考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 Why Buy Shade-Grown Coffee?When people argue about whether coffee is good for health,they're usually thinking of the health of the coffee drinker. Is it good for your heart?Does it increase blood pressure?Does it help you concentrate?However,coffee affects the health of the human population in other ways, too.Traditionally, coffee bushes were planted under the canopy(树冠)of taller indigenous(土生土长的)trees. However, more and more farmers in Latin America are deforesting the land to grow full-sun coffees.At first,this increases production because more coffee bushes can be plan-ted if there aren't any trees.With increased production come increased profits.Unfortunately,deforesting for coffee production immediately decreases local wildlife habitat. Native birds nest and hide from predators(捕食者)in the tall trees and migrating birds rest there.Furthermore,in the long term,the full-sun method also damages the ecosystem because more chemical fertilizers and pesticides are needed to grow the coffee.The fertilizers and pesti- cides kill insects that eat coffee plant,but then the birds eat the poisoned insects and also die. The chemicals kill or sicken other animals as well, and can even enter the water that people will eventually drink.Fortunately,farmers in Central and South America are beginning to grow more coffee bushes in the shade .We can support these farmers by buying coffee with such labels as"shade grown" and"bird friendly."Sure,these varieties might cost a little more.But we're paying for the health of the birds,the land,ourselves,and the planet. I think it's worth it. What is the main idea of this passage?
[多选题]共用题干 The Greatest Show on EarthThe Olympic Games are the greatest festival of sport in the world.Every four years,a hun-dred or more countries send their best sportsmen to compete for the highest honors in sport. As many as 6,000 people take part in over 20 sports.For the winners,there are gold medals and glory.But there is honor,too,for all who compete,win or lose.That is in spirit of the Olym- pics-to take part is what matters.The Olympic Games always start in a bright color and action.The teams of all the nations parade in the opening ceremony and march round the track.The custom is for the Greek team to march in first.For it was in Greece that the Olympics began.The team of the country where theGames are being held-the host country-marches in last.The runner with the Olympic torch then enters the stadium and lights the flame.A sportsman from the host country takes the Olympic oath on behalf of all the competitors.The judges and officials also take an oath.After the sportsmen march out of the stadium,the host country puts on a wonderful display.The competitions begin the next day.There are usually more than twenty sports in the Games .The rule is that there must be at least fifteen.The main events are in track and field,but it is a few days before these sports start.Each day the competitors take part in a different sportriding,shooting,swimming,and cross-country running.Points are gained bor each event.Medals are awarded for the individual winners and bor national teams.More and more women are taking part in tne games. They firsi competed in 1900,in tennis and golf,which are no longer held in the Olympics.Women's swimming events were introduced in 1912.But it was not until 1 928 that there were any track and field events for women.Now,they compete in all but half a dozen of the sports.In horse riding,shooting,and boat racing,they may compete in the same events as the men. Which of the following is a long-established practice in the opening ceremony?
[多选题]共用题干 Why People Use Pseudonyms(假名字)?You can't choose the name you are given at birth,but in many countries you can change it legally when you reach adulthood.Of course,most people never change their names___________(51)they feel unhappy about them.However some people do____________(52)this course of action一particularly artists!What makes an artist want to change their name?Sometimes it's for purely_____________(53)reasons,such as the Nobel Prize winning poet from Chile,Neftaif Reyes.He didn't want his father to_____________(54)he was writing poetry,so he changed his name to Pablo Neruda when he was a young man._______________(55)other times the reason may Portuguese poet Femando Pessca,appear strange;take the case of the______________(56) wrote under 75 different names.The reason? "When I use a different name,I always write in a different way,"he explained.In most cases,____________(57),people change their names for social,historical,politi-cal,or cultural reasons.Here are some of the most ______________(58),The person's real name is just_____________(59)long and difficult to remember. Let's be honest,Madonna Louise Ciccone is not as._______________(60)to remember as just plain"Madonna".And short names are much easier to remember. William Bradley became Brad Pitt and Edson Arantes do Nascimento became Pele.Sometimes names are changed for marketing______(61).For example,if a name sounds too "foreign",it may be changed to something that is more recognizable in a___________(62).So in the film world,Ramon Estevez adopted the name Martin Sheen.Or maybe the artist's real name doesn't sound very attractive一Chad Everett does____________(63)a lot better than Raymond Cramton.Artists sometimes______________(64)the name of someone they admire.Robert Zimmerman changed his name to Boo Dylan because of his admiration for the Welsh poet,Dylan Thomas.Another reason may be practicality:in the past,women found it very difficult to get published.To _______________(65)this situation,they sometimes gave themselves men's names,so the English author Mary Ann Evans became George Eliot,and she did get her books published! _________(64)
[多选题]共用题干 American SportsThe United States is a sports-loving nation.Sports in America take a variety of forms;organized competitive struggles,which draw huge crowds to cheer their favorite team to victory;athletic games,played for recreation anywhere sufficient space is found;and hunting and fishing.Most sports are seasonal,so that what is happening in sports depends upon the time of year. Some sports are called spectator sports,as the number of spectators greatly exceeds the number playing in the game.Baseball is the most popular sport in the US.It is played throughout the spring and summer, and professional baseball teams play well into the fall.Although no other game is exactly like base-ball,perhaps the one most nearly like it is the English game of cricket.Football is the most popular sport in the fall.The game originated as a college sport more than 75 years ago.It is still played by almost every college and university in the country,and the football stadiums of some of the largest universities seat as many as 80,000 people.The game is not the same as European football or soccer. In American football there are 11 players on each team,and they are dressed in padded uniforms and helmets,because the game is rough and injuries are likely to occur.Basketball is the winter sport in American schools and colleges.Like football,basketball origi-nated in the US and is not popular in other countries.Many Americans prefer it to football because it is played indoors throughout the winter and because it is a faster game.It is a very popular game with high schools,and in more than 20 states,state-wide high school matches are held yearly.Other spectator sports include wrestling,boxing,and horse racing.Although horse-racing fans call themselves sportsmen,the accuracy of term is questionable,as only the jockeys who ride the horses in the races can be considered athletes.The so-called sportsmen are the spectators,who do "not assemble"primarily to see the horse race,but to bet upon the outcome of each race.Gambling is the attraction of horse racing. Hunting and fishing are mainly favored by men,young and old,in the US.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The Changing Middle ClassThe United States perceives itself to be a middle一class nation.However,middle class is not a real desig- nation,nor does it carry privileges(特权).It is more of a perception,which probably was as true as it evercould be right after World War II.The economy was growing;more and more people owned their own homes; workers had solid contracts with the companies that employed them;and nearly everyone who wanted a higher education could have one.Successful people enjoyed upward social mobility. They might have started out poor,but they could become rich.Successful people also found that they had greater geographic mobility.In other words,they found themselves moving to and living in a variety of places.The middle class colleetively holds several values and principles. One strong value is the need to earn enough money to feel that one can determine one's own economic fate.In addition,middle-class morality(道 德观)embraces principles of individual responsibility,importance of family,obligations to others,and believing in something outside oneself.But in the 1990s those in the middle class found that there was a price for success. A U.S.News& World Report survey in 1994 indicated that 75 percent of Americans believed that middle class families could no longer make ends meet. Both spouses now worked,as did some of the children;long commutes became routine;the need for child care put strains on the family;and public schools were not as good as they once were.Members of the middle class were no longer financing their lifestyles through earnings but were using credit to stay afloat. The understanding of just what middle class meant was changing. In the second paragraph,the word"collectively"means_________________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇How to be a Successful BusinesspersonHave you ever wondered why some people are successful in business and others are not?Here's a story about one successful businessperson.He started out washing dishes and today he owns 168 restaurants.Zubair Kazi was born is Bhatkal,a small town in southwest India.His dream was to be an airplane pilot and when he was 16 years old he learned to fly a small plane.At the age of 23 and with just a little money in his pocket,Mr. Kazi moved to the United States.He hoped to get a job in the airplane industry in California. Instead,he ended up working for a company that rented cars.While Mr. Kazi was working at the car rental(租赁的)company, he frequently ate at a nearby KFC restaurant. To save money on food,he decided to get a job with KFC.For two months,he worked as a cook's assistant. His job was to clean the kitchen and help the cook."I didn't like it,"Mr. Kazi says,"but I always did the best I could."One day,Mr. Kazi's two co-workers failed to come to work.That day,Mr. Kazi did the work of all three people in the kitchen.This really impressed the owners of the restaurant.A few months later,the owners needed a manager for a new restaurant. They gave the job to Mr. Kazi. He worked hard as the manager and soon the restaurant was making a profit.A few years later,Mr. Kazi heard about a restaurant that was losing money.The restaurant was dirty in- side and the food was terrible.Mr. Kazi borrowed money from a bank and bought the restaurant.For the first six months,Mr. Kazi worked in the restaurant from 8 a. m.to 10 p.m,seven days a week.He and his wife cleaned up the restaurant,remodeled the front of the building,and improved the cooking. They also tried hard to please the customers.If someone had to wait more than ten minutes for their food,Mrs.Kazi gave them a free soda. Before long the restaurant was making a profit.A year later,Mr. Kazi sold his restaurant for a profit.With the money he earned,he bought three more restaurants that were losing money.Again he cleaned them up,improved the food and retrained the employees. Before long these restaurants were making a profit,too.Today Mr. Kazi owns 168 restaurants,but he isn't planning to stop there.He's looking for more poorly managed restaurants to buy."I love it when I go to buy a restaurant and find it's a mess."Mr. Kazi says. "The oniy way it can go is up." When Mr. Kazi was young,his dream was to______________.
[多选题]共用题干 Body Language in the United States1.Most people shake hands and make eye contact when they meet people for the first time.Among very good friends,a woman may give another woman a little hug,and a man may kiss a woman quickly on the cheek.Males don't usually hug one another,however,this is changing.Men usually shake hands with the right hand.Sometimes they use the left hand to either cover the handshake or lightly hold the other person's arm.This shows greater warmth and friendship.Most people wave hello or good-bye by extending the arm,palm facing outward,and twisting the hand at the wrist.Another way is to raise the arm,palm outward,and move the whole arm and hand back and forth.This is important to know because in many other countries,the same movements mean"no".2.When people are waiting in a public place,such as the post office,they usually form lines.Some people get angry and complain if someone pushes their way into a line or jumps ahead of other people.Moreover,many women like men to open doors for them.They also like men to give up their seats on public transportation.However,some women do not like this type of behavior.They feel that men and women should be treated in the same way.3.In the United States,it's important to make direct eye contact in business and social situations.If you don't make eye contact,people will probably think that you are bored or not interested.If there is silence in these situations,people usually try to make conversation.Periods of silence make many people uncomfortable.People in the United States usually stand about one arm's length away from each other while talking or standing together.This space is called"the comfort zone".4.In the United States,mothers sometimes show that they are angry with children by shaking an index finger at them.People may show that they like children by patting them on the top of the head. Paragraph 2________
[多选题]共用题干 InflationBusiness and government leaders also consider the inflation rate to be an important general mndi-cator. Inflation is a period of increased spending that causes rapid rises in prices.________(51) your money buys fewer goods so that you get________(52)for the same amount of money as be-fore,inflation is the problem. There is a general rise_________(53)the price of goods and serv-ices.Your money buys less.Sometimes people describe inflation as a time when"a dollar is not worth a dollar anymore".Inflation is a problem for all consumers.People who live on a fixed income are hurt the __________(54).Retired people,for instance,cannot count on an increase in income as prices rise. Elderly people who do not work face serious problems in stretching their incomes to_________(55) their needs in time of inflation.Retirement income________(56)any fixed income usually does not rise as fast as prices.Many retired people must cut their spending to_________(57)rising prices. In many cases they must stop_________(58)some necessary items,such as food and clothing. Even_________(59)working people whose incomes are going up,inflation can be a problem.The __________(60)of living goes up,too.People who work must have even more money to keep up their standard of living. Just buying the things they need costs more.When incomes do not keep ________(61)with rising prices,the standard of living goes down.People may be earning the same amount of money,but they are not living as well because they are not able to buy as many goods and services.Government units gather information about prices in our economy and publish it as price indexes _________(62)the rate of change can be determined.A price index measures changes in prices using the price for a_________(63)year as the base.The base price is set at 100,and the other prices are reported as a________(64)of the base price.A price index makes________(65)possible to compare current prices of typical consumer goods,for example,with prices of the same goods in previous years. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 His Own Way to Express LoveYesterday was our three-year anniversary.We didn't do anything romantic;we just walked hand in hand and talked about our past and the future.This was pretty much what I had expected.Andy is an unromantic guy : no sweet words or roses.Smart as he is,he is a little bit shy expressing his love. In contrast , I am an outspoken(直言不讳)girl who likes to show her feelings directly .So needless to say,I often feel that he is insensitive.I envy other girls who are surrounded by sweet words.I was in this sullen mood until I heard a beautiful sentence one day:“If one does not love you in the way you like,it does not mean that he does not love you.”This simple but sensible sentence made me think about our happy days and recall his deep concern for me.One cold winter night,I got a high fever. He hurried to my dormitory and took me to the hospital.He was in such a hurry that he even forgot to wear socks.After arrival,he ran through the hospital handling all the formalities(手续).When I was put on a drip(点滴),he told me interesting stories to make me happy. Being held in his warm arms and listening to his tender(温柔的)voice,I had never felt so safe and comfortable.Gradually,I fell asleep.When I woke up 15 minutes later , he was still mumbling(咕浓地说)to me. He explained that if he had stopped talking I would have woken up.At that moment,I found love in his eyes.Another time,I had a bad quarrel with my best friend.Although I knew it was my fault,I refused to admit it.I was angry when he insisted I apologize to her. He said that it was difficult to admit a mistake,but this was what everyone should do. The next morning,I apologized to my friend and asked for her forgiveness.My unromantic boyfriend cares about my health like my father,understands me like my mother and helps me like my elder brother. Which statement is true of the writer?
[多选题]共用题干 Operatunity1 Operatunity is a TV talent show for amateur opera singers.The winners get the chance to sing with the English National Opera. When two housewives,Denise Leigh and Jane Gilchrist won in 2002,their lives changed forever. As they sang Verdi's Rigoletto at the Coliseum(音乐厅)in Rome, they were transformed from working mothers into opera celebrities(名人).2 "I live in the village I was born in,"says Denise,who is blind."Lots of my neighbours are family, and my life is all about my three children."Jane,who worked as a cleaner and a shop assistant,was in a similar situation.She says,"All I had to look forward to was seeing my four children grow up,and I love that,but… you think'there must be more to life'.Winning Operatunity has opened up avenues I never knew existed."3 "This last year has been amazing,"Denise continues."Last mouth was Paris,before that we werere-- cording at Abbey Road,in London,and recently we had our album launch at the Royal Opera House." "We've been treated like princesses,"laughs Jane.“…champagne,chocolates,five-star hotels…”4 But it wasn't all so easy.For Denise,the worst part was waiting at the beginning."After I'd sent in my application form I worried for a month. Then I had to wait ten days after my first audition(试唱).That was awful."Even when they won the competition they were allowed to tell their close family but they weren't allowed to tell anyone else until later. Denise and Jane also found the travelling difficult.They couldn't take their children with them while they were away singing,so they had to organize childcare.However,there's been no problem with the physical side of singing:"We didn't have to worry about that as we've had lots of help and wonderful voice training,"says Jane.They also had to learn to deal with the media."The kids loved the fact that they could stay up and watch us on TV,but I just couldn't understand why some newspapers were more interested in the fact I divorced at 21,rather than the fact I had just sung at the Coliseum,"says Denise. Before becoming famous,Denise and Jane worked in order to__________.
[多选题]共用题干 The Fridge1. The fridge is considered a necessity.It has been so since the 1960s when packaged food first appeared with the label:“store in the refrigerator.”2. In my fridgeless Fifties childhood,I was fed well and healthily.The milkman came daily,the grocer,the butcher,the baker,and the ice-cream man delivered two or three times a week.The Sunday meat would last until Wednesday and surplus bread and milk became all kinds of cakes. Nothing was wasted and we were never troubled by rotten food.Thirty years on,food deliveries have ceased,fresh vegetables are almost unobtainable in the country.3. The invention of the fridge contributed comparatively little to the art of food preservation.A vast variety of well-tried techniques already existed-natural cooling,drying,smoking,salting, sugaring,bottling…4. What refrigeration did promote was marketing-marketing hardware and electricity,marketing soft drinks,marketing dead bodies of animals around the globe in search of a good price.5. Consequently,most of the world's fridges are to be found,not in the tropics where they might prove useful,but in the wealthy countries with mild temperatures where they are climatically al- most unnecessary .Every winter,millions of fridges hum away continuously,and at vast expanse, busily maintaining an artificially-cooled space inside an artificially-heated house-while outside, nature provides the desired temperature free of charge.6. The fridge's effect upon the environment has been evident,while its contribution to human happiness has been insignificant.If you don't believe me,try it yourself. Invest in a food cabinet and turn off your fridge next winter. You may miss the hamburgers but at least you'll get ride of that terrible hum. Before fridges came into use,it was still possible for people to have fresh foods because______.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The Development of BalletBallet is a dance form that has a long history.The fact that it survives to this day shows that it has adjus- ted as times have changed.Ballet began in the royal courts during the Renaissance?At that time it became common for kings andqueens,as well as other nobility,to participate in pageants that included music,poetry,and dance.As these entertainments moved from the Italian courts to the French ones,court ladies began participating in them.Though their long dresses prevented much movement,they were able to perform elaborate walking pat- terns.It was not until the 1600s that women dancers shortened their skirts,changed to flat shoes,and began doing some of the leaps and turns performed by men.It was also in the 1600s that professional ballet began.King Louis XIV of France,himself a devoted dancer,founded the Royal Academy of Dance.The five basic feet positions from which all ballet steps begin were finalized.In the late 1700s another important change occurred.Ballet began to tell a story on its own.It was no longer simply dance to be performed between acts of plays.Elaborate wigs and costumes were elimina- ted.By the early 1800s dancers learned to rise on their toes to make it appear that they were floating.Classical ballet as we know it today was influenced primarily by Russian dancing. The Russians re- mained interested in ballet when it declined in other European countries in the mid-1800s.One of the most influential figures of the early 20th century was Sergei Diaghilev.His dance company,the Ballets Russes, brought a new energy and excitement to ballet.One of his chief assistants,George Balanchine,went on to found the New York City Ballet in 1948 and to influence new generations of dancers. The word"pageants"in Paragraph 2 means_________.
[多选题]共用题干第二篇 Across the English Channel To swim across the English Channel takes at least nine hours.It's a hard work and it makes you short of breath.To fly over the Channel takes only twenty minutes(as only as you're not held up at the airport),but it's an expensive way to travel.You can travel by hovercraft if you don't mind the noise,and that takes forty minutes.Otherwise you can go by boat,if you dreams of being able to drive to France in your own car."Not possible",you say.Well wait a minute.People are once again considering the idea of a Channel tunnel or bridge. This time,the Greater London Council is looking into the possibility of building a Channel link straight to London.A bridge would cost far more than a tunnel, but you would be able to go by rail or by car on a bridge,whereas a tunnel would provide a rail link only. Why is this idea being discussed again?Is Britain becoming more conscious of the need for links with Europe as a result of joining the EEC(欧共体)?Well, perhaps. The main reason, though,is that a tunnel or bridge would reach the twenty square kilometers of London's disused dockland(船坞地).A link from London to the continent would stimulate trade and re-vitalize(使······重新具有活力)the port, and would make London a main trading center in Europe. With a link over the Channel,you could buy your fish and chips in England and be able to eat them in France while they are still warm! Which of the following statements is true?
[多选题]共用题干 Sending E-mails to ProfessorsOne student skipped class and then sent the professor an e-mail________(51)for copies ofher teaching notes.Another_________(52)that she was late for a Monday class because she was recovering fromdrinking too much at a wild weekend party.At colleges and universities in the U. S.,e-mail has made professors more approachable(平易近人).But many say it has made them too accessible,__________(53)boundaries that traditionally kept students at a healthy distance.These days,professors say,students seem to view them as available_________(54)the clock, sending a steady stream of informal e-mails."The tone that they take in e-mails is pretty astounding(令人吃惊的),"said Michael Kessler, an assistant dean at Georgetown University."They'll________(55)you to help:'I need to know this."'"There's a fine________(56)between meeting their needs and at the same time maintaining a level of legitimacy(正统性)as an_________(57)who is in charge."Christopher Dede,a professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education,said_________ ( 58 ) show that students no longer defer to(听从)their professors,perhaps because they realize that professors'________(59)could rapidly become outdated."The deference was driven by the_______(60)that professors were all-knowing sources of deep knowledge,"Dede said,and that notion has_________(61).For junior faculty members,e-mails bring new tension into their work,some say, as they struggle with how to________(62).Their job prospects,they realize,may rest in part on student evaluations of their accessibility.College students say e-mail makes________(63)easier to ask questions and helps them learn.But they seem unaware that what they write in e-mails could have negative effects________ (64)them,said Alexandra Lahav,and associate professor of Law at the University of Connecticut. She recalled an e-mail message from a student saying that he planned to miss class so he could play with his son.Professor Lahav did not respond."Such e-mails can have consequences,"she said."Students don't understand that ________(65)they say in e-mail can make them seem unprofessional,and could result in a bad recommendation." _________(65)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The State of Marriage TodayIs there something seriously wrong with marriage today?During the past 50 years,the rate of divorce in the United States has exploded:almost 50% of marriages end in divorce now,and the evidence suggests it is going to get worse.If this trend continues,it will lead to the breakup of the family,according to a spokesper- son for the National Family Association.Some futurists predict that in 100 years,the average American will marry at least four times ,and extramarital(婚外的)affairs will be even more common than they are now.But what are the reasons for this ,and is the picture really so gloomy(阴暗的)?The answer to the first question is really quite simple:marriage is no longer the necessity it once was.The institution of marriage has been based for years partly on economic need.Women used to be economically dependent on their husbands一as they usually didn't have jobs outside the home.But with the rising number of women in well- paying jobs,this is no longer the case,so they don't feel that they need to stay in a failing marriage.In answer to the second question , the outlook may not be as pessimistic(悲观的)as it seems. While the rate of divorce has risen;the rate of couples marrying has never actually fallen very much,so marriage is stillquite popular. In addition to this,many couples now simply live together and don't bother to marry. These couples are effectively married,but they do not appear in either the marriage or divorce statistics.In fact, more than 50%of first marriages survive.So is marriage really an outdated institution?The fact that most people still get married indicates that it isn't. And it is also true that married couples have a healthier life than single people:they suffer less from stress and its consequences,such as heart problems,and married men generally consider themselves more contented than their single counterparts. Perhaps the key is to find out what makes a successful marriage and apply it to all of our relationships! Why is the outlook of marriage not as hopeless as it appears?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Taking Pictures of the WorldAnnie Griffiths Belt is a National Geographic photographer.She has worked for National Geographic since 1978,and has taken pictures on almost every continent in the world.In fact,Antarctica is the only continent Belt hasn't seen yet.Belt's photographs are well known for their beauty and high quality.They also reflect very different cultures and regions of the world.Belt has photographed the ancient city of Petra,Jordan,as well as ti green landscapes of the Lake District in England.Recently,her pictures appeared in a book about undeveloped natural places in North America.Everywhere that Belt goes,she takes pictures of people.Belt has found ways to connect with people all ages and nationalities even when she does not speak their language."The greatest privilege of my job being allowed into people's lives."she has said."The camera is like a passport,and I am often overwhelmed(激动得不知所措)by how quickly people welcome me!"Knowing how to break the ice has helped to make Belt a successful photographer,but experts say that anyone can learn to connect with new people.When people speak the same language,greetings and small talk can make strangers feel more comfortable with each other.When people don't speak the same language,a smile is very helpful.Having something in common can also help break the ice.For example Belt has traveled with her two children,so when she takes pictures of children or their parents,they all ha、 that family connection in common.Even bad weather can help people to connect when they are experiencing it together.Belt has,some advice if you are thinking about a career in photography.You can volunteer to take pictures for a local organization that can't afford to hire a professional photographer.You can also take good,honest look at your best photographs.If you're a real photographer,your photos are good because( your personal and technical skills.Belt also recommends studying and learning from photos taken b professional photographers.Remember,the next time you look at a beautiful photograph,you might be looking at the work of Anni Griffiths Belt.And the next time you meet a new person,don't be afraid to break the ice.The connection you make could be very rewarding. In the fourth paragraph,the author mainly discusses how to_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Electronic TeachingThe potential of closed-circuit television and other new electronic teaching tools is so great that it is fascinating to visualize" the school of tomorrow".Televised lessons will originate from a central building having perhaps four or five master studios.The lessons will be carried into classrooms all over a city,or even an entire country.After a televised lesson has been given,the classroom teacher will take over for the all important"follow-up"period.The students will ask any troublesome questions,and difficult points will be cleared up through discussion.The teacher in the classroom will have additional electronic tools.On the teacher's desk,the traditional chalk and erasers will have been replaced by a multiple-control panel and magnetic tape players.The tape machines will run pre-recorded lessons which pupils will follow by headphones. The lessons will be specifically geared to the students' levels of ability.For instance,while the class as a whole studies history,each student will receive an individual history lesson,directed to his par-ticular level of ability.Should question arise,the students will be able to talk directly to the teacher on individual intercoms without disturbing the rest of the class.In this way,the teacher will be able to conduct as many as three classes at the same time.With the rapid development of computer science,students will be aided with specially prepared multi-media software to study their subjects better. Homework will possibly be assigned and handed in via electronic mail system. Students can even take examinations on their computer linked with the teachers' and get the score instantly.They will get certificates or diplomas if they pass all the required examinations.Experts believe that this type of education will be very popular in the years ahead. Which of the following statements about the function of the teacher in the teaching process is true?
[多选题]共用题干 Sending E-mails to ProfessorsOne student skipped class and then sent the professor an e-mail________(51)for copies ofher teaching notes.Another_________(52)that she was late for a Monday class because she was recovering fromdrinking too much at a wild weekend party.At colleges and universities in the U. S.,e-mail has made professors more approachable(平易近人).But many say it has made them too accessible,__________(53)boundaries that traditionally kept students at a healthy distance.These days,professors say,students seem to view them as available_________(54)the clock, sending a steady stream of informal e-mails."The tone that they take in e-mails is pretty astounding(令人吃惊的),"said Michael Kessler, an assistant dean at Georgetown University."They'll________(55)you to help:'I need to know this."'"There's a fine________(56)between meeting their needs and at the same time maintaining a level of legitimacy(正统性)as an_________(57)who is in charge."Christopher Dede,a professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education,said_________ ( 58 ) show that students no longer defer to(听从)their professors,perhaps because they realize that professors'________(59)could rapidly become outdated."The deference was driven by the_______(60)that professors were all-knowing sources of deep knowledge,"Dede said,and that notion has_________(61).For junior faculty members,e-mails bring new tension into their work,some say, as they struggle with how to________(62).Their job prospects,they realize,may rest in part on student evaluations of their accessibility.College students say e-mail makes________(63)easier to ask questions and helps them learn.But they seem unaware that what they write in e-mails could have negative effects________ (64)them,said Alexandra Lahav,and associate professor of Law at the University of Connecticut. She recalled an e-mail message from a student saying that he planned to miss class so he could play with his son.Professor Lahav did not respond."Such e-mails can have consequences,"she said."Students don't understand that ________(65)they say in e-mail can make them seem unprofessional,and could result in a bad recommendation." _________(52)
[多选题]共用题干 Some Unusual CelebrationsSome holidays are well-known all around the world.Among them are New Year's Eve celebrations. Also common are days in honor of love and friendship,like Valentine's Day. Each country has its own special holidays, too,often to mark important events in its history. Schools,banks,and government offices all close on days like these.__________(46)A few of them are really very strange.Of course,they are not strange to the people who celebrate them.Perhaps that is because the celebra-tions have long traditions.Consider April Fool's Day,for example.No one knows when or why it began.Today it is celebrated in many countries一France,England,and Australia,among others.On this day,people play practical jokes.___________(47)The ones who laugh are the ones playing the jokes.The people they fool often get angry.Does celebrating, this day make sense to you?Dyngus Day in Poland seems strange,too.On this day,it is traditional for boys to pour water over the heads of girls. Here is the strangest part:They do it to girls they like.Other unusual celebrations take place in a single city or town. A holiday called La Tomatina is celebrated in Bunol,Spain一 Every year,in late August,big trucks carry more than 200,000 pounds of tomatoes into this little town.___________(48)For two hours,people in the streets throw tomatoes at each other. Everyone ends UP red from head to toe.August 10 marks the start of the Puck Fair,an Irish festival with a very unusual tradition.People from the town of Killorglin go up into the mountains and catch a wild goat._________(49)There are also some celebrations that are really strange.In the United States,sometimes one person gets an idea for a new holiday and tries to get others to accept it. Whose idea was Public Sleeping Day? That one is on February 28.It may seem strange,but it sounds like more fun than the one on February 9._________(50)Do you like the idea of inventing a new holiday?If you do,then you will want to mark March 26 on your calendar. That is Make Up Your Own Holiday Day. ___________(50)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇An Expensive MistakeIs there water on the planet Mars? Is there life on Mars?Was there ever life on Mars?Scientists from NASA wanted to know the answers to tliese questions.They built a spacecraft to travel around Mars and get informnation.The spacecraft was called the Mars Climate orbiter.The Mars Climate Orbiter left for Mars iii December 1998.The trip took nine and a half months.At first, everything was fine.However.when the Orbiter got near Mars,something terrible happened.The spacecraft didn't go to the right place.It went too close to Mars.it was too hot for the Orbiter there.The spacecraft couldn't function correctly.Suddenly,it stopped sending messages to NASA.The Orbiter was lost.How could this terrible thing happen? How did the Orbiter get closer to Mars than the scientists planned? Finally,they found the anlswer. Two teams of scientists worked together on the Orbiter. One team was in England,and one teann was in the United States.There were many similarities in the way they worked,but there was one important difference:The teams used different guidelines for measuring things.The United States team used the metric systcnni(公制).The oilier team used the English system.Because they used different systems,the scientists made a mathematical mistake.The Orbiter's orbit (the shape and pattern of its path)around Mars was not correct.The scientists put the Orbiter on the wrong path.The Orbiter got too close amid too hot,and it stopped functioning.Why didn'tanybody see the mistake before it was too late?Many things contributed to the problem. One thing was that NASA scientists and mathematicians were working on two other spacecrafts at the same time.This was a challenge,and they were very tired from working long hours.The Mars Climate Orbiter cost $94 million to build.It also cost a lot of money to try to find the lost Or- biter in space.In addition,NASA's research on the cause of the problem was very expensive.This wasn't the first time that two different measurement systems caused mistakes in scientific projects.However,the Mars Climate Orbiter was definitely the most expensive mistake of all! NASA built the Mars Climate Orbiter to get information about_______.
[多选题]共用题干 American SportsThe United States is a sports-loving nation.Sports in America take a variety of forms;organized competitive struggles,which draw huge crowds to cheer their favorite team to victory;athletic games,played for recreation anywhere sufficient space is found;and hunting and fishing.Most sports are seasonal,so that what is happening in sports depends upon the time of year. Some sports are called spectator sports,as the number of spectators greatly exceeds the number playing in the game.Baseball is the most popular sport in the US.It is played throughout the spring and summer, and professional baseball teams play well into the fall.Although no other game is exactly like base-ball,perhaps the one most nearly like it is the English game of cricket.Football is the most popular sport in the fall.The game originated as a college sport more than 75 years ago.It is still played by almost every college and university in the country,and the football stadiums of some of the largest universities seat as many as 80,000 people.The game is not the same as European football or soccer. In American football there are 11 players on each team,and they are dressed in padded uniforms and helmets,because the game is rough and injuries are likely to occur.Basketball is the winter sport in American schools and colleges.Like football,basketball origi-nated in the US and is not popular in other countries.Many Americans prefer it to football because it is played indoors throughout the winter and because it is a faster game.It is a very popular game with high schools,and in more than 20 states,state-wide high school matches are held yearly.Other spectator sports include wrestling,boxing,and horse racing.Although horse-racing fans call themselves sportsmen,the accuracy of term is questionable,as only the jockeys who ride the horses in the races can be considered athletes.The so-called sportsmen are the spectators,who do "not assemble"primarily to see the horse race,but to bet upon the outcome of each race.Gambling is the attraction of horse racing. Football can be classified as a spectator sport.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The Changing Middle ClassThe United States perceives itself to be a middle一class nation.However,middle class is not a real desig- nation,nor does it carry privileges(特权).It is more of a perception,which probably was as true as it evercould be right after World War II.The economy was growing;more and more people owned their own homes; workers had solid contracts with the companies that employed them;and nearly everyone who wanted a higher education could have one.Successful people enjoyed upward social mobility. They might have started out poor,but they could become rich.Successful people also found that they had greater geographic mobility.In other words,they found themselves moving to and living in a variety of places.The middle class colleetively holds several values and principles. One strong value is the need to earn enough money to feel that one can determine one's own economic fate.In addition,middle-class morality(道 德观)embraces principles of individual responsibility,importance of family,obligations to others,and believing in something outside oneself.But in the 1990s those in the middle class found that there was a price for success. A U.S.News& World Report survey in 1994 indicated that 75 percent of Americans believed that middle class families could no longer make ends meet. Both spouses now worked,as did some of the children;long commutes became routine;the need for child care put strains on the family;and public schools were not as good as they once were.Members of the middle class were no longer financing their lifestyles through earnings but were using credit to stay afloat. The understanding of just what middle class meant was changing. The 1994 survey showed most Americans thought the middle class_________________.
[多选题]共用题干 Earthquake1.Every year earthquakes are responsible for a large number of deaths and a vast amount of destruction in various parts of the world.Most of these damaging earthquakes occur either in a narrow belt which surrounds the Pacific Ocean or in a line which extends from Burma to the Alps in Europe. Some of the destruction is directly caused by the quake itself. An example of this is the collapse of buildings as a result of the quake itself. Other damage results from landslides or major fires which are initiated by the quake.2.There are about a million quakes a year. Fortunately,however,not all of them are destructive.The intensity of an earthquake is measured on the Richter Scale,which goes from 0 upward. The highest scale recorded to date is 8.9.Major damage generally occurs from quakes ranging upwards from 6.0.3.The actual cause of the quake itself is the breaking of rocks at or below the earth's surface. This is produced by pressure which scientists believe may be due to a number of reasons, two of which are the expansion and contraction of the earth's crust and continental drift.4.In order to limit the damage and to prevent some of the suffering resulting from earthquakes, scientists are working on ways to enable accurate prediction.Special instruments are used to help people record,for example,shaking of the earth.Scientists are trying to find methods that will enable them to indicate the exact time,location and size of an earthquake.5.Certain phenomena have been observed which are believed to be signs of imminent earth-quakes.These include strange behaviors of some animals,the changes in the content of mineral water,etc.The magnetic properties of rocks may also display special pattern before major earthquakes happen. Paragraph 5________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The World CupThis summer's World Cup competition will see teams competing to play the world's best football. But the football they play will not all be of the same kind.The fans expect different styles of play from Brazil,Germany,or Italy.What makes Brazilian football Brazilian?Our style of playing football contrasts with the Europeans because of a combination of qualities of surprise,accuracy and good judgment.This style has won Brazil five world cups.Yet many Brazilian fans only count four of these victories.In 1994,the team abandoned this style for modern,scientific training and tactics.The team won the cup,but in a boring way.The Italians think differently."To many Italians,the score 0:0 has a glorious quality,suggesting perfection,"says the British football writer Simon Kuper. In the Italian culture,the idea of face is very important.This is why Italian teams are traditionally built around strong defenses.The Dutch footballer Johan Cruyff once said that Italian teams never exactly beat you.It's just that you often lose to them.In Holland,there is a tradition of decision making through argument and discussion.It is a society where everybody is expected to have a point of view."Every Dutch player wants to control the game,"says Arnold Muhren."You play football with your brains and not your feet.""A Dutch player argues,"says Simon Kuper."An English player obeys his superior. He is a soldier."The qualities valued in English football are military-strength,aggression and courage.This can make for exciting football. But it also means that the English find it difficult to use skillful players. David Beckham is usually criticized for his failure to defend一despite the fact that he is an attacker.If the English like to fight,the Germans like to win.In recent years,Germany has tried to change its image as a country of ruthless efficiency and a desire for victory at all costs.But Germans are quite happy for these qualities to remain in their national football team."Football is a simple game,"Gary Lineker once said."You kick a ball about for ninety minutes and in the end the Germans win."It's difficult to predict who will win this year's World Cup.There is no strong favorite.But a look at the track record of previous winners shows that it is the nations with the strongest national characteristics in the football that perform best.It seems that you need to know where you come frorr if you want to get to the top. Who will win this year's World Cup?
[多选题]共用题干 SmugglingIt is not unusual for a pet to be sent by air cargo from Columbia to New York,but last December's shipment of a 4-year-old sheep dog caught a New York Kennedy Airport Customs inspector's eye .The dog looked to be on its last legs,and there was an unusual lump on the side of its body.An X-ray and emergency surgery revealed the presence of 10 condoms tightly packed with fIve pounds of cocaine that had been surgically implanted in the dog's abdomen-yet another first for Customs in the war on drugs.When it comes to transporting drugs,the methods used are only as limited as a smuggler's imagination.Kilo bricks of cocaine are routinely concealed beneath false bottoms of containers that hold poisonous snakes.“You've got snakes that are 12 feet long,”says a United States Fish and Wildlife Service agent-and sometimes the drug is in the snake.“Who's going to pull it out and feel it?”In 1994,United States Customs seized 204,391 pounds of cocaine,559,286 pounds of marl-juana and 2,577 pounds of heroin,just how much actually flows into the country is anyone's guess.Some Customs officials estimate that only 10 percent of the drugs coming into the country are ever seized.In Miami,the District Attorney won't even prosecute small fry.“It's got to be over five kilos of cocaine,above a kilo of heroin and more than 5,000 pounds of marijuana or it's not something that we're going to stop the presses on,”says Tom Cash,a retired agent.Given this deluge,one can only wonder if agents are ever confounded by some of the smug-gling methods.“There are things we haven't seen before,”says John McGhee,a Miami Customs special agent,“but nothing really surprises us.” How many pounds of heroin were estimated to be smuggled into the United States in 1994?
[多选题]共用题干 Sending E-mails to ProfessorsOne student skipped class and then sent the professor an e-mail________(51)for copies ofher teaching notes.Another_________(52)that she was late for a Monday class because she was recovering fromdrinking too much at a wild weekend party.At colleges and universities in the U. S.,e-mail has made professors more approachable(平易近人).But many say it has made them too accessible,__________(53)boundaries that traditionally kept students at a healthy distance.These days,professors say,students seem to view them as available_________(54)the clock, sending a steady stream of informal e-mails."The tone that they take in e-mails is pretty astounding(令人吃惊的),"said Michael Kessler, an assistant dean at Georgetown University."They'll________(55)you to help:'I need to know this."'"There's a fine________(56)between meeting their needs and at the same time maintaining a level of legitimacy(正统性)as an_________(57)who is in charge."Christopher Dede,a professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education,said_________ ( 58 ) show that students no longer defer to(听从)their professors,perhaps because they realize that professors'________(59)could rapidly become outdated."The deference was driven by the_______(60)that professors were all-knowing sources of deep knowledge,"Dede said,and that notion has_________(61).For junior faculty members,e-mails bring new tension into their work,some say, as they struggle with how to________(62).Their job prospects,they realize,may rest in part on student evaluations of their accessibility.College students say e-mail makes________(63)easier to ask questions and helps them learn.But they seem unaware that what they write in e-mails could have negative effects________ (64)them,said Alexandra Lahav,and associate professor of Law at the University of Connecticut. She recalled an e-mail message from a student saying that he planned to miss class so he could play with his son.Professor Lahav did not respond."Such e-mails can have consequences,"she said."Students don't understand that ________(65)they say in e-mail can make them seem unprofessional,and could result in a bad recommendation." _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 Why People Use Pseudonyms(假名字)?You can't choose the name you are given at birth,but in many countries you can change it legally when you reach adulthood.Of course,most people never change their names___________(51)they feel unhappy about them.However some people do____________(52)this course of action一particularly artists!What makes an artist want to change their name?Sometimes it's for purely_____________(53)reasons,such as the Nobel Prize winning poet from Chile,Neftaif Reyes.He didn't want his father to_____________(54)he was writing poetry,so he changed his name to Pablo Neruda when he was a young man._______________(55)other times the reason may Portuguese poet Femando Pessca,appear strange;take the case of the______________(56) wrote under 75 different names.The reason? "When I use a different name,I always write in a different way,"he explained.In most cases,____________(57),people change their names for social,historical,politi-cal,or cultural reasons.Here are some of the most ______________(58),The person's real name is just_____________(59)long and difficult to remember. Let's be honest,Madonna Louise Ciccone is not as._______________(60)to remember as just plain"Madonna".And short names are much easier to remember. William Bradley became Brad Pitt and Edson Arantes do Nascimento became Pele.Sometimes names are changed for marketing______(61).For example,if a name sounds too "foreign",it may be changed to something that is more recognizable in a___________(62).So in the film world,Ramon Estevez adopted the name Martin Sheen.Or maybe the artist's real name doesn't sound very attractive一Chad Everett does____________(63)a lot better than Raymond Cramton.Artists sometimes______________(64)the name of someone they admire.Robert Zimmerman changed his name to Boo Dylan because of his admiration for the Welsh poet,Dylan Thomas.Another reason may be practicality:in the past,women found it very difficult to get published.To _______________(65)this situation,they sometimes gave themselves men's names,so the English author Mary Ann Evans became George Eliot,and she did get her books published! _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 Why People Use Pseudonyms(假名字)?You can't choose the name you are given at birth,but in many countries you can change it legally when you reach adulthood.Of course,most people never change their names___________(51)they feel unhappy about them.However some people do____________(52)this course of action一particularly artists!What makes an artist want to change their name?Sometimes it's for purely_____________(53)reasons,such as the Nobel Prize winning poet from Chile,Neftaif Reyes.He didn't want his father to_____________(54)he was writing poetry,so he changed his name to Pablo Neruda when he was a young man._______________(55)other times the reason may Portuguese poet Femando Pessca,appear strange;take the case of the______________(56) wrote under 75 different names.The reason? "When I use a different name,I always write in a different way,"he explained.In most cases,____________(57),people change their names for social,historical,politi-cal,or cultural reasons.Here are some of the most ______________(58),The person's real name is just_____________(59)long and difficult to remember. Let's be honest,Madonna Louise Ciccone is not as._______________(60)to remember as just plain"Madonna".And short names are much easier to remember. William Bradley became Brad Pitt and Edson Arantes do Nascimento became Pele.Sometimes names are changed for marketing______(61).For example,if a name sounds too "foreign",it may be changed to something that is more recognizable in a___________(62).So in the film world,Ramon Estevez adopted the name Martin Sheen.Or maybe the artist's real name doesn't sound very attractive一Chad Everett does____________(63)a lot better than Raymond Cramton.Artists sometimes______________(64)the name of someone they admire.Robert Zimmerman changed his name to Boo Dylan because of his admiration for the Welsh poet,Dylan Thomas.Another reason may be practicality:in the past,women found it very difficult to get published.To _______________(65)this situation,they sometimes gave themselves men's names,so the English author Mary Ann Evans became George Eliot,and she did get her books published! _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Kobe BryantAfter 10 seasons wearing the No.8 on his back,Kobe Bryant will become No.24 next season. The reason for the surprising decision by the Los Angeles Lakers super guard last week has become a hot topic for debate.Bryant wore No.24 when he was in early high school,but he changed to No.33 in his senior year. He switched to No.8 when he was selected by the Lakers in 1996,and has not been changed since.Bryant has refused to explain the decision until the end of the play-offs(季后赛).So guessing Bryant's motive has become a popular game among NBA fans and newspaper columnists(专栏作家).There are all kinds of speculations.Many say that Bryant wants to leave the past behind and have a fresh start. He has often been criticized for playing to benefit himself and not the team as a whole.Others say that he may be trying to compare himself to Michael Jordan.Jordan was famous for his No. 23 jersey(运动衫).Some, such as NBC Sport columnist Michael Venter, argue that it is "all about money".Bryant will make more money by selling new jerseys to his fans.Some speculations are more about fun.For example,there is an opinion that Kobe is actually just a diehard(非常执著的)fan of the popular TV drama "24".All this talk has turned the number change into a major issue.It seems that there is a lot of fuss (大惊小怪)over something that should be pretty simple.Jersey numbers have their own special significance in American sports,especially basketball. Players choose their number when they join a team and they usually stick with that number for the rest of their career. When a great player retires,his team will honor him by retiring his number.To some extent,the jersey is the player,and the player is the jersey.Thus,when you see the famous No.23 for the Chicago Bulls,you immediately think about Michael Jordan.a No.32 Miami Heats jersey recalls the image of Shaquille O'Neal,and the Houston Rockets' No.11 belongs only to Yao Ming.Lots of stories are behind players' jersey number selections.Jordan said that he chose No.23 because it was roughly half of 45.Jordan's elder brother wore the No.45 in college.Yao Ming once revealed that the No.11 stands for two people in love-meaning him and his girlfriend Ye Li. How long has Bryant been wearing No.8?
[多选题]共用题干 Travel Across AfricaFor six hours we shot through the barren(荒芜的)landscape of the Karoo desert in South Africa. Just rocks and sand and baking sun.Knowing our journey was ending,Daniel and I just wanted to remember all we had seen and done.He used a camera. I used words.I had already finished three notebooks and was into the fourth,a beautiful leather notebook I'd bought in a market in Mozambique.Southern Africa was full of stories and visions.We were almost drunk in sensations.The roaring(咆哮) of the water at Victoria Falls,the impossible silence of the Okavango Delta in Botswana.And then the other things:dogs in the streets,whole families in Soweto living in one room,a kilometrefrom clean water.As we drove towards the setting sun,a quietness fell over us.The road was empty一we hadn't seenanother car for hours.And as I drove,something caught my eye,something moving close enough to touch them,to smell their hot breath.I didn't know how long they had been there next to us.I shouted to Daniel:"Look!"But he was in a deep sleep,his camera lying useless by his feet. They raced the car for a few seconds,then disappeared far behind us,a memory of heroic forms in the redlandscape.When Daniel woke up an hour later I told him what had happened."Wild horses?"he said."Why didn't you wake me up,Sophia?" "I tried.But they were gone after a few seconds.”"Are you sure you didn't dream it?""You were the one who was sleeping!""Typical,"he said."The best photos are the ones we never take." We checked into a dusty hotel'and slept the sleep of the dead. Daniel took photos of the Nile River.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Good Table MannersManners play an important part in making a favorable impression at the dinner table.Here are some general rules:Nankin(餐巾)useThe meal begins when the host unfolds his or her napkin. This is your signal to do the same ,so place your napkin on your lap.Unfold it completely if it is a small napkin,or in half,lengthwise (纵向地),if it is a large dinner napkin.If you need to leave the table during the meal,place your napkin on your chair as a signal to your server that you will be returning. Once the meal is over,place your napkin neatly on the table to the right of your dinner plate.Do not refold it.Use a napkin only for your mouth.Never use it for your nose,face or forehead. Use of utensils(餐具)Start with the knife,fork or spoon furthest from your plate,and work your way in using one utensil for each course.If soup is served,remember to spoon away from yourself. This helps stop the drips.Do not put the entire soup spoon in your mouth.Instead,fill a soup spoon about 75 per cent with soup,and sip (嚷饮)it from the side noiselessly.After finishing dinner,place the knife and fork parallel to one another across the plate with the knife blade facing inward toward the plate.Using your fingersHere's a list of finger foods:sandwiches,cookies,small fruits or berries with stems,French fries and potato chips,and hamburgers.Chew(咀嚼)with your mouth closed and don't make noise;don't talk with your mouth full. Bread must be broken with your hands.It is never cut with a knife.Don't pick something out of your teeth.Instead,excuse yourself to the bathroom. If possible,try not to cough at the table.Do not put your elbows(肘)on the table.In France,it is essential to have both hands above the table at the same time.Do not put bones or anything else on the table.Things that are not eaten should be put on your plate. All of the following are finger foods except_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Schooling and EducationIt is commonly believed in the United States that school is where people go to get an education. Nevertheless,it has been said that today children interrupt their education to go to school.The distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is important.Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than schooling. Education knows no bounds. It can take place anywhere,whether in the shower or in the job,whether in a kitchen or on a tractor. It includes both the formal learning that takes place in schools and the whole universe of informal learning.The agents of education can range from a revered grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio,from a child to a distinguished scientist.Whereas schooling has a certain predictability,education quite often produces surprises.A chance conversation with a stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other religions.People are engaged in education from infancy on.Education,then,is a very broad,inclusive term. It is a lifelong process,a process that starts long before the start of school,and one that should be an integral part of one's entire life.Schooling,on the other hand,is a specific,formalized process,whose general pattern varies little from one setting to the next.Throughout a country,children arrive at school at approximately the same time,take assigned seats,are taught by an adult,use similar textbooks,do homework,take exams,and so on.The slices of reality that are to be learned,whether they are the alphabet or an understanding of the workings of government,have usually been limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught. For example,high school students know that they are not likely to find out in their classes the truth about political problems in their communities or what the newest filmmakers are experimenting with. There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of schooling. The writer argues that children's schooling should be stopped by education.
[多选题]共用题干 Interview with Allan Gray1. I was working for a multinational company in the early 1980s,and my brother asked me if I was interested in going into partnership with him to set up a language school.I'd always wanted to work for myself,and I was a bit fed up with working for someone else,so I said yes.Primarily, I wanted the freedom to make my own decisions,I wanted room to be creative,and also I wanted to be able to get the credit and keep the profits if we were successful.I was also happy to carry the can and take the blame if things went wrong.These things are not possible if you work as an employee in a large organization.2. I had to borrow money to help start the business,but we were lucky because we also had some outside capital to put into the business.These days it can be really hard to persuade banks to lend money to people who want to start a company,so we were fortunate .It was fairly easy to set up the business,because we had a very clear idea of what we wanted to do.The problem was,all our preconceptions(预想)about what it would be like to run a business were wrong. We made lots of mistakes, and we almost went bankrupt(破产的)at the beginning. At one point, we only had two students in the school.3. Far too long!We lost money for the first four years and,as I was saying,we nearly went out of business.It took quite a long time to start making profit. The best thing we did,though,was that we hired some really good people to work for us.In fact,some of those people are still work-ing for us,24 years later. Now we're doing well,but it was very risky at first.4. One is financial constraint(约束).It can be very tough. I think all small businesses have cashflow problems-it often takes a long time to get paid by your customers.The second big prob- lem is marketing. It takes a lot of funds to market your business,and you have to get your name known and build a reputation .But the biggest challenge is managing the people.All businesses are about people,and you have to learn how to deal with all kinds of people-and I think we've been extremely good at getting the best of our staff. Paragraph 3______
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Too Late to Regret ItWhen I was a junior,I met a second-year student in my department. He wasn't tall or good-loo-king,but he was very nice,attractive and athletic.He had something that I admired very much.He was natural,warm,and sincere.I disregarded(不顾)my parents' disapproval. We were very happy together. He picked me up from my dorm every morning,and after class we would sit alongside the stream that ran through campus, or sunbathe(晒太阳)on the lawn. At night he would walk me back to my dorm. He came from a poor family,but in order to make me happy,he borrowed money from his friend to buy presents and meals for me.Our fellow students looked up to him as a role model,and the girls envied(妒忌)me. He wasn't a local, but wanted to stay here after graduation. I thought we had a future together.However,when I got a part-time job during the summer vacation,people began giving me a lot of pressure,saying that a pretty,intelligent girl like me should find a better guy to spend time with. This was also what my family thought. He spent the summer in his hometown,so I was all by myself. When he got back,I began finding faults with him. But his big heart and warmth soon drove all unpleasant thoughts away.However,I had no idea how badly I had hurt him and that things would get worse.I had a good part-time job off campus that paid pretty well.With my good performance at school,I also got admission to graduate school at one of China's best universities.He,on the other hand,did not do so well at school or at work.I had to worry about his living expenses,job and scores.Almost all my colleagues and friends advised me to break up with him.Then we had a quarrel last June.He was in great pain,and my cold words and bad moods started turning him away.Graduation time was drawing near. He said that he couldn't put up with me any more and he said he wanted to go back to his hometown.I was shocked and looked at him in despair.True love happens only once,but I found it out too late. What did he do to make her happy?
[多选题]共用题干 How Did She Conquer the Americans?African-American talk show queen Oprah Winfrey is the world's most powerful celebrity,according to Forbes magazine.__________(46)Winfrey,51,draws 30 million viewers weekly in the United States. Her talk show reaches 112 countries.She earned US $225 million over the past 12 months to rank second in celebrity riches. The annual Forbes list gives most weight to annual earnings._________(47)"After 21 years,her exciting chat show still rules the airwaves.It created new celebrities and hundreds of millions of dollars in profits,"the magazine said.Winfrey is most popular with her popular talk show"The Oprah Winfrey Show".She can always attract the superstars and let them open up to her intimate interviewing style.Last month,American actor Tom Cruise,42,surprised fans when he celebrated his new romance with 26-year-old actress Katie Holmes. He jumped up and down,shouting"I'm in love". Only a few years ago,Cruise and his ex-wife Nicole Kidman appeared separately on the same show telling the news of their divorce._________(48)Winfrey's approach appears to be simple.She is in pursuit of self-improvement and seff-empow-erment(自强).This has proved to be just what people , especially women , want.Winfrey often talks about her personal secrets on her show. That pulls in viewers.For example, she revealed that she had been sexually abused as a child,and has spoken freely of her struggle with her weight.Winfrey was born to a poor family in Mississippi in 1954._________(49)At the age of 19,she became the youngest person and the first African-American woman to anchor(主持)a news programme.Her success has not just been on the screen.Her media group includes a women's TV network and websites for women.Winfrey's work has extended to social change._________(50)She testified before the US Senate to establish a national database of dangerous child abusers.President Bill Clinton later signed "Oprah Bill"into law. _______(48)
[多选题]共用题干 Public and Private Schools in the Unite StatesReligious and private schools receive little or no support from public taxes in the Unite States, and,as a result,are usually somewhat expensive to_________(51).The largest group of religious schools in America__________(52)by the Roman Catholic Church.While religious schools tend to be__________(53)expensive than private schools,there are usually some fees.When there is free education available to all children in the Unite States,why do people_______(54)money on private schools?Americans offer________(55)great variety of reasons for doing so,including the desire of some parents to_________(56)their children to schools_________(57)classes tend to be smaller,or where religious instruction is included as part of the educational program,or because,________(58)their opinion,the public schools in their area are not________(59)high enough quality to meet their needs.Private schools in the Unite States_________(60)widely in size,quality,and in the kind of program that are offered to meet _________(61)of certain students.The degree_________(62)American parents are active in their children's schools is often _________(63)to people of other countries.Most schools have organizations__________(64)of both parents and teachers,usually called P. T. A for Parent-Teacher-Association.They meet together to__________(65)various matters concerning the school. Parents often give their time to help with classroom or after school activities. _________(58)
[多选题]共用题干 A Country's Standard of LivingThe"standard of living"of any country means the average person's share of the goods and services the country produces.A country's standard of living,therefore____________(51)first on its capacity to produce wealth."Wealth"in this____________(52)is not money,for we do not live on money but on things that money can buy:"goods",such as food and clothing,and"services",such as transport and entertainment.A country's capacity to____________(53)wealth depends upon many factors,most of____________(54) have an effect on one another.Wealth depends_(55)a great extent upon a country's natural re-sources.Some regions of the world are well supplied with coal and minerals, and have fertile(肥沃的)soil and a favorable climate;other regions_____________(56)none of them.Next to natural resources comes the ability to_____________(57)them to use.China is perhaps as rich asthe USA in natural resources,but she suffered for many years____________(58)civil and external wars,and for this and other_____________(59)was unable to develop her resources.Sound and stable political conditions, and_____________(60)from foreign invasions,enable a country to develop its natural resources peacefully and steadily,and to produce more_____________( 61)than another country equally well favored by nature but less well ordered.A country's standard of living does not only depend upon the wealth that is produced and_____________(62) within its own borders,but also upon what is directly produced through international trade.For example, Britain's wealth in food stuffs and other agricultural_____________(63)would be much less if she had to de- pend only on those grown at home.Trade makes it possible for her surplus(剩余的)manufactured goods to be traded abroad for the agricultural products_____________(64)would otherwise be lacking.A eountry'B wealth is,therefore,much influenced by its manufacturing capacity,_____________(65)that other countries can be found ready to accept its manufactures. _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 Computers in CarsYou're far from home on a lonely road.Shadowy forests stretch away on both sides.A thick mist(雾)makes it difficult to see far beyond your car's windshield(挡风玻璃).“Can this be route 90A?”you wonder. if it is,you should be near a town.Yet there's no hint of one .Night is closing in.And you're low on gasoline.This is a situation where an in-car computer that can navigate would be a big help.A car computer that navigates?Yes!Such computers exist.Several experimental models are being tested by General Motors,Ford,Chrysler,and several foreign car makers.These computers vary in detail .But they all contain series of maps on videodiscs or videotapes.For example,one computer system contains 13,300 maps covering the continental US.Before starting out on a trip,a driver can type in the code for the region he or she plans to drive through .The computer then shows a map of that region.At the same time,a tiny radio re-ceiver linked to the computer goes to work.It picks up signals from navigation satellites such as the NAVSTAR network.Using these signals,the computer shows the car's position at all times and displays this position on the map.The computer can also calculate and display the best route to follow.A navigation computer may also receive and use data about road construction,weather condi- tions,and traffic jams.This information would be displayed to the driver and the computer would also use the information to work out alternate(交替的)routes.Most cars nowadays also contain computers that help cars run more efficiently .Microproces- sors(微处理机)control certain engine functions by regulating the mixing of fuel. Data on car speed,oil pressure,revolutions per minute,engine temperature,and fuel level can be displayed as digital data(numbers)or warning lights.Some auto designers suggest that a central computer display be used to clearly present such timely information as car speed and fuel level.Warning lights would indicate a drop in oil pres- sure or a sudden rise in engine temperature .To get more information on these conditions,the driver could call it up on the computer display screen.When needed,the computer could be “asked”to provide navigation aid or information about the car's condition. The word“navigate”in Paragraph 3 means______.
[多选题]共用题干 Easy LearningStudents should be jealous.Not only do babies get to doze their days away,but they've alsomastered the fine art of learning in their sleep.By the time babies are a year old they can recognize a lot of sounds and even simple words. Marie Cheour at the university of Turku in Finland suspected that they might progress this fast be-cause they learn language while they sleep as well as when they are awake.To test the theory,Cheour and their colleagues studied 45 newborn babies in the first days of their lives.They exposed all the infants to an hour of Finnish vowel sounds一one that sounds like "oo",another like"ee"and a third boundary vowel peculiar to Finnish and similar languages that sounds like something in between.EEG recording of the infants brains before and after the session showed that the newborns could not distinguish the sounds.Fifteen of the babies then went back with their mothers,while the rest were split into two sleepstudy groups.One group was exposed throughout their night-time sleeping hours to the same three vowels,while the others listened to the other,easier-to-distinguish vowel sounds.When tested in the morning,and again in the evening,the babies who'd heard the tricky boundary vowels all night showed brainwave activity indicating that they could now recognize this sound.They could identify the sound even when its pitch was changed,while none of the other babies could pick up the boundary vowel at all.Cheour doesn't know how babies accomplish this night-time learning,but she suspects that the special ability might indicate that unlike adults,babies don't"turn off" their cerebral cortex while they sleep.The skill probably fades in the course of the first years of life,she add一so forget the idea that you can pick up the tricky French vowels as an adult just by slipping a language tape under your pillow. But while it may not help grown-ups,Cheour is hoping to use the sleeping hours to give remedial help to babies who are genetically at risk of language disorders. Cheour's finding is worthless.
[多选题]共用题干 Who Built Giza ' s Pyramids(金字塔)?1 For centuries,the pyramids of Giza have been timeless symbols of Egyptian culture.But who actually built them? For years,we did not know for sure. But archeologists(考古学家)recently discovered an ancient village near the pyramids. Close by,there was also a cemetery(墓地)where pyramid builders were buried. From studying these places,archeologists can now confirm that the pyramids were not built by slaves orforeigners.Ordinary Egyptians built them.2 It took about eighty years to build the pyramids.According to archeologists,about 20,000一30,000 people were involved in completing the task.The workers had different roles.Some dug up the rock;some moved it;and some shaped it into blocks.People also worked on different teams,each with its own name.On a wall in Khufu's Great Pyramid,for example,a group of workers wrote"Friends of Khufu".Teams often competed to do a job faster.3 Life for these workers was hard."We can see that in their skeletons(骨架),"says Azza Mohamed Sarry El-Din,a scientist studying bodies found in the cemetery. The bones show signs of arthritis(关节炎), which developed from carrying heavy things for a long time.Archeologists have also found many female skele-- tons in the village and cemetery.The damage to their bones is similar to the men'S.Their lives may have been even tougher:male workers lived to age 40-45,but women to only 30-35.However,workers usually had enough food,and they also had medical care if they got sick or hurt.4 The work was challenging,but laborers were proud of their work.“It's because they were not just building the tomb of their king,"says Egyptian archeologist Zahi Hawass."They were building Egypt. It was a national project,and everyone was a participant." Paragraph 3______________
[多选题]共用题干 What We Take From and Give to the SeaAs long as we have been on earth,we have used the sea around us.We take from the ocean,and we give to it.We take fishes from the ocean-millions of kilograms of fish,every year,to________(51)millions of people.We even_______(52)their bones for fertilizer.We take minerals from the ocean.One way to get salt is to_______(53)seawater in shallow basin and leave it until it evaporates(蒸发).Along with salt,other minerals are left_______(54)evaporation.Much gold and silver drift dissolved in the waters of the sea,too.But the sea does not give them_______(55)by simple evaporation.________(56)gifts from the sea are pearls , sponges(海绵)and seaweed.Pearls________(57)jewelry.Natural sponges become cleaning aids.Seaweed becomes______(58)of many kinds一even candy,and ice cream一as well as medicine.Believe it or not,fresh water is another_______(59)from the sea.We cannot drink ocean water.Some of its contents may______(60)illness.But ocean water becomes fresh water when the salts are ________(61).In the future,we will find ourselves.________(62)more and more onfresh water from the sea.The sea_______(63)us food,fertilizer,minerals,water,and other gifts.What do we give the sea?Garbage.We pollute the ocean_______(64)we use it as a garbage dump.Huge as it is,the ocean cannot hold all the water that we pour into it.________(65)garbage into the ocean is killing off sea life.Yet as the world population grows,we may need the sea and its gifts more than ever. _________61
[多选题]共用题干 English and English Community1. There is no denying that English is a useful language.The people who speak English today make up the largest speech community in the world with the exception of speakers of Chinese. Originally they were small tribes of people from northern Europe who settled in England.Their languages became more and more similar to each other. Finally,the language had enough uni-formity to be used by all speakers in England.The people were united into a speech community through their shared language.2. A speech community is similar to other kinds of communities.The people who make up the community share a common language .Often they live side by side,as they do in a neighborhood, a village,or a city.More often they form a whole country.National boundaries,however,are not always the same as the boundaries of a speech community.A speech community is any group of people who speak the same language no matter where they happen to live.3. We may say that anyone who speaks English belongs to the English speech community.For convenience,we may classify the speakers into two groups:one in which the speakers use English as their native language,the other in which the speakers learn English as a second language for the purpose of education,commerce,and so on.4. English serves as an alternative language in several areas of public activity for many nations of the world which employ it as an international second language .English has been adopted as the language of air traffic,commerce,as well as international diplomacy .Moreover,English is the language of the majority of published materials in the world so that education has come to rely heavily on an understanding of English.5. Learning a second language extends one's vision and expands the mind.The history and litera- ture of a second language record the real and fictional lives of people and their culture;a knowl- edge of them adds to our ability to understand and to feel as they feel .Learning English as a sec- ond language provides another means of communication through which the window of the entire English speech community becomes a part of our heritage. Speakers are classified into two groups______.
[多选题]共用题干 Have You Filled Up The Form?Of all things in the world,I most dislike filling up forms.In fact,I have a______(51) horror of it.Applying for a living license,______(52)for an evening course,booking a holi- day abroad-everything nowadays seems to involve______(53)information about one's per-sonal life and habits that has little or nothing to do with the matter______(54)hand.When applying for a job,it may be______(55)some obscure interest to a______(56)employer to learn that I collect stamp or had measles as a child,but why should he conceivably want to know that my father was a tobacconist who died in 1988?The authorities who______(57)one to fill up forms,frequently demand answers to questions that one would hesitate to put______(58)one's intimate friends.rrhe worst of it is that, when______(59)with such questions,my mind goes blank.Have I ever suffered from a seri-ous illness?My mother always assured me I was“delicate”.Do I suffer from any personal de-fects?Well,I wear contact lenses and my upper teeth are not my own,hut perhaps the word“de-fects”______(60)to my character.Am I supposed to______(61)that I like gambling,and find it difficult to get up in the morning?Both of them are true.Of all,I think job applications are the worst,“education”—previous experience—post held—give______(62)…Terrified by the awful warning about giving false______(63) which appear at the bottom of the form,I struggle to remember what exams I passed and how long I worked for what firms.______(64)hard I try,there always seems to be a year or two for which I cannot satisfactorily account and which I am certain,if left______(65),that will give the impression that I was in prison or engaged in some occupation too dubious to mention. 53._________
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Citizen ScientistsUnderstanding how nature responds to climate change will require monitoring key life cycle events一 flowering,the appearance of leaves and the first frog calls of the spring一all around the world.But ecologists can't be everywhere so they're turning to non-scientists,sometimes called citizen scientists,for help.Climate scientists are not present everywhere.Because there are so many places in the world and not enough scientists to observe all of them,they're asking for your help in observing signs of climate change across the world.The citizen scientist movement encourages ordinary people to observe a very specificresearch interest一birds,trees,flowers budding,etc.and send their observations to a giant database to be observed by professional scientists.This helps a small number of scientists track a large amount of data that they would never be able to gather on their own.Much like citizen journalists helping large publications cover a hyper-local beat,citizen scientists are ready for the conditions where they live in.All that's needed to become one is a few minutes each day or each week to gather data and send them in.A group of scientists and educators launched an organization last year called the National Phenology Network."Phenology"is what scientists call the study of the timing of events in nature.One of the group's first efforts relies on scientists and non-scientists alike to collect data about plant flowering and leafing eveiy year.The program,called Project BudBurst,collects life cycle data on a variety of common plants from across the United States.People participating in the project一which is open to every- one一record their observations on the Project BudBurst website."People don't have to be plant experts一they just have to look around and see what's in their neighbor- hood,"says Jennifer Schwartz,an education consultant with the project."As we collect these data,we'll be able to make an estimate of how plants and communities of plants and animals will respond as the climatechanges." What is NOT true of Project BudBurst?
[多选题]共用题干 Sending E-mails to ProfessorsOne student skipped class and then sent the professor an e-mail________(51)for copies ofher teaching notes.Another_________(52)that she was late for a Monday class because she was recovering fromdrinking too much at a wild weekend party.At colleges and universities in the U. S.,e-mail has made professors more approachable(平易近人).But many say it has made them too accessible,__________(53)boundaries that traditionally kept students at a healthy distance.These days,professors say,students seem to view them as available_________(54)the clock, sending a steady stream of informal e-mails."The tone that they take in e-mails is pretty astounding(令人吃惊的),"said Michael Kessler, an assistant dean at Georgetown University."They'll________(55)you to help:'I need to know this."'"There's a fine________(56)between meeting their needs and at the same time maintaining a level of legitimacy(正统性)as an_________(57)who is in charge."Christopher Dede,a professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education,said_________ ( 58 ) show that students no longer defer to(听从)their professors,perhaps because they realize that professors'________(59)could rapidly become outdated."The deference was driven by the_______(60)that professors were all-knowing sources of deep knowledge,"Dede said,and that notion has_________(61).For junior faculty members,e-mails bring new tension into their work,some say, as they struggle with how to________(62).Their job prospects,they realize,may rest in part on student evaluations of their accessibility.College students say e-mail makes________(63)easier to ask questions and helps them learn.But they seem unaware that what they write in e-mails could have negative effects________ (64)them,said Alexandra Lahav,and associate professor of Law at the University of Connecticut. She recalled an e-mail message from a student saying that he planned to miss class so he could play with his son.Professor Lahav did not respond."Such e-mails can have consequences,"she said."Students don't understand that ________(65)they say in e-mail can make them seem unprofessional,and could result in a bad recommendation." _________(58)
[多选题]共用题干 English and English Community1. There is no denying that English is a useful language.The people who speak English today make up the largest speech community in the world with the exception of speakers of Chinese. Originally they were small tribes of people from northern Europe who settled in England.Their languages became more and more similar to each other. Finally,the language had enough uni-formity to be used by all speakers in England.The people were united into a speech community through their shared language.2. A speech community is similar to other kinds of communities.The people who make up the community share a common language .Often they live side by side,as they do in a neighborhood, a village,or a city.More often they form a whole country.National boundaries,however,are not always the same as the boundaries of a speech community.A speech community is any group of people who speak the same language no matter where they happen to live.3. We may say that anyone who speaks English belongs to the English speech community.For convenience,we may classify the speakers into two groups:one in which the speakers use English as their native language,the other in which the speakers learn English as a second language for the purpose of education,commerce,and so on.4. English serves as an alternative language in several areas of public activity for many nations of the world which employ it as an international second language .English has been adopted as the language of air traffic,commerce,as well as international diplomacy .Moreover,English is the language of the majority of published materials in the world so that education has come to rely heavily on an understanding of English.5. Learning a second language extends one's vision and expands the mind.The history and litera- ture of a second language record the real and fictional lives of people and their culture;a knowl- edge of them adds to our ability to understand and to feel as they feel .Learning English as a sec- ond language provides another means of communication through which the window of the entire English speech community becomes a part of our heritage. Paragraph 2______
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Reading PoemNo poem should ever be discussed or"analyzed",until it has been read aloud by someone, teacher or student.Better still,perhaps,is the practice of reading it twice,once at the beginning of the discussion and once at the end,so the sound of the poem is the last thing one hears of it.All discussions of poetry are,in fact,preparations for reading it aloud,and the reading of the poem is,finally,the most telling"interpretation"of it,suggesting tone,rhythm, and meaning all at once.Hearing a poet read the work in his or her own voice,on records or on film,is obviously a special reward.But even those aids to teaching can not replace the student and teacher reading it or, best of all,reciting it.I have come to think,in fact,that time spent reading a poem aloud is much more important than"analyzing"it,if there isn't time for both.I think one of our goals as teachers of English is to have students love poetry.Poetry is"a criticism of life","a heightening of life,enjoyment with others".It is"an approach to the truth of feeling",and it"can save your life".It also deserves a place in the teaching of languages and literature more central than it presently occupies.I am not saying that every English teacher must teach poetry.Those who don't like it should not be forced to put that dislike on anyone else.But those who do teach poetry must keep in mind a few things about its essential nature,about its sound as well as its sense,and they must make room inthe classroom for hearing poetry as well as thinking about it. The recitation of a poetry by the teacher or a student in the classroom______.
[多选题]共用题干 How Did She Conquer the Americans?African-American talk show queen Oprah Winfrey is the world's most powerful celebrity,according to Forbes magazine.__________(46)Winfrey,51,draws 30 million viewers weekly in the United States. Her talk show reaches 112 countries.She earned US $225 million over the past 12 months to rank second in celebrity riches. The annual Forbes list gives most weight to annual earnings._________(47)"After 21 years,her exciting chat show still rules the airwaves.It created new celebrities and hundreds of millions of dollars in profits,"the magazine said.Winfrey is most popular with her popular talk show"The Oprah Winfrey Show".She can always attract the superstars and let them open up to her intimate interviewing style.Last month,American actor Tom Cruise,42,surprised fans when he celebrated his new romance with 26-year-old actress Katie Holmes. He jumped up and down,shouting"I'm in love". Only a few years ago,Cruise and his ex-wife Nicole Kidman appeared separately on the same show telling the news of their divorce._________(48)Winfrey's approach appears to be simple.She is in pursuit of self-improvement and seff-empow-erment(自强).This has proved to be just what people , especially women , want.Winfrey often talks about her personal secrets on her show. That pulls in viewers.For example, she revealed that she had been sexually abused as a child,and has spoken freely of her struggle with her weight.Winfrey was born to a poor family in Mississippi in 1954._________(49)At the age of 19,she became the youngest person and the first African-American woman to anchor(主持)a news programme.Her success has not just been on the screen.Her media group includes a women's TV network and websites for women.Winfrey's work has extended to social change._________(50)She testified before the US Senate to establish a national database of dangerous child abusers.President Bill Clinton later signed "Oprah Bill"into law. _______(47)
[多选题]共用题干 Vocational EducationVocational education refers to education for a particular occupation.Industrialized countries have seen a fall in demand for unskilled workers,and an increase in jobs in the professional,technical,commercial,and administrative sector. Vocational education is traditionally associated with trades and crafts: young people were apprentice to employers for a number of years and learned on the job.Today the focus has shifted from the workplace to secondary and higher education institutions,and from employers to government provision and finance.Trainees in most occupations combine workplace training with study at a technical or academic institution.In the former Soviet Union, school and work were always strongly linked from primary school.Germany provides nine out of ten young people with entering higher education with vocational training,and training is planned from national down to locate level through joint committees of government representatives,employers,and trade unions.In some countries,skills are being grouped and"job families"are created so that individuals can move between jobs with similar technical requirements.In other occupations"competency-based education"is advocated to equip individuals with"transferable"as well as specific skills.In developing countries,where it is traditional for children to work from an early age,only a tiny proportion of students follow a formal vocational program,while the long specialist training of professionals such as doctors,lawyers,and engineers is a costly burden.Training places for technicians,nurses,teachers,and the essential workers are often limited.Worldwide,there is a slow but steady increase in the numbers of women training for occupations of influence in science,technology,law,and business.It is also becoming clear that one course of vocational education is not enough for a lifetime. Retraining,through continuing education is essential. It can be concluded from the passage that more vocational education has to be provided in the future.
[多选题]共用题干 Why People Use Pseudonyms(假名字)?You can't choose the name you are given at birth,but in many countries you can change it legally when you reach adulthood.Of course,most people never change their names___________(51)they feel unhappy about them.However some people do____________(52)this course of action一particularly artists!What makes an artist want to change their name?Sometimes it's for purely_____________(53)reasons,such as the Nobel Prize winning poet from Chile,Neftaif Reyes.He didn't want his father to_____________(54)he was writing poetry,so he changed his name to Pablo Neruda when he was a young man._______________(55)other times the reason may Portuguese poet Femando Pessca,appear strange;take the case of the______________(56) wrote under 75 different names.The reason? "When I use a different name,I always write in a different way,"he explained.In most cases,____________(57),people change their names for social,historical,politi-cal,or cultural reasons.Here are some of the most ______________(58),The person's real name is just_____________(59)long and difficult to remember. Let's be honest,Madonna Louise Ciccone is not as._______________(60)to remember as just plain"Madonna".And short names are much easier to remember. William Bradley became Brad Pitt and Edson Arantes do Nascimento became Pele.Sometimes names are changed for marketing______(61).For example,if a name sounds too "foreign",it may be changed to something that is more recognizable in a___________(62).So in the film world,Ramon Estevez adopted the name Martin Sheen.Or maybe the artist's real name doesn't sound very attractive一Chad Everett does____________(63)a lot better than Raymond Cramton.Artists sometimes______________(64)the name of someone they admire.Robert Zimmerman changed his name to Boo Dylan because of his admiration for the Welsh poet,Dylan Thomas.Another reason may be practicality:in the past,women found it very difficult to get published.To _______________(65)this situation,they sometimes gave themselves men's names,so the English author Mary Ann Evans became George Eliot,and she did get her books published! _________(54)