卫生C

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Sino-Japan Animosity(敌意)LessensChinese and Japanese people view each other slightly more positively than last year,according to a survey released on Wednesday at a press conference in Beijing.The survey is jointly sponsored by China Daily and Genron NPO(非营利性的组织),a Japanese think tank similar to the American Council on Foreign Relations.It also found an overwhelming agreement in both countries that Sino-Japanese relations were important.The survey is a part of the Beijing-Tokyo Forum,an annual gathering of senior government officials and representatives from Chinese and Japanese NGOs(非政府组织)designed to improve communication and understanding between the Iwo countries.Conducted every year for five years now,the survey focused on two different groups of people:ordinary citizens,and intellectuals.In China,the intellectual group was comprised mainly of university students from well-known schools like Peking University.In Japan,the intellectual group was mainly made up of previous members of Genron NPO.Among ordinary Chinese polled,35.7 percent said they have"very good"or"relatively good" impressions of Japan,a 5.5-percentage-point increase compared with last year. 45.2 percent of Chinese students had a positive impression of Japan,two percentage points more than last year. Only 26.6 percent of Japanese have a positive impression of China,however.Still,an overwhelming majority of the respondents from each country said Sino-Japanese relations were "important"and wanted their leaders to deepen talks and cooperation with each other.But 51.9 percent of ordinary people and 42.4 percent of students in China said they saw no change in relations between the two countries over the last year. In Japan,64.8 percent of those ordinary people and 53.4 percent of intellectuals surveyed shared the view that there was no improvement in bilateral ties thisyear.Historical issues and territorial disputes remain two major obstacles to improving bilateral relations,the survey found.What concerns the Chinese most are historical issues:visits by Japanese officials to YasukuniShrine(靖国神社),and the Nanjing Massacre(大屠杀).Perceptions on economic and trade relations have improved,though.About 47 percent of ordinary Japanese said China had been"helpful"this year in fighting the global economic crisis,compared with just 30 percent last year. The percent of Japanese intellectuals who said Chinese economic growth was good for Japan increased from 65.8 percent to 81.4 percent this year.Cooperation in East Asia issues,trade and investment,energy,the environment and climate change top the list of common concerns that people in China and Japan want their leaders to talk about in bilateral meetings,the survey found.Civil exchanges were regarded by most people from both countries as an important way to improve relations.90. 7 percent of the students and 85.7 percent of the ordinary people in China and 95.8% of intellectuals and 74.8% of the ordinary people in Japan viewed civil exchanges as"important"or"relatively important".Chinese and Japanese both learn about each other's country mostly through television news and newspapers,the survey found. According to the passage,the Beijing-Tokyo Forum________.
[多选题]共用题干 Men Too May Suffer From Domestic Violence Nearly three in 10 men have experienced violence at the hands of an intimate partner during their lifetimes,according to one of the few studies to look_______(51)domestic violence and health among men. “Many men actually do experience domestic violence,although we don't hear about it _______(52),”Dr. Robert J.Reid of the University of Washington in Seattle,one of the study's authors,told Reuters Health.“They often don't tell_______(53)we don't ask.We want to get the message out to men who_______(54)experience domestic violence that they are not alone and there are resources available to ______(55).” The researchers asked study participants about physical abuse and non-physical_______ (56)such as threats that made them_______(57)for their safety,controlling behavior(for ex-ample,being told who they could associate with and where they could go),and constant name-calling. Among men 18 to 54 years old,14.2 percent said they had experienced intimate partner _______(58)in the past five years,while 6 .1 percent reported domestic violence in the previ-ous year. Rates were lower for men 55 and_______(59),with 5 .3 percent reporting violence in the past five years and 2 .4 percent having experienced it in the past 12 months. Overall,30 .5 percent of men younger than 55 and 26 .5 percent of older men said they had been victims of_______(60)violence at some point in their lives.About half of the violence the men_______(61)was physical. However,the physical violence men reported wasn't as harsh as_______(62)suffered by, women in a previous study; 20 percent to 40 percent of the men rated it as severe,compared to 61 percent of______(63). Men who reported experiencing domestic violence had more emotional and mental health problems_______(64)those who had not,especially older men,the_______(65)found. 56._________
[多选题]共用题干 Most of us walk and carry items in our hands every day.These are seemingly simple activities that the majority of us don't question.But an international team of researchers,including Dr. Richmond from GW's Columbian College of Arts and Sciences,have discovered that human walking upright, may have originated millions of years ago as an adaptation to carrying scarce(稀有的),high-quality resources.The team of researchers from the U.S.,England,Japan and Portugal investigated the behavior of modern-day chimpanzees(黑猩猩)as they competed for food resources,in an effort to understand what ecological settings would lead a large ape(类人猿)一one that resembles the 6 million-year old ancestor we shared in common with living chimpanzees一to walk on two legs."These chimpanzees provide a model of the ecological conditions under which our earliest ancestors might have begun walking on two legs",said Dr. Richmond.The research findings suggest that chimpanzees switch to moving on two limbs instead of four in situations where they need to monopolize a resource.Standing on two legs allows them to carry much more at one time because it frees up their hands. Over time , intense bursts of bipedal(二足的)activity may have led to anatomical(解剖学的)changes that in turn became the subject of natural selection where competition for food or other resources was strong.Two studies were conducted by the team in Guinea. The first study was conducted by the team in Kyoto University's "outdoor laboratory" in a natural clearing in Bossou Forest. Researchers allowed the wild chimpanzees access to different combinations of two different types of nut一the oil palm nut,which is naturally widely available,and the coula nut,which is not.The chimpanzees' behavior was monitored in three situations:(a)when only oil palm nuts were available,(b)when a small number of coula nuts were available,and(c)when coula nuts were the majority available resource.When the rare coula nuts were available only in small numbers,the chimpanzees transported more at one time.Similarly,when coula nuts were the majority resource,the chimpanzees ignored the oil palm nuts altogether. The chimpanzees regarded the coula nuts as a more highly-prized resource and competed for them more intensely.In such high-competition settings,the frequency of cases in which the chimpanzees started moving on two legs increased by a factor of four. Not only was it obvious that bipedal movement allowed them to carry more of this precious resource,but also that they were actively trying to move as much as they could in one go by using everything available一even their mouths.The second study,by Kimberley Hockings of Oxford Brookes University,was a 14-month study of Bossou chimpanzees crop-raiding,a situation in which they have to compete for rare and unpredictable resources.Here,35 percent of the chimpanzees activity involved some sort of bipedal movement,and once again,this behavior appeared to be linked to a clear attempt to carry as much as possible at one time. Many people question the simple human activities of walking and carrying items.
[多选题]共用题干 BedwettingMillions of kids and teenagers from every part of the world wet the bed every single night,it's so common that there are probably other kids in your class who do it.Most kids don't______(51)their friends,so it's easy to feel kind of alone,like you might be the only one on the whole planet who wets the bed.But you are not______(52).The fancy______ (53)for bedwetting is nocturnal enuresis(夜间遗尿).Enuresis runs in families.This means that if you urinate(排尿),or pee, while you are______(54) ,there's a good______(55) that a close relative also did it when he or she was a kid.Just like you may have______(56)your mom's blue eyes or your uncle's long legs,you probably inherited bedwetting,too.The most important thing to remember is that no one______(57)the bed on purpose.It doesn't mean that you ' re______ ( 58 ) or a slob(懒汉).It ' s something you can ' t help______( 59 ).For some reason, kids who wet the bed are not able to feel that their bladder(膀胱)is full and don't______(60)up to pee in the toilet.Sometimes a kid who wets the bed will have a realistic______(61)that he is in the bathroom peeing-only to wake up later and discover he's all wet.Many kids who wet the bed are very______(62) sleepers.Trying to wake up someone who wets the bed is often like trying to wake a log-they just stay asleep.Some kids who wet the bed do it every single night.Others wet some nights and are______(63)on others.A lot of kids say that they seem to be drier when they sleep at a friend's or a relative's house.That's because kids who are anxious______(64)wetting the bed may not sleep much or only very lightly.So the brain may be thinking,"Hey,you!Don't wet someone else's bed!"This can help you ______(65)dry even if you're not aware of it. 62._________
[多选题]共用题干 Daisy Williams admits genes play some role in the way she looks,but believes diet is an important factor."It doesn't matter how good the genes are if you don't eat properly and take care of your-self,"she says."If you want to look good,get plenty of rest,exercise every day,eat mostly raw fruits and vegetables and quit worrying."Nowhere do the signs of aging manifest themselves more clearly than in the condition of the skin. When your weight fluctuates(波动),the skin stretches with each up cycle , but it may not completely shrink back to its original size in the down cycle. As a result,the skin may sag(松弛下垂).Zinc and vitamin A are important for normal,healthy skin.Zinc helps the skin repair itself, and vitamin A aids in keeping skin supple,preventing dryness and helping shed dead cells.Good sources of zinc are beef,eggs and seafood,while many dark-green leafy vegetables are rich in beta carotene(胡萝卜素), which the body converts to vitamin A.Vitamin C helps improve the blood supply to the skin and aids in forming collagen(胶原). Good sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits and juices,cauliflower,snow peas,red and green peppers,broccoli,white and sweet potatoes, tomatoes,watermelon,and honeydew melon.How food is prepared matters too.The longer vegetables cook,the greater the loss of vitamins. Don't soak vegetables when washing them,since water-soluble vitamins such as C will be lost.Good general nutrition is essential to maintaining a healthy,youthful appearance.And the key to good general nutrition is balance.Proteins should make up roughly 10 percent of your daily calorie intake;no more than 30 percent should come from fats;and the remaining calories should come mostly from complex carbohydrates(碳水化合物). Good sources of Vitamin A are beef,eggs and seafood.
[多选题]共用题干 Swine Flu in New YorkThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)has confirmed cases of swine(猪)_______(51)in eight students at a New York preparatory(预科的)school, Mayor Michael Bloomberg said on Sunday. The students have had only_________(52) symptoms and none have been hospitalized,he said.Some of thestudents have already recovered.More than 100 students were absent from_______(53)due to flu-like symptoms last week.New Yorkhealth officials tested samples for eight students on Saturday and determined the students were probably________(54)from swine flu,and the CDC confirmed the________(55)on Sunday,Bloombergsaid.The announcement brings the ______(56) of confirmed swine flu eases in the United States to 20.Bloomberg said there is no ________(57)of a citywide outbreak( ~K) of the flu,and no sign of a potentialouthreak of swine fiu at ___________( 58) schools.Some students at the school_________(59) spring break in Mexico,Bloomberg gaid,bur authorities havenot determined _______( 60) any of the students with a confirmed ease of swine flu was in Mexico. Someonewho traveled to Mexico may not have had any flu symptoms but________(61) on the flu to someone else,henoted.Bloomberg called on students who are homesick to________(62) home for 48 hours after theirsymptoms go away.If symptoms are normal for a regular kind offlu , there is________(63) need to go to a hospital,saidBloomberg. If symptoms become severe, as__________(64) any illness,people should go to the hospital,hesaid.St. Francis,which has 2,700 students,announced it will remam closed for two days.________(65)whether the students' illnesses have been minor because they're young and healthy or because it is a minor strain(菌株)of the virus,Bloomberg responded,"We don't know." _________(53.)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇As we have seen,the focus of medical care in our society has been shifting from curing disease to preventing disease一especially in terms of changing our many unhealthy behaviors,such as poor eating habits,smoking,and failure to exercise.The line of thought involved in this shift can be pursued further. Imagine a person who is about the right weight , but does not eat very nutritious(有营养的)foods , who feels OK but exercises only occasionally , who goes to work every day , but is not an outstanding worker,who drinks a few beers at home most nights but does not drive while drunk, and who has no chest pains or abnormal blood counts,but sleeps a lot and often feels tired.This person is not ill.He may not even be at risk for any particular disease.But we can imagine that this person could be a lot healthier.The field of medicine has not traditionally distinguished between someone who is merely "not ill" and someone who is in excellent health and pays attention to the body's special needs.Both types have simply been called "well".In recent years,however,some health specialists have begun to apply the terms "well" and "weilness" only to those who are actively striving to maintain and improve their body's condition.Most importantly,perhaps,people who are well take active responsibility for all matters related to their health.Even people who have a physical disease or handicap(缺陷)may be "well" ,in this new sense,if they make an effort to maintain the best possible health they can in the face of their physical limitations."Wellness" may perhaps best be viewed not as a state that people can achieve,but as an ideal that people can strive for. People who are well are likely to be better able to resist disease and to fight disease when it strikes.And by focusing attention on healthy ways of living,the concept of weilness can have a beneficial impact on the way in which people face the challenges of daily life. According to the second paragraph about the traditional care,which statement is true?
[多选题]共用题干 1. Do you know a child who survived leukemia(白血病)?Do you have a mother , sister or aunt whose breast cancer was found early thanks to a mammogram(乳腺X光照片)?Do you have a friend or coworker who quit smoking to reduce their risk of lung cancer? Each of these individuals benefited from the American Cancer Society's research program.2.Each day scientists supported by the American Cancer Society work to find breakthroughs that will take US one step closer to a cure.The American Cancer Society has long recognized that research holds the ultimate answers to the prevention,diagnosis and treatment of cancer.3.As the largest source of nonprofit cancer research funds in the United States,the American Cancer Society devotes over $100 million each year to research.Since 1946,they've invested more than $2. 4 billion in research. The investment has paid rich dividends(回报、效益).In 1946,only one in four cancer patients was alive five years after diagnosis;today 60 percent live longer than five years.4.Investigators and health professionals in universities,research institutes and hospitals throughout the country receive grants from the American Cancer Society.Of the more than 1,300 new applications received each year,only 11 percent can be funded.If the American Cancer Society had more money available for research funding,nearly 200 more applications considered outstanding could be funded each year.5.You can help fund more of these applications by participating in the American Cancer Society Relay(接力)for Life,a team event to fight cancer. More funding means more cancer breakthroughs and more lives being saved.To learn more,call Donna Hood,chair with the Neosho Relay for Life of the American Cancer Society at 451-4880. Paragraph 4_________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Late-night DrinkingCoffee lovers,be careful.Having a quick "pick-me-up" cup of coffee late in the day will interrupt your sleep. As well as being a stimulant(兴奋剂),caffeine interrupts the flow of melatonin(褪黑激素),thebrain hormone that sends people into a sleep.Melatonin levels normally start to rise about two hours before bedtime.Levels then peak between 2 am and 4 am , before falling again. " It 's the neurohormone(神经激素)that controls our sleep and tells our body when to sleep and when to wake,"says Maurice Ohayon of the Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center at Stanford University in California. But researchers in Israel have found that caffeinated coffee halvesthe body'S levels of this sleep hormone.Lotan Shilo and a team at the Sapir Medical center in Tel Aviv University found that six volunteers sleptless well after a cup of caffeinated coffee than after drinking the same amount of decaf(脱咖啡因咖啡).On average,subjects slept 336 minutes per night after drinking caffeinated coffee,compared with 415 minutes after decaf. They also took half an hour to drop off,twice as long as usual.In the second phase of the experiment,the researchers woke the volunteers every three hours and asked them to give a urine(尿)sample.Shilo measured concentrations of a breakdown product of melatonin.The results suggest that melatonin concentrations in caffeine drinkers were half those in decaf drinkers.In a paper accepted for publication in Sleep Medicine,the researchers suggest that caffeine blocks production of the enzyme(酶)that drives melatonin production.Because it can take many hours to eliminate caffeine from the body.Ohayon recommends that coffee lovers switch to decaf after lunch. The author mentions "pick-me-up" to indicate that_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Clinical Trials1. Many clinical trials are done to see if a new drug or device is safe and effective for people to use.Sometimes clinical trials are used to study different ways to use the standard treatments so they will be more effective,easier to use,and/or decrease side effects.Sometimes,studies are done to learn how to best use the treatment in a different population,such as children,in whom the treatment was not previously tested.2. It is important to test drugs and medical products in the people they are meant to help.It is also important to conduct research in a variety of people because different people may respond differently to treatments.Some people participate in clinical trials because they have exhausted standard treatment options .Other people participate in trials because they want to contribute to the ad-vancement of medical knowledge.3. The FDA(食品及药物管理局)works to protect participants in clinical trials and to ensure that people have reliable information as they decide whether to join a clinical trial.Although efforts are made to control the risks to clinical trial participants,some risks may be unavoidable because of the uncertainty inherent(内在的)in medical research studies involving new medical treatments.4. People should learn as much as possible about the clinical trials that interest them.They should also feel comfortable discussing their questions and concerns with members of the health care team. Prospective(预期的)participants should understand what happens during the trial ,the type of health care they will receive,and any costs to them.Anyone considering a clinical trial should also know that there are benefits and risks associated with participating. Paragraph 1______
[多选题]共用题干 SleeplessnessInsomnia or sleeplessness is a common complaint of women as they enter into menopause .In-somnia means having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep or the feeling that your sleep was not adequate for you .For women who are having night sweats,their sleep is broken by frequent a-wakening and therefore not refreshing. Generally once the night sweats are controlled a normal sleep pattern returns .If it doesn't it may be,or have become chronic insomnia. How do you know?if you suffer from insomnia every night or most nights for a period of one month then you have chronic insomnia. If you're not having night sweats then it's time to look for other causes of sleep-lessness. Depression and anxiety disorders are the most common causes of chronic insomnia. If you feel depressed you need to be checked by a qualified health care provider. Movement disor- ders such as restless leg syndrome are second on the list of insomnia for them,there are new med-icines that may help. Other common causes are shift working,and pain.In up to 30%of people with chronic insomnia no cause can be identified.Medical treatment of these people has generally been with sleeping pills.It is estimated that 25% of the adult popu- lation in America took some type of medicines for sleep last year. It is generally agreed that sleep-ing pills should only be in the lowest dose and for the shortest possible time.Sleep hygiene is directed at changing bad sleep habits.The recommendations are:-Go to bed only when sleepy.-Do not wait up to a specified time.-Avoid caffeine and alcohol in the evening,etc. Which of the following does not fit with sleep hygiene?
[多选题]共用题干 Are You Getting Enough Sleep?What happens if you don't get enough sleep? Randy Gardner,a high school student in the United States,wanted to find out. He designed an experiment on the effects of sleeplessness for a school science project. With doctors watching him carefully,Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours and 12 minutes.That's eleven days and nights without sleep!What effect did sleeplessness have on Gardner? After 24 hours without sleep,Gardner started havingtrouble reading and watching television. The words and pictures were too blurry(模糊).By the third day,he was having trouble doing things withhis hands. By the fourth day, Gardner was hallucinating(产生幻觉).For example,when he saw a street sign,he thought it was a person.He also imagined he was a famousfootball player. Over the next few days, Gardner's speech became so slurred(不清楚)that people couldn't understand him.He also had trouble remembering things.By the eleventh day, Gardner couldn't pass acounting test.In the middle of the test he simply stopped counting.He couldn't remember what hewas doing.When Gardner finally went to bed,he slept for 14 hours and 45 minutes.The second night he slept for twelve hours,the third night he slept for ten and one-half hours,and by the fourth night,he had returned tohis normal sleep schedule.Even though Gardner recovered quickly,scientists believe that going without sleep can be dangerous. They say that people should not repeat Randy's experiment. Tests on white rats have shown how serious sleeplessness can be. After a few weeks without sleep, the rats started losing their fur(皮毛).And even though the rats ate more food than usual,they lost weight.Eventually the rats died.During your lifetime,you will probably spend 25 years or more sleeping.But why?What is the purpose of sleep? Surprisingly,scientists don't know for sure.Some scientists think we sleep in order to replenish(补充)brain cells. Other scientists think that sleep helps the body to grow and to relieve stress. Whatever the reason,we know that it is important to get enough sleep. During the experiment,Gardner had trouble speaking clearly.
[多选题]共用题干 Are You Getting Enough Sleep?What happens if you don't get enough sleep? Randy Gardner,a high school student in the United States,wanted to find out. He designed an experiment on the effects of sleeplessness for a school science project. With doctors watching him carefully,Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours and 12 minutes.That's eleven days and nights without sleep!What effect did sleeplessness have on Gardner? After 24 hours without sleep,Gardner started havingtrouble reading and watching television. The words and pictures were too blurry(模糊).By the third day,he was having trouble doing things withhis hands. By the fourth day, Gardner was hallucinating(产生幻觉).For example,when he saw a street sign,he thought it was a person.He also imagined he was a famousfootball player. Over the next few days, Gardner's speech became so slurred(不清楚)that people couldn't understand him.He also had trouble remembering things.By the eleventh day, Gardner couldn't pass acounting test.In the middle of the test he simply stopped counting.He couldn't remember what hewas doing.When Gardner finally went to bed,he slept for 14 hours and 45 minutes.The second night he slept for twelve hours,the third night he slept for ten and one-half hours,and by the fourth night,he had returned tohis normal sleep schedule.Even though Gardner recovered quickly,scientists believe that going without sleep can be dangerous. They say that people should not repeat Randy's experiment. Tests on white rats have shown how serious sleeplessness can be. After a few weeks without sleep, the rats started losing their fur(皮毛).And even though the rats ate more food than usual,they lost weight.Eventually the rats died.During your lifetime,you will probably spend 25 years or more sleeping.But why?What is the purpose of sleep? Surprisingly,scientists don't know for sure.Some scientists think we sleep in order to replenish(补充)brain cells. Other scientists think that sleep helps the body to grow and to relieve stress. Whatever the reason,we know that it is important to get enough sleep. Going without sleep is not dangerous for white rats.
[多选题]共用题干 Friendly Relations with the People Around1. You depend on all the people closely around to give you the warm feeling of belongingness(归属)that you must have to feel secure.But, in fact,the members of all the groups to which youbelong also depend on you to give that feeling to them .A person who shows that he wants everything for himself is bound(一定的)to be a lonely wolf.2. The need for companionship is closely related to the need for a sense of belongingness.How sad and lonely your life would be if you had no one to share your feelings and experiences.You may take it for granted that there will always be people around to talk to and to do things with you and for you .The important point,however,is that keeping emotionally healthy does not depend so much upon having people around you as upon your ability to establish relationships that are satisfying both to you and to them.3. Suppose you are in a crowd watching a football game.You don't know them.When the game is over,you will all go your separate ways.But just for a while you had a feeling of companionship,of sharing the feelings of others who were cheering for the team you wanted to win.4. An experience of this kind gives the clue(线索)to what companionship really is. It depends upon emotional ties of sympathy,understanding,trust,and affection.Companions become friends when these ties are formed.5. When you are thrown in a new circle of acquaintances(熟人),you may not know with whom you will make friends,but you can be sure that you will be able to establish friendships if you show that you really like people. If you had no one to share your feelings,your life would be______.
[多选题]共用题干 "Much of the sickness and death attributed_________(51)the major communicable diseases is in fact caused by malnutrition which makes the body less able to withstand infections when they strike",said Dr. Hiroshi Nakajima,Director-General of WHO,in his statement on the first day of the World Food Summit. "At the same time,"he added,"in developing countries today,malnutrition is the cause of 174 million children under five years of age being________(52),and 230 million being stunted in their growth.Such_________(53)represent deprivation,suffering and wasted human potential __________(54)a scale that is unacceptable from every point of view. Whether we think in __________(55)of humanitarian concern,common justice or development needs,they demand a ___________(56),both from national governments and from international community."At the end of January 1996,98__________(57)had national plans of action for nutrition and 41 countries had one under preparation,in keeping with their___________(58)made at the International Conference on Nutrition in Rome in December 1992. The global situation,__________(59),remains grim. It is now __________(60)that 6.6 million out of the estimated 12.2 million deaths_________(61)are among children under five.In some__________(62),such as sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia,stagnation (停滞)of nutritional improvement_________(63)with a rapid rise in population has result in an ________(64)increase in total number of malnourished children.Over 800 million people around the world still cannot_________(65)basic needs for energy and protein,more than two thousand million people lack essential micronutrients,and hundreds of millions suffer from diseases caused by unsafe food and unbalanced diets. _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 Eye Problems1 Our eyes are under a great deal of strain these days as computer work,television viewing,nightdriving,and even sunshine are making exceptional demands.Sunlight, especially in the summer, is now regarded as one cause of cataracts(白内障).2 The thinning of the ozone(臭氧)layer means more short-wave ultraviolet ( UV ) rays(紫外线) are reaching the earth,and these are the biggest risk factor for clouding the lens of the eye.Ultraviolet raysincrease the risk of changes to the cornea(角膜)causing clouded vision and eventually cataracts.The rays can be shielded only by anti-UV lenses.However, our eyes are not sufficiently protected byfashion sunglasses.3 "Poor night vision and eye fatigue are noticeably more common,and there has been a big increase in minor eye complaints in the over-40s,"says Dr.Mireille Bonnet,who took part in recent research.She says that the six muscles controlling each eye move more than 100,000 times a day and that everyone should learn to exercise their eye muscles and allow them to rest.4 It was traditionally thought that near- or far-sightedness were inherited conditions and could not be influenced by environmental factors,but new research is challenging this assumption.5 Recent studies suggest that up to 80 percent of schoolchildren in the United States and western Europe are nearsighted.Years of focusing on close,two-dimensional work causes most children to become at least slightly nearsighted by the age of 10,say the researchers.6 Problems with night vision,which affect around 25 percent of people,are also on the increase because of computer use.Using computer screens means the eye must operate in electromagnetic fields (电磁场)that make it work harder.It is estimated that 25 to 30 percent of people have eye conditions, such as difficulty with night vision,which result from staring at a screen. Sunlight in the summer is believed to be one cause of______.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇A recent study,published in last week's Journal of American Medical Association,offers a picture of how risky it is to get a lift from a teenage driver. Indeed,a 16-year-old driver with three or more passengers is three times as likely to have a fatal accident as a teenager driving alone,by contrast,the risk of death for drivers between 30 and 59 decreases with. each additional passenger.The author also found that the death rates for teenage drivers increased dramatically after 10 pm,and especially after midnight.With passengers in the car,the driver was even more likely to die in a late-night accident.Robert Foss,a scientist at the University of North Carolina Highway safety Research Center, says the higher death rates for teenage drivers,have less to do with"really stupid behavior" than with just a lack of driving experience."The basic issue,"he says,"is that adults who are responsible for issuing licenses fail to recognize how complex and skilled a task driving is."Both he and the author of the study believe that the way to mitigate(使······缓解)the problem is to have states institute so-called graduated licensing systems,in which getting a license is a multistage process.A graduated license requires that a teenager first prove himself capable of driving in the presence of an adult,followed by a period of driving with passenger restrictions,before graduating to full driving privileges.Graduate licensing systems have reduced teenage driver crashes,according to recent studies. About half of the states now have some sort of graduated licensing system in place,but only 10 of those states have restrictions on passengers. California is the strictest,with a novice(新手)driver prohibited from carrying any passenger under 20(without the presence of an adult over 25)for the first six months. A suggested measure to be taken to reduce teenagers' driving accidents is that_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Trying to Find a PartnerOne of the most striking findings of a recent poii in the UK is that of the people interviewed, one in two believes that it is becoming more difficult to meet someone to start a family with.Why are many finding it increasingly difficult to start and sustain intimate relationships?Does modern life really make it harder to , fall in love?Or are we making it harder for ourselves?It is certainly the case today that contemporary couples benefit in different ways from relationships.Women no longer rely upon partners for economic security or status.A man doesn't expect his spouse to be in sole charge of running his household and raising his children.But perhaps the knowledge that we can live perfectly well without a partnership means that it takes much more to persuade people to abandon their independence.In theory,finding a partner should be much simpler these days.Only a few generations ago, your choice of soulmate(心上人)was constrained by geography , social convention and family tradition .Although it was never explicit,many marriages were essentially arranged.Now those barriers have been broken down.You can approach a builder or a brain surgeon in any bar in any city on any given evening. When the world is your oyster(牡砺),you surely have a better chance of finding a pearl.But it seems that the old conventions have been replaced by an even tighter constraint:the tyranny of choice.The expectations of partners are inflated to an unmanageable degree:good looks,impressive salary,kind to grandmother,and right socks.There is no room for error in the first impression.We think that a relationship can be perfect. If it isn't,it is disposable.We work to protect ourselves against future heartache and don't put in the hard emotional labor needed to build a strong relationship.Of course,this is complicated by realities.The cost of housing and child-rearing creates pressure to have a stable income and career before a life partnership. Which of the following is NOT true about a contemporary married couple?
[多选题]共用题干 Understanding Autism(孤独症)1 Autism is a life-long developmental disability that prevents individuals from properly understanding what,they see,hear,and otherwise sense.This results in severe problems of social relationships, communication , and behavior. Individuals with autism have to painstakingly(费力地)learn normal patterns of speech and communication,and appropriate ways to relate to people,objects,and events,in a similar manner to those who have had a stroke.2 The cause of autism is still unknown.Some research suggests a physical problem affecting those parts of the brain that process language and information coming in from the senses.There may be some imbalance of certain chemicals in the brain. Genetic(遗传的)factors may sometimes be involved. Autism may indeed result from a combination of several"causes".3 Most people with mental retardation(智力迟钝的)show relatively even skill development. Individualswith autism, however,typically show uneven skill development, with deficits(欠缺)in certain areas—most frequently in their ability to communicate and relate to others—and distinct skills in other areas.It is importantto distinguish autism from mental retardation or other disorders , since diagnostic(诊断的)confusion may lead to inappropriate and ineffective treatment techniques.4 In general,individuals with autism perform best at jobs which are structured and involve a degree of repetition.Some people who have autism are working as artists,piano tuners,painters,farm workers,office workers,computer operators,dishwashers,assembly line workers,or employees of sheltered workshops or other sheltered work settings. Individuals with autism are particularly weak at ________.
[多选题]共用题干 Organ Donation and Transplantation1 Organ donation(捐献)and transplantation(移植)refers to the process by which organs or tissuesfrom one person are put into another person's body.2 The number of people needing a transplant continues to rise faster than the number of donors.About 3,700 transplant candidates are added to the national waiting list each month.Each day,about 77 people receive organ transplants.However,18 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.3 There are rio age limits on who can donate.Newborns as well as senior citizens have been organ donors. If you are under age 18 , you must have a parent's or guardian's consent(同意).If you are 18 years or older,you can show you want to be an organ and tissue donor by signing a donor card.4 Many people think that if they agree to donate their organs,the doctor or the emergency room staff won't work as hard to save their life.This is not true.The transplant team is completely separate from the medical staff working to save your life.The transplant team does not become involved with you until doctors have determined that all possible efforts to save your life have failed.5 If you need an organ transplant,your doctor will help you get on the national waiting list.Your name will be added to a pool of names.When an organ donor becomes available,all the patients in the pool are compared to that donor. Factors such as blood and tissue type, size of the organ, medical urgency(紧急)of the patient's illness , time already spent on the waiting list, and distance between donor and recipient(接受 者)are considered. Organ donors range in age from newborns to________.
[多选题]共用题干 Exercise Cuts Cancer Deaths in MenMen who exercise often are less likely to die from cancer than those who_____(51),new research published in the British Journal of Cancer revealed yesterday.A team of scientists from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden looked_______(52)the effect of physical activity and cancer risk in 40,708 men aged________(53)45 and 79._________(79.)The seven-year study found that men_________(54)walked or cycled for at least 30 minutes a day had a 34 per cent lower_________(55)of dying from cancer than the men who did less exercise or nothing at all. __________(56)the period studied,3,714 men developed cancer and 1,153 died from the disease.The researchers suggest that half an hour's walking_________(57)cycling a day increased survival among these men by 33 per cent.The researchers surveyed men from two countries in central Sweden about their lifestyle and the amount of________(58)activity they were usually doing.They then scored these responses and compared the results with data on cancer diagnosis and death officially recorded in a central cancer registry(登记簿)over a seven-year_________(59).Lead author,Professor Alicja Wolk,said,"These results clearly show for the first time the effect that very simple and basic daily_______(60)such as walking or cycling has in reducing cancer death risk in middle-aged and elderly________(61)."Dr Lesley Walker,director of cancer information at Cancer Research UK,said,"This study gives us a clear indication that men who exercise are less_________(62)to die from cancer,and that they are more likely to________(63)the disease if they get it. It's not entirely clear from this study what role exercise plays in preventing________(64)in men,but we do know that a healthy lifestyle can prevent up to half of all cancers—and_______(65)exercise forms a key part of this." _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 Tiny InvadersThe human body is truly amazing. It allows us to sense the world around us,to do work and have fun, and to move from place to place.In fact,the human body does its work so well that most people don't think about it very much-until they get sick.The germs(致病菌)that make people sick are everywhere. You can ' t see them , but they ' re there. They're sitting on your desk.They're hiding on your computer's keyboard.They're even in the air that you are breathing. There are two types of germs : viruses and bacteria(细菌).Viruses are germs that can only live inside animals or plants. Viruses cause illnesses such as flu and measles(麻疹).Bacteria are tiny creatures.Some bacteria are good.They can help your stomach break down food.Other bacteria aren't so good. They can make you sick. Bacteria can cause sore throats(喉痛)and ear infections.How can you stop these tiny invaders from making you sick?Your skin is the first defense against germs.You can prevent some illnesses simply by washing,with soap and water. But germs can still enter the body through small cuts in the skin or through the mouth,eyes,and nose.Once germs are inside your body , your immune(免疫的)system tries to protect you. It looks for and destroys germs.How does it do that?Special cells patrol your body.Some of these cells actually eat germs! Other cells make antibodies.An antibody sticks to a germ.There is a different antibody for each kind ofgerm.Some antibodies keep germs from making you sick.Others help your body find and kill germs.After agerm is destroyed,the antibodies stay in your body.They protect you if the same kind of germ comes back. That way you will not get the same illness twice.You can keep your body healthy by eating a nutritious(有营养的)diet to make your immune systerm strong. You can also help your immune system fight germs by getting vaccinated(接种).Vaccines are medicines.They contain germs that have been killed or weakened.The dead germs can't make you sick. Instead,they cause your body to make antibodies.If the same germ ever shows up again,then yourantibodies attack it. Vaccines can make you sick.
[多选题]共用题干 Stage FrightFall down as you come onstage .That's an odd trick.Not recommended.But it saved the pi- anist Vladimir Felts man when he was a teenager back in Moscow.The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance panic,Mr. Felts man said, “All my fright was_______(51).I already fell.What else could happen?”Today,music schools are addressing the problem of anxiety in classes that_______(52) with performance techniques and career preparation.There are a variety of strategies that musici-ans can learn to_______(53)stage fright and its symptoms:icy fingers,shaky limbs,racing heart,blank mind.Teachers and psychologists offer wide-ranging advice,from basics like learning pieces inside out,_______(54)mental discipline,such as visualizing a performance and taking steps to re- lax .Don't_______(55)that you're jittery,they urge;some excitement is natural,even necessa-ry for dynamic playing. And play in public often,simply for the experience.Psychotherapist Diane Nichols suggests some_______(56)for the moments before perform-ance,“Take two deep abdominal breaths,open up your shoulders,then smile,”she says.“And not one of these‘please don't kill me'smiles.Then_______(57)three friendly faces in the au-dience,people you would communicate with and make music to,and make eye contact with them.”She doesn't want performers to think of the audience_______(58)a judge.Extreme demands by mentors or parents are often at the_______(59)of stage fright,says Dorothy Delay,a well-known violin teacher. She tells other teachers to demand only what their students are able to achieve.When Lynn Harrell was 20,he became the principal cellist of the Cleveland Orchestra,and he suffered extreme stage fright.“There were times when I got so_______(60)I was sure the audience could see my chest responding to the throbbing. It was just total panic.I came to a _______(61)where I thought,If I have to go through this to play music,I think I'm going to look for another job.” Recovery,he said,involved developing humility-recognizing that _______(62)his talent,he was fallible,and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster.It is not only young artists who suffer,of course.The legendary pianist Vladimir Horowitz's nerves were famous.The great tenor Franco Corelli is another example.“They had to push him on stage,”Soprano Renata Scotto recalled._______(63),success can make things worse.“In the beginning of your career,when you're scared to death,nobody knows who you are,and they don't have any_______(64),”So-prano June Anderson said.“There's_______(65)to lose .Later on,when you're known,peo- ple are coming to see you,and they have certain expectations.You have a lot to lose.”Anderson added,“I never stop being nervous until I've sung my last note.” 59._________
[多选题]共用题干 Early or Later Day Care The British psychoanalyst John Bowlby maintains that separation from the parents during the sensitive “attachment”period from birth to three may scar a child's personality and predispose to emotional problems in later life.Some people have drawn the conclusion from Bowlby's work that children should not be subjected to day care before the age of three because of the parental sepa-ration it entails,and many people do believe this. But there are also arguments against such a strong conclusion. Firstly,anthropologists point out that the insulated love affair between children and parents found in modern societies does not usually exist in traditional societies.For example,in some tribal societies,such as the Ngoni,the father and mother of a child did not rear their infant a-lone—far from it .Secondly,common sense tells us that day care would not be so widespread to-day if parents,care—takers found children had problems with it. Statistical studies of this kind have not yet been carried out,and even if they were,the results would be certain to be complicat-ed and controversial.Thirdly,in the last decade there have been a number of careful American studies of children in day care,and they have uniformly reported that day care had a neural or slightly positive effect on children's development. But tests that have had to be used to measure this development are not widely enough accepted to settle the issue. But Bowlby's analysis raises the possibility that early day care has delayed effects.The possi- bility that such care might lead to,say,more mental illness or crime 15 or 20 years later can only be explored by the use of statistics.Whatever the long-term effects,parents sometimes find the immediate effects difficult to deal with.Children under three are likely to protest at leaving their parents and show unhappiness.At the age of three or three and a half almost all children find the transition to nursery easy,and this is undoubtedly why more and more parents make use of child care at this time.The matter,then,is far from clear-cut,though experience and available evi- dence indicate that early care is reasonable for infants. Which of the following best expresses the writer's attitude towards early day care?
[多选题]共用题干 Some Schooling on BackpacksAccording to the U.S.Consumer Product Safety Commission,5,900 kids were treated at hospital emergency rooms,clinics,and doctors'offices last year for sprains(扭伤)and strains caused by backpacks.Such injuries are so widespread that more than 70 percent of physicians surveyed by the American Academy of Orthopedic(整形外科的)Surgeons listed backpacks as a potential clinical problem for children.How do you avoid such problems? Choose bags that have wide , padded straps(有垫的背带)and abelt.That will help transfer some of the weight from the back and shoulders to the hips.You should alsotighten both straps firmly,so the pack rests about 2 inches above your waist.Also,remember to pack yourbag with the heaviest items closest to your back and to bend both knees when you pick it up.How much should you stuff into your pack?That depends on your size and strength,but a general ruleis not to exceed 20 percent of your body weight.So if a child weighs 100 pounds,the backpack and its loadshould not be more than 20 pounds.One hint : Make frequent trips to your locker(储物柜)to exchangebooks between classes.Backpacks with wheels let you pull the weight along the ground,but they have problems too.Many arelarger than the average shoulder bag,so students are tempted to carry more than they would in a conventionalpack.Roller bags often don't fit into a locker.They can also lead to tripping and falls in crowded halls.Whatever you use,10 or 15 minutes of stretching and back strengthening is a good idea. A 10-1 5 minutes'exercise will help you bear a heavier backpack.
[多选题]共用题干 Dangers Await Babies with AltitudeWomen who live in the world's highest communities tend to give birth to underweight babies, a new study suggests.These babies may grow into adults with a high risk of heart disease and strokes.Research has hinted that newborns in mountain communities are lighter than average.But it wasn't clear whether this is due to reduced oxygen levels at high altitude or because their mothers are under-nourished—many people who live at high altitudes are relatively poor compared with those living lower down.To find out more,Dino Giussani and his team at Cambridge University studied the records of 400 births in Bolivia during 1997 and 1998 .The babies were born in both rich and poor areas of two cities:La Paz and Santa Cruz.La Paz is the highest city in the world,at 3 .65 kilometers above sea level,while Santa Cruz is much lower,at 0 .44 kilometers.Sure enough,Giussani found that the average birthweight of babies in La Paz was significantly lower than in Santa Cruz.This was true in both high and low-income families.Even babies born to poor families in Santa Cruz were heavier on average than babies born to wealthy families in lofty La Paz.“We were very surprised by this result,”says Giussani.The results suggest that babies born at high altitude are deprived of oxygen before birth. “This may trigger the release or suppression of hormones that regulate growth of the unborn child,”says Giussani.His team also found that high-altitude babies tended to have relatively larger heads compared with their bodies.This is probably because a fetus starved of oxygen will send oxygenated blood to the brain in preference to the rest of the body.Giussani wants to find out if such babies have a higher risk of disease in later life.People born in La Paz might be prone to heart trouble in adulthood,for example.Low birthweight is a risk factor for coronary heart disease.And newborns with a high ratio of head size to body weight are often predisposed to high blood pressure and strokes in later life. The results of the study indicate the reason for the birth of underweight babies is_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Tiny InvadersThe human body is truly amazing. It allows us to sense the world around us,to do work and have fun, and to move from place to place.In fact,the human body does its work so well that most people don't think about it very much-until they get sick.The germs(致病菌)that make people sick are everywhere. You can ' t see them , but they ' re there. They're sitting on your desk.They're hiding on your computer's keyboard.They're even in the air that you are breathing. There are two types of germs : viruses and bacteria(细菌).Viruses are germs that can only live inside animals or plants. Viruses cause illnesses such as flu and measles(麻疹).Bacteria are tiny creatures.Some bacteria are good.They can help your stomach break down food.Other bacteria aren't so good. They can make you sick. Bacteria can cause sore throats(喉痛)and ear infections.How can you stop these tiny invaders from making you sick?Your skin is the first defense against germs.You can prevent some illnesses simply by washing,with soap and water. But germs can still enter the body through small cuts in the skin or through the mouth,eyes,and nose.Once germs are inside your body , your immune(免疫的)system tries to protect you. It looks for and destroys germs.How does it do that?Special cells patrol your body.Some of these cells actually eat germs! Other cells make antibodies.An antibody sticks to a germ.There is a different antibody for each kind ofgerm.Some antibodies keep germs from making you sick.Others help your body find and kill germs.After agerm is destroyed,the antibodies stay in your body.They protect you if the same kind of germ comes back. That way you will not get the same illness twice.You can keep your body healthy by eating a nutritious(有营养的)diet to make your immune systerm strong. You can also help your immune system fight germs by getting vaccinated(接种).Vaccines are medicines.They contain germs that have been killed or weakened.The dead germs can't make you sick. Instead,they cause your body to make antibodies.If the same germ ever shows up again,then yourantibodies attack it. Viruses can only live inside people or animals.
[多选题]共用题干 Swine Flu in New YorkThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)has confirmed cases of swine(猪)_______(51)in eight students at a New York preparatory(预科的)school, Mayor Michael Bloomberg said on Sunday. The students have had only_________(52) symptoms and none have been hospitalized,he said.Some of thestudents have already recovered.More than 100 students were absent from_______(53)due to flu-like symptoms last week.New Yorkhealth officials tested samples for eight students on Saturday and determined the students were probably________(54)from swine flu,and the CDC confirmed the________(55)on Sunday,Bloombergsaid.The announcement brings the ______(56) of confirmed swine flu eases in the United States to 20.Bloomberg said there is no ________(57)of a citywide outbreak( ~K) of the flu,and no sign of a potentialouthreak of swine fiu at ___________( 58) schools.Some students at the school_________(59) spring break in Mexico,Bloomberg gaid,bur authorities havenot determined _______( 60) any of the students with a confirmed ease of swine flu was in Mexico. Someonewho traveled to Mexico may not have had any flu symptoms but________(61) on the flu to someone else,henoted.Bloomberg called on students who are homesick to________(62) home for 48 hours after theirsymptoms go away.If symptoms are normal for a regular kind offlu , there is________(63) need to go to a hospital,saidBloomberg. If symptoms become severe, as__________(64) any illness,people should go to the hospital,hesaid.St. Francis,which has 2,700 students,announced it will remam closed for two days.________(65)whether the students' illnesses have been minor because they're young and healthy or because it is a minor strain(菌株)of the virus,Bloomberg responded,"We don't know." _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 Dangers Await Babies with AltitudeWomen who live in the world's highest communities tend to give birth to underweight babies, a new study suggests.These babies may grow into adults with a high risk of heart disease and strokes.Research has hinted that newborns in mountain communities are lighter than average.But it wasn't clear whether this is due to reduced oxygen levels at high altitude or because their mothers are under-nourished—many people who live at high altitudes are relatively poor compared with those living lower down.To find out more,Dino Giussani and his team at Cambridge University studied the records of 400 births in Bolivia during 1997 and 1998 .The babies were born in both rich and poor areas of two cities:La Paz and Santa Cruz.La Paz is the highest city in the world,at 3 .65 kilometers above sea level,while Santa Cruz is much lower,at 0 .44 kilometers.Sure enough,Giussani found that the average birthweight of babies in La Paz was significantly lower than in Santa Cruz.This was true in both high and low-income families.Even babies born to poor families in Santa Cruz were heavier on average than babies born to wealthy families in lofty La Paz.“We were very surprised by this result,”says Giussani.The results suggest that babies born at high altitude are deprived of oxygen before birth. “This may trigger the release or suppression of hormones that regulate growth of the unborn child,”says Giussani.His team also found that high-altitude babies tended to have relatively larger heads compared with their bodies.This is probably because a fetus starved of oxygen will send oxygenated blood to the brain in preference to the rest of the body.Giussani wants to find out if such babies have a higher risk of disease in later life.People born in La Paz might be prone to heart trouble in adulthood,for example.Low birthweight is a risk factor for coronary heart disease.And newborns with a high ratio of head size to body weight are often predisposed to high blood pressure and strokes in later life. It can be inferred from what Giussani says in Paragraph 4 that_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Scientists working on a problem do not know and sometimes can't even guess what the final result will be.Late on Friday,8 November,1895,Professor Rontgen,a German physicist,was doing an experiment in his laboratory when he noticed something extraordinary.He had covered an electric bulb with black cardboard,and when he switched on the current he saw little dancing lights on his table.Now the bulb was completely covered;_________(46)?On the table there were some pieces of paper which had been covered with metal salts.It was on this paper that the lights were shining. Professor Rontgen took a piece of this paper and held it at a distance from the lamp.Between it and the lamp he placed a variety of objects,a book,a pack of cards,a piece of wood and a door key. __________(47).He called his wife into the laboratory and asked her to hold her hand between the lamp and a photographic plate._________(48),but she held up her hand for a quarter of an hour, and when the plate was developed there was a picture of the bones of her hand and of the ring on one finger. The mysterious ray could pass through the flesh and not through the bone or the ring.At a scientific meeting,Professor Rontegen called this new ray "the unknown" the X-ray. _________(49),and soon there were X-ray machines in all the big hospitals.The most obvious use for this discovery was to enable doctors to see exactly how a bone was fractured._________(50).It was found that these rays could be used to destroy cancer cells,just as they destroyed the healthy cells of the doctors who first used the machines.Methods were found later by which ulcers in the stomach could be located,and the lungs could be X-rayed to show if there was any tuberculosis present. _______(48)
[多选题]共用题干 1.Nursing at Beth Israel Hospital produces the best patient care possible.If we are to solve the nursing shortage(不足),hospital administration and doctors everywhere would do well to follow Beth Israel's example.2.At Beth Israel each patient is assigned to a primary nurse who visits at length with the patient and constructs a full-scale health account that covers everything from his medical history to his emotional state.Then she writes a care plan centered on the patient's illness but which also includes everything else that is necessary.3.The primary nurse stays with the patient through his hospitalization,keeping track with his progress and seeking further advice from his doctor. If a patient at Beth Israel is not responding to treatment,it is not uncommon for his nurse to propose another approach to his doctor. What the doctor at Beth Israel has in the primary nurse is a true colleague.4. Nursing at Beth Israel also involves a decentralized(分散的)nursing administration; every floor,every unit is a self-contained organization.There are nurse-managers instead of head nurses; in addition to their medical duties they do all their own hiring and dismissing,employee advising, and they make salary recommendations.Each unit's nurses decide among themselves who will work what shifts and when.5.Beth Israel's nurse-in-chief ranks as an equal presidents of the hospital. She also is a member of the Medical Executive Committee,which in most hospitals includes only doctors. Follow Beth Israel's example,if we are to solve the________.
[多选题]共用题干 Organ Donation and Transplantation1 Organ donation(捐献)and transplantation(移植)refers to the process by which organs or tissuesfrom one person are put into another person's body.2 The number of people needing a transplant continues to rise faster than the number of donors.About 3,700 transplant candidates are added to the national waiting list each month.Each day,about 77 people receive organ transplants.However,18 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.3 There are rio age limits on who can donate.Newborns as well as senior citizens have been organ donors. If you are under age 18 , you must have a parent's or guardian's consent(同意).If you are 18 years or older,you can show you want to be an organ and tissue donor by signing a donor card.4 Many people think that if they agree to donate their organs,the doctor or the emergency room staff won't work as hard to save their life.This is not true.The transplant team is completely separate from the medical staff working to save your life.The transplant team does not become involved with you until doctors have determined that all possible efforts to save your life have failed.5 If you need an organ transplant,your doctor will help you get on the national waiting list.Your name will be added to a pool of names.When an organ donor becomes available,all the patients in the pool are compared to that donor. Factors such as blood and tissue type, size of the organ, medical urgency(紧急)of the patient's illness , time already spent on the waiting list, and distance between donor and recipient(接受 者)are considered. Various factors are considered when deciding on_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Stage FrightFall down as you come onstage .That's an odd trick.Not recommended.But it saved the pi- anist Vladimir Felts man when he was a teenager back in Moscow.The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance panic,Mr. Felts man said, “All my fright was_______(51).I already fell.What else could happen?”Today,music schools are addressing the problem of anxiety in classes that_______(52) with performance techniques and career preparation.There are a variety of strategies that musici-ans can learn to_______(53)stage fright and its symptoms:icy fingers,shaky limbs,racing heart,blank mind.Teachers and psychologists offer wide-ranging advice,from basics like learning pieces inside out,_______(54)mental discipline,such as visualizing a performance and taking steps to re- lax .Don't_______(55)that you're jittery,they urge;some excitement is natural,even necessa-ry for dynamic playing. And play in public often,simply for the experience.Psychotherapist Diane Nichols suggests some_______(56)for the moments before perform-ance,“Take two deep abdominal breaths,open up your shoulders,then smile,”she says.“And not one of these‘please don't kill me'smiles.Then_______(57)three friendly faces in the au-dience,people you would communicate with and make music to,and make eye contact with them.”She doesn't want performers to think of the audience_______(58)a judge.Extreme demands by mentors or parents are often at the_______(59)of stage fright,says Dorothy Delay,a well-known violin teacher. She tells other teachers to demand only what their students are able to achieve.When Lynn Harrell was 20,he became the principal cellist of the Cleveland Orchestra,and he suffered extreme stage fright.“There were times when I got so_______(60)I was sure the audience could see my chest responding to the throbbing. It was just total panic.I came to a _______(61)where I thought,If I have to go through this to play music,I think I'm going to look for another job.” Recovery,he said,involved developing humility-recognizing that _______(62)his talent,he was fallible,and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster.It is not only young artists who suffer,of course.The legendary pianist Vladimir Horowitz's nerves were famous.The great tenor Franco Corelli is another example.“They had to push him on stage,”Soprano Renata Scotto recalled._______(63),success can make things worse.“In the beginning of your career,when you're scared to death,nobody knows who you are,and they don't have any_______(64),”So-prano June Anderson said.“There's_______(65)to lose .Later on,when you're known,peo- ple are coming to see you,and they have certain expectations.You have a lot to lose.”Anderson added,“I never stop being nervous until I've sung my last note.” 61._________
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The United States perceives itself to be a middle-class nation.However,middle class is not a real designation(称号),nor does it carry privileges. It is more of a perception,which probably was as true as it ever could be right after World War Ⅱ.The economy was growing,more and more people owned their own homes,workers had solid contracts with the companies that employed them,and nearly everyone who wanted a higher education could have one.Successful people enjoyed upward social mobility.They may have started out poor,but they could become rich.Successful people also found that they had greater geographic mobility.In other words,they found themselves moving to and living in a variety of places.The middle class collectively holds several values and principles.One strong value is the need to earn enough money to feel that one can determine one's own economic fate.In addition,middle class morality embraces principles of individual responsibility,importance of family,obligations to others,and believing in something outside oneself.But in the l990s those in the middle class found that there was a price for success.A US News &World Report survey in 1994 indicated that 75 percent of Americans believed that middle class families could no longer make ends meet. Both spouses now worked,as did some of the children; long commutes became routine;the need for child care put strains on(给······带来压力)the family;and public schools were not as good as they once were.Members of the middle class were no longer financing their lifestyles through earnings but were using credit to stay afloat. The understanding of just what middle class meant was changing. In the years after World Warll,the middle class could be defined as_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Exercise Cuts Cancer Deaths in MenMen who exercise often are less likely to die from cancer than those who_____(51),new research published in the British Journal of Cancer revealed yesterday.A team of scientists from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden looked_______(52)the effect of physical activity and cancer risk in 40,708 men aged________(53)45 and 79._________(79.)The seven-year study found that men_________(54)walked or cycled for at least 30 minutes a day had a 34 per cent lower_________(55)of dying from cancer than the men who did less exercise or nothing at all. __________(56)the period studied,3,714 men developed cancer and 1,153 died from the disease.The researchers suggest that half an hour's walking_________(57)cycling a day increased survival among these men by 33 per cent.The researchers surveyed men from two countries in central Sweden about their lifestyle and the amount of________(58)activity they were usually doing.They then scored these responses and compared the results with data on cancer diagnosis and death officially recorded in a central cancer registry(登记簿)over a seven-year_________(59).Lead author,Professor Alicja Wolk,said,"These results clearly show for the first time the effect that very simple and basic daily_______(60)such as walking or cycling has in reducing cancer death risk in middle-aged and elderly________(61)."Dr Lesley Walker,director of cancer information at Cancer Research UK,said,"This study gives us a clear indication that men who exercise are less_________(62)to die from cancer,and that they are more likely to________(63)the disease if they get it. It's not entirely clear from this study what role exercise plays in preventing________(64)in men,but we do know that a healthy lifestyle can prevent up to half of all cancers—and_______(65)exercise forms a key part of this." _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 Some Sleep Drugs Do More Than Make You SleepThe United States Food and Drug Administration(FDA)has ordered companies to place strong new warnings on thirteen drugs that treat sleep disorders.It also ordered the makers of the sleeping pills to provide information for patients explaining how to safely use the drugs.Last Wednesday,the FDA announced that some of these drugs can have unexpected and dangerouseffects.These include the risk of life-threatening allergic(过敏性的)reactions.They also include rareincidents of strange behavior.These include people cooking food,eating and even driving while asleep.The patients later had no memory of doing these activities while asleep.Last year,a member of the United States Congress said he had a sleep-driving incident.PatrickKennedy , a representative from Rhode Island,crashed his car into a security barrier near the building wherelawmakers meet.The accident happened in the middle of the night and no one was hurt.Mr.Kennedy saidhe had earlier taken a sleep medicine.He said he was also being treated with a stomach sickness drug thatcan cause sleepiness.The FDA did not say in its announcement how many cases of sleep-driving it has documented.However,the New York Times reported last year about people who said they had strange sleep events after taking the drug Ambien.Some reported sleep-driving and sleep-walking.Others said they found evidence after waking in the morning that they had cooked food or eaten in their sleep.But they had no memory of carrying out the activities.An FDA official says that these serious side effects of sleep disorder drugs appear to be rare.But,he also said there are probably more cases than are reported.He said the agency believes the risk of such behaviors could be reduced if people take the drugs as directed and do not drink alcohol while taking the drugs.The FDA has advised drug companies to carry out studies to investigate the problem. The FDA announced that______.
[多选题]共用题干 Tiny InvadersThe human body is truly amazing. It allows us to sense the world around us,to do work and have fun, and to move from place to place.In fact,the human body does its work so well that most people don't think about it very much-until they get sick.The germs(致病菌)that make people sick are everywhere. You can ' t see them , but they ' re there. They're sitting on your desk.They're hiding on your computer's keyboard.They're even in the air that you are breathing. There are two types of germs : viruses and bacteria(细菌).Viruses are germs that can only live inside animals or plants. Viruses cause illnesses such as flu and measles(麻疹).Bacteria are tiny creatures.Some bacteria are good.They can help your stomach break down food.Other bacteria aren't so good. They can make you sick. Bacteria can cause sore throats(喉痛)and ear infections.How can you stop these tiny invaders from making you sick?Your skin is the first defense against germs.You can prevent some illnesses simply by washing,with soap and water. But germs can still enter the body through small cuts in the skin or through the mouth,eyes,and nose.Once germs are inside your body , your immune(免疫的)system tries to protect you. It looks for and destroys germs.How does it do that?Special cells patrol your body.Some of these cells actually eat germs! Other cells make antibodies.An antibody sticks to a germ.There is a different antibody for each kind ofgerm.Some antibodies keep germs from making you sick.Others help your body find and kill germs.After agerm is destroyed,the antibodies stay in your body.They protect you if the same kind of germ comes back. That way you will not get the same illness twice.You can keep your body healthy by eating a nutritious(有营养的)diet to make your immune systerm strong. You can also help your immune system fight germs by getting vaccinated(接种).Vaccines are medicines.They contain germs that have been killed or weakened.The dead germs can't make you sick. Instead,they cause your body to make antibodies.If the same germ ever shows up again,then yourantibodies attack it. After they kill germs,antibodies stay in the body.
[多选题]共用题干 Most of us walk and carry items in our hands every day.These are seemingly simple activities that the majority of us don't question.But an international team of researchers,including Dr. Richmond from GW's Columbian College of Arts and Sciences,have discovered that human walking upright, may have originated millions of years ago as an adaptation to carrying scarce(稀有的),high-quality resources.The team of researchers from the U.S.,England,Japan and Portugal investigated the behavior of modern-day chimpanzees(黑猩猩)as they competed for food resources,in an effort to understand what ecological settings would lead a large ape(类人猿)一one that resembles the 6 million-year old ancestor we shared in common with living chimpanzees一to walk on two legs."These chimpanzees provide a model of the ecological conditions under which our earliest ancestors might have begun walking on two legs",said Dr. Richmond.The research findings suggest that chimpanzees switch to moving on two limbs instead of four in situations where they need to monopolize a resource.Standing on two legs allows them to carry much more at one time because it frees up their hands. Over time , intense bursts of bipedal(二足的)activity may have led to anatomical(解剖学的)changes that in turn became the subject of natural selection where competition for food or other resources was strong.Two studies were conducted by the team in Guinea. The first study was conducted by the team in Kyoto University's "outdoor laboratory" in a natural clearing in Bossou Forest. Researchers allowed the wild chimpanzees access to different combinations of two different types of nut一the oil palm nut,which is naturally widely available,and the coula nut,which is not.The chimpanzees' behavior was monitored in three situations:(a)when only oil palm nuts were available,(b)when a small number of coula nuts were available,and(c)when coula nuts were the majority available resource.When the rare coula nuts were available only in small numbers,the chimpanzees transported more at one time.Similarly,when coula nuts were the majority resource,the chimpanzees ignored the oil palm nuts altogether. The chimpanzees regarded the coula nuts as a more highly-prized resource and competed for them more intensely.In such high-competition settings,the frequency of cases in which the chimpanzees started moving on two legs increased by a factor of four. Not only was it obvious that bipedal movement allowed them to carry more of this precious resource,but also that they were actively trying to move as much as they could in one go by using everything available一even their mouths.The second study,by Kimberley Hockings of Oxford Brookes University,was a 14-month study of Bossou chimpanzees crop-raiding,a situation in which they have to compete for rare and unpredictable resources.Here,35 percent of the chimpanzees activity involved some sort of bipedal movement,and once again,this behavior appeared to be linked to a clear attempt to carry as much as possible at one time. Walking on two limbs and walking on four limbs each have their advantages.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Prolonging human life has increased the size of the human population.Many people alive today would have died of childhood diseases if they had been born 100 years ago.Because more people live longer,there are more people around at any given time.In fact,it is a decrease in death rates, not an increase in birth rates,that has led to the population explosion.Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency load.In all societies,people who are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them.In hunting and gathering cultures,old people who could not keep up might be left behind to die.In times of famine,infants might be allowed to die because they could not survive if their parents starved,whereas if the parents survived they could have another child.In most contemporary societies,people feel a moral obligation to keep people alive whether they can work or not. We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work;we also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age.Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement,somebody else must support them. In the United States many retired people live on social security checks which are so little that they must live in near poverty. Older people have more illness than young or middle-aged people;unless they have wealth or private or government insurance,they must often"go on welfare"if they have a serious illness.When older people become senile or too weak and ill to care for themselves,they create grave problems for their families.In the past and in some traditional cultures,they would be cared for at home until they died.Today,with most members of a household working or in school,there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person.To meet this need,a great many nursing homes and convalescent hospitals have been built. These are often profit-making organizations, although some are sponsored by religious and other nonprofit groups.While a few of these institutions are good,most of them are simply "dumping grounds"for the dying in which" care" is given by poorly paid,overworked,and underskilled personnel. In Paragraph 3,the phrase "this need" refers to________.
[多选题]共用题干 Late-Night DrinkingCoffee lovers beware .Having a quick"pick-me-up"cup of coffee late in the day will play havoc with your sleep.As well as being a stimulant,caffeine interrupts the flow of melatonin,the brain hormone that sends people into a sleep.Melatonin levels normally start to rise about two hours before bedtime.Levels then peak be-tween 2 a.m.and 4 a. m.,before falling again."It's the neurohormone that controls our sleep and tells our body when to sleep and when to wake,"says Maurice Ohayon of the Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center at Stanford University in California. But researchers in Israel have found that caffeinated coffee halves the body's levels of this sleep hormone.Lotan Shilo and a team at the Sapir Medical Center in Tel Aviv University found that six vol- unteers slept less well after a cup of caffeinated coffee than after drinking the same amount of de-caf(脱因咖啡).On average , subjects slept 336 minutes per night after drinking caffeinated cof-fee,compared with 415 minutes after decaf. They also took half an hour to drop off-twice as long as usual-and jigged around in bed twice as much.In the second phase of the experiment,the researchers woke the volunteers every three hours and asked them to give a urine sample,Shilo measured concentrations of a breakdown product of melatonin .The results suggest that melatonin concentrations in caffeine drinkers were half those in decaf drinkers.In a paper accepted for publication in Sleep Medicine,the researchers suggest that caffeine blocks production of the enzyme that drives melatonin production.Because it can take many hours to eliminate caffeine from the body,Ohayon recommends that coffee lovers switch to decaf after lunch. What does Paragraph 3 mainly discuss?
[多选题]共用题干 Most of what I really need to know about how to live and what to do and how to be,I learned in kindergarten.Wisdom was not at the top of the graduate mountain,but there in the sand pile at nursery school.These are the things I learned:Share everything. Play fair. Don't hit people.Put things back where you found them.Clean up your own mess.Don't take things that aren't yours.Say you're sorry when you hurt somebody.Wash your hands before you eat.Warm cookies and cold milk are good for you.Live a balanced life.Learn some and think some and draw and paint and sing and dance and play and work everyday some.Take a nap every afternoon.When you go out into the world,watch for traffic,hold hands and stick together. Be aware of wonder. Remember the little seed in the plastic cup?The roots go down and the plant goes up and nobody really knows how or why,but we are all like that.Goldfish and hamsters and white mice and even the little seed in the plastic cup一they all die.So do we.And then remember the book about Dick and Jane and the first word you learned,the biggest word of all: Look.Everything you need to know is in there somewhere,the Golden Rule and love and basic sanitation,ecology and polities and sane living.Think of what a better world it would be if we all一the whole world一had cookies and milk about 3 o'clock every afternoon and then lay down with our blankets for a nap.Or if we had a basic policy in our nations to always put things back where we found them and cleaned up our own messes.And it is still true,no matter how old you are,when you go out into the world,it is better to hold hands and stick together. Warm cookies and cold milk are good for you.
[多选题]共用题干 Domestic ViolenceNearly three in 10 men have experienced violence at the hands of an intimate partner during their life- time,according________(51)one of the few studies to look at domestic violence and health among men."Many men actually do_________(52)domestic violence,although we don'thear about it often." Dr. Robert J.Reid of the University of Washington in Seattle,one of the study's authors,told Reuters Health."They often don't__________(53)and we don't ask.We want to get the message out to men who do experience domestic violence_________(54)they are not alone and there are resources available to them."The researchers asked study__________ (55)about physical abuse(人身伤害)and non-physical abuse, such as_________(56)that made them fear for their safety,controlling behavior,and constant name-calling.Among men 1 8 to 54 years old,14.2 percent said they had experienced intimate partner violence in the past five years,_______(57)6.1 percent reported domestic violence in the previous year.Rates were lower for men 55 and older,with 5.3 percent__________(58)violence in the past five years and 2.4 percent having experienced it in the past 12 months.__________(59),30.5 percent of men younger than 55 and 26.5 percent of older men said they had been__________(60)of domestic violence at some point in their lives.About half of the_________(61)the men experienced was physical.However,the physical violence men reported wasn't as harsh as that_________(62)by women in a previous study,20 percent to 40 percent of the men rated__________(63)as severe,compared with 61 per- cent of women.Men who reported experiencing domestic violence had more emotional and mental health__________(64) than those who had not,_______(65)older men,the researchers found. _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 Prolonging Human LifeProlonging human life has increased the size of the human population.Many people alive to-day would have died of childhood diseases if they had been born 100 years ago.Because more people live longer,there are more people around at any given time.In fact,it is a decrease in death rates,not an increase in birthrates,that has led to the population explosion.Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency load.In all societies,people who are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them.In hunting and gathering cultures,old people who could not keep up might be left behind to die .In times of famine,infants might be allowed to die because they could not survive if their parents starved,whereas if the parents survived they could have another child.In most contempo- rary societies,people feel a moral obligation to keep people alive whether they can work or not. We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work;we also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age.Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement,somebody else must support them .In the United States many retired people live on social security checks which are so little that they must live in nearpoverty .Older people have more illness than young or middle-aged people;unless they have wealth or private or government insurance,they must often"go on welfare"if they have a serious illness.When older people become senile or too weak and ill to care for themselves,they create grave problems for their families.In the past and in some traditional cultures,they would be cared for at home until they died.Today,with most members of a household working or in school,there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person.To meet this need, a great many nursing homes and convalescent hospitals have been built.These are often profit-making organizations,although some are sponsored by religious and other nonprofit groups.While a few of these institutions are good,most of them are simply"dumping grounds"for the dying in which"care"is given by poorly paid,overworked,and under-skilled personnel. It can be inferred from the passage that in hunting and gathering cultures______.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Judging from recent surveys,most experts in sleep behavior agree that it is virtually an epidemic of sleepiness in the nation."I can't think of a single study that hasn't found Americans getting less sleep than they ought to,"says Dr. David.Even people who think they are sleeping enough would probably be better off with more rest.The beginning of our sleep-deficit crisis can be traced to the invention of the light bulb a century ago.From diary entries and other personal accounts from the 18th and 19th centuries,sleep scientists have reached the conclusion that the average person used to sleep about 9.5 hours a night. "The best sleep habits once were forced on us,when we had nothing to do in the evening down on the farm,and it was dark." By the 1950s and 1960s,that sleep schedule had been reduced dramatically,to between 7.5 and 8 hours,and most people had to wake to an alarm clock."People cheat on their sleep,and they don't even realize they're doing it,"says Dr. David."They think they're okay because they can get by on 6.5 hours,when they really need 7.5,8 or even more to feel ideally vigorous.""Perhaps the most merciless robber of sleep,"researchers say,"is the complexity of the day." Whenever pressures from work,family,friends and community mount,many people consider sleep the least expensive item on his program."In our society,you're considered dynamic if you say you only need 5.5 hours' sleep.If you've got to get 8.5 hours,people think you lack drive and ambition."To determine the consequences of sleep deficit,researchers have put subjects through a set of psychological and performance tests requiring them,for instance,to add columns of numbers or recall a page read to them only minutes earlier."We've found that if you're in sleep deficit,performance suffers,"says Dr. David."Short-term memory is weakened,as are abilities to make decision and to concentrate." It can be concluded from the passage that one should sleep as many hours as is necessary to________.
[多选题]共用题干 BedwettingMillions of kids and teenagers from every part of the world wet the bed every single night,it's so common that there are probably other kids in your class who do it.Most kids don't______(51)their friends,so it's easy to feel kind of alone,like you might be the only one on the whole planet who wets the bed.But you are not______(52).The fancy______ (53)for bedwetting is nocturnal enuresis(夜间遗尿).Enuresis runs in families.This means that if you urinate(排尿),or pee, while you are______(54) ,there's a good______(55) that a close relative also did it when he or she was a kid.Just like you may have______(56)your mom's blue eyes or your uncle's long legs,you probably inherited bedwetting,too.The most important thing to remember is that no one______(57)the bed on purpose.It doesn't mean that you ' re______ ( 58 ) or a slob(懒汉).It ' s something you can ' t help______( 59 ).For some reason, kids who wet the bed are not able to feel that their bladder(膀胱)is full and don't______(60)up to pee in the toilet.Sometimes a kid who wets the bed will have a realistic______(61)that he is in the bathroom peeing-only to wake up later and discover he's all wet.Many kids who wet the bed are very______(62) sleepers.Trying to wake up someone who wets the bed is often like trying to wake a log-they just stay asleep.Some kids who wet the bed do it every single night.Others wet some nights and are______(63)on others.A lot of kids say that they seem to be drier when they sleep at a friend's or a relative's house.That's because kids who are anxious______(64)wetting the bed may not sleep much or only very lightly.So the brain may be thinking,"Hey,you!Don't wet someone else's bed!"This can help you ______(65)dry even if you're not aware of it. 51._________
[多选题]共用题干 "Much of the sickness and death attributed_________(51)the major communicable diseases is in fact caused by malnutrition which makes the body less able to withstand infections when they strike",said Dr. Hiroshi Nakajima,Director-General of WHO,in his statement on the first day of the World Food Summit. "At the same time,"he added,"in developing countries today,malnutrition is the cause of 174 million children under five years of age being________(52),and 230 million being stunted in their growth.Such_________(53)represent deprivation,suffering and wasted human potential __________(54)a scale that is unacceptable from every point of view. Whether we think in __________(55)of humanitarian concern,common justice or development needs,they demand a ___________(56),both from national governments and from international community."At the end of January 1996,98__________(57)had national plans of action for nutrition and 41 countries had one under preparation,in keeping with their___________(58)made at the International Conference on Nutrition in Rome in December 1992. The global situation,__________(59),remains grim. It is now __________(60)that 6.6 million out of the estimated 12.2 million deaths_________(61)are among children under five.In some__________(62),such as sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia,stagnation (停滞)of nutritional improvement_________(63)with a rapid rise in population has result in an ________(64)increase in total number of malnourished children.Over 800 million people around the world still cannot_________(65)basic needs for energy and protein,more than two thousand million people lack essential micronutrients,and hundreds of millions suffer from diseases caused by unsafe food and unbalanced diets. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 BedwettingMillions of kids and teenagers from every part of the world wet the bed every single night,it's so common that there are probably other kids in your class who do it.Most kids don't______(51)their friends,so it's easy to feel kind of alone,like you might be the only one on the whole planet who wets the bed.But you are not______(52).The fancy______ (53)for bedwetting is nocturnal enuresis(夜间遗尿).Enuresis runs in families.This means that if you urinate(排尿),or pee, while you are______(54) ,there's a good______(55) that a close relative also did it when he or she was a kid.Just like you may have______(56)your mom's blue eyes or your uncle's long legs,you probably inherited bedwetting,too.The most important thing to remember is that no one______(57)the bed on purpose.It doesn't mean that you ' re______ ( 58 ) or a slob(懒汉).It ' s something you can ' t help______( 59 ).For some reason, kids who wet the bed are not able to feel that their bladder(膀胱)is full and don't______(60)up to pee in the toilet.Sometimes a kid who wets the bed will have a realistic______(61)that he is in the bathroom peeing-only to wake up later and discover he's all wet.Many kids who wet the bed are very______(62) sleepers.Trying to wake up someone who wets the bed is often like trying to wake a log-they just stay asleep.Some kids who wet the bed do it every single night.Others wet some nights and are______(63)on others.A lot of kids say that they seem to be drier when they sleep at a friend's or a relative's house.That's because kids who are anxious______(64)wetting the bed may not sleep much or only very lightly.So the brain may be thinking,"Hey,you!Don't wet someone else's bed!"This can help you ______(65)dry even if you're not aware of it. 53._________
[多选题]共用题干 As many as 20% of all children in the United States suffer from some form of the learning disorder called dyslexia.Experts on dyslexia say that the problem is not a disease.They say that persons with dyslexia use information in a different way.One of the world's great thinkers and scientists,Albert Einstein was dyslexic.Einstein said that he never thought in words the way that most people do.He said that he thought in pictures instead.The American inventor Thomas Edison was also dyslexic.Dyslexia first was recognized in Europe and the United States more than 80 years ago.Many years passed before doctors discovered that persons with the disorder were not mentally slow or disabled.The doctors found that the brains of persons with dyslexia are different.In most people,the left side of the brain一 the part that controls language is larger than the right side.In persons with dyslexia,the right side of the brain is bigger. Doctors are not sure what causes this difference.However,research has shown that dyslexia is more common in males than in females,and it is found more often in persons who are left handed.No one knows the cause of dyslexia,but some scientists believe that it may result from chemical changes in a baby's body long before it is born.They are trying to find ways to teach persons with dyslexia. Dyslexic persons think differently and need special kinds of teaching help.After they have solved their problems with language,they often show themselves to be especially intelligent or creative. The left side of the brain in a dyslexic person is bigger than the right side.
[多选题]共用题干 Influenza(流感)Influenza has been with us a long time.According to some Greek writers_________(51)medical history, the outbreak of 412 B.C.was of influenza. The same has been suggested of the sickness_________(52)swept through the Greek army attacking Syracuse in 395 B.C.Influenza is a disease that moves most quickly among people living in_________(53)conditions,hence,it is likely to attack armies.__________(54)the nineteenth century there were five widespread outbreaks of influenza. The last of the five________(55)in 1889 and marked the beginning of the story of influenza in our time.________(56)the recent outbreak,it started in Asia.For more than forty years before that outbreak,influenza had steadily_______(57)and was believed to be dying out.A new group of outbreaks was_________(58)by the great outbreak of 1889-1890 and for the next quarter of a century influenza remained a constant threat.In April 1918 influenza broke out among American troops stationed in France.It quickly spread through all the___________(59)but caused relatively few deaths.Four months later,however,a second outbreak started which__________(60)to be a killer. It killed not only the old and already sick but also healthy young adults. It________(61)through every country in the world,only a few distant islands in the South Atlantic and the Pacific remaining_________(62).It brought the life of whole countries to stop,food_________(63)stopped and work loss was very great.Before the great outbreak ended,it had killed at_______(64)15 million people.Thereafter,there have been several great outbreaks throughout the world.It is thus__________(65) that influenza is a terrible infection that we have to pay more attention to. _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 Scientists working on a problem do not know and sometimes can't even guess what the final result will be.Late on Friday,8 November,1895,Professor Rontgen,a German physicist,was doing an experiment in his laboratory when he noticed something extraordinary.He had covered an electric bulb with black cardboard,and when he switched on the current he saw little dancing lights on his table.Now the bulb was completely covered;_________(46)?On the table there were some pieces of paper which had been covered with metal salts.It was on this paper that the lights were shining. Professor Rontgen took a piece of this paper and held it at a distance from the lamp.Between it and the lamp he placed a variety of objects,a book,a pack of cards,a piece of wood and a door key. __________(47).He called his wife into the laboratory and asked her to hold her hand between the lamp and a photographic plate._________(48),but she held up her hand for a quarter of an hour, and when the plate was developed there was a picture of the bones of her hand and of the ring on one finger. The mysterious ray could pass through the flesh and not through the bone or the ring.At a scientific meeting,Professor Rontegen called this new ray "the unknown" the X-ray. _________(49),and soon there were X-ray machines in all the big hospitals.The most obvious use for this discovery was to enable doctors to see exactly how a bone was fractured._________(50).It was found that these rays could be used to destroy cancer cells,just as they destroyed the healthy cells of the doctors who first used the machines.Methods were found later by which ulcers in the stomach could be located,and the lungs could be X-rayed to show if there was any tuberculosis present. _______(47)
[多选题]共用题干 Swine Flu in New YorkThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)has confirmed cases of swine(猪)_______(51)in eight students at a New York preparatory(预科的)school, Mayor Michael Bloomberg said on Sunday. The students have had only_________(52) symptoms and none have been hospitalized,he said.Some of thestudents have already recovered.More than 100 students were absent from_______(53)due to flu-like symptoms last week.New Yorkhealth officials tested samples for eight students on Saturday and determined the students were probably________(54)from swine flu,and the CDC confirmed the________(55)on Sunday,Bloombergsaid.The announcement brings the ______(56) of confirmed swine flu eases in the United States to 20.Bloomberg said there is no ________(57)of a citywide outbreak( ~K) of the flu,and no sign of a potentialouthreak of swine fiu at ___________( 58) schools.Some students at the school_________(59) spring break in Mexico,Bloomberg gaid,bur authorities havenot determined _______( 60) any of the students with a confirmed ease of swine flu was in Mexico. Someonewho traveled to Mexico may not have had any flu symptoms but________(61) on the flu to someone else,henoted.Bloomberg called on students who are homesick to________(62) home for 48 hours after theirsymptoms go away.If symptoms are normal for a regular kind offlu , there is________(63) need to go to a hospital,saidBloomberg. If symptoms become severe, as__________(64) any illness,people should go to the hospital,hesaid.St. Francis,which has 2,700 students,announced it will remam closed for two days.________(65)whether the students' illnesses have been minor because they're young and healthy or because it is a minor strain(菌株)of the virus,Bloomberg responded,"We don't know." _________(58)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life long consequences.There are no reliable global estimates for the prevalence of child maltreatment. Data for many countries,especially low and middle income countries,are lacking.Child maltreatment is complex and difficult to study. Current estimates vary widely depending on the country and the method of research used.Nonetheless,international studies reveal that approximately 20% of women and 5%一10% of men report being sexually abused as children.While 25%一50%of all children report being physically abused. Additionally,many children are subject to emotional abuse(sometimes referred to as psychological abuse).Every year,there are an estimated 31 ,000 homicide(他杀)deaths in children under 15. This number underestimates the true extent of the problem,as a significant proportion of deaths due to child maltreatment are incorrectly attributed to(归因于)falls, burns and drowning.Child maltreatment causes suffering to children and families and can have long-term consequences.Maltreatment causes stress that is associated with disruption in early brain development. Extreme stress can impair the development of the nervous and immune systems.Consequently,as adults,maltreated children are at increased risk for behavioural,physical and mental health problems.Via the behavioural and mental health consequences,maltreatment can contribute to heart disease,cancer,suicide and sexually transmitted infections.Beyond the health consequences of child maltreatment,there is an economic impact,including :ost of hospitalization,mental health treatment,child welfare,and longer-term health cost.A number of risk factor for child maltreatment has been identified.These risk factors are not present in all social and cultural contexts,but provide an overview when attempting to understand the causes of child maltreatment.It is important to emphasize that children are the victims and are never to blame(责怪)for maltreatment.A number of characteristics of an individual child may increase the likelihood of being maltreated,such as being either under four years old or an adolescent,being unwanted,or failing to fulfill the expectations of parents and having special need,crying persistently or having abnormal physical features. Many homicide deaths in children under 15 are wrongly categorized into the following types except_______according to the passage.
[多选题]共用题干 Breast Cancer Deaths Record LowThe number of women dying from breast cancer has fallen to a record low by dropping under 12,000 a year for the first time since records began.The Cancer Research UK data showed that 11,990 women died in the UK in 2007.The previous lowest figure had been recorded in 1 97 1一 the year records began一after which it rose steadily year by year until the late 1980s.Professor Peter Johnson,Cancer Research UK's chief clinician,said,"It's incredibly encouraging to see fewer women dying from breast cancer now than at any time in the last 40 years,despite breast cancer being diagnosed more often.""Research has played a crucial role in this progress,leading to improved treatments and better management for women with the disease.""The introduction of the NHS(国民保健制度)breast screening program has also contributed as the earlier cancer is diagnosed,women are more likely to survive."Breast cancer is now the nost common cancer in the UK with 45,500 women every year diagnosed with the disease一a 50% rise in 25 years.The number of deaths peaked in 1989,when 15,625 women died.It then fell by between 200 and 400 deaths each year until 2004.There was a slight rise in 2005 and then two years of falls.Dr. Sarah Cant,policy manager at Breakthrough Breast Cancer,said,"It is great news that fewer women are dying from breast cancer and highlights the impact of improved treatments,breast screening and awareness of the disease.""However,there are still too many women affected and the incidence of the disease is increasing year byyear.,,The rising rate of breast cancer diagnosis has been put down to a variety of factors including obesity (肥胖)and alcohol consumption. Fewer women died from breast cancer in the UK in 2005 than in 2004.

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