. Organ donors range in age from newborns to________.
[多选题]共用题干 Prolonging Human LifeProlonging human life has increased the size of the human population.Many people alive to-day would have died of childhood diseases if they had been born 100 years ago.Because more people live longer,there are more people around at any given time.In fact,it is a decrease in death rates,not an increase in birthrates,that has led to the population explosion.Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency load.In all societies,people who are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them.In hunting and gathering cultures,old people who could not keep up might be left behind to die .In times of famine,infants might be allowed to die because they could not survive if their parents starved,whereas if the parents survived they could have another child.In most contempo- rary societies,people feel a moral obligation to keep people alive whether they can work or not. We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work;we also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age.Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement,somebody else must support them .In the United States many retired people live on social security checks which are so little that they must live in nearpoverty .Older people have more illness than young or middle-aged people;unless they have wealth or private or government insurance,they must often"go on welfare"if they have a serious illness.When older people become senile or too weak and ill to care for themselves,they create grave problems for their families.In the past and in some traditional cultures,they would be cared for at home until they died.Today,with most members of a household working or in school,there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person.To meet this need, a great many nursing homes and convalescent hospitals have been built.These are often profit-making organizations,although some are sponsored by religious and other nonprofit groups.While a few of these institutions are good,most of them are simply"dumping grounds"for the dying in which"care"is given by poorly paid,overworked,and under-skilled personnel. Which of the following best describes the writer's attitude toward most of the nursing homes and convalescent hospitals?
[多选题]共用题干 People in Beijing wear a lot of clothing during winter to fend(抵御)off the cold.In the United States,however,people wear________(51),partly because the car is the primary mode of transportation.Cars take_________(52)straight to their workplaces,which are heated well.The American diet is full of calories,so their__________(53)can afford to burn heat more quickly.Fewer layers of clothing give people the opportunity to stay__________(54).Lots of Yale girls wear skirts _________( 55 ) when it's 10 degrees Centigrade(摄氏温度的)outside. Some of them at least wear boots,tights(裤袜),and leg-warmers(暖腿套).Some,however,really just go for(选择)the look__________(56)the risk of health.These girls have nothing to prevent their legs _________( 57 ) the wind , and no socks to protect their feet. A mini skirt and a pair of stilettos(细高跟鞋)are all that they wear.Typically,the ones pursuing fashion are__________(58),with little body fat. Just by the nature of their bodies,they are already at a disadvantage compared with normal people in__________(59) weather. I have always _________(60) ,whenever I pass these girls,how they manage to refrain from shivering and just smile like spring had arrived.And then there are the guys.The girls can be said to_________(61)health for beauty.But why do guys________(62 ) so little? It is not like , once they shed(脱掉)some layers , they suddenly become better-looking. They are not exactly being fashionable when they__________(63)wear sporty (花哨的)shorts and shower slippers in the midst of winter. It's not cute(喜人的).Of course,people have the freedom to look whatever_________(64)they want. I am just surprised that,given the vast difference between winter and summer temperatures in Connecticut,they can still________(65)like they are partying on the beach in the middle of February. _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 "Much of the sickness and death attributed_________(51)the major communicable diseases is in fact caused by malnutrition which makes the body less able to withstand infections when they strike",said Dr. Hiroshi Nakajima,Director-General of WHO,in his statement on the first day of the World Food Summit. "At the same time,"he added,"in developing countries today,malnutrition is the cause of 174 million children under five years of age being________(52),and 230 million being stunted in their growth.Such_________(53)represent deprivation,suffering and wasted human potential __________(54)a scale that is unacceptable from every point of view. Whether we think in __________(55)of humanitarian concern,common justice or development needs,they demand a ___________(56),both from national governments and from international community."At the end of January 1996,98__________(57)had national plans of action for nutrition and 41 countries had one under preparation,in keeping with their___________(58)made at the International Conference on Nutrition in Rome in December 1992. The global situation,__________(59),remains grim. It is now __________(60)that 6.6 million out of the estimated 12.2 million deaths_________(61)are among children under five.In some__________(62),such as sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia,stagnation (停滞)of nutritional improvement_________(63)with a rapid rise in population has result in an ________(64)increase in total number of malnourished children.Over 800 million people around the world still cannot_________(65)basic needs for energy and protein,more than two thousand million people lack essential micronutrients,and hundreds of millions suffer from diseases caused by unsafe food and unbalanced diets. _________(65)
[多选题]共用题干 Influenza(流感)Influenza has been with us a long time.According to some Greek writers_________(51)medical history, the outbreak of 412 B.C.was of influenza. The same has been suggested of the sickness_________(52)swept through the Greek army attacking Syracuse in 395 B.C.Influenza is a disease that moves most quickly among people living in_________(53)conditions,hence,it is likely to attack armies.__________(54)the nineteenth century there were five widespread outbreaks of influenza. The last of the five________(55)in 1889 and marked the beginning of the story of influenza in our time.________(56)the recent outbreak,it started in Asia.For more than forty years before that outbreak,influenza had steadily_______(57)and was believed to be dying out.A new group of outbreaks was_________(58)by the great outbreak of 1889-1890 and for the next quarter of a century influenza remained a constant threat.In April 1918 influenza broke out among American troops stationed in France.It quickly spread through all the___________(59)but caused relatively few deaths.Four months later,however,a second outbreak started which__________(60)to be a killer. It killed not only the old and already sick but also healthy young adults. It________(61)through every country in the world,only a few distant islands in the South Atlantic and the Pacific remaining_________(62).It brought the life of whole countries to stop,food_________(63)stopped and work loss was very great.Before the great outbreak ended,it had killed at_______(64)15 million people.Thereafter,there have been several great outbreaks throughout the world.It is thus__________(65) that influenza is a terrible infection that we have to pay more attention to. _________(52)
[多选题]共用题干 Ebola Outbreak1. You are likely aware that several countries in West Africa are battling an Ebola outbreak.Eb-ola is a dangerous and often lethal viral infection.Scientists believe that humans contracted the vi-rus by eating the meat of rare animals.It is now believed that bats are the primary carriers of the virus。2. To date,there are only three major countries in West Africa experiencing a major outbreak:Si-erra Leone,Liberia and Guinea. However,other countries such as Nigeria have reported confirmed cases of Ebola with their border.3.Unless you recently visited one of the three affected West countries,your risk of contracting the virus is virtually zero.Unlike other recent airborne virus outbreaks like SARS,the Ebola virus can only be spread through direct contact with an infected person.Specifically,Ebola is spread through contact with body fluids .Though the virus is transmittable,only an infected person exhib-iting symptoms is communicable.4. The signs and symptoms of Ebola are non-specific and patients typically exhibit them after a week of contracting the virus.Symptoms may appear as early as two days or as late as three weeks after initial infection .Symptoms include disgust,weakness and stomach pain.More uncommon symptoms include chest pain,bleeding and sore throat.5. Ebola is devastating because of its ability to attack and replicate in every organ of the body. This causes an overstimulation of the body's inflammatory response,causing the flu-like symptoms. The virus also causes bleeding and impairs the body's normal clotting mechanism(凝血机制), making bleeding even more severe. Loss of blood volume and decreased organ perfusion(器官灌注)ultimately lead to organ failure and death.6 The current outbreak is the deadliest viral outbreak in over 35 years.While diseases such as the malaria(疟疾)are far more communicable,Ebola is one of the world's most fatal viral infec-tions.Ebola's fatality rate exceeds that of SARS. Paragraph 5______
[多选题]共用题干 Eye Problems1 Our eyes are under a great deal of strain these days as computer work,television viewing,nightdriving,and even sunshine are making exceptional demands.Sunlight, especially in the summer, is now regarded as one cause of cataracts(白内障).2 The thinning of the ozone(臭氧)layer means more short-wave ultraviolet ( UV ) rays(紫外线) are reaching the earth,and these are the biggest risk factor for clouding the lens of the eye.Ultraviolet raysincrease the risk of changes to the cornea(角膜)causing clouded vision and eventually cataracts.The rays can be shielded only by anti-UV lenses.However, our eyes are not sufficiently protected byfashion sunglasses.3 "Poor night vision and eye fatigue are noticeably more common,and there has been a big increase in minor eye complaints in the over-40s,"says Dr.Mireille Bonnet,who took part in recent research.She says that the six muscles controlling each eye move more than 100,000 times a day and that everyone should learn to exercise their eye muscles and allow them to rest.4 It was traditionally thought that near- or far-sightedness were inherited conditions and could not be influenced by environmental factors,but new research is challenging this assumption.5 Recent studies suggest that up to 80 percent of schoolchildren in the United States and western Europe are nearsighted.Years of focusing on close,two-dimensional work causes most children to become at least slightly nearsighted by the age of 10,say the researchers.6 Problems with night vision,which affect around 25 percent of people,are also on the increase because of computer use.Using computer screens means the eye must operate in electromagnetic fields (电磁场)that make it work harder.It is estimated that 25 to 30 percent of people have eye conditions, such as difficulty with night vision,which result from staring at a screen. Paragraph 2_______
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Sometimes love really can be measured in pounds and pence.It's an annual argument.Do we or do we not go on holiday?My partner says no because the boiler could go bad,or the roof fall off,and we have no savings to save us.I say that you only live once and we work hard and what's the point if you can't go on holiday.The joy of a recession means no argument next year一we just won't go.Since money is reputed to be one of the things most likely to bring a relationship to its knees, we should be grateful.For many families the recession means more than not booking a holiday. A YouGov poll of 2,000 people in May this year found 22%said they were arguing more with their partners because of concerns about money.What's less clear is whether divorce and separation rates rise in a recession一financial pressures mean couples argue more but make splitting up less affordable.A recent report from ICOR(the online Information Centre on Relationships)cited research showing arguments about money were especially damaging to couple一even more so to their children.Disputes were characterised by intense verbal aggression,tended to be repeated and not re-solved,and made men,more than women,extremely angry.So why are arguments about money so emotive?Since they seem to be so even without a recession,they have to be about more than literally pounds and pence.Kim Stephenson,an occupational psychologist,believes money is such a big deal because of what it symbolises,which may be different things to men and women."People can say the same things about money but have different conceptions of what it is for,"he explains."They will say it's to save,to spend,for security,for freedom,to show someone you love them,to keep score."He says men are more likely to see money as a way of buying status,of trying to best the man down the road who's just bought a flash car,and of showing their parents that they've achieved something. He warns that,while couples need enough money not to struggle and be unhappy,an extra £5,000 above that amount won't make them any happier."The biggest problem is that couples assume each other knows what is going on with their finances,but they don't. There seems to be more of a taboo about talking about money than talking about death.But you both need to know what you are doing,who is paying what into the joint account and how much you keep separately.In a healthy relationship,you don't have to agree about money, but you have to talk about it."Research from a wholesome organization in the U.S. called the National Healthy Marriage Resource Center says that establishing a"fair and equitable pattern of handling money early in marriage appears to be important for the quality and stability of the marriage".Admitting your incomes to each other and making budgets for your household expenses may not seem romantic but it is,in fact, the real language of love. The author suggests at the end of the passage that couples should__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Young adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more._________(51)to go on to university,reveals a major new study carried out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(《美国国家科学院院刊》).The study involved 1.2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born between 1950 and 1976.The research group analyzed the_________(52)of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.The study shows a clear link_________(53) good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test.The strongest links are for__________(54) thinking and verbal comprehension.But it is only fitness that plays a________(55)in the results for the IQ test,and not strength."Being fit means that you also have good heart and lung________(56)and that your brain gets plenty of________(57),"says Michael Nilsson,professor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital."This may be one of the reasons_________(58) we can see a clear link with fitness, but not with muscular(肌肉的)__________(59).We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important."By analyzing data for twins,the researchers have been __________(60) to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that explain the link between fitness and a_________(61)IQ."We have also shown that those youngsters who_________(62)their physical fitness between the ages of 15 and 18 increase their cognitive performance,"says Maria Aberg,researcher at the Sahlgrenska Academy and physician at Aby health centre."This being the case,physical__________(63)is a subject that has an important place in schools,and is an absolute must if we want to do well in maths and other theoretical subjects."The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests _________(64)national service with the socio-economic status of the men later in _________(65).Those who were fit at 18 were more likely to go into higher education,and many secured more qualified jobs. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇In the early days of the United States,postal charges were paid by the recipient and charges varied with the distance carried.In 1825,the United States Congress permitted local postmasters to give letters to mail carriers for home delivery,but these carriers received no government salary and their entire compensation depended on what they were paid by the recipients of individual letters.In 1847,the United States Post Office Department adopted the idea of a postage stamp,which of course simplified the payment for postal service but caused grumbling by those who did not like to prepay.Besides,the stamp covered only delivery to the post office and did not include carrying it to a private address.In Philadelphia,for example,with a population of 150,000,people still had to go to the post office to get their mail.The confusion and congestion of individual citizens looking for their letters was itself enough to discourage use of the mail.It is no wonder that,during the years of these cumbersome arrangements,private letter-carrying and express businesses developed.Although their activities were only semi-legal,they thrived and actually advertised that between Boston and Philadelphia they were half-day speedier than the government mail.The government postal service lost volume to private competition and was not able to handle efficiently even the business it had. Finally,in 1863,Congress provided that the mail carriers who delivered the mail from the post offices to private addresses should receive a government salary,and that there should be no extra charge for that delivery.But this delivery service was at first confined to cities,and free home delivery became a sign of urbanization.In 1890,of the 75 million people in the United States,fewer than 20 million had mail delivered free to their doors.The rest,nearly three quarters of the population,still received no mail unless they went to their post office. Which of the following statements about free home delivery in the United States of the late 19th century is not true?
[多选题]共用题干 SleeplessnessInsomnia or sleeplessness is a common complaint of women as they enter into menopause .In-somnia means having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep or the feeling that your sleep was not adequate for you .For women who are having night sweats,their sleep is broken by frequent a-wakening and therefore not refreshing. Generally once the night sweats are controlled a normal sleep pattern returns .If it doesn't it may be,or have become chronic insomnia. How do you know?if you suffer from insomnia every night or most nights for a period of one month then you have chronic insomnia. If you're not having night sweats then it's time to look for other causes of sleep-lessness. Depression and anxiety disorders are the most common causes of chronic insomnia. If you feel depressed you need to be checked by a qualified health care provider. Movement disor- ders such as restless leg syndrome are second on the list of insomnia for them,there are new med-icines that may help. Other common causes are shift working,and pain.In up to 30%of people with chronic insomnia no cause can be identified.Medical treatment of these people has generally been with sleeping pills.It is estimated that 25% of the adult popu- lation in America took some type of medicines for sleep last year. It is generally agreed that sleep-ing pills should only be in the lowest dose and for the shortest possible time.Sleep hygiene is directed at changing bad sleep habits.The recommendations are:-Go to bed only when sleepy.-Do not wait up to a specified time.-Avoid caffeine and alcohol in the evening,etc. How many possible causes of sleeplessness are mentioned in the second paragraph?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇U. S. Eats Too Much SaltPeople in the United States consume more than twice the recommended amount of salt,raising their risk for high blood pressure,heart attacks and strokes,government health experts said on Thursday.They found nearly 70 percent of U.S.adults are in high-risk groups that would benefit from a lower-salt diet of no more than 1,500 mg per day,yet most consume close to 3,500 mg per day."It's important for people to eat less salt.People who adopt a heart一healthy eating pattern that includes a diet low in sodium(钠)and rich in potassium(钾)and calcium(钙)can improve their blood pressure,"Dr. Darwin Labarthe of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)said in a statement."People need to know their recommended daily sodium limit and take action to reduce sodium intake (摄入量),"Labarthe said.The study in CDC's weekly report on death and disease used national survey data to show that two out of three adults should be consuming no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day because they are black or over the age of 40一who are considered as high-risk groups.Yet studies show most people in the United States eat 3,436 mg of sodium per day,according to a 2005- 2006 CDC estimate.Most of the sodium eaten comes from packaged,processed and restaurant foods.The CDC said it will ioin other agencies in the Health and Human Services Department in working with major food manufacturers and chain restaurants to reduce sodium levels in the food supply.Nationwide,1 6 million men and women have heart disease and 5.8 million are estimated to have had a stroke.Cutting salt conoumption can reduce theoe risks,the CDC said. The recommended sodium intake for most U.S.adults is_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Approaches to Understanding IntelligencesIt pays to be smart,but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician,but youmight not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologistshave two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.Thesepsychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on alltests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelli-gent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believes that all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathematical,spatial, musical , interpersonal , intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的), and naturalistic. What is the main idea of this passage?
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Only special plants can survive in the terrible climate of a desert,for these are regions where the annual range of the soil temperature can be over 75℃.Furthermore,during the summer there are few clouds in the sky to protect plants from the sun's ray.Another problem is the fact that there are frequently strong winds which drive small-sharp particles of sand into the plants,tearing and damaging them.The most difficult problem for all forms of plant life,however,is the fact that the entire annual rainfall occurs during a few days or weeks in spring.Grasses and flowers in desert survive from one year to the next by existing through the long, hot,dry season in the form of seeds.These seeds remain inactive unless the right amount of rain falls.If no rain falls,or if insufficient rain falls,they wait until the next year,or even still the next.Another factor that helps these plants to survive is the fact that their life cycles are short.By the time that the water from the spring rains disappears—ust a few weeks after it falls一such plants no longer need any.The perennials(多年生植物)have special features which enable them to survive as plants for several years. Thus,nearly all desert perennials have extensive root systems below ground and a small shoot system above ground.The large root network enables the plant to absorb as much water as possible in a short time.The small shoot system,on the other hand,considerably limits water loss by evaporation(蒸发).Another feature of many desert perennials is that after the rainy season they lose their leaves in preparation for the long,dry season,just as trees in wetter climates lose theirs in preparation for the winter. This reduces their water loss by evaporation during the dry season.Then,in the next rainy season,they come fully alive once more,and grow new branches,leaves and flowers,just as the grasses and flowers in desert do. We can learn from the passage that the shoot system of the perennials_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇U. S. Eats Too Much SaltPeople in the United States consume more than twice the recommended amount of salt,raising their risk for high blood pressure,heart attacks and strokes,government health experts said on Thursday.They found nearly 70 percent of U.S.adults are in high-risk groups that would benefit from a lower-salt diet of no more than 1,500 mg per day,yet most consume close to 3,500 mg per day."It's important for people to eat less salt.People who adopt a heart一healthy eating pattern that includes a diet low in sodium(钠)and rich in potassium(钾)and calcium(钙)can improve their blood pressure,"Dr. Darwin Labarthe of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)said in a statement."People need to know their recommended daily sodium limit and take action to reduce sodium intake (摄入量),"Labarthe said.The study in CDC's weekly report on death and disease used national survey data to show that two out of three adults should be consuming no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day because they are black or over the age of 40一who are considered as high-risk groups.Yet studies show most people in the United States eat 3,436 mg of sodium per day,according to a 2005- 2006 CDC estimate.Most of the sodium eaten comes from packaged,processed and restaurant foods.The CDC said it will ioin other agencies in the Health and Human Services Department in working with major food manufacturers and chain restaurants to reduce sodium levels in the food supply.Nationwide,1 6 million men and women have heart disease and 5.8 million are estimated to have had a stroke.Cutting salt conoumption can reduce theoe risks,the CDC said. Packaged,processed and restaurant foods tend to be_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Sprained(扭伤)AnkleOne of the most common injuries teenagers and adults experience is a sprained ankle.A sprain occurs when the ligaments(韧带)of a joint are twisted(扭伤)and possibly torn. Ligaments are bands of fibers that hold the bones of a joint in position.A sprain can occur from a sudden twisting at the joint,or a stretching or tearing of the fibers of the ligaments. The injured area usually swells(肿胀)and becomes black and blue. Stepping off the sidewalk at the wrong angle or having one foot land in a hole while walking or running can leave you rolling on the ground in pain with an ankle on fire!If you cannot walk without experiencing intense pain,you must seek medical help.If the pain is manageable,and you can walk,here are three words to help you remember how to treat yourself:●Elevate(抬高)●Cool●Bandage(打绷带)As soon as there is injury to that ligament,there will be a certain amount of bleeding under the skin. Once the blood pools around the damaged blood vessels,swelling occurs.The pressure from the swelling results in additional stress and tenderness to the region.In order to reduce the degree of swelling,lie down as soon as possible and keep the ankle elevated so that it is actually higher than your heart.Next,to reduce blood distribution and keep bleeding(流血)to a minimum, apply a cold pack. After 20 minutes, take the pack off,wait half an hour and then reapply.This can be done several times a day for a total of three days.Never leave a cold pack on for more than 20 minutes at a time.Reducing the temperature in that area for an extended period of time signals the body to increase blood flow to raise the body temperature!Therefore, one accidentally triggers(引起)more blood distribution to the affected area by leaving a cold pack on for too long!Finally,bandage the ankle.Be careful not to wind it too tightly;doing so can restrict blood flow and cause harm to the entire foot. The main idea of the passage is to explain__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Some Schooling on BackpacksAccording to the U.S.Consumer Product Safety Commission,5,900 kids were treated at hospital emergency rooms,clinics,and doctors'offices last year for sprains(扭伤)and strains caused by backpacks.Such injuries are so widespread that more than 70 percent of physicians surveyed by the American Academy of Orthopedic(整形外科的)Surgeons listed backpacks as a potential clinical problem for children.How do you avoid such problems? Choose bags that have wide , padded straps(有垫的背带)and abelt.That will help transfer some of the weight from the back and shoulders to the hips.You should alsotighten both straps firmly,so the pack rests about 2 inches above your waist.Also,remember to pack yourbag with the heaviest items closest to your back and to bend both knees when you pick it up.How much should you stuff into your pack?That depends on your size and strength,but a general ruleis not to exceed 20 percent of your body weight.So if a child weighs 100 pounds,the backpack and its loadshould not be more than 20 pounds.One hint : Make frequent trips to your locker(储物柜)to exchangebooks between classes.Backpacks with wheels let you pull the weight along the ground,but they have problems too.Many arelarger than the average shoulder bag,so students are tempted to carry more than they would in a conventionalpack.Roller bags often don't fit into a locker.They can also lead to tripping and falls in crowded halls.Whatever you use,10 or 15 minutes of stretching and back strengthening is a good idea. A100-pound child should carry a backpack of more than 20 pounds.
[多选题]共用题干 Exercise Cuts Cancer Deaths in MenMen who exercise often are less likely to die from cancer than those who_____(51),new research published in the British Journal of Cancer revealed yesterday.A team of scientists from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden looked_______(52)the effect of physical activity and cancer risk in 40,708 men aged________(53)45 and 79._________(79.)The seven-year study found that men_________(54)walked or cycled for at least 30 minutes a day had a 34 per cent lower_________(55)of dying from cancer than the men who did less exercise or nothing at all. __________(56)the period studied,3,714 men developed cancer and 1,153 died from the disease.The researchers suggest that half an hour's walking_________(57)cycling a day increased survival among these men by 33 per cent.The researchers surveyed men from two countries in central Sweden about their lifestyle and the amount of________(58)activity they were usually doing.They then scored these responses and compared the results with data on cancer diagnosis and death officially recorded in a central cancer registry(登记簿)over a seven-year_________(59).Lead author,Professor Alicja Wolk,said,"These results clearly show for the first time the effect that very simple and basic daily_______(60)such as walking or cycling has in reducing cancer death risk in middle-aged and elderly________(61)."Dr Lesley Walker,director of cancer information at Cancer Research UK,said,"This study gives us a clear indication that men who exercise are less_________(62)to die from cancer,and that they are more likely to________(63)the disease if they get it. It's not entirely clear from this study what role exercise plays in preventing________(64)in men,but we do know that a healthy lifestyle can prevent up to half of all cancers—and_______(65)exercise forms a key part of this." _________(59)
[多选题]共用题干 Prolonging Human LifeProlonging human life has increased the size of the human population.Many people alive to-day would have died of childhood diseases if they had been born 100 years ago.Because more people live longer,there are more people around at any given time.In fact,it is a decrease in death rates,not an increase in birthrates,that has led to the population explosion.Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency load.In all societies,people who are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them.In hunting and gathering cultures,old people who could not keep up might be left behind to die .In times of famine,infants might be allowed to die because they could not survive if their parents starved,whereas if the parents survived they could have another child.In most contempo- rary societies,people feel a moral obligation to keep people alive whether they can work or not. We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work;we also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age.Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement,somebody else must support them .In the United States many retired people live on social security checks which are so little that they must live in nearpoverty .Older people have more illness than young or middle-aged people;unless they have wealth or private or government insurance,they must often"go on welfare"if they have a serious illness.When older people become senile or too weak and ill to care for themselves,they create grave problems for their families.In the past and in some traditional cultures,they would be cared for at home until they died.Today,with most members of a household working or in school,there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person.To meet this need, a great many nursing homes and convalescent hospitals have been built.These are often profit-making organizations,although some are sponsored by religious and other nonprofit groups.While a few of these institutions are good,most of them are simply"dumping grounds"for the dying in which"care"is given by poorly paid,overworked,and under-skilled personnel. According to the passage,which of the following statements about retired people in the Unit-ed States is true?
[多选题]共用题干 Approaches to Understanding IntelligencesIt pays to be smart,but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician,but youmight not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologistshave two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.Thesepsychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on alltests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelli-gent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believes that all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathematical,spatial, musical , interpersonal , intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的), and naturalistic. According to Gardner,schools should
[多选题]共用题干 Tiny InvadersThe human body is truly amazing. It allows us to sense the world around us,to do work and have fun, and to move from place to place.In fact,the human body does its work so well that most people don't think about it very much-until they get sick.The germs(致病菌)that make people sick are everywhere. You can ' t see them , but they ' re there. They're sitting on your desk.They're hiding on your computer's keyboard.They're even in the air that you are breathing. There are two types of germs : viruses and bacteria(细菌).Viruses are germs that can only live inside animals or plants. Viruses cause illnesses such as flu and measles(麻疹).Bacteria are tiny creatures.Some bacteria are good.They can help your stomach break down food.Other bacteria aren't so good. They can make you sick. Bacteria can cause sore throats(喉痛)and ear infections.How can you stop these tiny invaders from making you sick?Your skin is the first defense against germs.You can prevent some illnesses simply by washing,with soap and water. But germs can still enter the body through small cuts in the skin or through the mouth,eyes,and nose.Once germs are inside your body , your immune(免疫的)system tries to protect you. It looks for and destroys germs.How does it do that?Special cells patrol your body.Some of these cells actually eat germs! Other cells make antibodies.An antibody sticks to a germ.There is a different antibody for each kind ofgerm.Some antibodies keep germs from making you sick.Others help your body find and kill germs.After agerm is destroyed,the antibodies stay in your body.They protect you if the same kind of germ comes back. That way you will not get the same illness twice.You can keep your body healthy by eating a nutritious(有营养的)diet to make your immune systerm strong. You can also help your immune system fight germs by getting vaccinated(接种).Vaccines are medicines.They contain germs that have been killed or weakened.The dead germs can't make you sick. Instead,they cause your body to make antibodies.If the same germ ever shows up again,then yourantibodies attack it. Washing your skin can prevent some illnesses.
[多选题]共用题干 Daisy Williams admits genes play some role in the way she looks,but believes diet is an important factor."It doesn't matter how good the genes are if you don't eat properly and take care of your-self,"she says."If you want to look good,get plenty of rest,exercise every day,eat mostly raw fruits and vegetables and quit worrying."Nowhere do the signs of aging manifest themselves more clearly than in the condition of the skin. When your weight fluctuates(波动),the skin stretches with each up cycle , but it may not completely shrink back to its original size in the down cycle. As a result,the skin may sag(松弛下垂).Zinc and vitamin A are important for normal,healthy skin.Zinc helps the skin repair itself, and vitamin A aids in keeping skin supple,preventing dryness and helping shed dead cells.Good sources of zinc are beef,eggs and seafood,while many dark-green leafy vegetables are rich in beta carotene(胡萝卜素), which the body converts to vitamin A.Vitamin C helps improve the blood supply to the skin and aids in forming collagen(胶原). Good sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits and juices,cauliflower,snow peas,red and green peppers,broccoli,white and sweet potatoes, tomatoes,watermelon,and honeydew melon.How food is prepared matters too.The longer vegetables cook,the greater the loss of vitamins. Don't soak vegetables when washing them,since water-soluble vitamins such as C will be lost.Good general nutrition is essential to maintaining a healthy,youthful appearance.And the key to good general nutrition is balance.Proteins should make up roughly 10 percent of your daily calorie intake;no more than 30 percent should come from fats;and the remaining calories should come mostly from complex carbohydrates(碳水化合物). When one gains weight,the skin becomes loose.
[多选题]共用题干 Most of us walk and carry items in our hands every day.These are seemingly simple activities that the majority of us don't question.But an international team of researchers,including Dr. Richmond from GW's Columbian College of Arts and Sciences,have discovered that human walking upright, may have originated millions of years ago as an adaptation to carrying scarce(稀有的),high-quality resources.The team of researchers from the U.S.,England,Japan and Portugal investigated the behavior of modern-day chimpanzees(黑猩猩)as they competed for food resources,in an effort to understand what ecological settings would lead a large ape(类人猿)一one that resembles the 6 million-year old ancestor we shared in common with living chimpanzees一to walk on two legs."These chimpanzees provide a model of the ecological conditions under which our earliest ancestors might have begun walking on two legs",said Dr. Richmond.The research findings suggest that chimpanzees switch to moving on two limbs instead of four in situations where they need to monopolize a resource.Standing on two legs allows them to carry much more at one time because it frees up their hands. Over time , intense bursts of bipedal(二足的)activity may have led to anatomical(解剖学的)changes that in turn became the subject of natural selection where competition for food or other resources was strong.Two studies were conducted by the team in Guinea. The first study was conducted by the team in Kyoto University's "outdoor laboratory" in a natural clearing in Bossou Forest. Researchers allowed the wild chimpanzees access to different combinations of two different types of nut一the oil palm nut,which is naturally widely available,and the coula nut,which is not.The chimpanzees' behavior was monitored in three situations:(a)when only oil palm nuts were available,(b)when a small number of coula nuts were available,and(c)when coula nuts were the majority available resource.When the rare coula nuts were available only in small numbers,the chimpanzees transported more at one time.Similarly,when coula nuts were the majority resource,the chimpanzees ignored the oil palm nuts altogether. The chimpanzees regarded the coula nuts as a more highly-prized resource and competed for them more intensely.In such high-competition settings,the frequency of cases in which the chimpanzees started moving on two legs increased by a factor of four. Not only was it obvious that bipedal movement allowed them to carry more of this precious resource,but also that they were actively trying to move as much as they could in one go by using everything available一even their mouths.The second study,by Kimberley Hockings of Oxford Brookes University,was a 14-month study of Bossou chimpanzees crop-raiding,a situation in which they have to compete for rare and unpredictable resources.Here,35 percent of the chimpanzees activity involved some sort of bipedal movement,and once again,this behavior appeared to be linked to a clear attempt to carry as much as possible at one time. The chimpanzees competed for the coula nuts more intensely.
[多选题]共用题干 How Men Face the Fat ProblemIt is a pleasure to see men of a certain age worrying about their weight. Listening to them is not such a pleasure .Because the men are new at the game,they don't hesitate to discuss the fat problem incessantly.However,women of the same age do not discuss the fat problem,especially not in mixed company.They prefer to face the problem with quiet dignity.Discussing the problem might only draw attention to some stray body part that may be successfully tucked away under an article of clothing.The age at which a man begins to explore the fat problem can vary.The actual problem can manifest itself in the early 30's,but broad-range discussion usually starts later. There are early nonverbal symptoms .I've watched the rugged journalist who shares my apartment sneak by with a Diet Coke.His shirts are no longer neatly tucked in to display a trim waist. Recently he has begun to verbalize his anxiety.He tells me,with a sheepish grin,that he is taking his suits to Chinatown to have them"tailored", Still-older men have lost their dignity and rattle on unabashedly.Often,wives and children play important roles in their fat-inspection rituals. Take my oldest brother,a former college football player. His daughter says that several times a day he will stand at attention and call out, "Fat,medium or thin?"She knows the correct answer:medium.Thin would be an obvious stretch,and fat may not get her that new video.According to his wife,he stands in front of the mirror in the morning(before the day's meals take their toll),puts his hands behind his head and lurches into a side bend,then clutches the roll that has developed and says,"Am I getting fatter?"His wife is expected to answer,"You look like you may have lost a few pounds."And then there are the exhusbands,a pitiful group.They are extremely vocal. When I go to the movies with one,he confides that he is suffering from great hunger because he is dieting.He hasn't eaten since the pancakes and sausages he wolfed down that morning.He pauses in his monologue while he buys his popcorn.After the movie,we sprint to a restaurant,where he again pau- ses to devour a basket of bread.Before he orders his chaste salad and soup,he grows plaintive.Do I think he's fat? The journalist used to drink Diet Coke and tuck his shirts in order to keep trim.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇A recent study,published in last week's Journal of American Medical Association,offers a picture of how risky it is to get a lift from a teenage driver. Indeed,a 16-year-old driver with three or more passengers is three times as likely to have a fatal accident as a teenager driving alone,by contrast,the risk of death for drivers between 30 and 59 decreases with. each additional passenger.The author also found that the death rates for teenage drivers increased dramatically after 10 pm,and especially after midnight.With passengers in the car,the driver was even more likely to die in a late-night accident.Robert Foss,a scientist at the University of North Carolina Highway safety Research Center, says the higher death rates for teenage drivers,have less to do with"really stupid behavior" than with just a lack of driving experience."The basic issue,"he says,"is that adults who are responsible for issuing licenses fail to recognize how complex and skilled a task driving is."Both he and the author of the study believe that the way to mitigate(使······缓解)the problem is to have states institute so-called graduated licensing systems,in which getting a license is a multistage process.A graduated license requires that a teenager first prove himself capable of driving in the presence of an adult,followed by a period of driving with passenger restrictions,before graduating to full driving privileges.Graduate licensing systems have reduced teenage driver crashes,according to recent studies. About half of the states now have some sort of graduated licensing system in place,but only 10 of those states have restrictions on passengers. California is the strictest,with a novice(新手)driver prohibited from carrying any passenger under 20(without the presence of an adult over 25)for the first six months. According to Paragraph 3,which of the following statements is true?
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Ceremonial bathing(仪式性的沐浴)has existed for thousands of years and has many forms, one of which is the sauna. The Finns have perfected the steam bath,or sauna,which may be taken, usually in an enclosed room,by pouring water over hot rocks or as a dry heat bath.The Japanese, Greeks,Turks and Russians as well as Native Americans have forms of the sweat bath in their bathing rituals.Dry heat and steam baths had advocates in ancient Rome and pre-Columbian Americans used sweat lodges.The earliest saunas were probably underground caves heated by a fire that naturally filled with smoke as chimney making was unknown at that time.A fire kept in a fire-pit would heat the rock walls of the cave.After reaching full heat,the smoke was let out of the cave and the stones would retain heat for several hours.A few people today say that the smoke sauna,"savusauna"is the only true sauna experience and that all saunas should have at least a background odor(气味)or smoke. Today most saunas use electric stoves,although gas and wood-burning stoves are available.Saunas are relaxing and stress relieving. Those with muscle aches or arthritis(关节炎)may find that the heat relaxes muscles and relieves pain and inflammation(炎症).Asthma patients find that the heat enlarges air passageways of the lung and facilitates breathing. Saunas do not cure the common cold but they may help to alleviate congestion(减轻胸闷感)and speed recovery time. The body's core temperature usually rises 1—2 degrees while in the sauna,thus imitating a slight fever. The sauna could be considered to follow the old saying"feed a cold,starve a fever".The regular use of a sauna may decrease the likelihood of getting a cold in the first place.Sauna is good for your skin as the blood flow to the skin increases and sweating occurs.Adults sweat about 2 pounds of water per hour on average in a sauna. A good sweat removes dirt and grime (污垢;尘垢)from pores and gives the skin a healthy glow. The loss in water weight is temporary as the body's physiological mechanisms will quickly restore proper volumes.The cardiovascular system(心血管系统)gets a work out(运动,锻炼)as the heart must pump harder and faster to move blood to the surface for heat exchange.Heart rate may increase from 72 beats per minute on average to 100一150 beats per minute.A normal heart can handle these stresses but those with heart trouble wishing to begin to use a sauna should seek a doctor's advice. The elderly and those with diabetes(糖尿病)should check with their doctor prior to beginning to take saunas.Pregnant women should not take saunas,particularly in the first three months. Indeed,everyone just starting out should take short sessions(做某事的一段时间)at first to become accustomed to this type of bath. According to the fourth paragraph,sauna gives the skin a healthy glow because________.
[多选题]共用题干 Domestic ViolenceNearly three in 10 men have experienced violence at the hands of an intimate partner during their life- time,according________(51)one of the few studies to look at domestic violence and health among men."Many men actually do_________(52)domestic violence,although we don'thear about it often." Dr. Robert J.Reid of the University of Washington in Seattle,one of the study's authors,told Reuters Health."They often don't__________(53)and we don't ask.We want to get the message out to men who do experience domestic violence_________(54)they are not alone and there are resources available to them."The researchers asked study__________ (55)about physical abuse(人身伤害)and non-physical abuse, such as_________(56)that made them fear for their safety,controlling behavior,and constant name-calling.Among men 1 8 to 54 years old,14.2 percent said they had experienced intimate partner violence in the past five years,_______(57)6.1 percent reported domestic violence in the previous year.Rates were lower for men 55 and older,with 5.3 percent__________(58)violence in the past five years and 2.4 percent having experienced it in the past 12 months.__________(59),30.5 percent of men younger than 55 and 26.5 percent of older men said they had been__________(60)of domestic violence at some point in their lives.About half of the_________(61)the men experienced was physical.However,the physical violence men reported wasn't as harsh as that_________(62)by women in a previous study,20 percent to 40 percent of the men rated__________(63)as severe,compared with 61 per- cent of women.Men who reported experiencing domestic violence had more emotional and mental health__________(64) than those who had not,_______(65)older men,the researchers found. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 Are You Getting Enough Sleep?What happens if you don't get enough sleep? Randy Gardner,a high school student in the United States,wanted to find out. He designed an experiment on the effects of sleeplessness for a school science project. With doctors watching him carefully,Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours and 12 minutes.That's eleven days and nights without sleep!What effect did sleeplessness have on Gardner? After 24 hours without sleep,Gardner started havingtrouble reading and watching television. The words and pictures were too blurry(模糊).By the third day,he was having trouble doing things withhis hands. By the fourth day, Gardner was hallucinating(产生幻觉).For example,when he saw a street sign,he thought it was a person.He also imagined he was a famousfootball player. Over the next few days, Gardner's speech became so slurred(不清楚)that people couldn't understand him.He also had trouble remembering things.By the eleventh day, Gardner couldn't pass acounting test.In the middle of the test he simply stopped counting.He couldn't remember what hewas doing.When Gardner finally went to bed,he slept for 14 hours and 45 minutes.The second night he slept for twelve hours,the third night he slept for ten and one-half hours,and by the fourth night,he had returned tohis normal sleep schedule.Even though Gardner recovered quickly,scientists believe that going without sleep can be dangerous. They say that people should not repeat Randy's experiment. Tests on white rats have shown how serious sleeplessness can be. After a few weeks without sleep, the rats started losing their fur(皮毛).And even though the rats ate more food than usual,they lost weight.Eventually the rats died.During your lifetime,you will probably spend 25 years or more sleeping.But why?What is the purpose of sleep? Surprisingly,scientists don't know for sure.Some scientists think we sleep in order to replenish(补充)brain cells. Other scientists think that sleep helps the body to grow and to relieve stress. Whatever the reason,we know that it is important to get enough sleep. It took four days for Gardner to recover from the effects of the experiment.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Genetic EngineeringGenetic engineering began when the DNA molecule(分子),the most basic unit of life , was first described in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick.An understanding of DNA led to the altering of normal cell reproduction.Experiments with altering human cells began in 1970.In one of the first experiments,patients were injected with a virus that would produce a life-saving enzyme,but their bodies would not accept it.In 1980 patients with a rare but fatal blood disease were injected with a purified gene that was cloned through DNA technology.Another failure.Genetic engineering got a legal boost(激励)in 1980. The U. S. Supreme Court said that a patent couldbe granted on a genetically engineered "oil-eating" bacterium(细菌).This bacterium would help clean up oil spills.The ruling encouraged companies to invent new life forms,and three important medical products were quickly developed.1.Human interferon(干扰素)—a possible solution to some cancers and viral diseases.A newly engineered bacterium produced human interferon as a by-product. This new product reduced the cost of interferon.2. Human growth hormone(荷尔蒙)一for children whose bodies do not grow to normal height. An expensive growth hormone was previously produced from human cadavers,but by changing the genetic make- up of the single-cell bacterium E.coli,and affordable growth hormone could be produced.3. Human insulin(胰岛素)一for the treatment of diabetes. People with diabetes used to rely on a beef- or-pork-based product until 1982.Now insulin can be manufactured by genetically altered bacteria.Advances in genetic engineering have continued,though they constantly must be weighed against the safety of procedures.There is clearly much more to discover. This passage is mainly about_________.
[多选题]共用题干 As many as 20% of all children in the United States suffer from some form of the learning disorder called dyslexia.Experts on dyslexia say that the problem is not a disease.They say that persons with dyslexia use information in a different way.One of the world's great thinkers and scientists,Albert Einstein was dyslexic.Einstein said that he never thought in words the way that most people do.He said that he thought in pictures instead.The American inventor Thomas Edison was also dyslexic.Dyslexia first was recognized in Europe and the United States more than 80 years ago.Many years passed before doctors discovered that persons with the disorder were not mentally slow or disabled.The doctors found that the brains of persons with dyslexia are different.In most people,the left side of the brain一 the part that controls language is larger than the right side.In persons with dyslexia,the right side of the brain is bigger. Doctors are not sure what causes this difference.However,research has shown that dyslexia is more common in males than in females,and it is found more often in persons who are left handed.No one knows the cause of dyslexia,but some scientists believe that it may result from chemical changes in a baby's body long before it is born.They are trying to find ways to teach persons with dyslexia. Dyslexic persons think differently and need special kinds of teaching help.After they have solved their problems with language,they often show themselves to be especially intelligent or creative. It is believed that dyslexia is related to the bad habits of a baby's mother.
[多选题]共用题干 Music Used As a Healing Therapy1 Music has long been used to treat patients suffering from different problems.In 400 BC,its healingproperties were documented by the ancient Greeks.More recently,in both world wars in the last century, medical workers used music therapy(疗法)with people suffering from trauma(外伤).Currently, it is used as a treatment for many diseases,such as cancer,and it has also been used with patients with long-term painand learning disabilities.2 There is growing evidence that music can cause physical changes to the body which can improve our health.In the Welcome Trust study,which took place over three years at the Chelsea and Westminster hospital in London,patients were asked to listen to musical performances.As a result,it was found that stress levels were significantly reduced,recovery times were improved,and fewer drugs were needed.3 These very positive results are partly due to general well-being(良好的健康状况).It is already accepted that when people feel happy and have a positive approach to life,they are more likely to feel better and recover from disease quickly.Music increases this feeling of joy and adds to the recovery process.4 However,not all these benefits can be attributed to an increase in general well-being.Music has other effects which have not yet been understood. According to Professor Robertson,a scientist and musician, some effects of music are mysterious and are,therefore,being investigated further. It has been suggested that the sounds and rhythms of music help stimulate the brain and send electrical messages to the muscles.5 Science,however,demands facts and hard evidence.Many in the medical profession have not yet recognized the healing benefits of music,since reports have been based mainly on various stories of evi- dence.These new studies could provide proof to doctors that music is a suitable treatment for many condi-tions. One day doctors may even"prescribe"(开处方)music,but that could be a long time in the future. Researchers have found that patients' stress levels decrease when they_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Baseline Exam Is Key to Eye HealthEven people with no signs or risk factors for eye disease can suffer vision loss and need to get baseline(基线)eye exams at age 40,says the American Academy of Ophthalmology(AAO)(美国眼科学会).The reminder(提示)is part of the AAO's EyeSmart campaign to mark Save Your Vision Month in February.“Many eye diseases progress without any warning signs,”Dr. Stephanie Marioneaux,a clin-ical correspondent for the AAO,said in a prepared statement.“Gradual changes in vision can af-fect your ability to function independently and have confidence in your abilities.”Based on the findings from the initial screening,an eye doctor will create a schedule for follow-up eye exams.People of any age who have symptoms of eye disease or are at high risk due to family history, diabetes(糖尿病)or high blood pressure should consult with their eye doctor to determine how often they should have their eyes checked,the AAO recommends .By 2020,43 million Americans will be at significant risk for vision loss or blindness due to age-related eye diseases such as cata-racts(白内障)and glaucoma(青光眼). That's a more than 50 percent increase over the current number of Americans with such vision-threatening diseases.But many Americans are unconcerned about the risk of vision loss.Only 23 percent of Amer- icans are very concerned about losing their vision,while most feel weight gain or joint or back pain are greater worries than vision loss,according to an AAO survey conducted for its EyeSmart campaign. Only the old men with diabetes or high blood pressure should consult with eye doctor.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Sino-Japan Animosity(敌意)LessensChinese and Japanese people view each other slightly more positively than last year,according to a survey released on Wednesday at a press conference in Beijing.The survey is jointly sponsored by China Daily and Genron NPO(非营利性的组织),a Japanese think tank similar to the American Council on Foreign Relations.It also found an overwhelming agreement in both countries that Sino-Japanese relations were important.The survey is a part of the Beijing-Tokyo Forum,an annual gathering of senior government officials and representatives from Chinese and Japanese NGOs(非政府组织)designed to improve communication and understanding between the Iwo countries.Conducted every year for five years now,the survey focused on two different groups of people:ordinary citizens,and intellectuals.In China,the intellectual group was comprised mainly of university students from well-known schools like Peking University.In Japan,the intellectual group was mainly made up of previous members of Genron NPO.Among ordinary Chinese polled,35.7 percent said they have"very good"or"relatively good" impressions of Japan,a 5.5-percentage-point increase compared with last year. 45.2 percent of Chinese students had a positive impression of Japan,two percentage points more than last year. Only 26.6 percent of Japanese have a positive impression of China,however.Still,an overwhelming majority of the respondents from each country said Sino-Japanese relations were "important"and wanted their leaders to deepen talks and cooperation with each other.But 51.9 percent of ordinary people and 42.4 percent of students in China said they saw no change in relations between the two countries over the last year. In Japan,64.8 percent of those ordinary people and 53.4 percent of intellectuals surveyed shared the view that there was no improvement in bilateral ties thisyear.Historical issues and territorial disputes remain two major obstacles to improving bilateral relations,the survey found.What concerns the Chinese most are historical issues:visits by Japanese officials to YasukuniShrine(靖国神社),and the Nanjing Massacre(大屠杀).Perceptions on economic and trade relations have improved,though.About 47 percent of ordinary Japanese said China had been"helpful"this year in fighting the global economic crisis,compared with just 30 percent last year. The percent of Japanese intellectuals who said Chinese economic growth was good for Japan increased from 65.8 percent to 81.4 percent this year.Cooperation in East Asia issues,trade and investment,energy,the environment and climate change top the list of common concerns that people in China and Japan want their leaders to talk about in bilateral meetings,the survey found.Civil exchanges were regarded by most people from both countries as an important way to improve relations.90. 7 percent of the students and 85.7 percent of the ordinary people in China and 95.8% of intellectuals and 74.8% of the ordinary people in Japan viewed civil exchanges as"important"or"relatively important".Chinese and Japanese both learn about each other's country mostly through television news and newspapers,the survey found. In the last year,_______% of ordinary Chinese and_________% of Chinese students had a positive impression of Japan.
[多选题]共用题干 Organ Donation and Transplantation1 Organ donation(捐献)and transplantation(移植)refers to the process by which organs or tissuesfrom one person are put into another person's body.2 The number of people needing a transplant continues to rise faster than the number of donors.About 3,700 transplant candidates are added to the national waiting list each month.Each day,about 77 people receive organ transplants.However,18 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.3 There are rio age limits on who can donate.Newborns as well as senior citizens have been organ donors. If you are under age 18 , you must have a parent's or guardian's consent(同意).If you are 18 years or older,you can show you want to be an organ and tissue donor by signing a donor card.4 Many people think that if they agree to donate their organs,the doctor or the emergency room staff won't work as hard to save their life.This is not true.The transplant team is completely separate from the medical staff working to save your life.The transplant team does not become involved with you until doctors have determined that all possible efforts to save your life have failed.5 If you need an organ transplant,your doctor will help you get on the national waiting list.Your name will be added to a pool of names.When an organ donor becomes available,all the patients in the pool are compared to that donor. Factors such as blood and tissue type, size of the organ, medical urgency(紧急)of the patient's illness , time already spent on the waiting list, and distance between donor and recipient(接受 者)are considered. Paragraph 2_________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇As we have seen,the focus of medical care in our society has been shifting from curing disease to preventing disease一especially in terms of changing our many unhealthy behaviors,such as poor eating habits,smoking,and failure to exercise.The line of thought involved in this shift can be pursued further. Imagine a person who is about the right weight , but does not eat very nutritious(有营养的)foods , who feels OK but exercises only occasionally , who goes to work every day , but is not an outstanding worker,who drinks a few beers at home most nights but does not drive while drunk, and who has no chest pains or abnormal blood counts,but sleeps a lot and often feels tired.This person is not ill.He may not even be at risk for any particular disease.But we can imagine that this person could be a lot healthier.The field of medicine has not traditionally distinguished between someone who is merely "not ill" and someone who is in excellent health and pays attention to the body's special needs.Both types have simply been called "well".In recent years,however,some health specialists have begun to apply the terms "well" and "weilness" only to those who are actively striving to maintain and improve their body's condition.Most importantly,perhaps,people who are well take active responsibility for all matters related to their health.Even people who have a physical disease or handicap(缺陷)may be "well" ,in this new sense,if they make an effort to maintain the best possible health they can in the face of their physical limitations."Wellness" may perhaps best be viewed not as a state that people can achieve,but as an ideal that people can strive for. People who are well are likely to be better able to resist disease and to fight disease when it strikes.And by focusing attention on healthy ways of living,the concept of weilness can have a beneficial impact on the way in which people face the challenges of daily life. What is the author's purpose in writing this article?
[多选题]共用题干 The Meaning of Dreams1 Dreams play an important role in our lives.If they can be correctly interpreted,we can come to understand ourselves better. Here,we look at four common dreams and what they potentially symbolize.2 I can see their laughing faces…laughing at me. But they aren't as smart. If they were,they'd be up here flying with me!This dream has both positive and negative connotations(涵义).On the positive side,the dream may express a strong desire to travel and get away from everyday routine.It can also be interpreted as a powerful desire to achieve.On the other hand,this dream can mean the person has a problem or is afraid of something and they wish to escape. The dream could represent an inferiority complex(自卑情 结),which the dreamer attempts to escape from by putting themselves up above others.3 I'm moving fast now,but it's still behind me. Doesn't matter how fast I go,I still can't escape. Although this is a traditional symbol of health and vitality(生命力)like the first one,it can also suggest the dreamer is trying to escape from danger. Usually,fear is the dominant emotion.By running hard,the dreamer can possibly escape the threat. However,they can also stumble(瞒珊)or worse still stop moving altogether. This makes the fear even more terrifying(恐怖的).One possible interpretation suggests that the person is under pressure in their everyday life.4 I'm sweating and my heart is beating. I'm trapped in my own bed. In this dream,the person is often standing on a high,exposed place such as on the top of a tower,or on the edge of a cliff. The overwhelming(强烈的)feeling changes from anxiety to a loss of control. There is nothing to stop the person, and the feeling as they go over the edge can be horrifyingly(恐怖地)real. Fortunately,just before hittingtheground,the dreamer awakens with a sense of enormous relief. This dream suggests that the dreamer is afraid of losing control and has a fear of failure or even death.5 The wind is pushing me and I slip. There's nothing I can do…nothing I can hold on to. This symbol is associated with fear:suddenly the dreamer loses all power of movement. They try hard to move their arms and legs,but they simply cannot.Frozen in a terrifying situation with no escape,they become more and more terrified as the seconds go by.Another frequent context for this dream is failing to do something in public,often something which you are normally very good at,such as your job.Not only is this extremely embarrassing,but it also shows a deep-seated phobia(恐惧)of losing a job and a livelihood. Paragraph 5_________
[多选题]共用题干 Some Unusual CelebrationsSome holidays are well-known all around the world.Among them are New Year's Eve celebrations.Also common are days in honor of love and friendship,like Valentine's Day.Each country has its own special holidays,too,often to mark important events in its history.Schools,banks,and government offices all close on days like these.________(46)A few of them are really very strange.Of course,they are not strange to the people who celebrate them.Perhaps that is because the celebrations have long traditions.Consider April Fool's Day,for example.No one knows when or why it began.Today it is celebrated in many countries一France,England,and Australia,among others.On this day, people play practical jokes._________(47)The ones who laugh are the ones playing the jokes.The people they fool often get angry.Does celebrating this day make sense to you?Dyngus Day in Poland seems strange,too.On this day,it is traditional for boys to pour water over theheads of girls.Here is the strangest part:They do it to girls they like.Other unusual celebrations take place in a single city or town.A holiday called La Tomatina is celebrated in Bunol,Spain.Every year,in late August,big trucks carry more than 200.000 pounds of tomatoes into this little town._________(48)For two hours,people in the streets throw tomatoes at each other. Everyone ends up red from head to toe.August 10 marks the start of the Puck Fair,an Irish festival with a very unusual tradition.People from the town of Killorglin go up into the mountains and catch a wild goat.__________(49)There are also some celebrations that are really strange.In the United States,sometimes one person gets an idea for a new holiday and tries to get others to accept it.Whose idea was Public Sleeping Day? That one is on February 28.It may seem strange,but it sounds like more fun than the one on February 9._________(50)Do you like the idea of inventing a new holiday?If you do,then you will want to mark March 26 on your calendar. That is Make Up Your Own Holiday Day. __________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 The Meaning of Dreams1 Dreams play an important role in our lives.If they can be correctly interpreted,we can come to understand ourselves better. Here,we look at four common dreams and what they potentially symbolize.2 I can see their laughing faces…laughing at me. But they aren't as smart. If they were,they'd be up here flying with me!This dream has both positive and negative connotations(涵义).On the positive side,the dream may express a strong desire to travel and get away from everyday routine.It can also be interpreted as a powerful desire to achieve.On the other hand,this dream can mean the person has a problem or is afraid of something and they wish to escape. The dream could represent an inferiority complex(自卑情 结),which the dreamer attempts to escape from by putting themselves up above others.3 I'm moving fast now,but it's still behind me. Doesn't matter how fast I go,I still can't escape. Although this is a traditional symbol of health and vitality(生命力)like the first one,it can also suggest the dreamer is trying to escape from danger. Usually,fear is the dominant emotion.By running hard,the dreamer can possibly escape the threat. However,they can also stumble(瞒珊)or worse still stop moving altogether. This makes the fear even more terrifying(恐怖的).One possible interpretation suggests that the person is under pressure in their everyday life.4 I'm sweating and my heart is beating. I'm trapped in my own bed. In this dream,the person is often standing on a high,exposed place such as on the top of a tower,or on the edge of a cliff. The overwhelming(强烈的)feeling changes from anxiety to a loss of control. There is nothing to stop the person, and the feeling as they go over the edge can be horrifyingly(恐怖地)real. Fortunately,just before hittingtheground,the dreamer awakens with a sense of enormous relief. This dream suggests that the dreamer is afraid of losing control and has a fear of failure or even death.5 The wind is pushing me and I slip. There's nothing I can do…nothing I can hold on to. This symbol is associated with fear:suddenly the dreamer loses all power of movement. They try hard to move their arms and legs,but they simply cannot.Frozen in a terrifying situation with no escape,they become more and more terrified as the seconds go by.Another frequent context for this dream is failing to do something in public,often something which you are normally very good at,such as your job.Not only is this extremely embarrassing,but it also shows a deep-seated phobia(恐惧)of losing a job and a livelihood. If a person dreams of being chased by others,he may__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇As we have seen,the focus of medical care in our society has been shifting from curing disease to preventing disease一especially in terms of changing our many unhealthy behaviors,such as poor eating habits,smoking,and failure to exercise.The line of thought involved in this shift can be pursued further. Imagine a person who is about the right weight , but does not eat very nutritious(有营养的)foods , who feels OK but exercises only occasionally , who goes to work every day , but is not an outstanding worker,who drinks a few beers at home most nights but does not drive while drunk, and who has no chest pains or abnormal blood counts,but sleeps a lot and often feels tired.This person is not ill.He may not even be at risk for any particular disease.But we can imagine that this person could be a lot healthier.The field of medicine has not traditionally distinguished between someone who is merely "not ill" and someone who is in excellent health and pays attention to the body's special needs.Both types have simply been called "well".In recent years,however,some health specialists have begun to apply the terms "well" and "weilness" only to those who are actively striving to maintain and improve their body's condition.Most importantly,perhaps,people who are well take active responsibility for all matters related to their health.Even people who have a physical disease or handicap(缺陷)may be "well" ,in this new sense,if they make an effort to maintain the best possible health they can in the face of their physical limitations."Wellness" may perhaps best be viewed not as a state that people can achieve,but as an ideal that people can strive for. People who are well are likely to be better able to resist disease and to fight disease when it strikes.And by focusing attention on healthy ways of living,the concept of weilness can have a beneficial impact on the way in which people face the challenges of daily life. The first paragraph implies that_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The United States perceives itself to be a middle-class nation.However,middle class is not a real designation(称号),nor does it carry privileges. It is more of a perception,which probably was as true as it ever could be right after World War Ⅱ.The economy was growing,more and more people owned their own homes,workers had solid contracts with the companies that employed them,and nearly everyone who wanted a higher education could have one.Successful people enjoyed upward social mobility.They may have started out poor,but they could become rich.Successful people also found that they had greater geographic mobility.In other words,they found themselves moving to and living in a variety of places.The middle class collectively holds several values and principles.One strong value is the need to earn enough money to feel that one can determine one's own economic fate.In addition,middle class morality embraces principles of individual responsibility,importance of family,obligations to others,and believing in something outside oneself.But in the l990s those in the middle class found that there was a price for success.A US News &World Report survey in 1994 indicated that 75 percent of Americans believed that middle class families could no longer make ends meet. Both spouses now worked,as did some of the children; long commutes became routine;the need for child care put strains on(给······带来压力)the family;and public schools were not as good as they once were.Members of the middle class were no longer financing their lifestyles through earnings but were using credit to stay afloat. The understanding of just what middle class meant was changing. The word "collectively" means__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Men Too May Suffer From Domestic Violence Nearly three in 10 men have experienced violence at the hands of an intimate partner during their lifetimes,according to one of the few studies to look_______(51)domestic violence and health among men. “Many men actually do experience domestic violence,although we don't hear about it _______(52),”Dr. Robert J.Reid of the University of Washington in Seattle,one of the study's authors,told Reuters Health.“They often don't tell_______(53)we don't ask.We want to get the message out to men who_______(54)experience domestic violence that they are not alone and there are resources available to ______(55).” The researchers asked study participants about physical abuse and non-physical_______ (56)such as threats that made them_______(57)for their safety,controlling behavior(for ex-ample,being told who they could associate with and where they could go),and constant name-calling. Among men 18 to 54 years old,14.2 percent said they had experienced intimate partner _______(58)in the past five years,while 6 .1 percent reported domestic violence in the previ-ous year. Rates were lower for men 55 and_______(59),with 5 .3 percent reporting violence in the past five years and 2 .4 percent having experienced it in the past 12 months. Overall,30 .5 percent of men younger than 55 and 26 .5 percent of older men said they had been victims of_______(60)violence at some point in their lives.About half of the violence the men_______(61)was physical. However,the physical violence men reported wasn't as harsh as_______(62)suffered by, women in a previous study; 20 percent to 40 percent of the men rated it as severe,compared to 61 percent of______(63). Men who reported experiencing domestic violence had more emotional and mental health problems_______(64)those who had not,especially older men,the_______(65)found. 63._________
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The World' s Best-Selling MedicineSince ancient times,people all over the world have used willow to stop pain.The willow tree contains salicylic acid(水杨酸).This stops pain,but there is one problem. Salicylic acid also hurts the stomach. In 1853,a French scientist made a mixture from willow that did not hurt the stomach.However,his mixture was difficult to make,and he did not try to produce or sell it.In 1897,in Germany,Felix Hoffmann also made a mixture with salicylic acid.He tried it himself first and then gave it to his father because his father was old and in a lot of pain.His father's pain went away, and the mixture did not hurt his stomach.Hoffmann worked for Bayer,a German company.He showed his new drug to his manager,who tested the drug and found that it worked well,Bayer decided to make the drug.They called it aspirin and put theBayer name on every pill.Aspirin was an immediate success.Almost everyone has pain of some kind,so aspirin answered a true need.Aspirin was cheap,easy to take,and effective.It also lowered fevers.Aspirin was a wonder drug.At first,Bayer sold the drug through doctors,who then sold it to their patients.In 1915,the company started to sell aspirin in drugstores. In the United States, Bayer had a patent(专利权)on the drug. Other companies could make similar products and sell them in other countries,but only Bayer could make and sell aspirin in the United States.In time, Bayer could no longer own the name aspirin in the United States. Other companies could make it there,too. However,Bayer aspirin was the most well known,and for many years,it was the market leader.By the 1950s, new painkillers were on the market.Aspirin was no longer the only way to treat pain and reduce fever. Bayer and other companies looked for other drugs to make.However,in the 1970s they got a surprise.Doctors noticed that patients who were taking aspirin had fewer heart attacks than other people.A British researcher named John Vane found the reason aspirin helped to prevent heart attacks. In 1982,he won the Nobel Prize for his research.Doctors started to tell some of their patients to take aspirin every day to prevent heart attacks.It has made life better for the many people who take it.It has also made a lot of money for companies like Bayer that produce and sell it! What has happened to aspirin since new painkillers came on the market?
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Judging from recent surveys,most experts in sleep behavior agree that it is virtually an epidemic of sleepiness in the nation."I can't think of a single study that hasn't found Americans getting less sleep than they ought to,"says Dr. David.Even people who think they are sleeping enough would probably be better off with more rest.The beginning of our sleep-deficit crisis can be traced to the invention of the light bulb a century ago.From diary entries and other personal accounts from the 18th and 19th centuries,sleep scientists have reached the conclusion that the average person used to sleep about 9.5 hours a night. "The best sleep habits once were forced on us,when we had nothing to do in the evening down on the farm,and it was dark." By the 1950s and 1960s,that sleep schedule had been reduced dramatically,to between 7.5 and 8 hours,and most people had to wake to an alarm clock."People cheat on their sleep,and they don't even realize they're doing it,"says Dr. David."They think they're okay because they can get by on 6.5 hours,when they really need 7.5,8 or even more to feel ideally vigorous.""Perhaps the most merciless robber of sleep,"researchers say,"is the complexity of the day." Whenever pressures from work,family,friends and community mount,many people consider sleep the least expensive item on his program."In our society,you're considered dynamic if you say you only need 5.5 hours' sleep.If you've got to get 8.5 hours,people think you lack drive and ambition."To determine the consequences of sleep deficit,researchers have put subjects through a set of psychological and performance tests requiring them,for instance,to add columns of numbers or recall a page read to them only minutes earlier."We've found that if you're in sleep deficit,performance suffers,"says Dr. David."Short-term memory is weakened,as are abilities to make decision and to concentrate." According to Dr. David,Americans___________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The World' s Best-Selling MedicineSince ancient times,people all over the world have used willow to stop pain.The willow tree contains salicylic acid(水杨酸).This stops pain,but there is one problem. Salicylic acid also hurts the stomach. In 1853,a French scientist made a mixture from willow that did not hurt the stomach.However,his mixture was difficult to make,and he did not try to produce or sell it.In 1897,in Germany,Felix Hoffmann also made a mixture with salicylic acid.He tried it himself first and then gave it to his father because his father was old and in a lot of pain.His father's pain went away, and the mixture did not hurt his stomach.Hoffmann worked for Bayer,a German company.He showed his new drug to his manager,who tested the drug and found that it worked well,Bayer decided to make the drug.They called it aspirin and put theBayer name on every pill.Aspirin was an immediate success.Almost everyone has pain of some kind,so aspirin answered a true need.Aspirin was cheap,easy to take,and effective.It also lowered fevers.Aspirin was a wonder drug.At first,Bayer sold the drug through doctors,who then sold it to their patients.In 1915,the company started to sell aspirin in drugstores. In the United States, Bayer had a patent(专利权)on the drug. Other companies could make similar products and sell them in other countries,but only Bayer could make and sell aspirin in the United States.In time, Bayer could no longer own the name aspirin in the United States. Other companies could make it there,too. However,Bayer aspirin was the most well known,and for many years,it was the market leader.By the 1950s, new painkillers were on the market.Aspirin was no longer the only way to treat pain and reduce fever. Bayer and other companies looked for other drugs to make.However,in the 1970s they got a surprise.Doctors noticed that patients who were taking aspirin had fewer heart attacks than other people.A British researcher named John Vane found the reason aspirin helped to prevent heart attacks. In 1982,he won the Nobel Prize for his research.Doctors started to tell some of their patients to take aspirin every day to prevent heart attacks.It has made life better for the many people who take it.It has also made a lot of money for companies like Bayer that produce and sell it! Why was Felix Hoffmann looking for a painkiller?
[多选题]共用题干 Exercise Cuts Cancer Deaths in MenMen who exercise often are less likely to die from cancer than those who_____(51),new research published in the British Journal of Cancer revealed yesterday.A team of scientists from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden looked_______(52)the effect of physical activity and cancer risk in 40,708 men aged________(53)45 and 79._________(79.)The seven-year study found that men_________(54)walked or cycled for at least 30 minutes a day had a 34 per cent lower_________(55)of dying from cancer than the men who did less exercise or nothing at all. __________(56)the period studied,3,714 men developed cancer and 1,153 died from the disease.The researchers suggest that half an hour's walking_________(57)cycling a day increased survival among these men by 33 per cent.The researchers surveyed men from two countries in central Sweden about their lifestyle and the amount of________(58)activity they were usually doing.They then scored these responses and compared the results with data on cancer diagnosis and death officially recorded in a central cancer registry(登记簿)over a seven-year_________(59).Lead author,Professor Alicja Wolk,said,"These results clearly show for the first time the effect that very simple and basic daily_______(60)such as walking or cycling has in reducing cancer death risk in middle-aged and elderly________(61)."Dr Lesley Walker,director of cancer information at Cancer Research UK,said,"This study gives us a clear indication that men who exercise are less_________(62)to die from cancer,and that they are more likely to________(63)the disease if they get it. It's not entirely clear from this study what role exercise plays in preventing________(64)in men,but we do know that a healthy lifestyle can prevent up to half of all cancers—and_______(65)exercise forms a key part of this." _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 Stage FrightFall down as you come onstage .That's an odd trick.Not recommended.But it saved the pi- anist Vladimir Felts man when he was a teenager back in Moscow.The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance panic,Mr. Felts man said, “All my fright was_______(51).I already fell.What else could happen?”Today,music schools are addressing the problem of anxiety in classes that_______(52) with performance techniques and career preparation.There are a variety of strategies that musici-ans can learn to_______(53)stage fright and its symptoms:icy fingers,shaky limbs,racing heart,blank mind.Teachers and psychologists offer wide-ranging advice,from basics like learning pieces inside out,_______(54)mental discipline,such as visualizing a performance and taking steps to re- lax .Don't_______(55)that you're jittery,they urge;some excitement is natural,even necessa-ry for dynamic playing. And play in public often,simply for the experience.Psychotherapist Diane Nichols suggests some_______(56)for the moments before perform-ance,“Take two deep abdominal breaths,open up your shoulders,then smile,”she says.“And not one of these‘please don't kill me'smiles.Then_______(57)three friendly faces in the au-dience,people you would communicate with and make music to,and make eye contact with them.”She doesn't want performers to think of the audience_______(58)a judge.Extreme demands by mentors or parents are often at the_______(59)of stage fright,says Dorothy Delay,a well-known violin teacher. She tells other teachers to demand only what their students are able to achieve.When Lynn Harrell was 20,he became the principal cellist of the Cleveland Orchestra,and he suffered extreme stage fright.“There were times when I got so_______(60)I was sure the audience could see my chest responding to the throbbing. It was just total panic.I came to a _______(61)where I thought,If I have to go through this to play music,I think I'm going to look for another job.” Recovery,he said,involved developing humility-recognizing that _______(62)his talent,he was fallible,and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster.It is not only young artists who suffer,of course.The legendary pianist Vladimir Horowitz's nerves were famous.The great tenor Franco Corelli is another example.“They had to push him on stage,”Soprano Renata Scotto recalled._______(63),success can make things worse.“In the beginning of your career,when you're scared to death,nobody knows who you are,and they don't have any_______(64),”So-prano June Anderson said.“There's_______(65)to lose .Later on,when you're known,peo- ple are coming to see you,and they have certain expectations.You have a lot to lose.”Anderson added,“I never stop being nervous until I've sung my last note.” 57._________
[多选题]共用题干 Hospital MistreatmentAccording to a study,most medical interns report experiencing mistreatment,including hu-miliation by senior doctors,______(51)threatened,or physical abuse in their first year out of medical school.The findings come from analysis of the______(52)a 13-page survey mailed in January 1991 to 1,733 second-year residents.The survey and______(53)appear in the April 15th is-sue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.Overall,out of the 1,277 residents______(54)completed surveys,1,185 said that they had experienced at least one incident of mistreatment in their intern year.______(55)reporting incidents where they were abused,more than 45%of the residents said they had witnessed at least one incident where other persons______(56)false medical records.Moreover,nearly three quarters of the residents said they had witnessed mistreatment of patients by other residents, attending physicians,or nurses. Almost 40% said patient mistreatment was a frequent______(57).More than 10%of the residents said they were______(58)to have enough sleep,and the average number of hours______(59)sleep was 37 .6 .The average on-call time during a______(60)week was 56 .9 hours,but about 25%of the residents said their on-call assign-ments were more than 80 hours some weeks.______(61)30%of the residents said they experienced some type of sexual harassment or discrimination,verbal abuse was the most common problem cited.When abusive incidents were limited to events occurring three or more times,53% of the respondents reported that they ______(62)belittled or humiliated by more senior residents,while just over 21% reported someone taking credit for their work .Being"______(63)tasks for punishment," "being pushed,kicked or hit,"and______(64)someone"threatening your reputation or career," were reported as a more______(65)occurrence by over 10%of the responding residents. 59._________
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇In the early days of the United States,postal charges were paid by the recipient and charges varied with the distance carried.In 1825,the United States Congress permitted local postmasters to give letters to mail carriers for home delivery,but these carriers received no government salary and their entire compensation depended on what they were paid by the recipients of individual letters.In 1847,the United States Post Office Department adopted the idea of a postage stamp,which of course simplified the payment for postal service but caused grumbling by those who did not like to prepay.Besides,the stamp covered only delivery to the post office and did not include carrying it to a private address.In Philadelphia,for example,with a population of 150,000,people still had to go to the post office to get their mail.The confusion and congestion of individual citizens looking for their letters was itself enough to discourage use of the mail.It is no wonder that,during the years of these cumbersome arrangements,private letter-carrying and express businesses developed.Although their activities were only semi-legal,they thrived and actually advertised that between Boston and Philadelphia they were half-day speedier than the government mail.The government postal service lost volume to private competition and was not able to handle efficiently even the business it had. Finally,in 1863,Congress provided that the mail carriers who delivered the mail from the post offices to private addresses should receive a government salary,and that there should be no extra charge for that delivery.But this delivery service was at first confined to cities,and free home delivery became a sign of urbanization.In 1890,of the 75 million people in the United States,fewer than 20 million had mail delivered free to their doors.The rest,nearly three quarters of the population,still received no mail unless they went to their post office. Which of the following was a disadvantage of the postage stamp?
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The United States perceives itself to be a middle-class nation.However,middle class is not a real designation(称号),nor does it carry privileges. It is more of a perception,which probably was as true as it ever could be right after World War Ⅱ.The economy was growing,more and more people owned their own homes,workers had solid contracts with the companies that employed them,and nearly everyone who wanted a higher education could have one.Successful people enjoyed upward social mobility.They may have started out poor,but they could become rich.Successful people also found that they had greater geographic mobility.In other words,they found themselves moving to and living in a variety of places.The middle class collectively holds several values and principles.One strong value is the need to earn enough money to feel that one can determine one's own economic fate.In addition,middle class morality embraces principles of individual responsibility,importance of family,obligations to others,and believing in something outside oneself.But in the l990s those in the middle class found that there was a price for success.A US News &World Report survey in 1994 indicated that 75 percent of Americans believed that middle class families could no longer make ends meet. Both spouses now worked,as did some of the children; long commutes became routine;the need for child care put strains on(给······带来压力)the family;and public schools were not as good as they once were.Members of the middle class were no longer financing their lifestyles through earnings but were using credit to stay afloat. The understanding of just what middle class meant was changing. A common middle class value is that_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Some Unusual CelebrationsSome holidays are well-known all around the world.Among them are New Year's Eve celebrations.Also common are days in honor of love and friendship,like Valentine's Day.Each country has its own special holidays,too,often to mark important events in its history.Schools,banks,and government offices all close on days like these.________(46)A few of them are really very strange.Of course,they are not strange to the people who celebrate them.Perhaps that is because the celebrations have long traditions.Consider April Fool's Day,for example.No one knows when or why it began.Today it is celebrated in many countries一France,England,and Australia,among others.On this day, people play practical jokes._________(47)The ones who laugh are the ones playing the jokes.The people they fool often get angry.Does celebrating this day make sense to you?Dyngus Day in Poland seems strange,too.On this day,it is traditional for boys to pour water over theheads of girls.Here is the strangest part:They do it to girls they like.Other unusual celebrations take place in a single city or town.A holiday called La Tomatina is celebrated in Bunol,Spain.Every year,in late August,big trucks carry more than 200.000 pounds of tomatoes into this little town._________(48)For two hours,people in the streets throw tomatoes at each other. Everyone ends up red from head to toe.August 10 marks the start of the Puck Fair,an Irish festival with a very unusual tradition.People from the town of Killorglin go up into the mountains and catch a wild goat.__________(49)There are also some celebrations that are really strange.In the United States,sometimes one person gets an idea for a new holiday and tries to get others to accept it.Whose idea was Public Sleeping Day? That one is on February 28.It may seem strange,but it sounds like more fun than the one on February 9._________(50)Do you like the idea of inventing a new holiday?If you do,then you will want to mark March 26 on your calendar. That is Make Up Your Own Holiday Day. __________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 Influenza(流感)Influenza has been with us a long time.According to some Greek writers_________(51)medical history, the outbreak of 412 B.C.was of influenza. The same has been suggested of the sickness_________(52)swept through the Greek army attacking Syracuse in 395 B.C.Influenza is a disease that moves most quickly among people living in_________(53)conditions,hence,it is likely to attack armies.__________(54)the nineteenth century there were five widespread outbreaks of influenza. The last of the five________(55)in 1889 and marked the beginning of the story of influenza in our time.________(56)the recent outbreak,it started in Asia.For more than forty years before that outbreak,influenza had steadily_______(57)and was believed to be dying out.A new group of outbreaks was_________(58)by the great outbreak of 1889-1890 and for the next quarter of a century influenza remained a constant threat.In April 1918 influenza broke out among American troops stationed in France.It quickly spread through all the___________(59)but caused relatively few deaths.Four months later,however,a second outbreak started which__________(60)to be a killer. It killed not only the old and already sick but also healthy young adults. It________(61)through every country in the world,only a few distant islands in the South Atlantic and the Pacific remaining_________(62).It brought the life of whole countries to stop,food_________(63)stopped and work loss was very great.Before the great outbreak ended,it had killed at_______(64)15 million people.Thereafter,there have been several great outbreaks throughout the world.It is thus__________(65) that influenza is a terrible infection that we have to pay more attention to. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 1. Do you know a child who survived leukemia(白血病)?Do you have a mother , sister or aunt whose breast cancer was found early thanks to a mammogram(乳腺X光照片)?Do you have a friend or coworker who quit smoking to reduce their risk of lung cancer? Each of these individuals benefited from the American Cancer Society's research program.2.Each day scientists supported by the American Cancer Society work to find breakthroughs that will take US one step closer to a cure.The American Cancer Society has long recognized that research holds the ultimate answers to the prevention,diagnosis and treatment of cancer.3.As the largest source of nonprofit cancer research funds in the United States,the American Cancer Society devotes over $100 million each year to research.Since 1946,they've invested more than $2. 4 billion in research. The investment has paid rich dividends(回报、效益).In 1946,only one in four cancer patients was alive five years after diagnosis;today 60 percent live longer than five years.4.Investigators and health professionals in universities,research institutes and hospitals throughout the country receive grants from the American Cancer Society.Of the more than 1,300 new applications received each year,only 11 percent can be funded.If the American Cancer Society had more money available for research funding,nearly 200 more applications considered outstanding could be funded each year.5.You can help fund more of these applications by participating in the American Cancer Society Relay(接力)for Life,a team event to fight cancer. More funding means more cancer breakthroughs and more lives being saved.To learn more,call Donna Hood,chair with the Neosho Relay for Life of the American Cancer Society at 451-4880. Paragraph 5_________