教师招聘【小学】

考试试题

[多选题]We often use the words "growth" and "development" as if they meant basically the same thing. But this may not always be the case. One can easily imagine instances in which a country has achieved higher levels of income (growth) with little or no benefit coming to most of its citizens ( development). In the past, most development policies were aimed at increasing the growth rate of income per capita. Many are still based on the theory that the benefit of economic growth will come to all members of society. If this theory is correct, growth should encourage development. By the early 1970s, however, the relationship between growth and development was being questioned. A major study by the World Bank in 1974 concluded that it is now clear that more than decades of rapid growth in developing countries has been of little benefit to a third of their population. The World Bank study showed that increase in GNP per capita did not promise important improvements in such development indicators as nutrition, health, and education. Although GNP per capita did in?deed rise, its benefit came down to only a small part of the population. This realization gives rise to a call for new development policies. These new policies favor agriculture over industry, call for national redistribution of income and wealth, and encourage programs to satisfy such basic needs as food and shelter. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the international macroeconomic crises of high oil prices, worldwide recession and the third world debt, forced attention away from programs designed to get rid of poverty. How?ever, the lesson remains: economic growth does not promise economic development. Efforts may be required to change growing output capacity into economic benefit that reach most of a nation's people. Before the 1970s, most development policies were based on theory that economic growth would benefit .