卫生C

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 One useful anti-cancer drug can effectively erase the whorls(箩状指纹)and other characteristic marks that give people their distinctive fingerprints.Losing_________(51)could become troublesome. A case released online in a letter by Annals of Oncology(《肿瘤学年报》)indicates how big a_________(52)of losing fingerprints is.Eng-Huat Tan,a Singapore-based medical doctor describes a 62-year old man who has used capecitabine(卡培他滨,一种化疗药物)to _________( 53 ) his nasopharyngeal(鼻炎的)cancer.After three years on the_________(54),the patient decided to visit U.S.relatives last December. But he was stopped by U.S. customs officials__________(55)4 hours after entering the country when those officials couldn't get fingerprints from the man. There were no distinctive swirly(旋涡状的)_________(56)appearing from his index finger.U.S.customs has been fingerprinting incoming foreign visitors for years,Tan says.Their index fingers are _________(57)and screened against digital files of the fingerprints of bad guys一terrorists and potential criminals that our federal guardians have been tasked with keeping out of the coun-try. Unfortunately,for the Singaporean traveler,one potential_________(58)effect of his drug treatment is a smoothing of the tissue on the finger pads.__________(59),no fingerprints."It is uncertain when fingerprint loss will__________(60)to take place in patients who are taking capecitabine,"Tan points out. So he cautions any physicians who________(61)the drug to provide their patients with a doctor's note pointing out that their medicine may cause fingerprints to disappear.Eventually,the Singapore traveler made it into the United States.I guess the name on his passport didn't raise any red flags.But he is also now got the explanatory doctor's note一and won't leave home _________(62)it.By the way,maybe the Food and Drug Administration,__________(63)approved use of the drug 11 years ago,should consider_________(64)its list of side effects associated with this medicine.The current list does note that patients may experience vomiting,stomach pain and some other side effects.But no where________(65)it mention the potential for loss of fingerprints. _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 As many as 20% of all children in the United States suffer from some form of the learning disorder called dyslexia.Experts on dyslexia say that the problem is not a disease.They say that persons with dyslexia use information in a different way.One of the world's great thinkers and scientists,Albert Einstein was dyslexic.Einstein said that he never thought in words the way that most people do.He said that he thought in pictures instead.The American inventor Thomas Edison was also dyslexic.Dyslexia first was recognized in Europe and the United States more than 80 years ago.Many years passed before doctors discovered that persons with the disorder were not mentally slow or disabled.The doctors found that the brains of persons with dyslexia are different.In most people,the left side of the brain一 the part that controls language is larger than the right side.In persons with dyslexia,the right side of the brain is bigger. Doctors are not sure what causes this difference.However,research has shown that dyslexia is more common in males than in females,and it is found more often in persons who are left handed.No one knows the cause of dyslexia,but some scientists believe that it may result from chemical changes in a baby's body long before it is born.They are trying to find ways to teach persons with dyslexia. Dyslexic persons think differently and need special kinds of teaching help.After they have solved their problems with language,they often show themselves to be especially intelligent or creative. It is believed that dyslexia is related to the bad habits of a baby's mother.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Judging from recent surveys,most experts in sleep behavior agree that it is virtually an epidemic of sleepiness in the nation."I can't think of a single study that hasn't found Americans getting less sleep than they ought to,"says Dr. David.Even people who think they are sleeping enough would probably be better off with more rest.The beginning of our sleep-deficit crisis can be traced to the invention of the light bulb a century ago.From diary entries and other personal accounts from the 18th and 19th centuries,sleep scientists have reached the conclusion that the average person used to sleep about 9.5 hours a night. "The best sleep habits once were forced on us,when we had nothing to do in the evening down on the farm,and it was dark." By the 1950s and 1960s,that sleep schedule had been reduced dramatically,to between 7.5 and 8 hours,and most people had to wake to an alarm clock."People cheat on their sleep,and they don't even realize they're doing it,"says Dr. David."They think they're okay because they can get by on 6.5 hours,when they really need 7.5,8 or even more to feel ideally vigorous.""Perhaps the most merciless robber of sleep,"researchers say,"is the complexity of the day." Whenever pressures from work,family,friends and community mount,many people consider sleep the least expensive item on his program."In our society,you're considered dynamic if you say you only need 5.5 hours' sleep.If you've got to get 8.5 hours,people think you lack drive and ambition."To determine the consequences of sleep deficit,researchers have put subjects through a set of psychological and performance tests requiring them,for instance,to add columns of numbers or recall a page read to them only minutes earlier."We've found that if you're in sleep deficit,performance suffers,"says Dr. David."Short-term memory is weakened,as are abilities to make decision and to concentrate." Many Americans believe that__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Baseline Exam Is Key to Eye HealthEven people with no signs or risk factors for eye disease can suffer vision loss and need to get baseline(基线)eye exams at age 40,says the American Academy of Ophthalmology(AAO)(美国眼科学会).The reminder(提示)is part of the AAO's EyeSmart campaign to mark Save Your Vision Month in February.“Many eye diseases progress without any warning signs,”Dr. Stephanie Marioneaux,a clin-ical correspondent for the AAO,said in a prepared statement.“Gradual changes in vision can af-fect your ability to function independently and have confidence in your abilities.”Based on the findings from the initial screening,an eye doctor will create a schedule for follow-up eye exams.People of any age who have symptoms of eye disease or are at high risk due to family history, diabetes(糖尿病)or high blood pressure should consult with their eye doctor to determine how often they should have their eyes checked,the AAO recommends .By 2020,43 million Americans will be at significant risk for vision loss or blindness due to age-related eye diseases such as cata-racts(白内障)and glaucoma(青光眼). That's a more than 50 percent increase over the current number of Americans with such vision-threatening diseases.But many Americans are unconcerned about the risk of vision loss.Only 23 percent of Amer- icans are very concerned about losing their vision,while most feel weight gain or joint or back pain are greater worries than vision loss,according to an AAO survey conducted for its EyeSmart campaign. Cataracts and glaucoma are related to age.
[多选题]共用题干 Most Adults in U.S.Have Low Risk of Heart DiseaseMore than 80 percent of U .S.adults have a less than 10-percent risk of developing heart dis- ease in the next 10 years,according to a report in the Journal of the American College of Cardiolo-gy(心脏病学).Just 3 percent have a risk that exceeds 20 percent.“I hope that these numbers will give physicians,researchers,health policy analysts,and others a better idea of how coronary(心脏冠状动脉的)heart disease is distributed in the U. S. population ,” lead(带头的)author Dr. Earl S. Ford , from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta,said in a statement.The findings are based on analysis of data from 13,769 subjects,between 20 and 79 years of age , who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition(营养的供给)Examination Sur- vey from 1988 to 1994.Overall,82 percent of adults had a risk of less than 10 percent,15 percent had a risk that fell between 10 to 20 percent and 3 percent had a risk above 20 percent,The proportion of subjects in the highest risk group increased with advancing age,and men were more likely than women to be in this group. By contrast, race or ethnicity(种族划分)had little effect on risk distributions.Although the report suggests that most adults have a low 10-year risk of heart disease,a large proportion have a high or immediate risk,Dr. Daniel S .Berman,from Cedars-Sinai Medi- cal Center in Los Angeles,and Dr. Nathan D.Wong,from the University of California at Irvine, note in a related editorial.Aggressive treatment measures and public health strategies are needed to shift the overall population risk downward,they add. Which of the following statements is NOT right?
[多选题]共用题干 Do You Have a Sense of Humor?Humor and laughter are good for us.There is increasing evidence that they can heal us physically, mentally,emotionally,and spiritually.In fact,every system of the body responds to laughter in some positive,healing way.So how can we get more laughter into our lives?______(46)Psychologist and author.Steve Wilson,has some answers.Many people believe that we are born with a sense of humor.They think,"either you've got it,or you don't."Dr.Wilson points out that this is false.______(47)The parts of the brain and central nervous system that control laughing and smiling are mature at brith.______(48)(After all,when a baby laughs,we don't rush over and say,"That kid has a great sense of humor!")A sense of humor is something that you can develop over a lifetime.Sometimes people think that they don"have a good sense of humor because they are not good joke tellers.Dr.Wilson reminds us that telling jokes is only one of many ways to express humor.______(49) Then we will make others laugh, too.A person who has a true sense"'humor is willing and able to see the funny side of everyday life.One of the best definitions of a sense of humor is "the ability to see the nonserious element in a situation." Consider this sign from a store window." Any faulty merchandise will be cheerfully replaced with merchandise of equal quality." The store manager probably placed the sign in the window to impress customers with the store's excellent service.______(50)As Dr.Wilson says,"a good sense of humor means that you don't have to be funny;you just have to see what's funny." ______(48)
[多选题]共用题干 Napping to a Healthier Heart?1 Researchers say they have developed a simple test that can tell if a person with heart disease is likely to suffer a heart attack.The test measures levels of a protein in the blood.The researchers say people with high levels of this protein are at high risk of heart attack,heart failure or stroke.2 Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo of the University of California in San Francisco led the team.For about four years,they studied almost one thousand patients with heart disease.The researchers tested the heart disease patients for a protein called NT-proBNP.Patients with the highest levels were nearly eight times more likely than those with the lowest levels to have a heart attack,heart failure or stroke.3 The researchers say the presence of high levels of the protein in the blood shows that the heart muscle is under pressure in some way.The study involved mostly men,so the researchers could not say for sure that the results are also true for women.They say the patients with the highest levels of NT-proBNP were older and had other problems like diabetes or high blood pressure.4 Other researchers say more studies are needed to confirm if knowing the protein levels of a heart disease patient should affect that person's treatment.They also would like to know if more aggressive treatment could reduce the patient's chance of a heart attack or stroke.The study appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association.5 Could a little sleep during the middle of the day reduce the risk of a heart attack?An unrelated study earlier this month in the Archives of Internal Medicine suggests that the answer may be yes.In countries like the United States,afternoon naps are mostly for children.But they are common for adults in Mediterranean countries.And these countries generally have lower rates of heart disease.So scientists in the United States and Greece wondered if naps could play a part.Twenty-three thousand healthy adults took part in the study by Harvard University and the University of Athens.Those who took thirty-minute naps three times a week had a thirty-seven percent lower risk of death from heart problems than people who did not take naps.6 The researchers say napping may improve heart health by reducing stress.They say the research suggests that naps are especially good for working men.But they say not enough female subjects died during the study to judge the benefits for women. So far there have not been definite data to confirm______.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The next big breakthrough in artificial intelligence could come from giving machines not just more logical capacity,but emotional capacity as well.Feeling aren't usually associated with inanimate(无生命的)machines, but Posalind Picard, a professor of computer technology at MIT,believes emotion may be just the thing computes need to work effectively.Computers need artificial emotion both to understand their human users better and to achieve self-analysis and self-improvement,says Picard."If we want computers to be genuinely intelligent,to adapt to us,and to interact naturally with us,then they will need the ability to recognize and express emotions,to have emotions,and to have what has come to be called emotional intelligence,"Picard says.One way that emotions can help computers,she suggests,is by helping keep them from crashing. Today's computers produce error messages,but they do not have a "gut feeling" of knowing when something is wrong or doesn't make sense.A healthy fear of death could motivate a computer to stop trouble as soon as it starts.On the other hand, self-preservation would need to be subordinate to service to humans.It was fear of its own death that promoted RAL,the fictional computer in the film 2002 :A Space Odyssey, to extermine(消灭)most of its human associates.Similarly,computers that could"read"their users would accumulate a store of highly personal information about us一not just what we said and did,but what we likely thought and felt."Emotion not only contribute to a richer quality of interaction,but they directly impact a person's ability to interact in an intelligent way,"Picard says."Emotional skills,especially the ability to recognize and express emotions,are essential for natural communication with humans." The phrase"gut feeling"(Par
[多选题]共用题干 1. Internet use appears to cause a decline in psychological well-being,(因特网的使用使人们的心理健康度下降)according to research at Carnegie Mellon University. Even people who spent just a few hours a week on the Internet experienced more depression and loneliness than those who logged on(进人电脑系统)less frequently, the two-year study showed. And it wasn't that people who were already feeling bad spent more time on the Internet,but that using the Net actually appeared to cause the bad feelings.2.Researchers are puzzling over the results,which were completely contrary to their expectations.They expected that the Net would prove socially healthier than television,since the Net allows users to choose their information and to communicate with others.3.The fact that Internet use reduces time available for family and friends may account for the drop in well-being, researchers hypothesized(假设).Faceless, bodiless virtual(虚拟的)communication may be less psychologically satisfying than actual conversation,and the relationships formed through it may be shallower. Another possibility is that exposure to the wider world via the Net makes users less satisfied with their lives.4."But it's important to remember this is not about the technology itself;it's about how it is used,"says psychologist Christine Riley of Intel,one of the study's sponsors(发起人)."It really points to the need for considering social factors in terms of how you design applications and services for technology." Paragraph 2__________
[多选题]共用题干 1. Do you know a child who survived leukemia(白血病)?Do you have a mother , sister or aunt whose breast cancer was found early thanks to a mammogram(乳腺X光照片)?Do you have a friend or coworker who quit smoking to reduce their risk of lung cancer? Each of these individuals benefited from the American Cancer Society's research program.2.Each day scientists supported by the American Cancer Society work to find breakthroughs that will take US one step closer to a cure.The American Cancer Society has long recognized that research holds the ultimate answers to the prevention,diagnosis and treatment of cancer.3.As the largest source of nonprofit cancer research funds in the United States,the American Cancer Society devotes over $100 million each year to research.Since 1946,they've invested more than $2. 4 billion in research. The investment has paid rich dividends(回报、效益).In 1946,only one in four cancer patients was alive five years after diagnosis;today 60 percent live longer than five years.4.Investigators and health professionals in universities,research institutes and hospitals throughout the country receive grants from the American Cancer Society.Of the more than 1,300 new applications received each year,only 11 percent can be funded.If the American Cancer Society had more money available for research funding,nearly 200 more applications considered outstanding could be funded each year.5.You can help fund more of these applications by participating in the American Cancer Society Relay(接力)for Life,a team event to fight cancer. More funding means more cancer breakthroughs and more lives being saved.To learn more,call Donna Hood,chair with the Neosho Relay for Life of the American Cancer Society at 451-4880. More cancer breakthroughs can be made with__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇In the early days of the United States,postal charges were paid by the recipient and charges varied with the distance carried.In 1825,the United States Congress permitted local postmasters to give letters to mail carriers for home delivery,but these carriers received no government salary and their entire compensation depended on what they were paid by the recipients of individual letters.In 1847,the United States Post Office Department adopted the idea of a postage stamp,which of course simplified the payment for postal service but caused grumbling by those who did not like to prepay.Besides,the stamp covered only delivery to the post office and did not include carrying it to a private address.In Philadelphia,for example,with a population of 150,000,people still had to go to the post office to get their mail.The confusion and congestion of individual citizens looking for their letters was itself enough to discourage use of the mail.It is no wonder that,during the years of these cumbersome arrangements,private letter-carrying and express businesses developed.Although their activities were only semi-legal,they thrived and actually advertised that between Boston and Philadelphia they were half-day speedier than the government mail.The government postal service lost volume to private competition and was not able to handle efficiently even the business it had. Finally,in 1863,Congress provided that the mail carriers who delivered the mail from the post offices to private addresses should receive a government salary,and that there should be no extra charge for that delivery.But this delivery service was at first confined to cities,and free home delivery became a sign of urbanization.In 1890,of the 75 million people in the United States,fewer than 20 million had mail delivered free to their doors.The rest,nearly three quarters of the population,still received no mail unless they went to their post office. Which of the following statements about free home delivery in the United States of the late 19th century is not true?
[多选题]共用题干 As many as 20% of all children in the United States suffer from some form of the learning disorder called dyslexia.Experts on dyslexia say that the problem is not a disease.They say that persons with dyslexia use information in a different way.One of the world's great thinkers and scientists,Albert Einstein was dyslexic.Einstein said that he never thought in words the way that most people do.He said that he thought in pictures instead.The American inventor Thomas Edison was also dyslexic.Dyslexia first was recognized in Europe and the United States more than 80 years ago.Many years passed before doctors discovered that persons with the disorder were not mentally slow or disabled.The doctors found that the brains of persons with dyslexia are different.In most people,the left side of the brain一 the part that controls language is larger than the right side.In persons with dyslexia,the right side of the brain is bigger. Doctors are not sure what causes this difference.However,research has shown that dyslexia is more common in males than in females,and it is found more often in persons who are left handed.No one knows the cause of dyslexia,but some scientists believe that it may result from chemical changes in a baby's body long before it is born.They are trying to find ways to teach persons with dyslexia. Dyslexic persons think differently and need special kinds of teaching help.After they have solved their problems with language,they often show themselves to be especially intelligent or creative. One out of five American children suffers from dyslexi
[多选题]共用题干 Hospital MistreatmentAccording to a study,most medical interns report experiencing mistreatment,including humiliation by senior doctors,______(51)threatened,or physical abuse in their first year out of medica1 school.The findings come from analysis of the______(52) a 13-page survey mailed in January 1991 to 1,733 second-year residents.The survey and______(53)appear in the April 15th issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.Overall, out of the 1, 277 residents ______ (54)completed surveys, 1, 1 85 said that they had experienced at least one incident of mistreatment in their intern year.______(55)reporting incidents where they were abused,more than 45%of the residents said they had witnessed at least one incident where other persons______(56)false medical records.Moreover,nearly three quarters of the residents said they had witnessed mistreatment of patients by other residents,attending physicians,or nurses.Almost 40% said patient mistreatment was a frequent______(57).More than 10%of the residents said they were______(58)to have enough sleep,and the average number of hours______(59)sleep was 37.6.The average on-call time during a______(60)week was 56.9 hours,but about 25%of the residents said their on-call assignments were more than 80 hours some weeks.______(61)30% of the residents said they experienced some type of sexual harassment or discrimination,verbal abuse was the most common problem cited.When abusive incidents were limited to events occurring three or more times,53%of the respondents reported that they______(62)belittled or humiliated by more senior residents,while just over 21% reported someone taking credit for their work.Being "______(63)tasks for punishment,"being pushed,kicked or hit,"and______(64) someone"threatening your reputation or career,"were reported as a more______(65)occurrence by over 10% of the responding residents. 53._________
[多选题]共用题干 Some Schooling on BackpacksAccording to the U.S.Consumer Product Safety Commission,5,900 kids were treated at hospital emergency rooms,clinics,and doctors'offices last year for sprains(扭伤)and strains caused by backpacks.Such injuries are so widespread that more than 70 percent of physicians surveyed by the American Academy of Orthopedic(整形外科的)Surgeons listed backpacks as a potential clinical problem for children.How do you avoid such problems? Choose bags that have wide , padded straps(有垫的背带)and abelt.That will help transfer some of the weight from the back and shoulders to the hips.You should alsotighten both straps firmly,so the pack rests about 2 inches above your waist.Also,remember to pack yourbag with the heaviest items closest to your back and to bend both knees when you pick it up.How much should you stuff into your pack?That depends on your size and strength,but a general ruleis not to exceed 20 percent of your body weight.So if a child weighs 100 pounds,the backpack and its loadshould not be more than 20 pounds.One hint : Make frequent trips to your locker(储物柜)to exchangebooks between classes.Backpacks with wheels let you pull the weight along the ground,but they have problems too.Many arelarger than the average shoulder bag,so students are tempted to carry more than they would in a conventionalpack.Roller bags often don't fit into a locker.They can also lead to tripping and falls in crowded halls.Whatever you use,10 or 15 minutes of stretching and back strengthening is a good idea. Roller bags tend to be heavier than ordinary backpacks.
[多选题]共用题干 1. Icebergs are among nature's most spectacular(壮观的)creations , and yet most people have never seen one.A vague air of mystery envelops them.They come into being somewhere in faraway, frigid waters,amid thunderous noise and splashing turbulence,which in most case no one hears or sees. They exist only a short time and then slowly waste away(消融)just as unnoticed.2. Objects of sheerest(最纯粹的)beauty they have been called. Appearing in an endless vaniety of shapes,they may be dazzlingly white,or they may be glassy blue,green or purple,tinted faintly on in darker hues.They are graceful, stately,inspiring in calm,sunlight seas.3.But they are also called frightening and dangerous,and that they are一in the night,in the fog,and in storms.Even in clear weather one is wise to stay a safe distance away from them.Most of their bulk is hidden below the water,so their underwater parts may extend out far beyond the visible top.Also,they may roll over unexpectedly,churning the waters around them.4.Icebergs are parts of glaciers that break off,drift into the water,float about awhile,and finally melt.Icebergs afloat today are made of snowflakes that have fallen over long ages of time.They embody snows that drifted down hundreds,or many thousands,or in some cases maybe a million years ago.The snows fell in polar region and on cold mountains,where they melted only a little or not at all,and so collected to great depths over the years and centuries.As each year's snow accumulation lay on the surface,evaporation and melting caused the snowflakes slowly to lose their feathery points and become tiny grains of ice.When new snow fell on top of the old,it too turned to icy grains.So blankets of snow and ice grains mounted layer upon layer and were of such great thickness that the weight of the upper layers compressed the lower ones.With time and pressure from above, the many small ice grains joined and changed to larger crystals,and eventually the deeper crystals merged into a solid mass of ice. Paragraph 1_________
[多选题]共用题干 Hospital MistreatmentAccording to a study,most medical interns report experiencing mistreatment,including humiliation by senior doctors,_________(51)threatened,or physical abuse in their first year out of medical school.The findings come from analysis of the________(52)a 13-page survey mailed in January 1991 to 1, 733 second-year residents.The survey and________(53)appear in the April 15th issue of the Journal ofthe American Medical Association.Overall,out of the 1,277 residents________(54)completed surveys,1,1 85 said that they had expe- rienced at least one incident of mistreatment in their intern year._______(55)reporting incidents wherethey were abused,more than 45% of the residents said they had witnessed at least one incident where other persons_______(56)false medical records.Moreover,nearly three quarters of the residents said they had witnessed mistreatment of patients by other residents,attending physicians,or nurses.Almost 40% said pa- tient mistreatment was a frequent_______(57).More than 10% of the residents said they were________(58)to have enough sleep,and the average number of hours_________(59)sleep was 37.6.The average on-call tirne during a ______(60)week was 56.9 hours,but about 25% of the residents said their on-call assignments were more than 80 hours some weeks.__________(61)30% of the residents said they experienced some type of sexusi hsra、mrnt or discrimi-nation,verbal abuse was the most common problem cited.When abusive incidents were limited to events oc-curring three or more times,53%of the respondents reported that they______(62)belittled or humilia- ted by more senior residents,while just over 21%reported someone taking credit for their work.Being "_______(63)tasks for punishment," "being pushed,kicked or hit," and__________(64) someone "threatening your reputation or career,"were reported as a more_______(65)occurrence by over l0% of the responding residents. _________(60)
[多选题]共用题干 Young adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more._________(51)to go on to university,reveals a major new study carried out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(《美国国家科学院院刊》).The study involved 1.2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born between 1950 and 1976.The research group analyzed the_________(52)of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.The study shows a clear link_________(53) good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test.The strongest links are for__________(54) thinking and verbal comprehension.But it is only fitness that plays a________(55)in the results for the IQ test,and not strength."Being fit means that you also have good heart and lung________(56)and that your brain gets plenty of________(57),"says Michael Nilsson,professor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital."This may be one of the reasons_________(58) we can see a clear link with fitness, but not with muscular(肌肉的)__________(59).We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important."By analyzing data for twins,the researchers have been __________(60) to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that explain the link between fitness and a_________(61)IQ."We have also shown that those youngsters who_________(62)their physical fitness between the ages of 15 and 18 increase their cognitive performance,"says Maria Aberg,researcher at the Sahlgrenska Academy and physician at Aby health centre."This being the case,physical__________(63)is a subject that has an important place in schools,and is an absolute must if we want to do well in maths and other theoretical subjects."The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests _________(64)national service with the socio-economic status of the men later in _________(65).Those who were fit at 18 were more likely to go into higher education,and many secured more qualified jobs. _________(59)
[多选题]共用题干 Influenza(流感)Influenza has been with us a long time.According to some Greek writers_________(51)medical history, the outbreak of 412 B.C.was of influenza. The same has been suggested of the sickness_________(52)swept through the Greek army attacking Syracuse in 395 B.C.Influenza is a disease that moves most quickly among people living in_________(53)conditions,hence,it is likely to attack armies.__________(54)the nineteenth century there were five widespread outbreaks of influenza. The last of the five________(55)in 1889 and marked the beginning of the story of influenza in our time.________(56)the recent outbreak,it started in Asia.For more than forty years before that outbreak,influenza had steadily_______(57)and was believed to be dying out.A new group of outbreaks was_________(58)by the great outbreak of 1889-1890 and for the next quarter of a century influenza remained a constant threat.In April 1918 influenza broke out among American troops stationed in France.It quickly spread through all the___________(59)but caused relatively few deaths.Four months later,however,a second outbreak started which__________(60)to be a killer. It killed not only the old and already sick but also healthy young adults. It________(61)through every country in the world,only a few distant islands in the South Atlantic and the Pacific remaining_________(62).It brought the life of whole countries to stop,food_________(63)stopped and work loss was very great.Before the great outbreak ended,it had killed at_______(64)15 million people.Thereafter,there have been several great outbreaks throughout the world.It is thus__________(65) that influenza is a terrible infection that we have to pay more attention to. _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇No one knows exactly how many disabled people there are in the world,but estimates suggest the figure is over 450 million.The number of disabled people in India alone is probably more than double the total population of Canada.In the United Kingdom,about one in ten people have some disability. Disability is not just something that happens to other people.As we get older,many of us will become less mobile,hard of hearing or have failing eyesight.Disablement can take many forms and happen at any time of life.Some people are born with disabilities.Many others become disabled as they get older. There are many progressive disabling diseases.The longer time goes on,the worse they become.Some people are disabled in accidents. Many others may have disability in the form of a mental illness.All are affected by people's attitude towards them.Disabled people face many physical barriers.Next time you go shopping or to work or visit friends,imagine what would you do if you could not get up steps,or on to buses and trains?What would you do if you could not see where you were going or could not hear the traffic?But there are other barriers:prejudice(偏见)can be even harder to break down and ignorance represents by far the greatest barrier of all.It is almost impossible for the able-bodied to fully understand what the disabled go through,so it is important to draw attention to these barriers and show that it is the individual person and their ability,not their disability,which counts. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Genetic EngineeringGenetic engineering began when the DNA molecule(分子),the most basic unit of life , was first described in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick.An understanding of DNA led to the altering of normal cell reproduction.Experiments with altering human cells began in 1970.In one of the first experiments,patients were injected with a virus that would produce a life-saving enzyme,but their bodies would not accept it.In 1980 patients with a rare but fatal blood disease were injected with a purified gene that was cloned through DNA technology.Another failure.Genetic engineering got a legal boost(激励)in 1980. The U. S. Supreme Court said that a patent couldbe granted on a genetically engineered "oil-eating" bacterium(细菌).This bacterium would help clean up oil spills.The ruling encouraged companies to invent new life forms,and three important medical products were quickly developed.1.Human interferon(干扰素)—a possible solution to some cancers and viral diseases.A newly engineered bacterium produced human interferon as a by-product. This new product reduced the cost of interferon.2. Human growth hormone(荷尔蒙)一for children whose bodies do not grow to normal height. An expensive growth hormone was previously produced from human cadavers,but by changing the genetic make- up of the single-cell bacterium E.coli,and affordable growth hormone could be produced.3. Human insulin(胰岛素)一for the treatment of diabetes. People with diabetes used to rely on a beef- or-pork-based product until 1982.Now insulin can be manufactured by genetically altered bacteria.Advances in genetic engineering have continued,though they constantly must be weighed against the safety of procedures.There is clearly much more to discover. Genetic engineering may be defined as_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Some Unusual CelebrationsSome holidays are well-known all around the world.Among them are New Year's Eve celebrations.Also common are days in honor of love and friendship,like Valentine's Day.Each country has its own special holidays,too,often to mark important events in its history.Schools,banks,and government offices all close on days like these.________(46)A few of them are really very strange.Of course,they are not strange to the people who celebrate them.Perhaps that is because the celebrations have long traditions.Consider April Fool's Day,for example.No one knows when or why it began.Today it is celebrated in many countries一France,England,and Australia,among others.On this day, people play practical jokes._________(47)The ones who laugh are the ones playing the jokes.The people they fool often get angry.Does celebrating this day make sense to you?Dyngus Day in Poland seems strange,too.On this day,it is traditional for boys to pour water over theheads of girls.Here is the strangest part:They do it to girls they like.Other unusual celebrations take place in a single city or town.A holiday called La Tomatina is celebrated in Bunol,Spain.Every year,in late August,big trucks carry more than 200.000 pounds of tomatoes into this little town._________(48)For two hours,people in the streets throw tomatoes at each other. Everyone ends up red from head to toe.August 10 marks the start of the Puck Fair,an Irish festival with a very unusual tradition.People from the town of Killorglin go up into the mountains and catch a wild goat.__________(49)There are also some celebrations that are really strange.In the United States,sometimes one person gets an idea for a new holiday and tries to get others to accept it.Whose idea was Public Sleeping Day? That one is on February 28.It may seem strange,but it sounds like more fun than the one on February 9._________(50)Do you like the idea of inventing a new holiday?If you do,then you will want to mark March 26 on your calendar. That is Make Up Your Own Holiday Day. __________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 Stage FrightFall down as you come onstage .That's an odd trick.Not recommended.But it saved the pi- anist Vladimir Felts man when he was a teenager back in Moscow.The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance panic,Mr. Felts man said, “All my fright was_______(51).I already fell.What else could happen?”Today,music schools are addressing the problem of anxiety in classes that_______(52) with performance techniques and career preparation.There are a variety of strategies that musici-ans can learn to_______(53)stage fright and its symptoms:icy fingers,shaky limbs,racing heart,blank mind.Teachers and psychologists offer wide-ranging advice,from basics like learning pieces inside out,_______(54)mental discipline,such as visualizing a performance and taking steps to re- lax .Don't_______(55)that you're jittery,they urge;some excitement is natural,even necessa-ry for dynamic playing. And play in public often,simply for the experience.Psychotherapist Diane Nichols suggests some_______(56)for the moments before perform-ance,“Take two deep abdominal breaths,open up your shoulders,then smile,”she says.“And not one of these‘please don't kill me'smiles.Then_______(57)three friendly faces in the au-dience,people you would communicate with and make music to,and make eye contact with them.”She doesn't want performers to think of the audience_______(58)a judge.Extreme demands by mentors or parents are often at the_______(59)of stage fright,says Dorothy Delay,a well-known violin teacher. She tells other teachers to demand only what their students are able to achieve.When Lynn Harrell was 20,he became the principal cellist of the Cleveland Orchestra,and he suffered extreme stage fright.“There were times when I got so_______(60)I was sure the audience could see my chest responding to the throbbing. It was just total panic.I came to a _______(61)where I thought,If I have to go through this to play music,I think I'm going to look for another job.” Recovery,he said,involved developing humility-recognizing that _______(62)his talent,he was fallible,and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster.It is not only young artists who suffer,of course.The legendary pianist Vladimir Horowitz's nerves were famous.The great tenor Franco Corelli is another example.“They had to push him on stage,”Soprano Renata Scotto recalled._______(63),success can make things worse.“In the beginning of your career,when you're scared to death,nobody knows who you are,and they don't have any_______(64),”So-prano June Anderson said.“There's_______(65)to lose .Later on,when you're known,peo- ple are coming to see you,and they have certain expectations.You have a lot to lose.”Anderson added,“I never stop being nervous until I've sung my last note.” 51._________
[多选题]共用题干 Knowing Your Real Personality from Sleeping Positions Everyone has got two personalities—the one that is shown to the world and the other that is secret and real. You don't show your secret personality when you're awake because you, can control yourself,but when you're asleep,your sleeping position shows the real you .In a normal night,of course,you often change your sleeping positions .The important position that best shows your se- cret personality is the one that you go to sleep. If you go to sleep on your back,you're a very open person .You normally trust people and you are easily influenced by new ideas.You don't like to make people unhappy,so you never ex- press your real feelings.You're quite shy and you aren't very confident. If you sleep on your stomach,you are a person who likes to keep secrets.You worry a lot and you're always easily becoming sad.You never want to change your ideas,but you are satisfied with your life the way it is .You usually live for today not for tomorrow. If you sleep on curled up,you are probably a very nervous person.You have a low opinion of yourself and often protect yourself from being hurt,so you are very defensive .You're shy and you don't usually like meeting people.You like to be on your own. If you sleep on your side,you have usually got a well-balanced personality.You know your strengths and weaknesses.You're usually careful. You have a confident personality.You sometimes feel worried,but you don't often get unhappy .You always say what you think,even if it makes people angry. You may find the passage in_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Influenza(流感)Influenza has been with us a long time.According to some Greek writers_________(51)medical history, the outbreak of 412 B.C.was of influenza. The same has been suggested of the sickness_________(52)swept through the Greek army attacking Syracuse in 395 B.C.Influenza is a disease that moves most quickly among people living in_________(53)conditions,hence,it is likely to attack armies.__________(54)the nineteenth century there were five widespread outbreaks of influenza. The last of the five________(55)in 1889 and marked the beginning of the story of influenza in our time.________(56)the recent outbreak,it started in Asia.For more than forty years before that outbreak,influenza had steadily_______(57)and was believed to be dying out.A new group of outbreaks was_________(58)by the great outbreak of 1889-1890 and for the next quarter of a century influenza remained a constant threat.In April 1918 influenza broke out among American troops stationed in France.It quickly spread through all the___________(59)but caused relatively few deaths.Four months later,however,a second outbreak started which__________(60)to be a killer. It killed not only the old and already sick but also healthy young adults. It________(61)through every country in the world,only a few distant islands in the South Atlantic and the Pacific remaining_________(62).It brought the life of whole countries to stop,food_________(63)stopped and work loss was very great.Before the great outbreak ended,it had killed at_______(64)15 million people.Thereafter,there have been several great outbreaks throughout the world.It is thus__________(65) that influenza is a terrible infection that we have to pay more attention to. _________(65)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Cooking Oil Fumes Cause TumorThe leading cause of lung cancer among women in the city was cooking oil fumes while men are more likely to develop the disease from smoking,said medical experts after a five-year research study.Doctors announced the results yesterday with analysis on some new tendencies on lung cancer. They said patients are younger,especially women.According to the Shanghai Tumor Research Institute,more local residents die of lung cancer in the city than anything else.Following breast cancer,it has the second-highest incidence rate."An unhealthy lifestyle is a very important reason for lung cancer,"said Dr. He Yumin from Shanghai Minshen Traditional Medicine Tumor Diagnosis and Treatment Centre.He followed 2, 276 lung cancer patients for five years.Among them,1,483 were male.Smoking causes 70 percent of cases among men while only 18 percent of female patients developed cancer from smoking or inhaling second-hand smoke,according to the report.However,more than 60 percent of women with the disease had long term,close contact with strong oil fumes from cooking and complained about irritated eyes and throat.About 32 percent women fried foods in boiling oil in unventilated kitchens and about 25 percent of women's bedrooms were adjacent to the kitchen.However,local women were surprised to learn cooking oil fumc、 could lead to cancer. Some claimed they may change food preparation methods."Unless my family and I don't eat at home every day,I must stay in the kitchen to cook,"said Xu Li,a 45-year-old local woman."I know the fumes are bad for the skin,but it is the first time that I heard it result in lung cancer. I have already started frying less."Doctors said women's lung cancer had few links to personal health and physical condition, but was closely related to family cancer history,unhealthy dietary habits and weak immune systems.Other experts agreed with him."Smoking is by far the biggest cause of lung cancer for men,"said Dr. Tan Binyong,honorary president of the Respiratory Disease Institute at Fudan University's Medical College."It's true that second-hand smoke and cooking fumes are the main causes among women."His research also warned people not to stand near of stalls selling fried food due to the poor quality of the oils used.The chance of catching lung cancer is three times higher if one is exposed to the fume for a long time, experts said. Which of the following has relatively little connection with women's lung cancer?
[多选题]共用题干 Do You Have a Sense of Humor?Humor and laughter are good for us.There is increasing evidence that they can heal us physically, mentally,emotionally,and spiritually.In fact,every system of the body responds to laughter in some positive,healing way.So how can we get more laughter into our lives?______(46)Psychologist and author.Steve Wilson,has some answers.Many people believe that we are born with a sense of humor.They think,"either you've got it,or you don't."Dr.Wilson points out that this is false.______(47)The parts of the brain and central nervous system that control laughing and smiling are mature at brith.______(48)(After all,when a baby laughs,we don't rush over and say,"That kid has a great sense of humor!")A sense of humor is something that you can develop over a lifetime.Sometimes people think that they don"have a good sense of humor because they are not good joke tellers.Dr.Wilson reminds us that telling jokes is only one of many ways to express humor.______(49) Then we will make others laugh, too.A person who has a true sense"'humor is willing and able to see the funny side of everyday life.One of the best definitions of a sense of humor is "the ability to see the nonserious element in a situation." Consider this sign from a store window." Any faulty merchandise will be cheerfully replaced with merchandise of equal quality." The store manager probably placed the sign in the window to impress customers with the store's excellent service.______(50)As Dr.Wilson says,"a good sense of humor means that you don't have to be funny;you just have to see what's funny." ______(47)
[多选题]共用题干 Young adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more._________(51)to go on to university,reveals a major new study carried out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(《美国国家科学院院刊》).The study involved 1.2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born between 1950 and 1976.The research group analyzed the_________(52)of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.The study shows a clear link_________(53) good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test.The strongest links are for__________(54) thinking and verbal comprehension.But it is only fitness that plays a________(55)in the results for the IQ test,and not strength."Being fit means that you also have good heart and lung________(56)and that your brain gets plenty of________(57),"says Michael Nilsson,professor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital."This may be one of the reasons_________(58) we can see a clear link with fitness, but not with muscular(肌肉的)__________(59).We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important."By analyzing data for twins,the researchers have been __________(60) to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that explain the link between fitness and a_________(61)IQ."We have also shown that those youngsters who_________(62)their physical fitness between the ages of 15 and 18 increase their cognitive performance,"says Maria Aberg,researcher at the Sahlgrenska Academy and physician at Aby health centre."This being the case,physical__________(63)is a subject that has an important place in schools,and is an absolute must if we want to do well in maths and other theoretical subjects."The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests _________(64)national service with the socio-economic status of the men later in _________(65).Those who were fit at 18 were more likely to go into higher education,and many secured more qualified jobs. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 A Health ProfileA health profile is a portrait of all of the factors that influence your health.To draw your health profile, you will__________(51)what diseases run in your family,what health hazards you may be exposed to _________(52)work,how your daily__________(53)compares to the recommended standards,how much timE per week you________(54)exercising and what type of exercise you engage_________(55),how stressful your work and family environments are,what kinds of illnesses you get regularly,and_______(56)or not you have any one of a number of addictions._______(57)this portrait,you should have a checkup to determine how your blood,heart,and lungs are functioning.This checkup will serve________(58)a haseline,to which you can then comPare later tests._________(59)this profile 15 thoroughly drawn,you can begin to think about setting health priorities based__________(60)your particular portrait.For example,if you drink two martinis every evening,have ahigh-stress______(61),are overweight,。moke a pack of cigaretteo a day,and uoe marijuana occaoional-ly on weekends,you should quit smoking first,followed_________(62)losing the excess weight,reducing the stress of your job,giving up your marijuana habit,and then finally giving some________(63)to thosemartinis if you want to prevent first cancer,and then heart disease.Even for the youthful working person who has never been sick a day in his life,who 15__________(64)excellent health,a good look at all health habits and at work and home environments may suggest changes that will_______(65)him in the future. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Malnutrition"Much of the sickness and death attributed to the major communicable diseases is in fact caused by malnutrition which makes the body less able to withstand infections when they strike",said Dr. Hiroshi Na- kajima,Director-General of the World Health Organization(WHO),in his statement on the first day of the World Food Summit organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in Rome,Ita-ly,from 13 to 17 November,1996."At the same time,"he added," in developing countries today,malnutrition is the cause of 174 millionchildren under five years of age being underweight,and 230 million being stunted in their growth.Such figuresrepresent deprivation,suffering and wasted human potential on a scale that is unacceptable from every point of view.Whether we think in terms of humanitarian concern,common justice or development needs,theydemand a response,both from national governments and from international community.At the end of January 1996,98 countries had national plans of action for nutrition and 41 countries hadone under preparation,in keeping with their commitments made at the International Conference on Nutritionin Rome in December 1992. The global situation, however, remains grim.Over 800 million people aroundthe world still cannot meet basic needs for energy and protein, more than two thousand million people lackessential micronutrients,and hundreds of millions suffer from diseases caused by unsafe food and unbalanceddiets.In sheer numbers,iron is the most prevalent mieronutrient deficiency. MainlY women of reproduction ageand children under five are affected by iron deficiency with prevalence hovering around 50% in developingcountries.Among various regions in the world, it is South Asia which is hit hardest with prevalence reaching80% in some countries.In infants and young children even mild anemia is associated with impaired intellectual as well as physical development.In older children and adults iron deficiency reduces work capacity and output. It also leads to increased accidents at work.While there is no single remedy,a combination of several preventive approaches is believed to work best一Dietary improvement includes consumption of iron一and vitamin C-rich foods and foods of animal origin, and avoiding drinking tea or coffee with or soon after meals.Iron supplementation of foods,pathcularly of staple cereals,is practiced in a growing number of countries.Iron supplementation is the most commonapproach,particularly for pregnant women. What is the writer’s attitude toward the serious situation?
[多选题]共用题干 Some Sleep Drugs Do More Than Make You SleepThe United States Food and Drug Administration(FDA)has ordered companies to place strong new warnings on thirteen drugs that treat sleep disorders.It also ordered the makers of the sleeping pills to provide information for patients explaining how to safely use the drugs.Last Wednesday,the FDA announced that some of these drugs can have unexpected and dangerouseffects.These include the risk of life-threatening allergic(过敏性的)reactions.They also include rareincidents of strange behavior.These include people cooking food,eating and even driving while asleep.The patients later had no memory of doing these activities while asleep.Last year,a member of the United States Congress said he had a sleep-driving incident.PatrickKennedy , a representative from Rhode Island,crashed his car into a security barrier near the building wherelawmakers meet.The accident happened in the middle of the night and no one was hurt.Mr.Kennedy saidhe had earlier taken a sleep medicine.He said he was also being treated with a stomach sickness drug thatcan cause sleepiness.The FDA did not say in its announcement how many cases of sleep-driving it has documented.However,the New York Times reported last year about people who said they had strange sleep events after taking the drug Ambien.Some reported sleep-driving and sleep-walking.Others said they found evidence after waking in the morning that they had cooked food or eaten in their sleep.But they had no memory of carrying out the activities.An FDA official says that these serious side effects of sleep disorder drugs appear to be rare.But,he also said there are probably more cases than are reported.He said the agency believes the risk of such behaviors could be reduced if people take the drugs as directed and do not drink alcohol while taking the drugs.The FDA has advised drug companies to carry out studies to investigate the problem. The FDA announced that______.
[多选题]共用题干 Approaches to Understanding IntelligencesIt pays to be smart,but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician,but youmight not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologistshave two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.Thesepsychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on alltests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelli-gent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believes that all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathematical,spatial, musical , interpersonal , intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的), and naturalistic. Gardner thinks that his theory has a______.
[多选题]共用题干 Late-Night DrinkingCoffee lovers beware .Having a quick"pick-me-up"cup of coffee late in the day will play havoc with your sleep.As well as being a stimulant,caffeine interrupts the flow of melatonin,the brain hormone that sends people into a sleep.Melatonin levels normally start to rise about two hours before bedtime.Levels then peak be-tween 2 a.m.and 4 a. m.,before falling again."It's the neurohormone that controls our sleep and tells our body when to sleep and when to wake,"says Maurice Ohayon of the Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center at Stanford University in California. But researchers in Israel have found that caffeinated coffee halves the body's levels of this sleep hormone.Lotan Shilo and a team at the Sapir Medical Center in Tel Aviv University found that six vol- unteers slept less well after a cup of caffeinated coffee than after drinking the same amount of de-caf(脱因咖啡).On average , subjects slept 336 minutes per night after drinking caffeinated cof-fee,compared with 415 minutes after decaf. They also took half an hour to drop off-twice as long as usual-and jigged around in bed twice as much.In the second phase of the experiment,the researchers woke the volunteers every three hours and asked them to give a urine sample,Shilo measured concentrations of a breakdown product of melatonin .The results suggest that melatonin concentrations in caffeine drinkers were half those in decaf drinkers.In a paper accepted for publication in Sleep Medicine,the researchers suggest that caffeine blocks production of the enzyme that drives melatonin production.Because it can take many hours to eliminate caffeine from the body,Ohayon recommends that coffee lovers switch to decaf after lunch. Which of the following tells us how caffeine affects sleep?
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Ceremonial bathing(仪式性的沐浴)has existed for thousands of years and has many forms, one of which is the sauna. The Finns have perfected the steam bath,or sauna,which may be taken, usually in an enclosed room,by pouring water over hot rocks or as a dry heat bath.The Japanese, Greeks,Turks and Russians as well as Native Americans have forms of the sweat bath in their bathing rituals.Dry heat and steam baths had advocates in ancient Rome and pre-Columbian Americans used sweat lodges.The earliest saunas were probably underground caves heated by a fire that naturally filled with smoke as chimney making was unknown at that time.A fire kept in a fire-pit would heat the rock walls of the cave.After reaching full heat,the smoke was let out of the cave and the stones would retain heat for several hours.A few people today say that the smoke sauna,"savusauna"is the only true sauna experience and that all saunas should have at least a background odor(气味)or smoke. Today most saunas use electric stoves,although gas and wood-burning stoves are available.Saunas are relaxing and stress relieving. Those with muscle aches or arthritis(关节炎)may find that the heat relaxes muscles and relieves pain and inflammation(炎症).Asthma patients find that the heat enlarges air passageways of the lung and facilitates breathing. Saunas do not cure the common cold but they may help to alleviate congestion(减轻胸闷感)and speed recovery time. The body's core temperature usually rises 1—2 degrees while in the sauna,thus imitating a slight fever. The sauna could be considered to follow the old saying"feed a cold,starve a fever".The regular use of a sauna may decrease the likelihood of getting a cold in the first place.Sauna is good for your skin as the blood flow to the skin increases and sweating occurs.Adults sweat about 2 pounds of water per hour on average in a sauna. A good sweat removes dirt and grime (污垢;尘垢)from pores and gives the skin a healthy glow. The loss in water weight is temporary as the body's physiological mechanisms will quickly restore proper volumes.The cardiovascular system(心血管系统)gets a work out(运动,锻炼)as the heart must pump harder and faster to move blood to the surface for heat exchange.Heart rate may increase from 72 beats per minute on average to 100一150 beats per minute.A normal heart can handle these stresses but those with heart trouble wishing to begin to use a sauna should seek a doctor's advice. The elderly and those with diabetes(糖尿病)should check with their doctor prior to beginning to take saunas.Pregnant women should not take saunas,particularly in the first three months. Indeed,everyone just starting out should take short sessions(做某事的一段时间)at first to become accustomed to this type of bath.
[多选题]共用题干 InterviewThe importance and focus of the interview in the work of the print and broadcast journalist arereflected in several books that have been written on the topic .Most of these books,as well as several chapters,mainly in,but not limited to,journalism and broadcasting handbooks and reportingtexts,stress the"how to"aspects of journalistic interviewing rather than the conceptual aspects of the interview,its context,and,implications.Much of the"how to"material is based on personal experiences and general impressions.As we know,in journalism as in other fields,much can be learned from the systematic study of professional practice.Such study brings together evidence from which broad generalized principles can be developed.There is,as has been suggested,a growing body of research literature in journalism andbroadcasting,but very little significant attention has been devoted to the study of the interview itself. On the other hand,many general texts as well as numerous research articles on interviewingin fields other than journalism have been written.Many of these books and articles present thetheoretical and empirical aspects of the interview as well as the training of the interviewers.Unhappily,this plentiful general literature about interviewing pays little attention to the journalisticinterview seems to be surprising for two reasons.First,it seems likely that most people in modern Western societies are more familiar,at least in a positive manner,with journalistic interviewing than with any other form of interviewing. Most of us are probably somewhat familiar with the clinical interview,such as that conducted by physicians and psychologists.In these situations the professional person or interviewer is interested in getting information necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of the person seeking help.Another familiar situation is the job interview.However, very few of us have actually been interviewed personally by the mass media,particularly by television.And yet,we have a vivid acquaintance with the journalistic interview by virtue of our roles as readers,listeners,and viewers.Even so,true understanding of the journalistic interview,especially television interview,requires thoughtful analysis and even study,as this book indicates. Westerners are familiar with the journalistic interview,but most of them may not have been interviewed in person.
[多选题]共用题干 Approaches to Understanding IntelligencesIt pays to be smart,but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician,but youmight not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologistshave two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.Thesepsychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on alltests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelli-gent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believes that all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathematical,spatial, musical , interpersonal , intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的), and naturalistic.
[多选题]共用题干 Do You Have a Sense of Humor?Humor and laughter are good for us.There is increasing evidence that they can heal us physically, mentally,emotionally,and spiritually.In fact,every system of the body responds to laughter in some positive,healing way.So how can we get more laughter into our lives?______(46)Psychologist and author.Steve Wilson,has some answers.Many people believe that we are born with a sense of humor.They think,"either you've got it,or you don't."Dr.Wilson points out that this is false.______(47)The parts of the brain and central nervous system that control laughing and smiling are mature at brith.______(48)(After all,when a baby laughs,we don't rush over and say,"That kid has a great sense of humor!")A sense of humor is something that you can develop over a lifetime.Sometimes people think that they don"have a good sense of humor because they are not good joke tellers.Dr.Wilson reminds us that telling jokes is only one of many ways to express humor.______(49) Then we will make others laugh, too.A person who has a true sense"'humor is willing and able to see the funny side of everyday life.One of the best definitions of a sense of humor is "the ability to see the nonserious element in a situation." Consider this sign from a store window." Any faulty merchandise will be cheerfully replaced with merchandise of equal quality." The store manager probably placed the sign in the window to impress customers with the store's excellent service.______(50)As Dr.Wilson says,"a good sense of humor means that you don't have to be funny;you just have to see what's funny." ______(46)
[多选题]共用题干 Some Schooling on BackpacksAccording to the U.S.Consumer Product Safety Commission,5,900 kids were treated at hospital emergency rooms,clinics,and doctors'offices last year for sprains(扭伤)and strains caused by backpacks.Such injuries are so widespread that more than 70 percent of physicians surveyed by the American Academy of Orthopedic(整形外科的)Surgeons listed backpacks as a potential clinical problem for children.How do you avoid such problems? Choose bags that have wide , padded straps(有垫的背带)and abelt.That will help transfer some of the weight from the back and shoulders to the hips.You should alsotighten both straps firmly,so the pack rests about 2 inches above your waist.Also,remember to pack yourbag with the heaviest items closest to your back and to bend both knees when you pick it up.How much should you stuff into your pack?That depends on your size and strength,but a general ruleis not to exceed 20 percent of your body weight.So if a child weighs 100 pounds,the backpack and its loadshould not be more than 20 pounds.One hint : Make frequent trips to your locker(储物柜)to exchangebooks between classes.Backpacks with wheels let you pull the weight along the ground,but they have problems too.Many arelarger than the average shoulder bag,so students are tempted to carry more than they would in a conventionalpack.Roller bags often don't fit into a locker.They can also lead to tripping and falls in crowded halls.Whatever you use,10 or 15 minutes of stretching and back strengthening is a good idea. Children should put all the books in their lockers.
[多选题]共用题干 Hospital MistreatmentAccording to a study,most medical interns report experiencing mistreatment,including humiliation by senior doctors,______(51)threatened,or physical abuse in their first year out of medica1 school.The findings come from analysis of the______(52) a 13-page survey mailed in January 1991 to 1,733 second-year residents.The survey and______(53)appear in the April 15th issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.Overall, out of the 1, 277 residents ______ (54)completed surveys, 1, 1 85 said that they had experienced at least one incident of mistreatment in their intern year.______(55)reporting incidents where they were abused,more than 45%of the residents said they had witnessed at least one incident where other persons______(56)false medical records.Moreover,nearly three quarters of the residents said they had witnessed mistreatment of patients by other residents,attending physicians,or nurses.Almost 40% said patient mistreatment was a frequent______(57).More than 10%of the residents said they were______(58)to have enough sleep,and the average number of hours______(59)sleep was 37.6.The average on-call time during a______(60)week was 56.9 hours,but about 25%of the residents said their on-call assignments were more than 80 hours some weeks.______(61)30% of the residents said they experienced some type of sexual harassment or discrimination,verbal abuse was the most common problem cited.When abusive incidents were limited to events occurring three or more times,53%of the respondents reported that they______(62)belittled or humiliated by more senior residents,while just over 21% reported someone taking credit for their work.Being "______(63)tasks for punishment,"being pushed,kicked or hit,"and______(64) someone"threatening your reputation or career,"were reported as a more______(65)occurrence by over 10% of the responding residents. 57._________
[多选题]共用题干 Prolonging Human LifeProlonging human life has increased the size of the human population.Many people alive to-day would have died of childhood diseases if they had been born 100 years ago.Because more people live longer,there are more people around at any given time.In fact,it is a decrease in death rates,not an increase in birthrates,that has led to the population explosion.Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency load.In all societies,people who are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them.In hunting and gathering cultures,old people who could not keep up might be left behind to die .In times of famine,infants might be allowed to die because they could not survive if their parents starved,whereas if the parents survived they could have another child.In most contempo- rary societies,people feel a moral obligation to keep people alive whether they can work or not. We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work;we also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age.Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement,somebody else must support them .In the United States many retired people live on social security checks which are so little that they must live in nearpoverty .Older people have more illness than young or middle-aged people;unless they have wealth or private or government insurance,they must often"go on welfare"if they have a serious illness.When older people become senile or too weak and ill to care for themselves,they create grave problems for their families.In the past and in some traditional cultures,they would be cared for at home until they died.Today,with most members of a household working or in school,there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person.To meet this need, a great many nursing homes and convalescent hospitals have been built.These are often profit-making organizations,although some are sponsored by religious and other nonprofit groups.While a few of these institutions are good,most of them are simply"dumping grounds"for the dying in which"care"is given by poorly paid,overworked,and under-skilled personnel. The writer believes that the population explosion results from______.
[多选题]共用题干 Hospital MistreatmentAccording to a study,most medical interns report experiencing mistreatment,including humiliation by senior doctors,______(51)threatened,or physical abuse in their first year out of medica1 school.The findings come from analysis of the______(52) a 13-page survey mailed in January 1991 to 1,733 second-year residents.The survey and______(53)appear in the April 15th issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.Overall, out of the 1, 277 residents ______ (54)completed surveys, 1, 1 85 said that they had experienced at least one incident of mistreatment in their intern year.______(55)reporting incidents where they were abused,more than 45%of the residents said they had witnessed at least one incident where other persons______(56)false medical records.Moreover,nearly three quarters of the residents said they had witnessed mistreatment of patients by other residents,attending physicians,or nurses.Almost 40% said patient mistreatment was a frequent______(57).More than 10%of the residents said they were______(58)to have enough sleep,and the average number of hours______(59)sleep was 37.6.The average on-call time during a______(60)week was 56.9 hours,but about 25%of the residents said their on-call assignments were more than 80 hours some weeks.______(61)30% of the residents said they experienced some type of sexual harassment or discrimination,verbal abuse was the most common problem cited.When abusive incidents were limited to events occurring three or more times,53%of the respondents reported that they______(62)belittled or humiliated by more senior residents,while just over 21% reported someone taking credit for their work.Being "______(63)tasks for punishment,"being pushed,kicked or hit,"and______(64) someone"threatening your reputation or career,"were reported as a more______(65)occurrence by over 10% of the responding residents. 65._________
[多选题]共用题干 Step Back in Time Do you know that we live a lot longer now than the people who were born before us?One hundred years ago the average woman lived to be 45 .But now,she can live until at least 80. One of the main reasons for people living longer is that we know how to look after ourselves better. We know which foods are good for US and what we have to eat to make sure our bodies get all the healthy things they need.We know why we sometimes get ill and what to do to get better a-gain .And we know how important it is to do lots of exercise to keep our hearts beating healthily. But in order that we don't slip back into bad habits,let's have a look at what life was like 100 years ago. Families had between 15 and 20 children,although many babies didn't live long. Children suffered from lots of diseases, especially rickets (佝偻病)and scurvy(坏血病),which are both caused by bad diets.This is because many families were very poor and not able to feed their chil-dren well. Really poor families who lived in crowded cities like London and Manchester often slept standing up,bending over a piece of string,because there was no room for them to lie down. People didn't have fridges until the 1920s.They kept fresh food cold by storing it on window-sills(窗台板),blocks of ice , or even burying it in the garden. Some children had to start work at the age of seven or eight to earn money for their parents. If you had lived 100 years ago, you might well be selling matchsticks(火柴杆)(a job done by many children) or working with your dad by now. Life was not easy for many children living 100 years ago.
[多选题]共用题干 Trying to Find a PartnerOne of the most striking findings of a recent poii in the UK is that of the people interviewed, one in two believes that it is becoming more difficult to meet someone to start a family with.Why are many finding it increasingly difficult to start and sustain intimate relationships?Does modern life really make it harder to , fall in love?Or are we making it harder for ourselves?It is certainly the case today that contemporary couples benefit in different ways from relationships.Women no longer rely upon partners for economic security or status.A man doesn't expect his spouse to be in sole charge of running his household and raising his children.But perhaps the knowledge that we can live perfectly well without a partnership means that it takes much more to persuade people to abandon their independence.In theory,finding a partner should be much simpler these days.Only a few generations ago, your choice of soulmate(心上人)was constrained by geography , social convention and family tradition .Although it was never explicit,many marriages were essentially arranged.Now those barriers have been broken down.You can approach a builder or a brain surgeon in any bar in any city on any given evening. When the world is your oyster(牡砺),you surely have a better chance of finding a pearl.But it seems that the old conventions have been replaced by an even tighter constraint:the tyranny of choice.The expectations of partners are inflated to an unmanageable degree:good looks,impressive salary,kind to grandmother,and right socks.There is no room for error in the first impression.We think that a relationship can be perfect. If it isn't,it is disposable.We work to protect ourselves against future heartache and don't put in the hard emotional labor needed to build a strong relationship.Of course,this is complicated by realities.The cost of housing and child-rearing creates pressure to have a stable income and career before a life partnership. Which of the following was NOT a constraint on one's choice of soulmate in the old days?
[多选题]共用题干 Lung Cancer1 The death rate due to cancer of the lungs has increased more than 800 percent in males and has more than doubled in females during the last 25 years.It is considerably higher in urban and industrial areas than in rural districts.There are many possible causes,but it is still controversial which are most blameworthy.Those factors which have been mentioned most frequently are the presence of foreign particles and other irritants in the air(smoke particles,smog,exhaust fumes),and the smoking of cigarettes and cigars.2 Numerous studies have demonstrated a striking correlation between the death rate from lung cancer and smoking habits.Among heavy smokers-21 to 30 cigarettes per day-the mortality rate from lung cancer is nearly 17 times the rate from nonsmokers.It is expected the death rate among women will increase as the present high rate of smoking among women has its effect.3 Sometimes cases of lung cancer are discovered at the time an X-ray is taken for the purpose of detecting tuberculosis.Too often,however,a current emphasis upon the danger of exposure to radiation from x-ray machines can frighten people away from routine chest X-rays and thus prevent an early diagnosis of lung cancer.Early detection is absolutely essential if any possibility of cure is to be maintained.Modern X-ray machines in competent hands pose such slight danger,at least to those over 40 years of age,that this would be much more than offset by the advantages of discovering a tumor while it is small enough to be completely removed.4 A common form of lung cancer is bronchogenic carcinoma,so-called because the malignancy originates in a bronchus.The tumor may grow until the bronchus is blocked,cutting off the supply of air to that lung.The lung then collapses,and the secretions trapped in the lung spaces become infected,with a resulting pneumonia or the formation of a lung abscess.Such a lung cancer can also spread to cause secondary growths in the lymph nodes of the chest and neck as well as in the brain and other parts of the body.The only treatment that offers a possibility of cure,before secondary growths have had time to form,is to remove the lung completely.This operation is called pneumonectomy.5 Malignant tumors of the stomach,the breast,the prostate gland and other organs may spread to the lungs,causing secondary growths. Paragraph 1______
[多选题]共用题干 The Meaning of Dreams1 Dreams play an important role in our lives.If they can be correctly interpreted,we can come to understand ourselves better. Here,we look at four common dreams and what they potentially symbolize.2 I can see their laughing faces…laughing at me. But they aren't as smart. If they were,they'd be up here flying with me!This dream has both positive and negative connotations(涵义).On the positive side,the dream may express a strong desire to travel and get away from everyday routine.It can also be interpreted as a powerful desire to achieve.On the other hand,this dream can mean the person has a problem or is afraid of something and they wish to escape. The dream could represent an inferiority complex(自卑情 结),which the dreamer attempts to escape from by putting themselves up above others.3 I'm moving fast now,but it's still behind me. Doesn't matter how fast I go,I still can't escape. Although this is a traditional symbol of health and vitality(生命力)like the first one,it can also suggest the dreamer is trying to escape from danger. Usually,fear is the dominant emotion.By running hard,the dreamer can possibly escape the threat. However,they can also stumble(瞒珊)or worse still stop moving altogether. This makes the fear even more terrifying(恐怖的).One possible interpretation suggests that the person is under pressure in their everyday life.4 I'm sweating and my heart is beating. I'm trapped in my own bed. In this dream,the person is often standing on a high,exposed place such as on the top of a tower,or on the edge of a cliff. The overwhelming(强烈的)feeling changes from anxiety to a loss of control. There is nothing to stop the person, and the feeling as they go over the edge can be horrifyingly(恐怖地)real. Fortunately,just before hittingtheground,the dreamer awakens with a sense of enormous relief. This dream suggests that the dreamer is afraid of losing control and has a fear of failure or even death.5 The wind is pushing me and I slip. There's nothing I can do…nothing I can hold on to. This symbol is associated with fear:suddenly the dreamer loses all power of movement. They try hard to move their arms and legs,but they simply cannot.Frozen in a terrifying situation with no escape,they become more and more terrified as the seconds go by.Another frequent context for this dream is failing to do something in public,often something which you are normally very good at,such as your job.Not only is this extremely embarrassing,but it also shows a deep-seated phobia(恐惧)of losing a job and a livelihood. Paragraph 3__________
[多选题]共用题干 A Health ProfileA health profile is a portrait of all of the factors that influence your health.To draw your health profile, you will______(51)what diseases run in your family,what health hazards you may be exposed to ______(52)work,how your daily______(53)compares to the recommended standards,how much time per week you______(54)exercising and what type of exercise you engage______(55),how stressful your work and family environments are,what kinds of illnesses you get regularly,and______(56) or not you have any one of a number of addictions.______(57)this portrait,you should have a checkup to determine how your blood,heart,and lungs are functioning.This checkup will serve______(58)a baseline,to which you can then compare later tests.______(59)this profile is thoroughly drawn,you can begin to think about setting health priorities based______(60)your particular portrait.For example,if you drink two martinis every evening,have a high-stress______(61),are overweight,smoke a pack of cigarettes a day,and use marijuana occasional-ly on weekends,you should quit smoking first,followed______(62)losing the excess weight,reducing the stress of your job,giving up your marijuana habit,and then finally giving some______(63)to those martinis if you want to prevent first cancer,and then heart disease.Even for the youthful working person who has never been sick a day in his life,who is______(64)excellent health,agood look at allhealth habits and at work and home environments may suggest.changes that will______(65)him in the future. 58._________
[多选题]共用题干 BedwettingMillions of kids and teenagers from every part of the world wet the bed every single night,it's so common that there are probably other kids in your class who do it.Most kids don't______(51)their friends,so it's easy to feel kind of alone,like you might be the only one on the whole planet who wets the bed.But you are not______(52).The fancy______ (53)for bedwetting is nocturnal enuresis(夜间遗尿).Enuresis runs in families.This means that if you urinate(排尿),or pee, while you are______(54) ,there's a good______(55) that a close relative also did it when he or she was a kid.Just like you may have______(56)your mom's blue eyes or your uncle's long legs,you probably inherited bedwetting,too.The most important thing to remember is that no one______(57)the bed on purpose.It doesn't mean that you ' re______ ( 58 ) or a slob(懒汉).It ' s something you can ' t help______( 59 ).For some reason, kids who wet the bed are not able to feel that their bladder(膀胱)is full and don't______(60)up to pee in the toilet.Sometimes a kid who wets the bed will have a realistic______(61)that he is in the bathroom peeing-only to wake up later and discover he's all wet.Many kids who wet the bed are very______(62) sleepers.Trying to wake up someone who wets the bed is often like trying to wake a log-they just stay asleep.Some kids who wet the bed do it every single night.Others wet some nights and are______(63)on others.A lot of kids say that they seem to be drier when they sleep at a friend's or a relative's house.That's because kids who are anxious______(64)wetting the bed may not sleep much or only very lightly.So the brain may be thinking,"Hey,you!Don't wet someone else's bed!"This can help you ______(65)dry even if you're not aware of it. 60._________
[多选题]共用题干 As many as 20% of all children in the United States suffer from some form of the learning disorder called dyslexia.Experts on dyslexia say that the problem is not a disease.They say that persons with dyslexia use information in a different way.One of the world's great thinkers and scientists,Albert Einstein was dyslexic.Einstein said that he never thought in words the way that most people do.He said that he thought in pictures instead.The American inventor Thomas Edison was also dyslexic.Dyslexia first was recognized in Europe and the United States more than 80 years ago.Many years passed before doctors discovered that persons with the disorder were not mentally slow or disabled.The doctors found that the brains of persons with dyslexia are different.In most people,the left side of the brain一 the part that controls language is larger than the right side.In persons with dyslexia,the right side of the brain is bigger. Doctors are not sure what causes this difference.However,research has shown that dyslexia is more common in males than in females,and it is found more often in persons who are left handed.No one knows the cause of dyslexia,but some scientists believe that it may result from chemical changes in a baby's body long before it is born.They are trying to find ways to teach persons with dyslexia. Dyslexic persons think differently and need special kinds of teaching help.After they have solved their problems with language,they often show themselves to be especially intelligent or creative. Dyslexic people often turn out to be intelligent or creative once they have learned to handle lan-guage properly.
[多选题]共用题干 Are You Getting Enough Sleep?What happens if you don't get enough sleep? Randy Gardner,a high school student in the United States,wanted to find out. He designed an experiment on the effects of sleeplessness for a school science project. With doctors watching him carefully,Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours and 12 minutes.That's eleven days and nights without sleep!What effect did sleeplessness have on Gardner? After 24 hours without sleep,Gardner started havingtrouble reading and watching television. The words and pictures were too blurry(模糊).By the third day,he was having trouble doing things withhis hands. By the fourth day, Gardner was hallucinating(产生幻觉).For example,when he saw a street sign,he thought it was a person.He also imagined he was a famousfootball player. Over the next few days, Gardner's speech became so slurred(不清楚)that people couldn't understand him.He also had trouble remembering things.By the eleventh day, Gardner couldn't pass acounting test.In the middle of the test he simply stopped counting.He couldn't remember what hewas doing.When Gardner finally went to bed,he slept for 14 hours and 45 minutes.The second night he slept for twelve hours,the third night he slept for ten and one-half hours,and by the fourth night,he had returned tohis normal sleep schedule.Even though Gardner recovered quickly,scientists believe that going without sleep can be dangerous. They say that people should not repeat Randy's experiment. Tests on white rats have shown how serious sleeplessness can be. After a few weeks without sleep, the rats started losing their fur(皮毛).And even though the rats ate more food than usual,they lost weight.Eventually the rats died.During your lifetime,you will probably spend 25 years or more sleeping.But why?What is the purpose of sleep? Surprisingly,scientists don't know for sure.Some scientists think we sleep in order to replenish(补充)brain cells. Other scientists think that sleep helps the body to grow and to relieve stress. Whatever the reason,we know that it is important to get enough sleep. Randy Gardner studied the effects of over-sleeping.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Sprained(扭伤)AnkleOne of the most common injuries teenagers and adults experience is a sprained ankle.A sprain occurs when the ligaments(韧带)of a joint are twisted(扭伤)and possibly torn. Ligaments are bands of fibers that hold the bones of a joint in position.A sprain can occur from a sudden twisting at the joint,or a stretching or tearing of the fibers of the ligaments. The injured area usually swells(肿胀)and becomes black and blue. Stepping off the sidewalk at the wrong angle or having one foot land in a hole while walking or running can leave you rolling on the ground in pain with an ankle on fire!If you cannot walk without experiencing intense pain,you must seek medical help.If the pain is manageable,and you can walk,here are three words to help you remember how to treat yourself:●Elevate(抬高)●Cool●Bandage(打绷带)As soon as there is injury to that ligament,there will be a certain amount of bleeding under the skin. Once the blood pools around the damaged blood vessels,swelling occurs.The pressure from the swelling results in additional stress and tenderness to the region.In order to reduce the degree of swelling,lie down as soon as possible and keep the ankle elevated so that it is actually higher than your heart.Next,to reduce blood distribution and keep bleeding(流血)to a minimum, apply a cold pack. After 20 minutes, take the pack off,wait half an hour and then reapply.This can be done several times a day for a total of three days.Never leave a cold pack on for more than 20 minutes at a time.Reducing the temperature in that area for an extended period of time signals the body to increase blood flow to raise the body temperature!Therefore, one accidentally triggers(引起)more blood distribution to the affected area by leaving a cold pack on for too long!Finally,bandage the ankle.Be careful not to wind it too tightly;doing so can restrict blood flow and cause harm to the entire foot.

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