[单选题]The Great Wall is a great tourist attraction，luring millions of visitors each year from all over the world?
[多选题]共用题干 Earthquake1.Every year earthquakes are responsible for a large number of deaths and a vast amount of destruction in various parts of the world.Most of these damaging earthquakes occur either in a narrow belt which surrounds the Pacific Ocean or in a line which extends from Burma to the Alps in Europe. Some of the destruction is directly caused by the quake itself. An example of this is the collapse of buildings as a result of the quake itself. Other damage results from landslides or major fires which are initiated by the quake.2.There are about a million quakes a year. Fortunately,however,not all of them are destructive.The intensity of an earthquake is measured on the Richter Scale,which goes from 0 upward. The highest scale recorded to date is 8.9.Major damage generally occurs from quakes ranging upwards from 6.0.3.The actual cause of the quake itself is the breaking of rocks at or below the earth's surface. This is produced by pressure which scientists believe may be due to a number of reasons, two of which are the expansion and contraction of the earth's crust and continental drift.4.In order to limit the damage and to prevent some of the suffering resulting from earthquakes, scientists are working on ways to enable accurate prediction.Special instruments are used to help people record,for example,shaking of the earth.Scientists are trying to find methods that will enable them to indicate the exact time,location and size of an earthquake.5.Certain phenomena have been observed which are believed to be signs of imminent earth-quakes.These include strange behaviors of some animals,the changes in the content of mineral water,etc.The magnetic properties of rocks may also display special pattern before major earthquakes happen. Scientists have been working hard to warn people__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Pedestrians Only1 The concept of traffic-free shopping areas goes back a long time.During the Middle Ages,traffic-free shopping areas were built in Middle Eastern countries to allow people to shop iii comfort and,more im- portantly,safety.As far back as 2,000 years ago,road traffic was banned from central Rome during the day to allow for the free movement of pedestrians（行人）,and was only allowed inl at night when shops and mar- kets had closed for the day.In most other cities,however,pedestrians were forced to share the streets with horses,coaches and,later,with cars and other motorised vehicles.2 The modern,traffic-free shopping street was born in Europe in the l960s,when both city popula- tions and car ownership increased rapidly.Dirty gases from cars and the risks involved,in crossing the road were beginning to make shopping an unpleasant and dangerous experience.Many believed the time was right for experimenting with car-free streets,and shopping areas seemed the best place to start.3 At first,there was resistance from shopkeepers.They believed that such a move would be bad for business.They argued that people would avoid streets if they were unable to get to them in their cars.When the first streets in Europe were closed to traffic,there were even noisy demonstrations,as many shopkeepers predicted they would.lose customers.4 However,research carried out afterwards in several European cities revealed some unexpected statistics. In Munich,Cologne and Hamburg,visitors to shopping areas increased by 50 percent.On Copenhagen's main shopping street,shopkeepers reported sales increases of 25-40 percent.Shopkeepers in Minneapolis, the USA,were so impressed when they learnt this that they even offered to pay for the construction and maintenance costs of their own traffic-free streets.5 With the arrival of the traffic-free shopping street,many shops,especially those selling things like clothes,food and smaller luxury items,prospered.Unfortunately,it isn't good news for everyone,as shops selling furniture and larger electrical appliances,etc.actually saw their sales drop.Many of these were forced to move elsewhere,away from the city centre. Paragraph 2____________
[多选题]共用题干 Earth Angels 1 Joying Brescia was 8 years old when she noticed that cigarette butts（烟头）were littering her home- town beach in Isle of Palms,South Carolina.When she learned that it takes five years for the remains of a cigarette to disintegrate,she decided to take action.Joying Liunched a"No Butts on the Beach"campaign. She raised money and awareness about the need to keep the beaches clean.With the help of others,Joying also bought or received donations of gallon-size plastic ice-cream buckets.The buckets were filled with sand, and placed at all public-access areas of the beach.The buckets allowed people to dispose of their cigarettes before hitting the beach.Two years later,Joying says the buckets are full and the beach in nearly free of cigarette debris（残片）. 2 People who live in or visit Steamboat Springs,Colorado,have Carter Dunham to thank for a new state wildlife refuge that preserves 20 acres of marshland and many species of wildlife.Carter and other students wrote a management plan for the area around the Yampa River. The plan was part Of a class project when Carter was a freshman at Steamboat Springs High School.Working with the Colorado Division of Wildlife,Carter and his classmates mapped the area and species of animals living there.They also made decisions about,among other things,where fences and parking areas should be built. 3 Barbara Brown and her friends collect oil.It started as a project for their 4H Club after one of the girls noticed her father using motor oil to kill weeds on their farm in Victoria,Texas.They did some research and discovered that oil can contaminate ground water一a real danger in rural areas,where people live off the water on their land.The girls researched ways to recycle oil and worked with a local oil一recycling company on the issue. Now,the"Don't Be Crude" program runs oil-collection sites一tanks that hold up to 460 gal- lons一where people in the community can dispose of their oil. 4 Five years ago,11-year-old Ryan Hreljac was a little boy with a big dream:for all the people in Af- rica to have clean drinking water. His dream began in the first grade when he learned that people were dying because they didn't have clean water,and that as little as $70 could build a well."We really take water for granted,"says Ryan,of Kemptville,Ontario,in Canada."In other countries,you have to plan for it." Ryan earned the first $70 by doing extra chores（零工）,but with the help of others, he has since raised hundreds of thousands of dollars.His efforts led to the start of the Ryan's Well Foundation,which raises money for clean water and health-related services for people in African countries and developing countries. Joying placed the buckets at all public-access areas to________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Puerto Rican Cuisine（菜肴）Puerto Rico, a Caribbean（加勒比海区）island rich in history and remarkable for natural beauty, has a cuisine all its own. Immigration（移民）to the island has helped to shape its cuisine, with people from all over the world making various contributions to it．However,before the arrival of these immigrants,the Taino people lived on the island of Puerto Rico. Taino cuisine included such foods as rodents（啮齿动物）,fresh shellfish and fish fried in corn oil.Many aspects of Taino cuisine continue today in Puerto Rican cooking,but it has been heavily influ- enced by the Spanish,who invaded Puerto Rico in 1508,and Africans,who were initially brought to Puerto Rico to work as slaves.Taino cooking styles were mixed with ideas brought by the Spanish and Africans to create new dishes.The Spanish extended food choices by bringing cattle,pigs,goats,and sheep to the island.Africans also added to the island's food culture by introducing powerful,contrasting tastes in dishes.In fact,much of the food Puerto Rico is now famous for coffee,coconuts,and oranges一was actually im-- ported by foreigners to the island.A common assumption many people make about Puerto Rican food is that it is very spicy（辛辣的）.it' strue that chili peppers are popular;aij caballero in particular is a very hot chili pepper that Puerto Ricans enjoy. However, milder（微辣的）tastes are popular too, such as sofrito. As the base of many Puerto Rican dishes,sofrito is a sauce made from chopped onions,green bell peppers,sweet chili peppers,and a handful of other spices.It is fried in oil and then added to other dishes. Which of the following is NOT true?
[多选题]共用题干 Vocational EducationVocational education refers to education for a particular occupation.Industrialized countries have seen a fall in demand for unskilled workers,and an increase in jobs in the professional,technical,commercial,and administrative sector. Vocational education is traditionally associated with trades and crafts: young people were apprentice to employers for a number of years and learned on the job.Today the focus has shifted from the workplace to secondary and higher education institutions,and from employers to government provision and finance.Trainees in most occupations combine workplace training with study at a technical or academic institution.In the former Soviet Union, school and work were always strongly linked from primary school.Germany provides nine out of ten young people with entering higher education with vocational training,and training is planned from national down to locate level through joint committees of government representatives,employers,and trade unions.In some countries,skills are being grouped and"job families"are created so that individuals can move between jobs with similar technical requirements.In other occupations"competency-based education"is advocated to equip individuals with"transferable"as well as specific skills.In developing countries,where it is traditional for children to work from an early age,only a tiny proportion of students follow a formal vocational program,while the long specialist training of professionals such as doctors,lawyers,and engineers is a costly burden.Training places for technicians,nurses,teachers,and the essential workers are often limited.Worldwide,there is a slow but steady increase in the numbers of women training for occupations of influence in science,technology,law,and business.It is also becoming clear that one course of vocational education is not enough for a lifetime. Retraining,through continuing education is essential. Vocational education refers to education for a usual vocation.
[多选题]共用题干 A Success StoryAt 19,Ben Way is already a millionaire,and one of a growing number of teenagers who have ______(51)their fortune through the Internet.______(52)makes Ben's story all the more remarkable is that he is dyslexic,and was______(53)by teachers at his junior school that he would never be able to read or write______(54).“I wanted to prove them______(55)”, says Ben,creator and director of Waysearch,a net search engine which can be used ______(56)find goods in online shopping malls.When he was eight,his local authorities provided him with a PC to help with school work.Although he was______(57)to read the manuals,he had a natural ability with the computer, and______(58)by his father,he soon began______(59)people￡10 an hour for hisknowledge and skills.At the age of 15 he______(60)up his own computer consultancy, Quad Computer,which he ran from his bedroom,and two years later he left school to ______(61)all his time to business.“By this time the company had grown and I needed to take on a______(62)of employees to help me”,says Ben.“That enabled me to start doing business with______(63)companies.”It was his ability to consistently______(64)difficult challenges that led him to win the Young Entrepreneur of the Year award in the same year that he formed Waysearch,and he has re-cently signed a deal______(65)￡25 million with a private investment company,which will finance his search engine. 65._________
[多选题]共用题干 Global WarmingFew people now question the reality of global warming and its effects on the world's climate.Many sci-entists_________（51)the blame for recent natural disasters on the increase _____ (52) the world'S temperatures and are convinced that,more than__________(53)before,the Earth is at________(54)from the forces of the wind,rain and sun. _________(55)to them,global warming is making extremeweather events, _________(56)as hurricanes and droughts,even more ___________(57)and causing sealevels all around the world to ____________(58).Environmental groups are putting ________(59)on governments to take action to reduce the____________(60)of carbon dioxide which is given __________(61)by factories and power plants,thusattacking the problem at its source.They are in_____________(62)of more money being spent on research into solar,wind and wave energy devices,which could then replace existing power____________(63).Some scientists,____________(64),believe that even if we stopped releasing carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere tomorrow,we would have to wait_(65)hundred years to notice the re-? suits.Global warming,it seems,is here to stay. _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 Brotherly LoveAdidas and Puma have been two of the biggest names in sports shoe manufacturing for over half a centuly.Since 1928 they have supplied shoes for Olympic athletes,World Cup-winning football heroes,Muhammad Ali,hip hop stars and rock musicians famous all over the world.But the story of these two companies begins in one house in the town of Herzogenaurach,Germany.Adolph and Rudolph Dassler were the sons of a shoemaker. They loved sports but complained that they could never find comfortable shoes to play in.Rudolph always said,"You cannot play sports wearing shoes that you'd walk around town with."So they started making their own.In 1920 Adolph made the first pair of athletic shoes with spikes（钉）,produced on the Dasslers'kitchen table.On 1st July 1924 they formed a shoe company,Dassler Brothers Ltd and they worked together for many years.The company became successful and it provided the shoes for Germany's athletes at the 1928 and 1932 Olympic Games.But in 1948 the brothers argued.No one knows exactly what happened,but family members have sug- gested that the argument was about money or women.The result was that Adolph left the company.His nick- name was Adi,and using this and the first three letters of the family name,Dassler,he founded Adidas.Rudolph relocated across the River Aurach and founded his own company,too.At first he wanted to call it Ruda,but eventually he called it Puma,after the wild cat.The famous Puma logo of the jumping cat has hardly changed since.After the big split of 1948 Adolph and Rudolph never spoke to each other again and their companies have now been in competition for over sixty years.Both companies were for many years the market leaders, though Adidas has always been more successful than Puma.A hip hop group,Run DMC,has even written。 song called"My Adidas"and in 2005 Adidas bought Reebok,another big sports shoe company.The terrible family argument should really be forgotten,but ever since it happened,over sixty years ago,the town has been split into two.Even now,some Adidas employees and Puma employees don't talk to each other.
[多选题]共用题干 Houses of the FutureWhat will houses be like in thirty years'time?No one really knows,but architects are trying to predict.___________ (46)Future houses will have to be flexible.In thirty years'time even more of us will be working from home.So we will have to be able to use areas of the houses for work for part of the day and for living for the rest.Families grow and change with children arriving,growing up and leaving home.___________(47)Nothing will be as fixed as it is now.The house will always be changing to meet changing needs.Everyone agrees that in thirty years'time we will be living in"intelligent"houses.We will be able to talk to our kitchen machines and discuss with them what to do.Like this:"We'll be having a party this weekend.What food shall we cook?"____________(48)We will be able to leave most of the cooking to the machines, just tasting things from time to time to check.The house of the future will be personal一each house will be different._______________(49)You won't have to paint them一you'll be able to tell the wall to change the color!And if you don't like the color the next day,you'll be able to have a new one.____________(50) _________（50）
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Taking Pictures of the WorldAnnie Griffiths Belt is a National Geographic photographer.She has worked for National Geographic since 1978,and has taken pictures on almost every continent in the world.In fact,Antarctica is the only continent Belt hasn't seen yet.Belt's photographs are well known for their beauty and high quality.They also reflect very different cultures and regions of the world.Belt has photographed the ancient city of Petra,Jordan,as well as ti green landscapes of the Lake District in England.Recently,her pictures appeared in a book about undeveloped natural places in North America.Everywhere that Belt goes,she takes pictures of people.Belt has found ways to connect with people all ages and nationalities even when she does not speak their language."The greatest privilege of my job being allowed into people's lives."she has said."The camera is like a passport,and I am often overwhelmed（激动得不知所措）by how quickly people welcome me!"Knowing how to break the ice has helped to make Belt a successful photographer,but experts say that anyone can learn to connect with new people.When people speak the same language,greetings and small talk can make strangers feel more comfortable with each other.When people don't speak the same language,a smile is very helpful.Having something in common can also help break the ice.For example Belt has traveled with her two children,so when she takes pictures of children or their parents,they all ha、 that family connection in common.Even bad weather can help people to connect when they are experiencing it together.Belt has,some advice if you are thinking about a career in photography.You can volunteer to take pictures for a local organization that can't afford to hire a professional photographer.You can also take good,honest look at your best photographs.If you're a real photographer,your photos are good because( your personal and technical skills.Belt also recommends studying and learning from photos taken b professional photographers.Remember,the next time you look at a beautiful photograph,you might be looking at the work of Anni Griffiths Belt.And the next time you meet a new person,don't be afraid to break the ice.The connection you make could be very rewarding. Belt's photographs are praised for all of the following EXCEPT________.
[多选题]共用题干 Public and Private Schools in the Unite StatesReligious and private schools receive little or no support from public taxes in the Unite States, and,as a result,are usually somewhat expensive to_________(51).The largest group of religious schools in America__________(52)by the Roman Catholic Church.While religious schools tend to be__________(53)expensive than private schools,there are usually some fees.When there is free education available to all children in the Unite States,why do people_______(54)money on private schools?Americans offer________(55)great variety of reasons for doing so,including the desire of some parents to_________(56)their children to schools_________(57)classes tend to be smaller,or where religious instruction is included as part of the educational program,or because,________(58)their opinion,the public schools in their area are not________(59)high enough quality to meet their needs.Private schools in the Unite States_________(60)widely in size,quality,and in the kind of program that are offered to meet _________(61)of certain students.The degree_________(62)American parents are active in their children's schools is often _________(63)to people of other countries.Most schools have organizations__________(64)of both parents and teachers,usually called P. T. A for Parent-Teacher-Association.They meet together to__________(65)various matters concerning the school. Parents often give their time to help with classroom or after school activities. _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 New Changes in American LifeOnce it was possible to define male and female roles easily by the division of labor. Men worked outside the home and earned the income to support their families,while women cooked the meals and took care of the home and the children.______(46)But by the middle of this centu- ry,men's and women's roles were becoming less firmly fixed.In the 1950s,economic and social success was the goal of the typical American.But in the l960s a new force developed called the counterculture.______(47)The counterculture presen- ted men and women with new role choices.Taking more interest in childcare,men began to share child-raising tasks with their wives.In fact,some young men and women moved to communal homes or farms where the economic and childcare responsibilities were shared equally by both se- xes.______(48)Some young men refused to be drafted as soldiers to fight in the war in Viet-nam。In terms of numbers,the counterculture was not a very large group of people.______(49) Working men of all classes began to change their economic and social patterns.Industrial workers and business executives alike cut down on“overtime”work so that they could spend more leisure time with their families.Some doctors,lawyers,and teachers turned away from high paying situa-tions to practice their professions in poorer neighborhoods.In the 1970s,the feminist movement,or women's liberation,produced additional economic and social changes.Women of all ages and at all levels of society were entering the work force in greater numbers.______(50)But some women began to enter traditionally male occupations: police work,banking,dentistry,and construction work.Women were asking for equal work,and equal opportunities for promotion.Today the experts generally agree that important changes are taking place in the roles of men and women.Naturally,there are difficulties in adjusting to these transformations. ______(50)
[多选题]共用题干 Ludwig Van BeethovenLudwig Van Beethoven,a major composer of the nineteenth century,overcame many personal problems to achieve artistic greatness.Born in Bonn,Germany,in 1770,he first studied music with the court organist,Gilles van derEeden.His father was excessively strict and given to heavy drinking.______(46)Appointed deputy court organist to Christian Gottlob Neefe at a surprisingly early age in 1782,Beethoven also played the harpsichord and the viola. In 1792 he was sent to Vienna by his patron,Count FerdinandWaldstein,to study music under Haydn.Beethoven remained unmarried.______(47)Continually plagued by ill health,he developed an ear infection which led to his tragic deafness in 1819.______(48)He completed mature masterpieces of great musical depth:three piano sonatas,four string quartets,the Missa Solemnis,and the 9th Symphony.He died in 1827.______(49) Noting that Beethoven often flew into fits of rage,Goethe once said of him,"I am astonished by his talent,but he is unfortunately an altogether untamed personality."______(50) _________（48）
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Call American Their NamesA great difference between American social customs and those of other countries is the way in which names are used.Americans have little concern for"rank",especially socially. Most Americans do not want to be treated in any especially respectful way because of their age or social rank;it makes them feel uncomfortable.Many Americans even find the terms"Mr.","Mrs."or"Miss" too formal.People of all ages may prefer to be called by their first names."Don't call me Mrs. Smith.Just call me Sally."Using only first names usually indicates friendliness and acceptance. However,if you do not feel comfortable using only first names,it is quite acceptable to be more formal.Just smile and say that after a while you will use first names but you are accustomed to being more when you first meet someone.Very often,introductions are made using both first and last names:"Mary Smith,this is John Jones."In this situation you are free to decide whether to call the lady"Mary"or"Miss Smith". Sometimes both of you will begin a conversation using last names,and after a while one or both of you may begin using first names instead.You have a choice:if you don't want to use first names so quickly, no one will think it impolite if you continue according to your own custom.
[多选题]共用题干 Computers in CarsYou're far from home on a lonely road.Shadowy forests stretch away on both sides.A thick mist（雾）makes it difficult to see far beyond your car's windshield（挡风玻璃）.“Can this be route 90A?”you wonder. if it is,you should be near a town.Yet there's no hint of one .Night is closing in.And you're low on gasoline.This is a situation where an in-car computer that can navigate would be a big help.A car computer that navigates?Yes!Such computers exist.Several experimental models are being tested by General Motors,Ford,Chrysler,and several foreign car makers.These computers vary in detail .But they all contain series of maps on videodiscs or videotapes.For example,one computer system contains 13,300 maps covering the continental US.Before starting out on a trip,a driver can type in the code for the region he or she plans to drive through .The computer then shows a map of that region.At the same time,a tiny radio re-ceiver linked to the computer goes to work.It picks up signals from navigation satellites such as the NAVSTAR network.Using these signals,the computer shows the car's position at all times and displays this position on the map.The computer can also calculate and display the best route to follow.A navigation computer may also receive and use data about road construction,weather condi- tions,and traffic jams.This information would be displayed to the driver and the computer would also use the information to work out alternate（交替的）routes.Most cars nowadays also contain computers that help cars run more efficiently .Microproces- sors（微处理机）control certain engine functions by regulating the mixing of fuel. Data on car speed,oil pressure,revolutions per minute,engine temperature,and fuel level can be displayed as digital data(numbers)or warning lights.Some auto designers suggest that a central computer display be used to clearly present such timely information as car speed and fuel level.Warning lights would indicate a drop in oil pres- sure or a sudden rise in engine temperature .To get more information on these conditions,the driver could call it up on the computer display screen.When needed,the computer could be “asked”to provide navigation aid or information about the car's condition. By describing a typical situation of a lost driver on the road,the author intends to______.
[多选题]共用题干 A Pay Rise or Not?“Unless I get a rise.I'11 have a talk with the boss, Henry Manley,”George Strong said to himself. George liked his job and he liked the town he lived in,but his wife kept telling him that his pay was not enough to meet the needs of the family.That was why he was thinking of taking a job in Birmingham,a nearby city about 50 miles away.He had been offered a job in a factory there,and the pay was far better.George lived in Wyeford,a medium-sized town .He really liked the place and didn't like the idea of moving somewhere else,but if he took the job in Birmingham,he would have to move his family there.Henry Manley was the manager of a small company manufacturing electric motors.The corn-pany was in deep trouble because,among other reasons,the Japanese were selling such things at very low prices. As a result,Manley had to cut his own prices and profits as well. Otherwise he would not get any orders at all .Even then,orders were still not coming in fast enough,so that there was no money for raises（加工资）for his workers. Somehow ,he had to struggle along and keep his best workers as well.He sighed.Just then the phone rang.His secretary told him that George Strong wanted to see him as soon as possible.Manley sighed again.He could guess what it was about.George Strong was a very young engineer. The company had no future unless it could attract and keep men like him.Manley rubbed his forehead （前额）;his problems seemed endless. Henry Manley's company was in deep trouble.
[多选题]共用题干 They Say Ireland's the BestIreland is the best place in the world to live in for 2005,according to a life quality ranking that appeared in Britain's Economist magazine last week.The ambitious attempt to compare happiness levels around the world is based on the principle that wealth is not the only measure of human satisfaction and well-being.The index of the countries uses data on incomes,health,unemployment,climate,political stability,job security,gender equality as well as what the magazine calls“freedom,family and community life”.Despite the bad weather,troubled health service,traffic congestion,gender inequality,and the high cost of living,Ireland scored an impressive 8 .33 points out of 10.That put it well ahead of second-place Switzerland,which managed 8 .07 .Zimbabwe,trou-bled by political insecurity and hunger,is rated the gloomiest,picking up only 3 .89 points.“Although rising incomes and increased individual choices are highly valued,”the report said,“some of the factors associated with modernization such as the breakdown in traditional in-stitutions and family values in part take away from a positive impact.”“Ireland wins because it successfully combines the most desirable elements of the new with the preservation of certain warm elements of the old,such as stable family and community life.”The magazine admitted measuring the quality of life is not a straight forward thing to do,and that its findings would have their critics.No. 2 on the list is Switzerland.The other nations in the top 10 are Norway,Luxembourg, Sweden,Australia,Iceland,Italy,Denmark and Spain.The UK is positioned at No.29,a much lower position chiefly because of the social and fam-ily breakdown recorded in official statistics.The US,which has the second highest per capita GDP after Luxembourg,took the 13th place in the survey.China was in the lower half the league at 60th. Ireland is positioned at No. 1 because it combines the most desirable elements of the new with some good elements of the old.
[多选题]共用题干 The Development of American Postal SystemIn the early days of the United States,postal charges were paid by the recipient and charges varied with the distance carried.In 1825,the United States Congress permitted local postmasters to give letters to mail carriers for home delivery,but these carriers received no government salary and their entire compensation depended on what they were paid by the recipients of individual let-ters.In 1847,the United States Post Office Department adopted the idea of a postage stamp, which of course simplified the payment for postal service but caused grumbling by those who did not like to prepay.Besides,the stamp covered only delivery to the post office and did not include carrying it to a private address.In Philadelphia,for example,with a population of 150,000,peo- ple still had to go to the post office to get their mail.The confusion and congestion of individual citizens looking for their letters was itseff enough to discourage use of the mail.It is no wonder that,during the years of these cumbersome arrangements,private letter-carrying and express bus-mnesses developed.Although their activities were only semi-legal,they thrived and actually adver-tised that between Boston and Philadelphia they were half-day speedier than the government mail. The government postal service lost volume to private competition and was not able to handle effi-ciently even the business it had.Finally,in 1863,Congress provided that the mail carriers who delivered the mail from the post offices to private addresses should receive a government salary, and that there should be no extra charge for that delivery. But this delivery service was at first confined to cities,and free home delivery became a sing of urbanization.In 1890,of the 75 mul-lion people in the United States,fewer than 20 million had mail delivered free to their doors.The rest,nearly three quarters of the population,still received no mail unless they went to their post office. Which of the following is an advantage the private postal services had over the government postal system?
[单选题]Nerve signals may travel through nerve or muscle fibers at speeds as high as two hundred miles per hour.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Kobe BryantAfter 10 seasons wearing the No.8 on his back,Kobe Bryant will become No.24 next season. The reason for the surprising decision by the Los Angeles Lakers super guard last week has become a hot topic for debate.Bryant wore No.24 when he was in early high school,but he changed to No.33 in his senior year. He switched to No.8 when he was selected by the Lakers in 1996,and has not been changed since.Bryant has refused to explain the decision until the end of the play-offs（季后赛）.So guessing Bryant's motive has become a popular game among NBA fans and newspaper columnists（专栏作家）.There are all kinds of speculations.Many say that Bryant wants to leave the past behind and have a fresh start. He has often been criticized for playing to benefit himself and not the team as a whole.Others say that he may be trying to compare himself to Michael Jordan.Jordan was famous for his No. 23 jersey（运动衫）.Some, such as NBC Sport columnist Michael Venter, argue that it is "all about money".Bryant will make more money by selling new jerseys to his fans.Some speculations are more about fun.For example,there is an opinion that Kobe is actually just a diehard（非常执著的）fan of the popular TV drama "24".All this talk has turned the number change into a major issue.It seems that there is a lot of fuss （大惊小怪）over something that should be pretty simple.Jersey numbers have their own special significance in American sports,especially basketball. Players choose their number when they join a team and they usually stick with that number for the rest of their career. When a great player retires,his team will honor him by retiring his number.To some extent,the jersey is the player,and the player is the jersey.Thus,when you see the famous No.23 for the Chicago Bulls,you immediately think about Michael Jordan.a No.32 Miami Heats jersey recalls the image of Shaquille O'Neal,and the Houston Rockets' No.11 belongs only to Yao Ming.Lots of stories are behind players' jersey number selections.Jordan said that he chose No.23 because it was roughly half of 45.Jordan's elder brother wore the No.45 in college.Yao Ming once revealed that the No.11 stands for two people in love-meaning him and his girlfriend Ye Li. Which team has Bryant played for?
[多选题]共用题干 SmugglingIt is not unusual for a pet to be sent by air cargo from Columbia to New York,but last December's shipment of a 4-year-old sheep dog caught a New York Kennedy Airport Customs inspector's eye .The dog looked to be on its last legs,and there was an unusual lump on the side of its body.An X-ray and emergency surgery revealed the presence of 10 condoms tightly packed with fIve pounds of cocaine that had been surgically implanted in the dog's abdomen-yet another first for Customs in the war on drugs.When it comes to transporting drugs,the methods used are only as limited as a smuggler's imagination.Kilo bricks of cocaine are routinely concealed beneath false bottoms of containers that hold poisonous snakes.“You've got snakes that are 12 feet long,”says a United States Fish and Wildlife Service agent-and sometimes the drug is in the snake.“Who's going to pull it out and feel it?”In 1994,United States Customs seized 204,391 pounds of cocaine,559,286 pounds of marl-juana and 2,577 pounds of heroin,just how much actually flows into the country is anyone's guess.Some Customs officials estimate that only 10 percent of the drugs coming into the country are ever seized.In Miami,the District Attorney won't even prosecute small fry.“It's got to be over five kilos of cocaine,above a kilo of heroin and more than 5,000 pounds of marijuana or it's not something that we're going to stop the presses on,”says Tom Cash,a retired agent.Given this deluge,one can only wonder if agents are ever confounded by some of the smug-gling methods.“There are things we haven't seen before,”says John McGhee,a Miami Customs special agent,“but nothing really surprises us.” How many pounds of heroin were estimated to be smuggled into the United States in 1994?
[多选题]共用题干 Why People Use Pseudonyms（假名字）?You can't choose the name you are given at birth,but in many countries you can change it legally when you reach adulthood.Of course,most people never change their names___________(51)they feel unhappy about them.However some people do____________(52)this course of action一particularly artists!What makes an artist want to change their name?Sometimes it's for purely_____________(53)reasons,such as the Nobel Prize winning poet from Chile,Neftaif Reyes.He didn't want his father to_____________(54)he was writing poetry,so he changed his name to Pablo Neruda when he was a young man._______________(55)other times the reason may Portuguese poet Femando Pessca,appear strange;take the case of the______________(56) wrote under 75 different names.The reason? "When I use a different name,I always write in a different way,"he explained.In most cases,____________(57),people change their names for social,historical,politi-cal,or cultural reasons.Here are some of the most ______________(58),The person's real name is just_____________(59)long and difficult to remember. Let's be honest,Madonna Louise Ciccone is not as._______________(60)to remember as just plain"Madonna".And short names are much easier to remember. William Bradley became Brad Pitt and Edson Arantes do Nascimento became Pele.Sometimes names are changed for marketing______(61).For example,if a name sounds too "foreign",it may be changed to something that is more recognizable in a___________(62).So in the film world,Ramon Estevez adopted the name Martin Sheen.Or maybe the artist's real name doesn't sound very attractive一Chad Everett does____________(63)a lot better than Raymond Cramton.Artists sometimes______________(64)the name of someone they admire.Robert Zimmerman changed his name to Boo Dylan because of his admiration for the Welsh poet,Dylan Thomas.Another reason may be practicality:in the past,women found it very difficult to get published.To _______________(65)this situation,they sometimes gave themselves men's names,so the English author Mary Ann Evans became George Eliot,and she did get her books published! _________（58）
[多选题]共用题干 A Country's Standard of LivingThe"standard of living"of any country means the average person's share of the goods and services the country produces.A country's standard of living,therefore____________(51)first on its capacity to produce wealth."Wealth"in this____________(52)is not money,for we do not live on money but on things that money can buy:"goods",such as food and clothing,and"services",such as transport and entertainment.A country's capacity to____________(53)wealth depends upon many factors,most of____________(54) have an effect on one another.Wealth depends_(55)a great extent upon a country's natural re-sources.Some regions of the world are well supplied with coal and minerals, and have fertile（肥沃的）soil and a favorable climate;other regions_____________(56)none of them.Next to natural resources comes the ability to_____________(57)them to use.China is perhaps as rich asthe USA in natural resources,but she suffered for many years____________(58)civil and external wars,and for this and other_____________(59)was unable to develop her resources.Sound and stable political conditions, and_____________(60)from foreign invasions,enable a country to develop its natural resources peacefully and steadily,and to produce more_____________( 61)than another country equally well favored by nature but less well ordered.A country's standard of living does not only depend upon the wealth that is produced and_____________(62) within its own borders,but also upon what is directly produced through international trade.For example, Britain's wealth in food stuffs and other agricultural_____________(63)would be much less if she had to de- pend only on those grown at home.Trade makes it possible for her surplus（剩余的）manufactured goods to be traded abroad for the agricultural products_____________(64)would otherwise be lacking.A eountry'B wealth is,therefore,much influenced by its manufacturing capacity,_____________(65)that other countries can be found ready to accept its manufactures. 57._________
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Trying to Find a PartnerOne of the most striking findings of a recent poll in the UK is that of the people interviewed, one in two believes that it is becoming more difficult to meet someone to start a family with.Why are many finding it increasingly difficult to start and sustain intimate relationships?Does modern life really make it harder to fall in love?Or are we making it harder for ourselves?It is certainly the case today that contemporary couples benefit in different ways from relationships. Women no longer rely upon partners for economic security or status.A man doesn't expect his spouse to be in sole charge of running his household and raising his children.But perhaps the knowledge that we can live perfectly well without a partnership means that it takes much more to persuade people to abandon their independence.In theory,finding a partner should be much simpler these days.Only a few generations ago, your choice of soulmate（心上人）was constrained（限制）by geography, social convention and family tradition. Although it was never explicit,many marriages were essentially arranged.Now those barriers have been broken down.You can approach a builder or a brain surgeon in any bar in any city on any given evening. When the world is your oyster（牡砺）,you surely have a better chance of finding a pearl.But it seems that the old conventions have been replaced by an even tighter constraint: the tyranny of choice.The expectations of partners are inflated（提高）to an unmanageable degree:good looks,impressive salary,kind to grandmother,and right socks.There is no room for error in the first impression.We think that a relationship can be perfect. If it isn't,it is disposable.We work to protect ourselves against future heartache and don't put in the hard emotional labor needed to build a strong relationship.Of course,this is complicated by realities.The cost of housing and child-rearing creates pressure to have a stable income and career before a life partnership. What does the recent poll show?
[多选题]共用题干 Creating a World without SmokingSmoking will be banned in all pubs,clubs and workplaces from next year after historic votes in the Commons last night.Afler last-minute appeals from health campaigners,MPs opted for a blanket prohibition which will startin summer 2007,ending months of argument over whether smokers should be barred in pubs and restaurants only.They voted to ban smoking in all pubs and clubs by 384 to 184,a surprisingly large majority of 200.Smoking will still be allowed in the home and in places considered to be homes,such as prisons,care homes and hotels.Smokers lighting up in banned areas will face a fixed penalty notice of ￡50 and spot fines of ￡ 200 will be introduced for failing to display no-smoking signs,with the possible penalty,if the issue goes to court,increasing to ￡1,000.Carpline Flint,the Public Health Minister,also announced that the fine for failing to stop people smoking in banned areas would be increased to￡2,500 more than ten times the￡200 originally proposed.The Bill also allows the Government to increase the age for buying cigarettes.Ministers will consult on raising it from 16 to 18.The Bill now goes to the Lords but will be through by the summer recess.Even a plan to allow smoking to continue in private clubs was thrown out as MPs on all sides were given permission to vote with their conscience rather than on a party line.Patricia Hewitt,the Health Secretary,said the Health Bill would ban smoking in"virtually every enclosed public place and workplace"in England and save thousands of lives a year. Smoke-free workplaces and public places"will become the norm".She said:"An additional 600,000 people will give up smoking as a result of this law and millions more will be protected from second-hand smoke."Peter Hollins,director-general of the British Heart Foundation,said:"The vote is a landmark victory for the public health of this country and will save the lives of many people." The Government will shut down cigarette factories in large numbers.
[多选题]共用题干 Traffic in Our CitiesThe volume of traffic in many cities in the world today continues to expand.This causes many problems, including serious air pollution,lengthy delays,and the greater risk___________(51)accidents.Clearly, something must be done,but it is often difficult to persuade people to___________(52)their habits and leave their cars at home.One possible___________(53)is to make it more expensive for people to use their cars by__________(54) charges for parking and bringing in tougher fines for anyone who__________(55)the law. In addition,drivers could be_(56)to pay for using particular routes at different times of the day. This system, ___________(57) as"road pricing",is already being introduced in a_(58)of cities,using a special electronic card___________(59)to the windscreen of the car.Another way of___________(60)with the problem is to provide cheap parking on the___________(61)of the city,and strictly control the number of vehicles allowed into the centre.Drivers and their passengers then use a special bus__________(62)for the final stage of their journey.Of course,the most important___________(63)is to provide good public transport. However,to get people to give___________(64)the comfort of their cars,public transport must be felt to be reliable,con- venient and comfortable,with fares___________(65)at an acceptable level. _________(60)
[多选题]共用题干 Modern Sun Worshippers People travel for a lot of reasons.Some tourists go to see battlefields or religious shrines.Others are looking for culture,or simply want to have their pictures taken in front of famous places.But most European tourists are looking for a sunny beach to lie on. Northern Europeans are willing to pay a lot of money and put up with a lot of inconveniences for the sun because they have so little of it.Residents of cities like London,Copenhagen,and Amsterdam spend a lot of their winter in the dark because the days are so short,and much of the rest of the year in the rain.This is the reason why the Mediterranean has always attracted them.Every summer,more than 25 million people travel to Mediterranean resorts and beaches for their vacation.They all come for the same reason:sun! The huge crowds mean lots of money for the economies of Mediterranean countries.Italy's30,000 hotels are booked solid every summer.And 13 million people camp out on French beaches,parks,and roadsides.Spain's long sandy coastline attracts more people than anywhere else.37 million tourists visit yearly,or one tourist for every person living in Spain. But there are signs that the area is getting more tourism than it can handle.The Mediterranean is already one of the most polluted seas on earth.And with increased tourism,it's getting worse.The French can't figure out what to do with all the garbage left by campers around St.Tropez.And in many places, swimming is dangerous because of pollution. None of this,however,is-spoiling anyone's fun.The Mediterranean gets more popular every year with tourists.Obviously,they don't go there for clean water and solitude.They tolerate traffic jams and seem to like crowded beaches.They don't even mind the pollution.No matter how dirty the water is,the coastline still looks beautiful.And as long as the sun shines,it's still better than sitting in the cold rain in Berlin,Iondon,or Oslo. Every summer,all of Italy's 30,000 hotels are booked by travelers.
[单选题]There is always excitement at the Olympic Games when an athlete breaks a previous record of performance.
[多选题]共用题干 Brotherly LoveAdidas and Puma have been two of the biggest names in sports shoe manufacturing for over half a centuly.Since 1928 they have supplied shoes for Olympic athletes,World Cup-winning football heroes,Muhammad Ali,hip hop stars and rock musicians famous all over the world.But the story of these two companies begins in one house in the town of Herzogenaurach,Germany.Adolph and Rudolph Dassler were the sons of a shoemaker. They loved sports but complained that they could never find comfortable shoes to play in.Rudolph always said,"You cannot play sports wearing shoes that you'd walk around town with."So they started making their own.In 1920 Adolph made the first pair of athletic shoes with spikes（钉）,produced on the Dasslers'kitchen table.On 1st July 1924 they formed a shoe company,Dassler Brothers Ltd and they worked together for many years.The company became successful and it provided the shoes for Germany's athletes at the 1928 and 1932 Olympic Games.But in 1948 the brothers argued.No one knows exactly what happened,but family members have sug- gested that the argument was about money or women.The result was that Adolph left the company.His nick- name was Adi,and using this and the first three letters of the family name,Dassler,he founded Adidas.Rudolph relocated across the River Aurach and founded his own company,too.At first he wanted to call it Ruda,but eventually he called it Puma,after the wild cat.The famous Puma logo of the jumping cat has hardly changed since.After the big split of 1948 Adolph and Rudolph never spoke to each other again and their companies have now been in competition for over sixty years.Both companies were for many years the market leaders, though Adidas has always been more successful than Puma.A hip hop group,Run DMC,has even written。 song called"My Adidas"and in 2005 Adidas bought Reebok,another big sports shoe company.The terrible family argument should really be forgotten,but ever since it happened,over sixty years ago,the town has been split into two.Even now,some Adidas employees and Puma employees don't talk to each other. The brothers'father was a ball maker.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Britain's Solo SailorEllen MacArthur started sailing when she was eight,going out on sailing trips with her aunt.She loved it so much that she saved her money for three years to buy her first small sailing boat.When she was 18,she sailed alone around Britain and won the"Young Sailor of the Year"award.But Ellen really became famous in 2001.Aged only 24,she was one of the only two women who entered the Vendee Globe round the world solo race,which lasted 100 days.Despite many problems,she came second in the race out of 24 competitors and she was given a very warm welcome when she returned.Ambition and determination have always been a big part of Ellen's personality.When she was younger, she lived in a kind of hut（棚屋）for three years while she was trying to get sponsorship to compete in a trans- atlantic race.Then she took a one-way ticket to France,bought a tiny seven meter Class Mini yacht,slept under it while she was repairing it,and then she raced it 4,000 kilometers across the Atlantic in 1997,alone for 33 days.Ellen has had to learn many things,because sailing single-handed means that she has to be her own cap- tamn,electrician,sailmaker,engineer,doctor,journalist,cameraman and cook.She also has to be very ft,and because of the dangers of sleeping for long periods of time while she's in the middle of the ocean,she has trained herself to sleep for about 20 minutes at a time.And she needs courage.Once,In the middle of the ocean,she had to climb the mast（桅杆）of a boat to repair the sails一at four o'clock in the morning,with 100 kph winds blowing around her.It took her many hours to make the repairs;Ellen says:"I was exhausted when I came down.It's hard to describe how it feels to be up there.It's like trying to hold onto a big pole,which for me is just too big to get my arms around,with someone kicking you all the time and trying to shake you off."But in her diary , Ellen also describes moments which make it all worthwhile（值得的）: " A beautiful sunrise started the day,with black clouds slowly lit by the bright yellow sun.I have a very strong feeling of pleasure,being out here on the ocean and having the chance to live this.I just feel lucky to be here." In the Vendee Globe race,Ellen won________.
[多选题]共用题干 Across the DesertThe Sahara Desert is the largest desert in the world. It stretches across Africa from Senegal toEgypt. The Sahara Desert is an unfriendly environment. During the day it's very hot,and at night it's sometimes very cold.It is also difficult to find water in the Sahara.In 2006,Kevin Lin,Ray Zahab and Charlie Engle decided to do something very difficult. They made the decision to run across the Sahara Desert-4,300 miles(6,920 km).It seemed impossible to do,but they wanted to try.The three men liked to test themselves,and this would be a very big test.On the morning of November 2,Kevin,Ray and Charlie started their trip across the Sahara.Every morning they began running at 5:00 .At 11 a. m.,they stopped and rested until 5 p.m. Then they ran again until 9:30 in the evening. Each day they ran about 40 miles(64 km). Every day it was the same thing. They got up and ran. They listened to music on their iPods,and they ran and ran.Kevin,Ray,and Charlie needed to eat a lot of food during their trip.Most people need a-bout2,000 calories of food each day．Kevin,Ray，and Charlie needed between6,000 and 9,000 calories every day.That's a lot of food!They also needed to drink a lot of water.The three men had some problems on their trip,and many times they wanted to quit and go home .It was often very hot(1 40°F/60℃）during the day,and the heat made them sick.Their legs and feet hurt.Sometimes it was very windy,and they couldn't see.One time they got lost. But they didn't quit.After 111 days,Kevin,Ray,and Charlie successfully finished their trip across the Sahara Desert.They hugged each other and put their hands in the water of the Red Sea.Then they ran to a hotel to take a long shower. The three men realized that their trip was finished when they______.
[多选题]共用题干 The Development of American Postal SystemIn the early days of the United States,postal charges were paid by the recipient and charges varied with the distance carried.In 1825,the United States Congress permitted local postmasters to give letters to mail carriers for home delivery,but these carriers received no government salary and their entire compensation depended on what they were paid by the recipients of individual let-ters.In 1847,the United States Post Office Department adopted the idea of a postage stamp, which of course simplified the payment for postal service but caused grumbling by those who did not like to prepay.Besides,the stamp covered only delivery to the post office and did not include carrying it to a private address.In Philadelphia,for example,with a population of 150,000,peo- ple still had to go to the post office to get their mail.The confusion and congestion of individual citizens looking for their letters was itseff enough to discourage use of the mail.It is no wonder that,during the years of these cumbersome arrangements,private letter-carrying and express bus-mnesses developed.Although their activities were only semi-legal,they thrived and actually adver-tised that between Boston and Philadelphia they were half-day speedier than the government mail. The government postal service lost volume to private competition and was not able to handle effi-ciently even the business it had.Finally,in 1863,Congress provided that the mail carriers who delivered the mail from the post offices to private addresses should receive a government salary, and that there should be no extra charge for that delivery. But this delivery service was at first confined to cities,and free home delivery became a sing of urbanization.In 1890,of the 75 mul-lion people in the United States,fewer than 20 million had mail delivered free to their doors.The rest,nearly three quarters of the population,still received no mail unless they went to their post office. What is the main idea of the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 Animal's"Sixth Sense" A tsunami was triggered by an earthquake in the Indian Ocean in December,2004.It killed tens of thousands of people in Asia and East Africa.Wild animals,______(51),seem to have escaped that terrible tsunami."This phenomenon adds weight to notions that they possess a "sixth sense" for ______(52),"experts said. Sri Lankan wildlife officials have said the giant waves that killed over 24,000 people along the Indian Ocean island's coast clearly______(53)wild beasts,with no dead animals found. "No elephant are dead,not______(54)a dead rabbit.I think animals can______(55) disaster.They have a sixth sense.They know rhen things are happening." H. D.Ratnayake,deputy director of Sri Lanka's Wildlife Department,said about one month after the tsunami attack.The ______(56)washed floodwaters up to 2 miles inland at Yala National Park in the ravaged southeast,Sri Lanka’s biggest wildlife______(57)and home to hundreds of wild elephants and several leopards. "There has been a lot of______(58)evidence about dogs barking or birds migrating before volcanic eruptions or earthquakes.But it has not been proven," said Matthew van Lierop,an animal behavior______(59)at Johannesburg Zoo. "There have been no______(60)studies because you can't really test it in a lab or field setting."he told Reuters.Other authorities concurred with this_______(61). "Wildlife seems to be able to pick up certain_______(62),especially birds… there are many reports of birds detecting impending disasters,"said Clive Walker,who has written several books on Mrican wildlife. Animals______(63)rely on the known senses,such as smell or hearing,to avoid danger such as predators. The notion of an animal's"sixth sense”-or______(64)other mythical power is an enduring one which the evidence on Sri Lanka's ravaged coast is likely to add to, The Romans saw owls______(65)omens of impending disaster and many ancient cultures viewed elephants as sacred animals endowed with special powers or attributes. 51._________
[多选题]共用题干 A Heroic WomanThe whole of the United States cheered its latest hero,Ashley Smith,with the Federal Bureau of investigation saying it was planning to give a big reward to her for having a brave heart and wise mind.__________(46)She was moving into her apartment in Atlanta,Georgia early on the morning of March 12,when a man followed her to her door and put a gun to her side."I started walking to my door,and I felt really,really afraid,"she said in a TV interview last week.The man was Brian Nichols , 33. He was suspected of killing three people at an Atlanta courthouse（法院）on March 11 and later of killing a federal agent.__________(47)Nichols tied Smith up with tape,but released her after she repeatedly begged him not to take her life."I told him if he hurt me,my little girl wouldn't have a mummy,"she said.In order to calm the man down,she read to him from"The Purpose-Driven Life",a best-selling religious book. He asked her to repeat a paragraph"about what you thought your purpose in life was一what talents were you given."________(48)"I basically just talked to him and tried to gain his trust,"Smith said.Smith said she asked Nichols why he chose her."He said he thought I was an angel sent from God,and we were Christian sister and brother,"she said."And that he was lost,and that God led him to me to tell him that he had hurt a lot of people."_________(49)She said Nichols was surprised when she made him breakfast and that the two of them watched television coverage（报道）of the police hunt for him."I cannot believe that's me,"Nichols told the woman.Then,Nichols asked Smith what she thought he should do.She said,"I think you should turn yourself in.If you don't, lots more people are going to get hurt."Eventually,he let her go.__________(50)A U.S. $60,000 reward had been posted for Nichols' capture. Authorities said they did not yet know if Smith would be eligible（有资格的）for that money. __________（46）
[多选题]共用题干 Nice Name But She's So Deadly1. More than a million people in the United States were told to leave their homes over the weekend as Hurricane（飓风）Dennis headed to the Gulf coast,after killing at least 15 people in the Caribbean Sea.2. If you read the news often enough,you may notice that all hurricanes are given names. Why is that?Remember,there can be more than one hurricane operating at one time.Without naming them,we could get confused about which storm we're talking about.3. For hundreds of years,hurricanes in the Caribbean were named after the particular religious day on which they occurred. One Australian meteorologist（气象学家）began giving women's names to tropical storms at the end of the 19th century.In 1953,the US National Weather Service, which is responsible for tracking hurricanes and issuing warnings,began using female names for storms.By 1979,both women and men's names were being used.One name for each letter of the alphabet（字母表）is selected,except for Q,U and Z.4. So who decides which names are used each year? The World Meteorological Organization uses six lists in rotation,so each list is reused every six years.5. Here's a list of the 2005 Atlantic hurricanes,according to the US National Hurricane Centre:Arlene,Bret,Cindy,Dennis,Emily,Franklin,Gert, Harvey,Irene, Jose,Katrina,Lee,Maria,Nate,Ophelia,Philippe,Rita,Stan,Tammy,Vince,Wilma. The responsibility of the US National Weather Service is_________.
[单选题]There is always excitement at the Olympic Games when an athlete breaks a previous record of performance.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇TourismPeople travel for a lot of reason.Some tourists go to see battlefields or religious shrines.Others are looking for culture,or simply want to have their picture taken in front of famous places.But most European tourists are looking for a sunny beach to lie on.Northern European are willing to pay a lot of money and put up with a lot of inconveniences for the sun because they have so little of it. Residents of cities like London,Copenhagen,and Amsterdam spend a lot of their winter in the dark because the days are so short,and much of the rest the year in the rain.This is the reason the Mediterranean has always attracted them.Every summer, more than 25 million people travel to Mediterranean resort and beaches for their vacation.They all come for the same reason:sun!The huge crowds mean lots of money for the economies of Mediterranean countries.Italy's30,000 hotels are booked solid every summer.And 13 million people camp out on French beaches, parks and roadsides.Spain's long sandy coastline attracts more people than anywhere else.37 million tourists visit yearly,or one tourist for every person living in Spain.But there are signs that the area is getting more tourism than it can hand1e; The Mediterranean is already one the most polluted seas on earth.And with increased tourism,it's getting worse.The French can't figure out what to do with all the garbage left by campers around St. Tropez.And in many places,swimming is dangerous because of pollution.None of this,however,is spoiling anyone's fun.The Mediterranean gets more popular every year with tourists.Obviously,they don't go there for clean water and solitude.They tolerate traffic jams and seem to like crowded beaches.They don't even mind the pollution.No matter how dirty the water is,the coastline still looks beautiful.And as long as the sun shines,it's still better than sitting in the cold rain in Berlin,London,or Oslo. In paragraph 2,cities like London,Copenhagen,and Amsterdam are mentioned______.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇A Society Without a Formal AuthorityIn the seventeenth century,European soldiers who came across some Indian groups in the westem Great Lakes found that several native tribes（部落）were living in the area without a formal leadership system.They appeared to be"quite friendly with each other without a formal authority"!Not only did the Indians appear to lack a formal system of authority,but they also deeply hated any efforts to control their actions.All members of the tribes knew what was required of them by lifelong（一生的）familiarity with the tasks of the area. These tasks tended to be simple, since the Indians' rate of social change was slow. Thus,although subgroups such as soldiers had recognized leaders,no real authority was required.Rather than giving direct orders(which were considered rough),members of the tribes would arouse others to action by examples.It would be difficult,if not impossible,to carry out such a system in our own society.Most oi us have grown up under one authority or another for as long as we can remember. Our parents,our teachers,our bosses,our government all have the recognized right under certain conditions to tell u, what to do.The authority is so much a part of our culture that it is hard for us to imagine a workabl( society without it.We have been used to relying on authority to get things done and would probably be uncomfortable with the Indian methods of examples on a large scale.Of course,the major reason why the Indian system would not be suitable for us is that our society is too large.The number of tasks that various members of our society have to perform often undertight time and resource limitations could not be treated by the Indian system,in modern societies, the formal authority system is necessary to achieve any social objectives.
[多选题]共用题干 Ludwig Van BeethovenLudwig Van Beethoven,a major composer of the nineteenth century,overcame many personal problems to achieve artistic greatness.Born in Bonn,Germany,in 1770,he first studied music with the court organist,Gilles van derEeden.His father was excessively strict and given to heavy drinking.______(46)Appointed deputy court organist to Christian Gottlob Neefe at a surprisingly early age in 1782,Beethoven also played the harpsichord and the viola. In 1792 he was sent to Vienna by his patron,Count FerdinandWaldstein,to study music under Haydn.Beethoven remained unmarried.______(47)Continually plagued by ill health,he developed an ear infection which led to his tragic deafness in 1819.______(48)He completed mature masterpieces of great musical depth:three piano sonatas,four string quartets,the Missa Solemnis,and the 9th Symphony.He died in 1827.______(49) Noting that Beethoven often flew into fits of rage,Goethe once said of him,"I am astonished by his talent,but he is unfortunately an altogether untamed personality."______(50) _________（47）
[多选题]共用题干 Health Education1.Health education is the part of health care that is concerned with promoting healthy behavior. A person's behavior may be the main cause of a health problem,but it can also be the main solution. This is true for the teenager who smokes, the mother with the poorly nourished（营养） child, and the butcher（屠夫，卖肉的人）who gets a cut on his finger. By changing their behavior these individuals can solve and prevent many of their own problems.2.Health education does not replace other health services,but it is needed to promote the proper use of these services. One example of this is immunization（免疫）:scientists have made many vaccines（疫苗）to prevent diseases,but this achievement is of no value unless people go to receive immunization.3.Health education encourages behavior that promotes health,prevent illness,cures disease and contributes to recovery. The needs and interests of individuals,families,groups,organizations,and communities are at the heart of health education programs.Thus there are many opportunities for practicing health education.4.Health education is not the same thing as health information.Correct information is certainly a basic part of health education,but health education must also address the other factors that affect health behavior such as availability（可获性）of resources, effectiveness of community leadership, social support from family members,and levels of self-help skills.Health education therefore uses a variety of methods to help people understand their own situations and choose actions that will improvetheir health. Health education is incomplete unless it encourages involvement and choice by the people themselves.5.Also,in health education we do not blame people if they do not behave in a healthy way. Often unhealthy behavior is not the fault of the individual.In health education we must work withfamilies,communities,and even regional authorities to make sure that resources and support are available to enable each individual to lead a healthy life. Paragraph 2______
[多选题]共用题干 Mind Those Manners on the SubwaySo,there you are,just sitting there in the subway car,enjoying that book you just bought. _________(46) Or, the person sitting next to you takes out a nail clipper（指甲刀）and begins cutting his or her nails.Annoying?Many of us have to spend some time every day on public transportation_______(47)So,to make the trip more pleasant,we suggest the following:Let passengers get off the bus or subway car before you can get on.________(48)Stand away from the doors when they are closingDon't talk loudly on a bus or subway.Chatting loudly with your friends can be annoying to others.________(49)Don't think your bags and suitcases（手提箱）deserve a seat of their own.Use a tissue whenever you cough or sneeze（打喷嚏）.An uncovered sneeze can spread germs（细菌）,especially in crowded places.Don't cut your nails or pick your nose on public transportation.Don't read over other people's shoulder._________(50)It can make people uncomfortable. They might think you're too stingy（小气的）even to buy a newspaper. Or they might think you're judging their behavior. ________（49）
[多选题]共用题干 Heat Is Killer Extremely hot weather is common in many parts of the world.Although hot weather just makes most people feel hot,it can_______(51)serious medical problems-even death.Floods,storms,volcano eruptions and other natural______(52)kill thousands of people every year.So______(53) extreme heat.Experts say heat may be nature's deadliest killer, Recently,extreme heat was blamed ______(54)killing more than one hundred people in India.It is reported that the total heat of a hot day or several days can______(55)health.Several hot days are considered a heat wave.Experts say heat waves often become dangerous when the nighttime temperature does not_______(56)much from the highest daytime temperature.This causes great stress on the human body. Doctors say people can do many things to______(57)themselves from the dangers of extreme heat. Stay out of the sun,if possible.Drink lots of cool water.Wear light colored clothing made______(58) natural materials;avoid wearing synthetic clothing.Make sure the clothing is______(59),permitting freedom of movement.And learn the danger______(60)of the medical problems,such as headache and vomiting,that are linked to heat.Most people suffer only muscle pain as a(n)______(61)of heat stress.The fiain is a______(62)that the body is becoming too hot.Doctors say those suffering headache or muscle pain should stop all activity,rest in a cool place and drink cool liquids.Do not return to physical _______(63)for a few hours because more serious conditions could develop. Doctors say some people face an______(64)danger from heat stress.Such persons have a weak or damaged heart,high blood pressure,or other problems of the blood system. Hot Weather also increases dangers for people who must take______(65)for high blood pressure, poor blood flow,nervousness or depression. 59._________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇One一Room SchoolsOne-room sohools are part of the heritage of the United States,and the mention of them makeo PeoPle feel a longing for"the way things were".One-room schools are an endangered species,however.For more than a hundred years,one-room schools have been systematically shut down and their students sent away to centralized schools.As recently as 1930 there were 149,000 one-room schools in the United States.By 1970 there werel,800.Today,of the nearly 800 remaining one-room schools,more than 350 are in Nebraska.The rest are spread through a few other states that have on their road maps wide-open spaces between towns.Now that there are hardly any left,educators are beginning to think that maybe there 15 something yet to be leamed from one-room schools,something that served the pioneers that might serve as well today.Progres- sive educators have come uP with progressive-sounding names like"peer-group teaching"and"multi-age grouping" for educational procedures that occur naturally in one-room schools.In a one-room school the chil- dren teach each other because the teacher 15 busy part of the time teaching someone else.A fourth grader can work at a fifth-grade level in math and a third-grade level in English without the bad name associated with being left back or the pressures of being skiPped ahead.A youngster with a learning disability can find his or her own level without being separated from the other pupils.A few hours in a small school that has only oneclassroom and it becomes clear why so many parents feel that one of the advantages of living in Nebraska is that their children have to go to a one-room school. What is the author's attitude towards one-room schools?
[多选题]共用题干 Forests for CitiesYou are standing in a beautiful forest in Japan.The air is clean and it smells like plants and flowers. There are 175 different kinds of trees,and 60 kinds of birds living here._____________(46)You are down- town in the city of Nara,Japan,in Kasugayama Forest,the oldest urban forest in the world.It was started more than a thousand years ago,and today it's very popular with tourists and artists.Cities around the world are working to protect their urban forests.Some urban forests are parks,and some are just streets with a lot of trees.But all urban forests have many good effects on the environment. ___________(47)They also stop the noise from heavy traffic.They even make the weather better because they make the air 3-5 degrees cooler,and they stop strong winds.Urban forests also have many good effects on people.They make the city more beautiful. In a crowded area,they give people a place to relax and spend time in nature.___________(48)In some countries,people are starting new urban forests.In England,there are now 1.3 million trees in an urban forest called Thames Chase,east of London.It was started in 1990,and it has grown very fast. Walking and bicycle clubs use the forest,and there are programs for children and artists.___________(49) Some older cities don't have space for a big urban forest,but planting trees on the streets makes the city better. Scientists found that commuters（通勤人员）feel more relaxed when they can see trees. Trees are even good for business.___________(50)In the future,urban forests will become even more important as our cities grow bigger. In the megacities（超大城市）of tomorrow,people will need more green space to live a comfortable life.Planting trees today will make our lives better in the future. _________(47)
[多选题]共用题干 What We Take From and Give to the SeaAs long as we have been on earth,we have used the sea around us.We take from the ocean,and we give to it.We take fishes from the ocean-millions of kilograms of fish,every year,to________(51)millions of people.We even_______(52)their bones for fertilizer.We take minerals from the ocean.One way to get salt is to_______(53)seawater in shallow basin and leave it until it evaporates（蒸发）.Along with salt,other minerals are left_______(54)evaporation.Much gold and silver drift dissolved in the waters of the sea,too.But the sea does not give them_______(55)by simple evaporation.________(56)gifts from the sea are pearls , sponges（海绵）and seaweed.Pearls________(57)jewelry.Natural sponges become cleaning aids.Seaweed becomes______(58)of many kinds一even candy,and ice cream一as well as medicine.Believe it or not,fresh water is another_______(59)from the sea.We cannot drink ocean water.Some of its contents may______(60)illness.But ocean water becomes fresh water when the salts are ________(61).In the future,we will find ourselves．________(62)more and more onfresh water from the sea.The sea_______(63)us food,fertilizer,minerals,water,and other gifts.What do we give the sea?Garbage.We pollute the ocean_______(64)we use it as a garbage dump.Huge as it is,the ocean cannot hold all the water that we pour into it.________(65)garbage into the ocean is killing off sea life.Yet as the world population grows,we may need the sea and its gifts more than ever. _________59
[多选题]共用题干 Have You Filled Up The Form?Of all things in the world,I most dislike filling up forms.In fact,I have a______(51) horror of it.Applying for a living license,______(52)for an evening course,booking a holi- day abroad-everything nowadays seems to involve______(53)information about one's per-sonal life and habits that has little or nothing to do with the matter______(54)hand.When applying for a job,it may be______(55)some obscure interest to a______(56)employer to learn that I collect stamp or had measles as a child,but why should he conceivably want to know that my father was a tobacconist who died in 1988?The authorities who______(57)one to fill up forms,frequently demand answers to questions that one would hesitate to put______(58)one's intimate friends.rrhe worst of it is that, when______(59)with such questions,my mind goes blank.Have I ever suffered from a seri-ous illness?My mother always assured me I was“delicate”.Do I suffer from any personal de-fects?Well,I wear contact lenses and my upper teeth are not my own,hut perhaps the word“de-fects”______(60)to my character.Am I supposed to______(61)that I like gambling,and find it difficult to get up in the morning?Both of them are true.Of all,I think job applications are the worst,“education”—previous experience—post held—give______(62）…Terrified by the awful warning about giving false______(63) which appear at the bottom of the form,I struggle to remember what exams I passed and how long I worked for what firms.______(64)hard I try，there always seems to be a year or two for which I cannot satisfactorily account and which I am certain,if left______(65),that will give the impression that I was in prison or engaged in some occupation too dubious to mention. 63._________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇 The Greatest Show on Earth The Olympic Games are the greatest festival of sport in the world.Every four years,a hundred or more countries send their best sportsmen to compete for the highest honors in sport.As many as 6,000 people take part in over 20 sports.For the winners,there are gold medals and glory.But there is honor,too,for all who compete,win or lose.That is the spirit of the Olympics一to take part is what matters. The Olympic Games always start in a bright color and action.The teams of all the nations parade in the opening ceremony and march round the track.The custom is for the Greek team to march in first.For it wa。 in Greece that the Olympics began. The team of the country where the Games are being held一the host country一marches in last. The runner with the Olympic torch then enters the stadium and lights the flame.A sportsman from the host country takes the Olympic oath on behalf of all the competitors.The judges and officials also take an oath.After the sportsmen march out of the stadium,the host country puts on a wonderful display. The competitions begin the next day.There are usually more than twenty sports in the Games.The rule is that there must be at least fifteen.The main events are in track and field,but it is a few days before these sports start.Each day the competitors take part in a different sport一riding,shooting,swimming,and cross- country running. Points are gained for each event.Medals are awarded for the individual winners and for national teams. More and more women are taking part in the games.They first competed in 1900,in tennis and golf, which are no longer held in the Olympics.Women's swimming events were introduced in 1912.But it was not until 1928 that there were any track and field events for women.Now,they compete in all but half a dozen of the sports.In horse riding,shooting,and boat racing,they may compete in the same events as the men. What are the most important events in the Olympic Games?
[多选题]共用题干 Some Unusual CelebrationsSome holidays are well-known all around the world.Among them are New Year's Eve celebrations. Also common are days in honor of love and friendship,like Valentine's Day. Each country has its own special holidays, too,often to mark important events in its history. Schools,banks,and government offices all close on days like these.__________(46)A few of them are really very strange.Of course,they are not strange to the people who celebrate them.Perhaps that is because the celebra-tions have long traditions.Consider April Fool's Day,for example.No one knows when or why it began.Today it is celebrated in many countries一France,England,and Australia,among others.On this day,people play practical jokes.___________(47)The ones who laugh are the ones playing the jokes.The people they fool often get angry.Does celebrating, this day make sense to you?Dyngus Day in Poland seems strange,too.On this day,it is traditional for boys to pour water over the heads of girls. Here is the strangest part:They do it to girls they like.Other unusual celebrations take place in a single city or town. A holiday called La Tomatina is celebrated in Bunol,Spain一 Every year,in late August,big trucks carry more than 200,000 pounds of tomatoes into this little town.___________(48)For two hours,people in the streets throw tomatoes at each other. Everyone ends UP red from head to toe.August 10 marks the start of the Puck Fair,an Irish festival with a very unusual tradition.People from the town of Killorglin go up into the mountains and catch a wild goat._________(49)There are also some celebrations that are really strange.In the United States,sometimes one person gets an idea for a new holiday and tries to get others to accept it. Whose idea was Public Sleeping Day? That one is on February 28.It may seem strange,but it sounds like more fun than the one on February 9._________(50)Do you like the idea of inventing a new holiday?If you do,then you will want to mark March 26 on your calendar. That is Make Up Your Own Holiday Day. ___________（47）
[多选题]共用题干 Heat Is Killer Extremely hot weather is common in many parts of the world.Although hot weather just makes most people feel hot,it can_______(51)serious medical problems-even death.Floods,storms,volcano eruptions and other natural______(52)kill thousands of people every year.So______(53) extreme heat.Experts say heat may be nature's deadliest killer, Recently,extreme heat was blamed ______(54)killing more than one hundred people in India.It is reported that the total heat of a hot day or several days can______(55)health.Several hot days are considered a heat wave.Experts say heat waves often become dangerous when the nighttime temperature does not_______(56)much from the highest daytime temperature.This causes great stress on the human body. Doctors say people can do many things to______(57)themselves from the dangers of extreme heat. Stay out of the sun,if possible.Drink lots of cool water.Wear light colored clothing made______(58) natural materials;avoid wearing synthetic clothing.Make sure the clothing is______(59),permitting freedom of movement.And learn the danger______(60)of the medical problems,such as headache and vomiting,that are linked to heat.Most people suffer only muscle pain as a(n)______(61)of heat stress.The fiain is a______(62)that the body is becoming too hot.Doctors say those suffering headache or muscle pain should stop all activity,rest in a cool place and drink cool liquids.Do not return to physical _______(63)for a few hours because more serious conditions could develop. Doctors say some people face an______(64)danger from heat stress.Such persons have a weak or damaged heart,high blood pressure,or other problems of the blood system. Hot Weather also increases dangers for people who must take______(65)for high blood pressure, poor blood flow,nervousness or depression. 57._________
[多选题]共用题干 Too Late to Regret ItWhen I was a junior,I met a second-year student in my department. He wasn't tall or good-looking,but he was very nice,attractive and athletic.He had something that I admired very much .He was natural,warm,and sincere.I disregarded（不顾）my parents' disapproval. We were very happy together. He picked me up from my dorm every morning,and after class we would sit alongside the stream that ran through campus , or sunbathe（晒太阳）on the lawn. At night he would walk me back to my dorm .He came from a poor family,but in order to make me happy,he borrowed money from his friend to buy presents and meals for me .Our fellow students looked up to him as a role model, and the girls envied（妒忌）me. He wasn't a local , but wanted to stay here after graduation. I thought we had a future together.However,when I got a part-time job during the summer vacation,people began giving me a lot of pressure,saying that a pretty,intelligent girl like me should find a better guy to spend time with .This was also what my family thought.He spent the summer in his hometown,so I was all by myself. When he got back,I began finding faults with him.But his big heart and warmth soon drove all unpleasant thoughts away .However,I had no idea how badly I had hurt him and that things would get worse.I had a good part-time job off campus that paid pretty well.With my good performance at school,I also got admission to graduate school at one of China's best universities.He,on the oth- er hand,did not do so well at school or at work .I had to worry about his living expenses,job and scores。Almost all my colleagues and friends advised me to break up with him.Then we had a quarrel last June .He was in great pain,and my cold words and bad moods started turning him away.Graduation time was drawing near. He said that he couldn't put up with me anymore,and he said he wanted to go back to his hometown.I was shocked and looked at him in despair. True love happens only once,but I found it out too late. What did he do to make her happy?
[多选题]共用题干 Changes of Women's RoleThe role of women in Britain has changed a lot in this century,______(51)in the last twenty years.The main change has been______(52)giving women greater equality with men.Up to the beginning of this century,women seem to have had______(53)rights.They could not vote and were kept at home.______(54),as far as we know,most women were happy with this situation. Today,women in Britain certainly______(55)more rights than they used to.They were ______(56)the vote in 1919._________(1919.)In 1970 a law was passed to give them an equal______(57)of wealth in the case of divorce,______(58)the Equal Pay Act gave them the right of equal paywith men for work of equal value in the same year.Yet______(59)these changes,there are still great difference in status between men and women.Many employers seem to______(60)the Equal Pay Act,and the average working women is______(61)to earn only about half that a man earns for the same job.______(62) a survey,at present,only one-third of the country's workers are______(63)women.This small percentage is partly______(64)a shortage of nurseries.If there were______(65)nurseries, twice as many women might well go out to work. _________(62)
[多选题]共用题干 Learning Disorder一Dyslexia As many as 20% of all children in the United States suffer from some form of the learning disorder called dyslexia. Experts on dyslexia say that the problem is not a disease.They say that persons with dyslexia use infor- ination in a di价rent way.One of the world's great thinkers and scientists Albert Einstein was dyslexic.Ein- stein said that he never thought in words the way that most people do.He said that he thought in pictures in- stead.The American inventor Thomas Edisoii was also dyslexic.Dyslexia first was recognized in Europe and the United States more than 80 years ago.Many years passed before doctors discovered that persons with the disorder were not mentally slow or disabled.The doctors found that the brains of persons with dyslexia are different,In most people,the left side of the brain一the part that controls language一is larger than the right side.In persons with dyslexia,the right side of the brain is bigger. Doctors are not sure what causes this difference.However,research has shown that dyslexia is more common in males than in females,and it is found more often in persons who are left-handed.No one knows the cause of dyslexia,but some scientists believe that it may result from chemical changes in a baby's body long before it is born.They are trying to find ways to teach persons with dyslexia. Dyslexic persons think differently and need special kinds of teaching help.After they have solved their problems with language,they often show themselves to be especially intelligent or creative. The first cases of dyslexia in Europe were discovered less than a century ago.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Reading PoemNo poem should ever be discussed or"analyzed",until it has been read aloud by someone, teacher or student.Better still,perhaps,is the practice of reading it twice,once at the beginning of the discussion and once at the end,so the sound of the poem is the last thing one hears of it.All discussions of poetry are,in fact,preparations for reading it aloud,and the reading of the poem is,finally,the most telling"interpretation"of it,suggesting tone,rhythm, and meaning all at once.Hearing a poet read the work in his or her own voice,on records or on film,is obviously a special reward.But even those aids to teaching can not replace the student and teacher reading it or, best of all,reciting it.I have come to think,in fact,that time spent reading a poem aloud is much more important than"analyzing"it,if there isn't time for both.I think one of our goals as teachers of English is to have students love poetry.Poetry is"a criticism of life","a heightening of life,enjoyment with others".It is"an approach to the truth of feeling",and it"can save your life".It also deserves a place in the teaching of languages and literature more central than it presently occupies.I am not saying that every English teacher must teach poetry.Those who don't like it should not be forced to put that dislike on anyone else.But those who do teach poetry must keep in mind a few things about its essential nature,about its sound as well as its sense,and they must make room inthe classroom for hearing poetry as well as thinking about it. The recitation of a poetry by the teacher or a student in the classroom______.
[多选题]共用题干 A Lucky BreakActor Antonio Banderas is used to breaking bones,and it always seems to happen when he's______(51)sport .In the film Play It to the Bone he______(52)the part of a middleweight boxer alongside Woody Harrelson.______(53)the making of the film Harrelson______(54)complaining that the fight.______（55)weren't very convincing,so one day he suggested that he and Banderas should have a fight for______(56).The Spanish actor wasn't keen on the idea at first,but he was______(57)persuaded by his co-star to put on his gloves and climb into the boxing ring. However,when he realized how seriously his opponent was taking it all,he began to______(58)his decision to fight. And then in the third round,Harrelson hit Banderas______(59)hard in the face that he actually broke his nose.His wife,actress Melanie Griffith,was furious that he had been playing“silly macho games”.“She was right”, confesses Banderas,“and I was a fool to______(60)a risk like that in the middle of a movie.”He was______(61)of the time he broke his leg during a football match in his native Mal-aga. He had always______(62)of becoming a soccer star,of performing in front of a big crowd,but doctors told him his playing days were probably over.“That's when I decided to take ______(63)acting;I saw it as______(64)way of performing,and achieving recognition. What happened to me on that football______(65)was,you might say,my first lucky break.” 62._________
[多选题]共用题干 Changes of Women's RoleThe role of women in Britain has changed a lot in this century,______(51)in the last twenty years.The main change has been______(52)giving women greater equality with men.Up to the beginning of this century,women seem to have had______(53)rights.They could not vote and were kept at home.______(54),as far as we know,most women were happy with this situation. Today,women in Britain certainly______(55)more rights than they used to.They were ______(56)the vote in 1919._________(1919.)In 1970 a law was passed to give them an equal______(57)of wealth in the case of divorce,______(58)the Equal Pay Act gave them the right of equal paywith men for work of equal value in the same year.Yet______(59)these changes,there are still great difference in status between men and women.Many employers seem to______(60)the Equal Pay Act,and the average working women is______(61)to earn only about half that a man earns for the same job.______(62) a survey,at present,only one-third of the country's workers are______(63)women.This small percentage is partly______(64)a shortage of nurseries.If there were______(65)nurseries, twice as many women might well go out to work. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 Easy LearningStudents should be jealous.Not only do babies get to doze their days away,but they've alsomastered the fine art of learning in their sleep.By the time babies are a year old they can recognize a lot of sounds and even simple words. Marie Cheour at the university of Turku in Finland suspected that they might progress this fast be-cause they learn language while they sleep as well as when they are awake.To test the theory,Cheour and their colleagues studied 45 newborn babies in the first days of their lives.They exposed all the infants to an hour of Finnish vowel sounds一one that sounds like "oo",another like"ee"and a third boundary vowel peculiar to Finnish and similar languages that sounds like something in between.EEG recording of the infants brains before and after the session showed that the newborns could not distinguish the sounds.Fifteen of the babies then went back with their mothers,while the rest were split into two sleepstudy groups.One group was exposed throughout their night-time sleeping hours to the same three vowels,while the others listened to the other,easier-to-distinguish vowel sounds.When tested in the morning,and again in the evening,the babies who'd heard the tricky boundary vowels all night showed brainwave activity indicating that they could now recognize this sound.They could identify the sound even when its pitch was changed,while none of the other babies could pick up the boundary vowel at all.Cheour doesn't know how babies accomplish this night-time learning,but she suspects that the special ability might indicate that unlike adults,babies don't"turn off" their cerebral cortex while they sleep.The skill probably fades in the course of the first years of life,she add一so forget the idea that you can pick up the tricky French vowels as an adult just by slipping a language tape under your pillow. But while it may not help grown-ups,Cheour is hoping to use the sleeping hours to give remedial help to babies who are genetically at risk of language disorders. Babies can learn language even in their sleep.
[多选题]共用题干 Generation Gap A few years ago,it was fashionable to speak of a generation gap,a division between young people and their elders.Parents complained that children did not show them proper respect and obedience,while children complained that their parents did not understand them at all.What had gone wrong?Why had the generation gap suddenly appeared?Actually,the generation gap has been around for a long time.Many critics argue that it is built into the fabric of our society. One important cause of the generation gap is the opportunity that young people have to choose their own life styles.In more traditional societies,when children grow up,they are expected to live in the same area as their parents,to marry people that their parents know and approve of, and often to continue the family occupation.In our society,young people often travel great distances for their education,most out of the family home at an early age,marry or live or choose occupations different from those of their parents. In our upwardly mobile society,parents often expect their children to do better than they did:to find better jobs,to make more money,and to do all the things that they were unable to do.Often,however,the ambitions that parents have for their children are another cause of the division between them.Often they dis-cover that they have very little in common with each other. Finally,the speed at which changes take place in our society is another cause of thie gap between the generations.In a traditional culture,elderly people are valued for their wisdom,but in our society the knowledge of a lifetime may become obsolete overnight. The young and the old seem to live in two very different worlds,separated by different skills and abilities, No doubt,the generation gap will continue to be a feature of American life for some time to come.Its causes are rooted in the freedoms and opportunities of our society,and in the rapid pace at which society changes. Which one is NOT the cause of the generation gap?
[多选题]共用题干 Operatunity1 Operatunity is a TV talent show for amateur opera singers.The winners get the chance to sing with the English National Opera. When two housewives,Denise Leigh and Jane Gilchrist won in 2002,their lives changed forever. As they sang Verdi's Rigoletto at the Coliseum（音乐厅）in Rome, they were transformed from working mothers into opera celebrities（名人）.2 "I live in the village I was born in,"says Denise,who is blind."Lots of my neighbours are family, and my life is all about my three children."Jane,who worked as a cleaner and a shop assistant,was in a similar situation.She says,"All I had to look forward to was seeing my four children grow up,and I love that,but… you think'there must be more to life'.Winning Operatunity has opened up avenues I never knew existed."3 "This last year has been amazing,"Denise continues."Last mouth was Paris,before that we werere-- cording at Abbey Road,in London,and recently we had our album launch at the Royal Opera House." "We've been treated like princesses,"laughs Jane.“…champagne,chocolates,five-star hotels…”4 But it wasn't all so easy.For Denise,the worst part was waiting at the beginning."After I'd sent in my application form I worried for a month. Then I had to wait ten days after my first audition（试唱）.That was awful."Even when they won the competition they were allowed to tell their close family but they weren't allowed to tell anyone else until later. Denise and Jane also found the travelling difficult.They couldn't take their children with them while they were away singing,so they had to organize childcare.However,there's been no problem with the physical side of singing:"We didn't have to worry about that as we've had lots of help and wonderful voice training,"says Jane.They also had to learn to deal with the media."The kids loved the fact that they could stay up and watch us on TV,but I just couldn't understand why some newspapers were more interested in the fact I divorced at 21,rather than the fact I had just sung at the Coliseum,"says Denise. Operatunity may help ordinary people to__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The World CupThis summer's World Cup competition will see teams competing to play the world's best football. But the football they play will not all be of the same kind.The fans expect different styles of play from Brazil,Germany,or Italy.What makes Brazilian football Brazilian?Our style of playing football contrasts with the Europeans because of a combination of qualities of surprise,accuracy and good judgment.This style has won Brazil five world cups.Yet many Brazilian fans only count four of these victories.In 1994,the team abandoned this style for modern,scientific training and tactics.The team won the cup,but in a boring way.The Italians think differently."To many Italians,the score 0:0 has a glorious quality,suggesting perfection,"says the British football writer Simon Kuper. In the Italian culture,the idea of face is very important.This is why Italian teams are traditionally built around strong defenses.The Dutch footballer Johan Cruyff once said that Italian teams never exactly beat you.It's just that you often lose to them.In Holland,there is a tradition of decision making through argument and discussion.It is a society where everybody is expected to have a point of view."Every Dutch player wants to control the game,"says Arnold Muhren."You play football with your brains and not your feet.""A Dutch player argues,"says Simon Kuper."An English player obeys his superior. He is a soldier."The qualities valued in English football are military-strength,aggression and courage.This can make for exciting football. But it also means that the English find it difficult to use skillful players. David Beckham is usually criticized for his failure to defend一despite the fact that he is an attacker.If the English like to fight,the Germans like to win.In recent years,Germany has tried to change its image as a country of ruthless efficiency and a desire for victory at all costs.But Germans are quite happy for these qualities to remain in their national football team."Football is a simple game,"Gary Lineker once said."You kick a ball about for ninety minutes and in the end the Germans win."It's difficult to predict who will win this year's World Cup.There is no strong favorite.But a look at the track record of previous winners shows that it is the nations with the strongest national characteristics in the football that perform best.It seems that you need to know where you come frorr if you want to get to the top. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Brazilian style of playing football?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇U. S. to Start $3.2 Billion Child Health Study in JanuaryA study that will cost $3.2 billion and last more than two decades to track the health of 100,000 U.S.children from before birth to age 21 will be launched in January,U.S.health officials said on Friday.Officials from the U.S. government's National Institutes of Health said they hope the study,to be conducted at 105 locations throughout the United States,can help identify early-life influences that affect later development,with the goal of learning new ways to treat or prevent illness.The study will examine hereditary（遗传的）and environmental factors such as exposure to certain chemicals that affect health.Researchers will collect genetic and biological samples from people in the study as well as samples from the homes of the women and their babies including air,water,dust and materials used to construct their residences,the NIH said.Officials said more than $200 million has been spent already and the study is projected to cost $3.2 billion."We anticipate that in the long term（从长远说来）,what we learn from the study will result in a significant savings in the nation's health care costs,"Dr. Duane Alexander,who heads the NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development,told reporters.The study will begin in January when the University of North Carolina and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York start signing up（使报名从事）pregnant women whose babies will then be followed to age 21.Some of the early findings will be about factors behind pre-term birth（早产）,which has become more common in recent years,according to Dr. Peter Scheidt of the NIH,who heads the study.The people taking part will be from rural,urban and suburban areas,from all income and educational levels and from all racial groups,the NIH said. Researchers will collect all the following EXCEPT__________.
[多选题]共用题干 A Pay Rise or Not?“Unless I get a rise.I'11 have a talk with the boss, Henry Manley,”George Strong said to himself. George liked his job and he liked the town he lived in,but his wife kept telling him that his pay was not enough to meet the needs of the family.That was why he was thinking of taking a job in Birmingham,a nearby city about 50 miles away.He had been offered a job in a factory there,and the pay was far better.George lived in Wyeford,a medium-sized town .He really liked the place and didn't like the idea of moving somewhere else,but if he took the job in Birmingham,he would have to move his family there.Henry Manley was the manager of a small company manufacturing electric motors.The corn-pany was in deep trouble because,among other reasons,the Japanese were selling such things at very low prices. As a result,Manley had to cut his own prices and profits as well. Otherwise he would not get any orders at all .Even then,orders were still not coming in fast enough,so that there was no money for raises（加工资）for his workers. Somehow ,he had to struggle along and keep his best workers as well.He sighed.Just then the phone rang.His secretary told him that George Strong wanted to see him as soon as possible.Manley sighed again.He could guess what it was about.George Strong was a very young engineer. The company had no future unless it could attract and keep men like him.Manley rubbed his forehead （前额）;his problems seemed endless. George Strong was the best engineer in Henry Manley's company.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The State of Marriage TodayIs there something seriously wrong with marriage today?During the past 50 years,the rate of divorce in the United States has exploded:almost 50% of marriages end in divorce now,and the evidence suggests it is going to get worse.If this trend continues,it will lead to the breakup of the family,according to a spokesper- son for the National Family Association.Some futurists predict that in 100 years,the average American will marry at least four times ,and extramarital（婚外的）affairs will be even more common than they are now.But what are the reasons for this ,and is the picture really so gloomy（阴暗的）?The answer to the first question is really quite simple:marriage is no longer the necessity it once was.The institution of marriage has been based for years partly on economic need.Women used to be economically dependent on their husbands一as they usually didn't have jobs outside the home.But with the rising number of women in well- paying jobs,this is no longer the case,so they don't feel that they need to stay in a failing marriage.In answer to the second question , the outlook may not be as pessimistic（悲观的）as it seems. While the rate of divorce has risen;the rate of couples marrying has never actually fallen very much,so marriage is stillquite popular. In addition to this,many couples now simply live together and don't bother to marry. These couples are effectively married,but they do not appear in either the marriage or divorce statistics.In fact, more than 50%of first marriages survive.So is marriage really an outdated institution?The fact that most people still get married indicates that it isn't. And it is also true that married couples have a healthier life than single people:they suffer less from stress and its consequences,such as heart problems,and married men generally consider themselves more contented than their single counterparts. Perhaps the key is to find out what makes a successful marriage and apply it to all of our relationships! How do most men feel in their marriage life?