卫生B

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 Yoga May Help Ease High Blood PressurePeople who follow the ancient practice of yoga may be getting an added health boost,with a new study suggesting it can fight high blood pressure一also known as hypertension."This study confirms many people's feelings that exercise may be useful in the control of hypertension,"said Dr. Howard."Yoga would be a useful adjunct in the lowering of blood pressure in certain populations."_________(46)Although the study couldn't prove a cause-and-effect relationship,doing yoga two to three times a week was associated with an average drop in blood pressure readings from 133/ 80 to 130/77,the researchers said.In comparison,the average decrease in blood pressure was smaller(134/83 to 132/82)among people who ate a special diet but did not do yoga.In a bit of a surprise,doing yoga in tandem with a special diet did not outperform doing yoga alone.___________(47)Dr. Howard said the study shows that"yoga can have a favorable effect" on hypertension. ________(48)"But some large population studies have suggested that changes of this magnitude could have very significant long-term benefits."___________(49)including its relatively short length and the fact that most participants were young and had milder forms of high blood pressure,Dr. Howard said.__________(50)"Yoga,along with deep breathing exercises,meditation and inner reflection,is a good adjunctive and integrative cardiovascular approach to better health,including lowering blood pressure,as this data suggests,"said Dr. David Friedman. __________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The World ' s Best-Selling MedicineSince ancient times,people all over the world have used willow to stop pain.The willow tree contains salicylic acid(水杨酸).This stops pain,but there is one problem. Salicylic acid also hurts the stomach. In1853,a French scientist made a mixture from willow that did not hurt the stomach.However,his mixture was difficult to make,and he did not try to produce or sell it.In 1897,in Germany,Felix Hoffmann also made a mixture with salicylic acid.He tried it himself first and then gave it to his father because his father was old and in a lot of pain.His father's pain went away, and the mixture did not hurt his stomach.Hoffmann worked for Bayer,a German company.He showed his new drug to his manager,who tested the drug and found that it worked well.Bayer decided to make the drug. They called it aspirin and put the Bayer name on every pill.Aspirin was an immediate success.Almost everyone has pain of some kind,so aspirin answered a true need.Aspirin was cheap,easy to take,and effective.It also lowered fevers.Aspirin was a wonder drug.At first,Bayer sold the drug through doctors,who then sold it to their patients.In 1915,the company started to sell aspirin in drugstores. In the United States , Bayer had a patent(专利权)on the drug. Other companies could make similar products and sell them in other countries,but only Bayer could make and sell aspirin in the United States.In time,Bayer could no longer own the name aspirin in the United States. Other companies could make it there,too.However,Bayer aspirin was the most well known,and for many years,it was the market leader.By the 1950s,new painkillers were on the market.Aspirin was no.longer the only way to treat pain and reduce fever. Bayer and other companies looked for other drugs to make.However,in the l970s they got a surprise.Doctors noticed that patients who were taking aspirin had fewer heart attacks than other people.A British researcher named John Vane found the reason aspirin helped to prevent heart attacks.In 1982,he won the Nobel Prize for his research.Doctors started to tell some of their patients to take aspirin every day to pre- vent heart attacks.It has made life better for the many people who take it.It has also made a lot of money for companies like Bayer that produce and sell it! Bayer started making aspirin because_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Nurse!I Want My MummyWhen a child is ill in hospital,a parent's first reaction is to be________(51)them.Most hospitals now allow parents to sleep________(52)with their child,providing a bed or sofa on the ward.But until the 1970s this _________ (53) was not only frowned upon(不被赞同)—it was actively discouraged.Staff worried that the children would be______(54)when their parents left,and so there was a blanket(通用的)ban.A concerned nurse,Pamela Hawthorn,disagreed and her study"Nurse,I Want My Mummy!"published in 1974,_________ (55 ) the face of paediatric(儿科的)nursing.Martin Johnson,a professor of nursing at the University of Salford,said that the work of_________(56) like Pamela had changed the face of patient care."Pamela's study was done against the__________(57)of a lively debate in paediatrics and psychology as to the degree women should spend with children in the outside world and the degree to which they should be allowed to visit children in__________(58).""The idea was that if mum came to__________(59)a small child in hospital the child would be upset and inconsolable(无法安慰的)for hours.""Yet the nurse noticed that if mum did not come at_________(60)the child stayed in a relatively stable state but they might be depressed.""Of course we know now that they had almost given up hope__________(61)mum was ever comingback.""To avoid a little bit of pain they said that no one should visit.""But children were alone and depressed,so Hawthorn said parents should be__________(62)to visit." Dr. Peter Carter,chief executive and general secretary of the Royal College of Nursing,said her _________( 63 ) had been seminal(开创性的)."Her research put an end to the__________(64)when parents handed their children over to strangers at the door of the hospital ward.""As a result of her work,parents are now recognized as partners in care and are offered the opportunity to stay with their children while they are in hospital,__________(65)has dramatically improved both parents'and children's experience of care." _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 Tiny InvadersThe human body is truly amazing. It allows us to sense the world around us,to do work and have fun, and to move from place to place.In fact,the human body does its work so well that most people don't think about it very much一until they get sick.The germs(致病菌)that make people sick are everywhere. You can ' t see them , but they ' re there. They're sitting on your desk.They're hiding on your computer's keyboard.They're even in the air that you are breathing. There are two types of germs : viruses and bacteria(细菌).Viruses are germs that can only live inside animals or plants. Viruses cause illnesses such as flu and measles(麻疹).Bacteria are tiny creatures.Some bacteria are good.They can help your stomach break down food.Other bacteria aren't so good. They can make you sick. Bacteria can cause sore throats(喉痛)and ear infections.How can you stop these tiny invaders from making you sick?Your skin is the first defense against germs.You can prevent some illnesses simply by washing,with soap and water. But germs can still enter the body through small cuts in the skin or through the mouth,eyes,and nose.Once germs are inside your body, your immune(免疫的)system tries to protect you. It looks for and destroys germs.How does it do that?Special cells patrol your body.Some of these cells actually eat germs! Other cells make antibodies.An antibody sticks to a germ.There is a different antibody for each kind of germ. Some antibodies keep germs from making you sick.Others help your body find and kill germs.After a germ is destroyed,the antibodies stay in your body.They protect you if the same kind of germ comes back. That way you will not get the same illness twice.You can keep your body healthy by eating a nutritious(有营养的)diet to make your immune system strong. You can also help your immune system fight germs by getting vaccinated(接种).Vaccines are medicines.They contain germs that have been killed or weakened.The dead germs can't make you sick. Instead,they cause your body to make antibodies.If the same germ ever shows up again,then your antibodies attack it. Viruses can only live inside people or animals.
[多选题]共用题干 Pregnant Women Warned About ACE InhibitorSome of the most commonly used medicines for high blood pressure are drugs called ACE in-hibitors.Doctors have given these drugs to patients for twenty-five years.A government study in the United States found that the use almost doubled between 1995 and 2000.Doctors have known for years that women should not take ACE inhibitors during the last six months of pregnancy.The medicine can injure the baby.ACE inhibitors,though,have been con-sidered safe when taken during the first three months. But a new study has found that women who take these drugs early in their pregnancy still increase the risk of birth disorders. The study shows that,compared to others,their babies were almost three times as likely to be born with major problems .These included problems with the formation of the brain and nervous system and holes in the heart.The researchers say they found no increased risk in women who took other blood pressure medicines during the first three months.Researchers at Vanderbilt University in Tennessee and Boston University did the study.The New England Journal of Medicine published the results. The researchers studied the records of almost thirty thousand births between 1985 and 2000.Two hun-dred nine babies were born to women who took ACE inhibitors during the first three months of their pregnancies.Eighteen of the babies,or almost nine percent,had major disorders.ACE inhibitors are often given to patients with diabetes. But diabetes during pregnancy can result in birth defects.So the study did not include any women known to be diabetic.ACE inhibi- tors suppress a protein called angiotensin-converting enzyme or ACE.This enzyme produces a chemical in the body that makes blood passages narrow.The drugs increase the flow of blood so pressure is reduced.New drugs are tested on pregnant animals to see if they might cause birth defects in humans. But experts say these tests are not always dependable.The United States Food and Drug Adminis- tration helped pay for the study .The F. D.A.says women who might become pregnant should talk with their doctor about other ways to treat high blood pressure. Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 Voice Your Opinion一Change is Needed in Youth SportsEverywhere you look, you see kids bouncing a basketball or waving a tennis racquet(网球拍).And these kids are getting younger and younger. In some countries,children can compete on basketball, baseball,and volleyball teams starting at age nine._________(46)And swimming and gymnastics classes begin at age four,to prepare children for competition.It's true that a few of these kids will develop into highly skilled athletes and may even become members of the national Olympic teams._________(47)This emphasis on competition in sports is having serious negative effects.Children who get involved in competitive sports at a young age often grow tired of their sport. Many parents pressure their kids to choose one sport and devote all their time to it._______(48)But 66 percent of the young athletes wanted to play more than one sport一for fun.Another problem is the pressure imposed by over-competitive parents and coaches.Children are not naturally competitive.In fact,a recent study by Paulo David found that most children don't even understandthe idea of competition until they are seven years old. ________(49)The third,and biggest,problem for young athletes is the lack of time to do their homework,have fun, be with friends一in short,time to be kids.When they are forced to spend every afternoon at sports practice, they often start to hate their chosen sport.A research found that 70 percent of kids who take part in competitive sports before the age of twelve quit before they turn eighteen.__________(50)Excessive competitive sports take away all the enjoyment.Need to remember the purpose of youth sports一to give kids a chance to have developing,strong, healthy bodies. __________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 Time is very important in our lives.It organizes our everyday moments.However,time never had any importance in my life until I received a watch from my father that organized my life and made me more responsible.It came from Denmark to the U.A.E.jewelry shop in a gray box.It weighs 0.24 kilograms. It's round in the center with two silver bands that go around my wrist.And all of it is made of silver. This object tells me the importance of time in my life.I received this gift on a gray-sky day.I had to go to the airport at 9:00 AM to pick up my uncle Aui and take him to my father's house.However,I was late because I was hanging out with my friends.Later on that day,around 11:00 AM,I remembered my uncle,but I was very late for him. He had left the airport and taken a taxi to my father's house.I got to my father's house at 2:00 PM on the same day and looked at my angry father's face.I felt ashamed of myself at that moment.After I said hi to my angry father and tired uncle,my father asked me to sit next to him where he handed me this watch which was a gift from him.Then he said,"Essa,did you have fun with your friends today?"I answered, "Yes,father,and I'm sorry about not picking up my uncle Ali."He said,"What you did was not very nice and you should be sorry for your actions."I was ashamed and said,"Father,I'll never do it again.I promise."He said,"I hope today you learned something important,and this watch will be a reminder for you." He told me to take this watch and use it as an organizer of my life.I learned a very important lesson from my father:to respect time and never be late to get someone.This watch is important to me,not because of its price,but because of the lesson that I learned from it. Time was not so important in my life and I was not a very responsible person before I received a watch from my father.
[多选题]共用题干 DepressionEveryone occasionally feels blue or sad.But these feelings are usually short-lived and pass within a couple of days.Depression is a common but serious illness.Major depression prevents a person from functioning normally.It interferes with a person's ability to work,sleep,study,eat,and enjoy once-pleasurable activities.Minor depression is character-ized by having symptoms for 2 weeks or longer that do not meet full criteria for major depression. Without treatment,people with minor depression are at high risk for developing major depressive disorder.The severity,frequency,and duration of symptoms vary depending on the individual and his or her particular illness.They include persistent sad,anxious,feelings of hopelessness,guilt,worth-lessness,or helplessness,loss of interest in activities or hobbies once-pleasurable,fatigue and decreased energy,difficulty in concentrating,remembering details,and making decisions,insomnia, early-morning wakefulness,or excessive sleeping,suicide attempts.Depression also may occur with other serious medical illnesses such as heart disease,stroke, cancer,HI V/AIDS,diabetes,and Parkinson's disease.Depression is related to a combination of genetic,biological,environmental,and psychological factors.Research indicates that depressive illnesses are disorders of the brain.Brain-imaging tech-nologies,such as magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),have shown that the brains of people who have depression look different than those of people without depression.Some types of depression tend to run in families.In addition,trauma,loss of a loved one,a difficult relationship,or any stressful situation may trigger a depressive episode.Biological,life cycle,hormonal,and psychosocial factors that women experience may be related to women's higher depression rate.For example,women are especially vulnerable to developing postpartum depression after giving birth.Besides,during the transition into menopause,some women experience an increased risk for depression.It is still unclear,though,why some women faced with enormous challenges develop depression,while others with similar challenges do not. If a person suffers from minor depression,he may have________.
[多选题]共用题干 Every Dog Has Its SayKimiko Fukuda,a Japanese girl,always wondered what her dog was trying to say.Whenever she put on makeup,it would pull at her sleeve._______(46)When the dog barks,she glances at a small electronic gadget(装置).The following“ human” translation appears on its screen:“ Please take me with you .I realized that's how he was feeling.”said Fukuda.The gadget is called Bowlingual,and it translates dog harks into feelings .People laughed when the Japanese toymaker Takara Company made the world's first dog-human translation ma- chine in 2002 .But 300,000 Japanese dog owners bought it.________(47)“Nobody else had thought about it,”said Masahiko Kajita,who works for Takara. We spend so much time training dogs to understand our orders;what would it be like if we could understand dogs?Bowlingual has two parts.________(48)The translation is done in the gadget using a data- base(资料库)containing every kind of bark. Based on animal behaviour research,these noises are divided into six categories:happiness,sadness,frustration,anger,declaration and desire.________ (49)In this way,the database scientifically matches a bark to an emotion,which is then translated into one of 200 phrases.When a visitor went to Fukuda's house recently,the dog barked a loud“bow wow”.This translated as“Don't come this way”.________(50)The product will be available in US pet stores this summer for about US$120 .It tail store up to 100 barks,even recording the dog's emotions when the owner is away. ________(50)
[多选题]共用题干 How Two Great Conflicts Helped to Change EuropeNinety years ago on a sunny morning in Northern France,something happened that changed Britain and Europe for ever. At half past seven on the morning of July 1,1916 , whistles(哨子) blew and thousands of British soldiers left their positions to attack their German enemies. By the end of the day,20,000 of them were dead,and another 30,000 wounded or missing. The Battle of the Somme,______(51)it is called,lasted for six months.When it ended,125,000 British soldiers were dead. They had gained five kilometers of ground.This was one of a series of great battles during WWI.The attack on the Somme was staged to relieve______(52)on the French,who were engaged in a great battle of their own at a place called Verdun. By the time the battle ended,over a million French and German troops had been killed.About 17 million people were killed in WWI. There have been wars with greater numbers of dead .But there has never been one in______(53)most of the dead were concentrated in such a small area. On the Somme battlefield,two men died for every meter of space.Local farmers working in the land still______(54)the bodies of those who died in that battle .The dead of all nations were buried in a series of giant graveyards along the line of the bor- der______(55)France and Belgium.Relatives and descendants(子孙)of those who died still visit these graveyards today.What the French call the"tourism of death"______(56)an im- portant contribution to the local economy.It took a second great conflict before Europe was to turn______(57)war itself. Twenty-eight years after the Somme battle,a liberating army of British,American and Canadian troops took back______(58)from another German invasion. More than 500,000 people were killed.New______(59)were built.Two great conflicts across two generations helped to change the European mind about war. Germany,once the most warlike country in Europe,is now probably more in______(60)of peace than any other. One major cause of war in Europe was rivalry(竞争)between France and Germany .The European Union was specifically formed to end that______(61).According to US commentator William Pfaff,"Europeans are interested in a slow development of civilized and tolerant international relations,______(62)on problems while avoiding catastrophes(灾难)along the way. They have themselves only recently______(63)from the catas-trophes of WWI and WWII,when tens of millions of people were destroyed.They don't want______(64)."The last British veteran of the Somme battle died in 2005,aged 108.And WWI is passing out of memory and into history. But for anyone who wants to understand how Europeans ______(65),it is still important to know a little about the terrible events of July 1,1916. 53._________
[多选题]共用题干 Natural MedicinesSince earliest days,humans have used some kinds of medicines.We know this because humans have survived.Ancient treatments for injury and disease were successful enough to keep humans from dying out completely.They were successful long before the time of modern medicine. Before the time of doctors with white coats and shiny(发亮的)instruments. Before the time of big hospitals with strange and wonderful equipment.Many parts of the world still do not have university-educated doctors. Nor do they have expensive hospitals.Yet injuries are treated.And diseases are often cured.How?By ancient methods. By medicines that might seem mysterious , even magical(有魔力的).Traditional medicines are neither mysterious nor magical,however.Through the centuries , tribal(部落的)medicine men experimented with plants. They found many useful chemicals in the plants.And scientists believe many of these traditional medicines may provide the cure for some of today's most serious diseases.Experts say almost 80% of the people in the world use plants for health care.These natural medicines are used not just because people have no other form of treatment. They are used because people trust them. In developed areas,few people think about the source of the medicines they buy in a store .Yet many widely-used medicines are from ancient sources,especially plants.Some experts say more than 25%of modem medicines come,in one way or another,from nature.Scientists have long known that nature is really a chemical factory. All living things contain chemicals that help them survive .So scientists' interest in traditional medicine is not new.But it has become an urgent concern.This is because the earth's supply of natural medicines may be dropping rapidly. The passage indicates that ancient treatments for injury and disease were
[多选题]共用题干 For many people today,reading is no longer relaxation.To keep up their work they must read letters,reports,trade publications,interoffice communications,not to mention newspapers and magazines:a never-ending flood of words.In__________(51)a job or advancing in one,the ability to read and comprehend quickly can mean the difference between success and failure.Yet the unfortunate fact is that most of us are_________(52)readers.Most of us develop poor reading habits at an early age,and never__________(53)them.The main deficiency_________(54)in the actual stuff of language itself一words.Taken individually,words have_________(55)meaning until they are strung together into phrases,sentences and paragraphs.___________(56),however,the untrained reader does not read groups of words.He laboriously reads one word at a time,often regressing to reread words or passages.Regression,the tendency to look back over_________(57)you have just read,is a common bad habit in reading.Another habit which________(58)down the speed of reading is vocalization一sounding each word either orally or mentally as one reads.To_________(59)these bad habits,some reading clinics use a device called an accelerator, which moves a bar (or curtain) down the page at a predetermined speed.The bar is set at a slightly faster rate than the reader finds comfortable,in order to "stretch" him.The accelerator forces the reader to read fast,_______(60)word-by-word reading,regression and sub-vocalization,practically impossible.At first_________(61)is sacrificed for speed.But when you learn to read ideas and concepts,you will not only read faster,________(62)your comprehension will improve.Many people have found their reading skill drastically improved after some training.________(63)Charlie Au,a business manager,for instance.His reading rate was a_________(64)good 172 words a minute_________(65)the training;now it is an excellent 1,378 words a minute.He is delighted that he can get through a lot more reading material in a short period of time. _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 The Case of the Disappearing FingerprintsOne useful anti-cancer drug can effectively erase the whorls and other characteristic marks that give people their distinctive fingerprints. Losing______(51)could become troublesome. A case released online in a letter by Annals of Oncology indicates how big a______(52)of losing fingerprints is.Eng-Huat Tan,a Singapore-based medical doctor describes a 62-year old man who has used capecitabine to______(53)his nasopharyngeal cancer. After three years on the______(54),the patient decided to visit U.S. relatives last December. But he was stopped by U.S. customs officials______(55)4 hours after entering the country when those officials couldn't get fingerprints from the man.There were no distinctive swirly______(56)appearing from his in-dex finger.U.S.customs has been fingerprinting incoming foreign visitors for years,Tan says.Their in-dex fingers are______(57)and screened against digital files of the fingerprints of bad guys-terrorists and potential criminals that our federal guardians have been tasked with keeping mit of the country. Unfortunately,for the Singaporean travelers,one potential______(58)effect of his drug treatment is a smoothing of the tissue on the finger pads.______(59),no finger- pnnts."It is uncertain when fingerprint loss will______(60)to take place in patients who are taking capecitabine,"Tan points out. So he cautions any physicians who______(61)the drug to provide their patients with a doctor's note pointing out that their medicine may cause fingerprints to disappear.Eventually,the Singapore traveler made it into the United States.I guess the name on his passport didn't raise any red flags.But he's also now got the explanatory doctor's note-and won't leave home______(62)it.By the way,maybe the Food and Drug Administration,______(63)approved use of the drug 11 years ago,should consider______(64)its list of side effects associated with this medi-cine.The current list does note that patients may experience vomiting,stomach pain and some other side effects.But no where______(65)it mention the potential for loss of fingerprints. 64._________
[多选题]共用题干 Energize Yourself and Your FamilyBeing healthy and active can help give you the energy to keep up with the demands of your busy life,take better care of yourseff,and be there for the people who depend on you.If you are overweight and inactive,you are more likely to get Type 2 diabetes,heart disease, high blood pressure,stroke and certain forms of cancer. You may improve your health if you move more and eat better!Here are some tips on how to get moving and eat well even when your life is busy.Try to do at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (like brisk walking) on most days of the week.It is not as hard as you may think,and you do not have to do the whole 30 minutes at one time.Give up the typical excuse such as"I don't have time for physical activity". You can"sneak"it into your day,a few minutes at a time.Get started by making small changes in your daily routine,for example,get off the bus or subway one stop early and walk the rest of the way. You do not have to do your entire workout in one block of time.Break it up一taking three 10- minute walks during your day may be easier than taking one 30-minute walk.Physical activities do not have to be chores.You can make them fun.Do things you enjoy,like walking,dancing,swimming,or playing sports.Walk or take an exercise class with a friend or a group.Be active with your kids-ride bikes or toss a softball.It may be hard to eat healthy if you do not have time to cook or your kids want fast food.Here are some ways that you and your family can eat better. Eat breakfast every day.Try a whole-grain cereal like raisin bran with fat-free or low-fat milk,or whole-wheat toast spread with jam. Enjoy some fruit with your breakfast too.Teach kids that healthy foods taste good.Choose fat-free or low-fat milk,yogurt,and cheese instead of full-fat dairy products.Choose whole-grain foods like whole-wheat bread,oatmeal,and brown rice more often than refined-grain foods,like white bread and white rice.Snack on fruits and vegetables. Keep a bowl of fruit on the table,bags of mini carrots in the refrigerator,and boxes of raisins in the cupboard.Do not keep a lot of sweets like cookies,candy,or soda in the house.Set goals.Move at your own pace.Celebrate your successes.Allow for setbacks.Let your family and friends help you.And keep trying一you can do it! Moderate-intensity physical activity helps to keep healthy.
[多选题]共用题干 Exercising Your Memory1. Aging does not mean a dramatic decline in memory power,unless you help it happen by let-ting your mind go.2. That's not to say that memory doesn't change throughout life.Researchers divide memory into categories based on the length of time when memories are stored.One system divides it up as short-term(less than one minute;remembering a telephone number while you dial,for in-stance),long-term(over a period of years)and very long-term memory(over a lifetime).3. Short-term memory isn't mastered until about age 7,but after that you never lose it.Long-term memory,however,involves more effort and skill and changes more through life .It's not until the early teens(十几岁)that most people develop a mature long-term memory.4. First,we must get information into our heads through learning. Learning strategies can get rusty(生锈)without constant use. High school and college students , who are forced to repeatedly exercise their long-term memory abilities(at least long-term enough to get them through a final exam),usually do well on memory tests.The longer you stay in school,the more chance you get to polish your learning skills.It's no wonder that more highly educated people have more effective memory skills throughout life.5. Although older people in general learn somewhat more slowly than they did when younger,a dramatic difference exists between those who stay intellectually active-reading,discussing,taking classes,thinking-and those who do not. Giving the brain daily workout(锻炼)is just as important as exercising your muscles.Brainwork keeps your learning strategies in shape,and this helps your memory to function at full capacity.6. The next part of a healthy long-term memory is retention(记忆力),the ability to store what you have learned. Memory researchers still do not know whether memories are lost-whether they still exist in the brain but our mental searching cannot turn them up,or have disappeared entirely as our brain ages.7. The third necessity for memory is recall,the ability to bring to mind the memories we have stored.Again,while aging has widely different effects on the recall abilities of different people, research indicates that the older we get,the longer it takes to recall facts But slower recall is still recall. In fact,aging does not seem to have any effect on forgetting at all,which takes place at the same rate in younger and older people. Retention refers to______.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The IcemanOn a September day in 1991,two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy.High up on a mountain pass,they found the body of a man lying on the ice.At that height(10,499 feet,or 3,200 meters),the ice is usually permanent,but 199 1 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice had melted more than usual so the body had come to the surface.It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架)was in perfect condition , except for a wound in the head.There were still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes.The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots.Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮)and a holder for arrows.Who was this man?How and when had he died?Everybody had a different answer to these questions. Some people thought that it was from this century,perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War I, since several soldiers had already been found in the area.A Swiss woman believed it might be her father,who had died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found.The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older,maybe even a thousand years old.With modern dating techniques,the scientists soon learned that the iceman was about 5,300 years old. Born in about 3300 B.C.,he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe. At first scientists thought he was probably a hunter who had died from an accident in the high mountains.More recent evidence,however,tells a differentstory. A new kind of X-ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. "left only a tiny hole in his skin but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He certainly died from this wound,and not from the wound ontne back of his head. This means that he was probably in some kind of a battle. It might have been Part of alarger war, or he might have been fighting bandits.He might even have been a bandit himself.By studying his clothes and tools,scientists have already learned a great deal from the iceman about thetimes he lived in. We may never know the full story of how he died,but he has given us important clues totne history of those distant times.
[多选题]共用题干 The Meaning of Dreams1 Dreams play an important role in our lives.If they can be correctly interpreted,we can come to understand ourselves better. Here,we look at four common dreams and what they potentially symbolize.2 I can see their laughing faces…laughing at me. But they aren't as smart. If they were,they'd be up.here flying with me!This dream has both positive and negative connotations(涵义).On the positive side,the dream may express a strong desire to travel and get away from everyday routine.It can also be interpreted as a powerful desire to achieve.On the other hand,this dream can mean the person has a problem or is afraid of something and they wish to escape. The dream could represent an inferiority complex(自卑情 结),which the dreamer attempts to escape from by putting themselves up above others.3 I'm moving fast now,but it's still behind me. Doesn 't matter how fast I go. I still can 't escape. Although this is a traditional symbol of health and vitality(生命力)like the first one,it can also suggest the dreamer is trying to escape from danger. Usually,fear is the dominant emotion.By running hard,the dreamer can possibly escape the threat.However,they can also stumble or worse still stop moving altogether. This makes the fear even more terrifying.One possible interpretation suggests that the person is under pressure in their everyday life.4 I'm sweating and my heart is beating. I'm trapped in my own bed. In this dream,the person is often standing on a high,exposed place such as on the top of a tower,or on the edge of a cliff. The overwhelming(强烈的)feeling changes from anxiety to a loss of control. There is nothing to stop the person, and the feeling as they go over the edge can be horrifyingly real.Fortunately,just before hitting the ground, the dreamer awakens with a sense of enormous relief. This dream suggests that the dreamer is afraid of losing control and has a fear of failure or even death.5 The wind is pushing me and I slip. There 's nothing I can do…nothing I can hold on to. This symbol is associated with fear:suddenly the dreamer loses all power of movement.They try hard to move their arms and legs,but they simply cannot.Frozen in a terrifying situation with no escape,they become more andmore terrified as the seconds go by.Another frequent context for this dream is failing to do something in public,often something which you are normally very good at,such as your job.Not only is this extremely embarrassing,but it also shows a deep-seated phobia(恐惧)of losing a job and a livelihood. Paragraph 4_________
[多选题]共用题干 Exercising Your Memory1. Aging does not mean a dramatic decline in memory power,unless you help it happen by let-ting your mind go.2. That's not to say that memory doesn't change throughout life.Researchers divide memory into categories based on the length of time when memories are stored.One system divides it up as short-term(less than one minute;remembering a telephone number while you dial,for in-stance),long-term(over a period of years)and very long-term memory(over a lifetime).3. Short-term memory isn't mastered until about age 7,but after that you never lose it.Long-term memory,however,involves more effort and skill and changes more through life .It's not until the early teens(十几岁)that most people develop a mature long-term memory.4. First,we must get information into our heads through learning. Learning strategies can get rusty(生锈)without constant use. High school and college students , who are forced to repeatedly exercise their long-term memory abilities(at least long-term enough to get them through a final exam),usually do well on memory tests.The longer you stay in school,the more chance you get to polish your learning skills.It's no wonder that more highly educated people have more effective memory skills throughout life.5. Although older people in general learn somewhat more slowly than they did when younger,a dramatic difference exists between those who stay intellectually active-reading,discussing,taking classes,thinking-and those who do not. Giving the brain daily workout(锻炼)is just as important as exercising your muscles.Brainwork keeps your learning strategies in shape,and this helps your memory to function at full capacity.6. The next part of a healthy long-term memory is retention(记忆力),the ability to store what you have learned. Memory researchers still do not know whether memories are lost-whether they still exist in the brain but our mental searching cannot turn them up,or have disappeared entirely as our brain ages.7. The third necessity for memory is recall,the ability to bring to mind the memories we have stored.Again,while aging has widely different effects on the recall abilities of different people, research indicates that the older we get,the longer it takes to recall facts But slower recall is still recall. In fact,aging does not seem to have any effect on forgetting at all,which takes place at the same rate in younger and older people. Exercising your brain every day is beneficial______.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇New Attempts to Eradicate AIDS VirusA high-profile attempt to eradicate the AIDS virus in a few patients continues to show promise.But researchers won't know for a year or more whether it will work,scientist David Ho told journalists here Wednesday for the Fourth Conference on Viruses and Infections."This is a study that's in progress,"says Ho,head of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York.The study involves 20 people who started combinations of anti-HIV drugs very early in the course of the disease,within 90 days of their infections.They'ye been treated for up to 18 months.Four others have dropped out because of side effects or problems complying with the exacting drug system.The drugs have knocked the AIDS virus down to undetectable levels in the blood of all remaining patients.And,in the latest development,scientists have now tested lymph nodes and semen from a few patients and found no virus reproducing there,Ho says."Bear in mind that undetectable does not equal absent,"Ho says.Ho has calculated that the drugs should be able to wipe out remaining viruses一at least from known reservoirs throughout the body—in two to three years.But the only way to prove eradication would be to stop the drugs and see if the virus comes back.On Wednesday,Ho said he wouldn't ask any patient to consider that step before 2(1/2)years of treatment.And he emphasized that he is not urging widespread adoption of such early,aggressive treatment outside of trials.No one knows the long-term risks.But other scientists are looking at similar experiments.A federally funded study will put 300 patients on triple-drug treatments and then see if some responding well after six months can continue to suppress the virus on just one or two drugs,says researcher Douglas Richman of the University of California,San Diego. Some patients in that study also may be offered the chance to stop therapy after 1 8 months or more,he says. The words"Bear in mind that undetectable does not equal absent" by Ho's means_________.
[多选题]共用题干 According to the most recent research on parenting,caretakers tend to use three strategies for disciplining children.Power includes the use of physical punishment such as spanking or the threat of physical punishment,but parents can also demonstrate power by taking away a privilege such as using the car,attending a sporting event,or in the case of a very young child,playing with a favorite toy.In spite of the fact that power strategies,especially severe physical punishment,can cause children to fear or even hate parents,it's surprising that power remains the strategy used most often in discipli-ning children.It's also worth noting that children who are harshly disciplined in this way tend to be hostile,defiant,and aggressive socially.Second in popularity after power is the withholding of affection.This can take the form of re-fusal to communicate with a child,threatening to abandon or reject the child,or otherwise treating children as though they were unworthy of love .Interesting enough,children disciplined in this way appear on the surface to be very self-disciplined,even model children who are seldom in trouble, but underneath,these same children are generally very nervous,insecure and dependent others to approve of and guide their evaluation of behavior.Finally,management techniques are employed for discipline .These begin with a set of rules that are clearly expressed at an age-appropriate level.To enforce the rules,parents use a combina- tion of praise and approval with explanation and reasoning,always referring back to the rules.But regardless of the strategy,the behavior that has precipitated punishment should be clearly understood,and the consequences should be consistent. Key to any kind of discipline is a pattern of consistency so that children understand the relationship between the rules,their behavior,and the consequences. The most often used strategy in disciplining children is______.
[多选题]共用题干 Deaths Associated with Sugary Soft DrinksSugar-sweetened sodas,sports drinks and fruit drinks may be associated with about 180,000 deaths around the world each year,according to a recent research.Sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed throughout the world,and contribute to excess body weight,which increases the risk of developing diabetes,cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. Using data collected as part of the 2010 Global Burden of Diseases Study,the researchers linked intake of sugar-sweetened beverages to 133,,000 diabetes deaths,44,000 deaths from cardiovascular diseases and 6,000 cancer deaths.Seventy-eight percent of these deaths due to over-consuming sugary drinks were in low and middle-income countries,rather than high-income countries."In the U.S.,our research shows that about 25,000 deaths in 2010 were linked to drinking sugar-sweetened beverages,"said Mr. Singh,a postdoctoral research fellow at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston.Of nine world regions,Latin America/Caribbean had the most diabetes deaths(38,000)related to the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in 2010.Japan,one of the countries with lowest per-capita consumption of sugary beverages in the world,had the lowest death rate associated with the consumption of sugary beverages,at about 10 deaths due to per million adults."Because we were focused on deaths due to chronic diseases,our study focused on adults.Future research should assess the amount of sugary beverage consumption in children across the world and how this affects their current and future health,"Singh said.The American Heart Association recommends adults consume no more than 450 calories per week,from sugar-sweetened beverages,based on a 2,000 calorie diet and offers tips to help you make better lifestyle choices and eat healthier. The study focused on the entire population.
[多选题]共用题干 Nurse!I Want My MummyWhen a child is ill in hospital,a parent's first reaction is to be________(51)them.Most hospitals now allow parents to sleep________(52)with their child,providing a bed or sofa on the ward.But until the 1970s this _________ (53) was not only frowned upon(不被赞同)—it was actively discouraged.Staff worried that the children would be______(54)when their parents left,and so there was a blanket(通用的)ban.A concerned nurse,Pamela Hawthorn,disagreed and her study"Nurse,I Want My Mummy!"published in 1974,_________ (55 ) the face of paediatric(儿科的)nursing.Martin Johnson,a professor of nursing at the University of Salford,said that the work of_________(56) like Pamela had changed the face of patient care."Pamela's study was done against the__________(57)of a lively debate in paediatrics and psychology as to the degree women should spend with children in the outside world and the degree to which they should be allowed to visit children in__________(58).""The idea was that if mum came to__________(59)a small child in hospital the child would be upset and inconsolable(无法安慰的)for hours.""Yet the nurse noticed that if mum did not come at_________(60)the child stayed in a relatively stable state but they might be depressed.""Of course we know now that they had almost given up hope__________(61)mum was ever comingback.""To avoid a little bit of pain they said that no one should visit.""But children were alone and depressed,so Hawthorn said parents should be__________(62)to visit." Dr. Peter Carter,chief executive and general secretary of the Royal College of Nursing,said her _________( 63 ) had been seminal(开创性的)."Her research put an end to the__________(64)when parents handed their children over to strangers at the door of the hospital ward.""As a result of her work,parents are now recognized as partners in care and are offered the opportunity to stay with their children while they are in hospital,__________(65)has dramatically improved both parents'and children's experience of care." _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 Approaches to Understanding Intelligences It pays to be smart, but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician, but you might not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psy- chologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on all tests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelligent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believesthat all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelli- gences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelli- gences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured, other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathe- matical , spatial , musical , interpersonal , intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic. Which of the following statements is true concerning general intelligence?
[多选题]共用题干 Time is very important in our lives.It organizes our everyday moments.However,time never had any importance in my life until I received a watch from my father that organized my life and made me more responsible.It came from Denmark to the U.A.E.jewelry shop in a gray box.It weighs 0.24 kilograms. It's round in the center with two silver bands that go around my wrist.And all of it is made of silver. This object tells me the importance of time in my life.I received this gift on a gray-sky day.I had to go to the airport at 9:00 AM to pick up my uncle Aui and take him to my father's house.However,I was late because I was hanging out with my friends.Later on that day,around 11:00 AM,I remembered my uncle,but I was very late for him. He had left the airport and taken a taxi to my father's house.I got to my father's house at 2:00 PM on the same day and looked at my angry father's face.I felt ashamed of myself at that moment.After I said hi to my angry father and tired uncle,my father asked me to sit next to him where he handed me this watch which was a gift from him.Then he said,"Essa,did you have fun with your friends today?"I answered, "Yes,father,and I'm sorry about not picking up my uncle Ali."He said,"What you did was not very nice and you should be sorry for your actions."I was ashamed and said,"Father,I'll never do it again.I promise."He said,"I hope today you learned something important,and this watch will be a reminder for you." He told me to take this watch and use it as an organizer of my life.I learned a very important lesson from my father:to respect time and never be late to get someone.This watch is important to me,not because of its price,but because of the lesson that I learned from it. My father told me to have the watch and use it to organize my life.
[多选题]共用题干 Eating Potatoes Gives Your Immune System a BoostEating potatoes is not only good for bowel health,but also for the whole immune system,espe- cially when they come in the form of a potato salad or eaten cold.In a study on an animal model, researchers in Spain found that pigs fed large_________(51)of raw potato starch(RPS)not on-ly had a healthier bowel,but also decreased levels of white blood cells,________(52)as leuco- cytes and lymphocytes in their blood.White blood cells are produced as a_________(53)of in-fEammation or disease,generally when the body is challenged.The general down-regulation of leucocytes observed by the Spanish researchers suggests an overall beneficial effect,a generally more_________(54)body.The reduction in leucocyte levels was about 15 percent.Lower lymphocyte levels are also indicative of_________(55)levels of in-flammation,but the observed reduction in both lymphocyte density_________(56)lymphocyte apoptosis is surprising.In_________(57)was the longest study of its kind,pigs were fed RPS over 14 weeks to _________(58)the effect of starch on bowel health.“The use of raw potato starch in this experi-ment is_________(59)to simulate the effects of a diet high in resistant starch,”said study leader Jose Francisco Perez at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona,Spain.Humans do not eat_________(60)potatoes,but they do eat a lot of foods that contain resist-ant starch,such as cold boiled potatoes,legumes,grains,green bananas,pasta and cereals.About 10 percent of the starch eaten by human is resistant starch—starch that is not_________(61)in the small intestine and so is shunted into the large intestine where it ferments.Starch consumption is thought to reduce the_________(62)of large bowel cancer and may also have an effect on irritable bowel syndrome(IBS).Immunology expert Lena Ohman' s team_________(63)found that the overall lymphocyte levels do not vary for IBS patients,but that lymphocytes are transferred from the peripheral blood to the gut,which support the hypothesis of lBS being_________(64)least partially an inflammato- ry disorder. She says the decrease in lymphocytes observed by the Spanish is therefore interest-ing,and a diet of resistant starch may be worth_________(65)in lBS patients.Ohman is cur-rently at the Department of Internal Medicine,Goteborg University,Sweden.The study is pub-lished in the Journal Chemistry and Industry,the magazine of the SCI. 64._________
[多选题]共用题干 1.Tired of social networking?Logging off Facebook?You're probably not the only one.Fearing for their privacy or perhaps just bored with using the site,100,000 Britons are said to have deactivated(注销)their accounts last month. And Facebook fatigue seems to be catching. Six million logged off for good in the U.S.too,figures show.Worldwide,the rate of growth has slowed for a second month in a row一and as it aims to reach its goal of one billion active users,Facebook is having to rely on developing countries to boost its numbers.The figures suggest that there could be a"natural limit" for Facebook's saturation(饱和).There is even speculation on blogs that, as is feared for its failing rival MySpace,the website could one day "pass into oblivion"(被人遗忘).2.Earlier this year,executives announced that the number of Facebook accounts held in the UK had reached 30 million,accounting for about half the population.The milestone was an increase of four million from last July and represented the highest saturation of any country in Europe.3.But times change一and last month more than 100,000 in the UK stopped using the website, figures show.In the U.S.,user numbers dropped from 155.2 million to 149.4 million throughout May.In Canada there was also a fall,of about 1.5 million users,while in Russia and Norway num-bers also fell by more than 100,000 users.4.It's not all bad news for the site.Worldwide,Facebook is still expanding and has around 600 million users,thanks to strong growth in countries such as Mexico and Brazil.5.According to Eric Eldon,of the website Inside Facebook,which obtained the figures through analysis of the company's advertising tools,there is a point at which the site can no longer grow, once it has established itself in a country."By the time Facebook reaches around 50 percent of the total population in a given country,growth generally slows to a halt,"he explained. Paragraph 2_________
[多选题]共用题干 Relieving the Pain"Exercise may be the best treatment of chronic pain,"say doctors at a new clinic for dealing with pain. "People with chronic pain need to stop lying around,go out more,and start exercising."The instinctive reaction to acute pain is to stop moving and to try to protect the source of pain. But it seems that this is often not productive,especially in the case of back pain. Back pain,after headaches and tiredness,has become the third most common reason for people to visit their doctors.Painful backs now account for millions of days off work.Lumbar(腰部的)pains are partly the price humans pay for taking their forelimbs off the ground, but they are made worse by a sedentary(久坐不动的)lifestyle. Lack of exercise slowly decreases the flexibility and strength of muscles,so that it is more difficult to take pressure off the site of pain.Exercise is essential. It releases endorphins(内啡肽),the body's "feel-good" chemicals, which are natural painkillers. In fact, these are so important that researchers are now looking for drugs that can maintain a comfortable level of endorphins in the body.Most people who go to a family doctor complaining of pain are prescribed pain-killing drugs rather than exercise.Since finding the cause of backache is not so easy,doctors frequently do not know the precise cause of the discomfort,and as the pain continues,sufferers end up taking stronger doses or a series of different drugs."It's crazy,"says Dr. Brasseur,a therapist at the International Association for the Study of Pain. "Some of them are taking different drugs prescribed by different doctors.I've just seen a patient who was taking two drugs which turned out to be the same thing under different names."A generation of new pain clinics now operates on the basis that drugs are best avoided.Once patients have undergone the initial physical and psychological check up,their medication is cut down as much as possible.Taking patients off drugs also prepares them for physical activity.In some pain一 relief clinics,patients begin the day with muscle contraction and relaxation exercises, followed by an hour on exercise bikes. Later in the day,they practice tai chi(太极),self-defense,and deepthought. This compares with an average of two-and-a-half hours' physiotherapy(理疗)a week in a traditional hospital program."The idea is to strengthen and to increase long一lasting energy,flexibility,and confidence," explains Bill Wiles,a consultant pain doctor in Liverpool."Patients undergoing this therapy get back to work and resume healthy active lifestyles much sooner than those subjected to more conservative treatment." Headaches are partly caused by lack of exercise.
[多选题]共用题干 The Worker 's Role in ManagementTraditionally,it has been the workers'role to work and management's role to manage.Managers have planned and directed the firm's operations with little thought of consulting the labor force.Managers have rarely felt compelled(被迫的)to obtain the workers ' opinions or to explain their decisions to their employees.At most,companies have provided"suggestion boxes"in which workers could place ideas for improving procedures.In recent years,however,many management specialists have been arguing that workers are more than sellers of labor-they have a vital stake in the company and may be able to make significant contributions to its management.Furthermore,major company decisions profoundly affect workers and their dependents.This isparticularly true of plant closings,which may put thousands on the unemployment lines.Should workers, then,play a stronger role in management?Workers should have a role in management.At the very least,the labor force should be informed of major policy decisions(A common complaint among rank-and-file workers is the lack of information about company policies and actions).Between 1980 and 1985 about five million workers were the victims of plant closings and permanent layoffs(失业),often with no warning.At least 90 days'notice ought to be given in such instances so that workers have time to adjust.Management should consult workers before closing a plant,because the workers might be able to suggest ways of improving productivity and reducing costs and might be willing to make concessions that will help keep the plant operating.It should become a general practice to include workers in some managerial decision making.There ought to be representatives of the workers on the firm's board of directors or other major policymaking groups.If rank-and-file workers are given a voice in the planning and management of the work flow,they will help to make improvements,their morale will rise,and their productivity will increase.As a further incentive,they must be given a share in the company's profits.This can be done through employee stock-ownership plans,bonuses,or rewards for efficiency and productivity.Finally,when a plant can no longer operate at a profit,the workers should be given the opportunity to purchase the plant and run it themselves. The word"rank-and-file" in Paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to______.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇There are many ways of defining success.It is accurate to say that each of us has our own concept of success to the extent that each of us is responsible for setting our own goals and determining whether we have met these goals satisfactorily.Because each of us possesses unique differences in genetic ability and favorable environments in which to express these abilities,it is necessarily true that we must define success broadly.For some people,simply being able to live their life with a minimum of misery and suffering is considered a success.Think of the peace of mind of the poor shepherd who tends his sheep,enjoys his frugal life with his family in the beauty of nature,and who is respected because he does a good job of achieving the goals expected of and accepted by him and his society.On the other hand,it seems that even though some people appear to be rich in material possessions,many of them seem to be miserable and consider themselves unsuccessful when judged by their own standards of success. Because not all ventures can be successful,one should not set unrealistic goals for achieving suecess,but if one has self-confidence it would be unfortunate to set one's goals at too low a level of achievement.A wise counselor once said to a young man who was experiencing frustration with his own professional success:"You do not have to set your goal to reach the moon in order to have success in traveling. Sometimes one can be very successful merely by taking a walk in the park or riding the subway downtown."The counselor added,"You have not really failed and spoiled your chances for success until you have been unsuccessful at something you really like,and to which you have given your best effort." Some rich people consider themselves unsuccessful because_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Words and Word OriginsWhen you are learning languages,what do you think is the most interesting?One of the most interesting of all studies is the study of words and word origins.Each language is_________(51)of several earlier languages and the words of a language can sometimes be traced__________(52)through two or three different languages to their origins.Again a word from one language may pass into other languages and___________(53)a new meaning.The word"etiquette,"which is__________(54)French origin and originally meant a label(标志),or a sign,passed into Spanish and kept its original meaning. So in Spanish the word"etiquette" today is used to _________(55) the small tags(标签)which a store __________(56) to a suit,a dress or a bottle.The word"etiquette"in French, _________(57), gradually developed a different meaning. It________(58)became the custom to write directions on small cards, or "etiquette",as to how visitors should dress themselves and act during an important ceremony at the royal court.________(59)the word"etiquette"began to indicate a system of correct manners for people to follow. With this meaning,the word passed into English.Consider the word"breakfast"."To fast"is to go for some period of time without________ (60).Thus in the morning after many hours during the night without food,one_________(61)one's fast.Consider the everyday English_________(62) "Goodbye".Many many years ago,people would say to each _________(63)on parting "God be with you".As this was ________(64)over and over millions of times,it gradually became________(65)to "Goodbye". _________(59)
[多选题]共用题干 Some Schooling on BackpacksAccording to the U.S.Consumer Product Safety Commission,5,900 kids were treated at hospital emergency rooms , clinics , and doctors ' offices last year for sprains(扭伤)and strains caused by backpacks.Such injuries are so widespread that more than 70 percent of physicians'surveyed by the American Academy of Orthopedic(整形外科的)Surgeons listed backpacks as a potential clinical problem for children.How do you avoid such problems? Choose bags that have wide , padded straps(有垫的背带)and a belt.That will help transfer some of the weight from the back and shoulders to the hips.You should also tighten both straps firmly,so the pack rests about 2 inches above your waist.Also,remember to pack your bag with the heaviest items closest to your back and to bend both knees when you pick it up.How much should you stuff into your pack?That depends on your size and strength,but a general rule is not to exceed 20 percent of your body weight.So if a child weighs 100 pounds,the backpack and its load should not be more than 20 pounds.One hint : Make frequent trips to your locker(储物柜)to exchange books between classes.Backpacks with wheels let you pull the weight along the ground,but they have problems too.Many are larger than the average shoulder bag,so students are tempted to carry more than they would in a conventional pack.Roller bags often don't fit into a locker.They can also lead to tripping and falls in crowded halls.Whatever you use,10 or 15 minutes of stretching and back strengthening is a good idea. 70 percent of UK physicians have treated children with sprains and strains.
[多选题]共用题干 American sports are quite distinct from those played elsewhere in the world.The top four spectator team sports are American football,baseball,basketball,and ice hockey.Baseball is the oldest among these sports.The professional game dates from 1869 and has no close rivals in popularity until the 1960s;though baseball is no longer the most popular sport,it is still referred to as the nationa! pastime.Little boys play baseball in parks and empty lots,in streets and in alleys;and picnics all through the hot summer months include at least a few innings(回合)of baseball with boys and girls, young and old,taking turns at bat. Probably no American was very surprised to read in the newspapers that when a United States atomic submarine surfaced at the North Pole,the crewmen played a game of baseball.Also unlike the professional levels of the other popular spectator sports in the U.S.,Major League Baseball teams play almost every day from April to October. American football(known simply as"football"in the U.S.)now attracts more television viewers than baseball;however, National Football League teams play only 16 regular -season games each year,so baseball is the great leader in ticket sales.The really important professional players are members of the 24 teams in America's two major baseball leagues.Each summer they are America's national heroes.At the end of the season,when the two top teams play against each other to find the winner of the"World Series",excitement and tension rise in cities all over the country.Fans make long trips to watch the games and to shout from their seats in the bleachers(廉价座位).Millions of others tune in on radio and television,sometimes making it a topic of conversation.And long after it is all over,baseball fans talk over the scores and the players,inning by inning,and the batting averages of the players this year compared to other years.(Batting averages show the percentage of times a player hits the ball effectively)The President of the United States is invited to start the season each year by tossing the ball into the first game in Washington D.C.一and he rarely fails to come.
[多选题]共用题干 American sports are quite distinct from those played elsewhere in the world.The top four spectator team sports are American football,baseball,basketball,and ice hockey.Baseball is the oldest among these sports.The professional game dates from 1869 and has no close rivals in popularity until the 1960s;though baseball is no longer the most popular sport,it is still referred to as the nationa! pastime.Little boys play baseball in parks and empty lots,in streets and in alleys;and picnics all through the hot summer months include at least a few innings(回合)of baseball with boys and girls, young and old,taking turns at bat. Probably no American was very surprised to read in the newspapers that when a United States atomic submarine surfaced at the North Pole,the crewmen played a game of baseball.Also unlike the professional levels of the other popular spectator sports in the U.S.,Major League Baseball teams play almost every day from April to October. American football(known simply as"football"in the U.S.)now attracts more television viewers than baseball;however, National Football League teams play only 16 regular -season games each year,so baseball is the great leader in ticket sales.The really important professional players are members of the 24 teams in America's two major baseball leagues.Each summer they are America's national heroes.At the end of the season,when the two top teams play against each other to find the winner of the"World Series",excitement and tension rise in cities all over the country.Fans make long trips to watch the games and to shout from their seats in the bleachers(廉价座位).Millions of others tune in on radio and television,sometimes making it a topic of conversation.And long after it is all over,baseball fans talk over the scores and the players,inning by inning,and the batting averages of the players this year compared to other years.(Batting averages show the percentage of times a player hits the ball effectively)The President of the United States is invited to start the season each year by tossing the ball into the first game in Washington D.C.一and he rarely fails to come.
[多选题]共用题干 1.Is there something seriously wrong with marriage today?During the past 50 years,the rate of divorce in the United States has exploded:almost 50%of marriages end in divorce now,and the evidence suggests it is going to get worse.If this trend continues,it will lead to the breakup of the family,according to a spokesperson for the National Family Association.Some futurists predict that in 100 years, the average American will marry at least four times, and extramarital(婚外的)affairs will be even more common than they are now.2.But what are the reasons for this,and is the picture really so gloomy?The answer to the first question is really quite simple:marriage is no longer the necessity it once was.The institution of marriage has been based for years partly on economic need.Women used to be economically dependent on their husbands.But with the rising number of women in well-paying jobs,this is no ionger the case.So they don't feel that they need to stay in a failing marriage.3.In answer to the second question,the outlook may not be as pessimistic as it seems.While the rate of divorce has risen,the rate of couples marrying has never actually fallen very much,so marriage is still quite popular. In addition to this,many couples now simply live together and don't bother to marry.These couples are effectively married,but they do not appear in either the marriage or divorce statistics.In fact,more than 50% of first marriages survive.4.So is marriage really an outdated institution?The fact that most people still get married mndicates that it isn't. And it is also true that married couples have a healthier life than single people: they suffer less from stress and its consequences such as heart problems,and married men generally consider themselves more contented than their single counterparts.Perhaps the key is to find out what makes a successful marriage and apply it to all of our relationships! When marriage continues to be popular,the most important thing is to_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Acupuncture一Old Chinese MedicineFor more than 4,000 years people in Asia have used acupuncture to treat illnesses.________ (46)Today acupuncture is also very popular in Europe,America and Australia.Acupuncture can control pain and sickness.It can also be used if you have a headache or back pain.Some doctors use acupuncture along with regular treatments for asthma,high blood pressure or stress.________(47)Some people think that acupuncture can treat depression and even help people to stop smoking. Many patients feel more energy after a treatment,while others may feel more relaxed.People who practice acupuncture must take courses to learn how to do it correctly._________(48)During treatment the patient lies down and needles are stuck into certain points of the body. There are hundreds of possible points and each one has a certain effect on the body._________(49) For example you stick a needle into the hand to treat problems with your stomach.Acupuncture needles are made of metal and about as thick as a human hair. They normally go less than one cm into the skin.When they are in the skin the acupuncturist may twist them or send electricity through them.The patients rest for a short time and then the needles are removed.Acupuncture normally doesn't hurt. There is also a milder form of acupuncture called acupressure where you don't need needles.Doctors use their fingers to press the points of the body.Chinese medicine teaches us that all acupuncture points are located along pathways called meridians.Each of these meridians carries energy,which the Chinese call "qi" to certain points of the body.If this "qi" gets blocked from an area the person will get sick or feel pain.Sticking needles into the correct points can help "qi" flow again and make the person well.Doctors today are not sure how acupuncture really works.They have not found any proof that these pathways of energy really exist.Some think that needles cause the body to produce pain killing substances.________(50)Some also say that acupuncture only works because patients believe in it. _________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 DepressionEveryone occasionally feels blue or sad.But these feelings are usually short-lived and pass within a couple of days.Depression is a common but serious illness.Major depression prevents a person from functioning normally.It interferes with a person's ability to work,sleep,study,eat,and enjoy once-pleasurable activities.Minor depression is character-ized by having symptoms for 2 weeks or longer that do not meet full criteria for major depression. Without treatment,people with minor depression are at high risk for developing major depressive disorder.The severity,frequency,and duration of symptoms vary depending on the individual and his or her particular illness.They include persistent sad,anxious,feelings of hopelessness,guilt,worth-lessness,or helplessness,loss of interest in activities or hobbies once-pleasurable,fatigue and decreased energy,difficulty in concentrating,remembering details,and making decisions,insomnia, early-morning wakefulness,or excessive sleeping,suicide attempts.Depression also may occur with other serious medical illnesses such as heart disease,stroke, cancer,HI V/AIDS,diabetes,and Parkinson's disease.Depression is related to a combination of genetic,biological,environmental,and psychological factors.Research indicates that depressive illnesses are disorders of the brain.Brain-imaging tech-nologies,such as magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),have shown that the brains of people who have depression look different than those of people without depression.Some types of depression tend to run in families.In addition,trauma,loss of a loved one,a difficult relationship,or any stressful situation may trigger a depressive episode.Biological,life cycle,hormonal,and psychosocial factors that women experience may be related to women's higher depression rate.For example,women are especially vulnerable to developing postpartum depression after giving birth.Besides,during the transition into menopause,some women experience an increased risk for depression.It is still unclear,though,why some women faced with enormous challenges develop depression,while others with similar challenges do not. The symptoms of depression,besides fatigue,may include__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇According to the most recent research on parenting,caretakers tend to use three strategies for disciplining children.Power includes the use of physical punishment such as spanking or the threat of physical punishment,but parents can also demonstrate power by taking away a privilege such as using the car, attending a sporting event,or in the case of a very young child,playing with a favorite toy.In spite of the fact that power strategies,especially severe physical punishment,can cause children to fear or even hate parents,it's surprising that power remains the strategy used most often in disciplining children. It's also worth noting that children who are harshly disciplined in this way tend to be hostile, defiant,and aggressive socially.Second in popularity after power is the withholding of affection.This can take the form of refusal to communicate with a child,threatening to abandon or reject the child,or otherwise treating children as though they were unworthy of love.Interesting enough,children disciplined in this way appear on the surface to be very self-disciplined,even model children who are seldom in trouble,but underneath,these same children are generally very nervous,insecure and dependent others to approve of and guide their evaluation of behavior.Finally,management techniques are employed for discipline.These begin with a set of rules that are clearly expressed at an age-appropriate level. To enforce the rules,parents use a combination of praise and approval with explanation and reasoning,always referring back to the rules.But regardless of the strategy,the behavior that has precipitated punishment should be clearly understood,and the consequences should be consistent. Key to any kind of discipline is a pattern of consistency so that children understand the relationship between the rules,their behavior,and the consequences. Which of the following expression has the same meaning as the italicized word in Line 2"privilege"in Par
[多选题]共用题干 Flying Into HistoryWhen you turn on the television or read a magazine, celebrities(名人)are everywhere. Although fame and the media play such major roles in our lives today,it has not always been that way.________(46)Many historians agree that Charles Lindbergh was one of the first major celebrities or superstars.Lindbergh was born in Detroit,Michigan,in 1902,but he grew up in Little Falls,Minnesota.As a child, he was very interested in how things worked,so when he reached college,he pursued a degree in engineering. At the age of 20,however,the allure(诱惑)of flying captured Lindbergh's imagination._________(47)Soon after , Lindbergh bought his own plane and traveled across the nation performing aerial stunts(空中特技).In 1924,Lindbergh became more serious about flying. He joined the United States military and graduated first in his pilot class._________(48)During the same time,a wealthy hotel owner named Raymond Orteig was offering a generous award to the first pilot who could fly nonstop from New York City to Paris,France.The Orteig Prize was worth $5,000一a large amount even by today's standards.Lindbergh knew he had the skills to complete the flight,but not just any plane was capable of flying that far for that long._________(49)On May 20,1927,Charles Lindbergh took off from Roosevelt Field in New York City and arrived the next day at an airstrip(简易机场)outside Paris. Named in honor of the sponsor , The Spirit of St. Louis carried Lindbergh across the Atlantic Ocean and into the record books.He became a national hero and a huge celebrity.When he returned to the United States , Lindbergh rode in a ticker-tape(热烈的)parade held to celebrate his accomplishment._________(50)A very popular dance was even named for Charles Lindbergh一the Lindy Hop.Today,The Spirit of St. Louis is kept at the Smithsonian institute's National Air and Space Museum in Washington,D.C. __________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 Personality and Career1.When you select your career,there's a whole lot more to it than assessing your skills and matching them with a particular position.If you ignore your personality,it will hurt you long-term regardless of your skills or the job's pay.There are several areas of your personality that you need to consider to help you find a good job.2. There are isolating(使孤立)jobs that will drive an outgoing person crazy and also interactive jobs that will make a shy person uneasy.Most people are not extremes in either direction but do have a tendency that they prefer. There are also positions that are sometimes a combination of the two, which may be best for someone in the middle who adapts easily to either situation.3.Most jobs these days have some elements of change to them,but some are more than others. If you need stability in your life,you may need a job where the changes don't happen so often.Other people would be bored of the same daily routine.4.There are people who are happy to spend more than 40 hours a week on a computer,while there are others who need a lot of human interaction throughout the day.Again,these are extremes and you'll likely find a lot of positions somewhere in the middle as well.5.Some people prefer a smaller setting where you'll get to know almost all the people there fairly quickly to being in a large building with a lot of people you won't know immediately.6.Anyway,these are a great starting point for you.I've seen it over and over again with people that they make more money over time when they do something they love.It may take you a little longer,but making a move to do what you have a passion for can change the course of your life for the better. Paragraph 2_________
[多选题]共用题干 The majority of people,about nine out of ten,are right-handed.Not until recently,people who were left-handed were considered__________(51),and once children showed this tendency they were forced to use their right hands. Today left-handedness is generally_________(52),but it is still a disadvantage in a world________(53)most people are right-handed.For example,most tools and implements are still designed for right-handed people.In sports,__________(54)contrast,doing things with the left hand or foot,is often an advantage.Throwing,kicking,punching or batting from the"wrong"side may result_________(55)throwing off many opponents who are more accustomed to dealing with the_________(56)of players who are right-handed.This is why,in many ________(57)at a professional level,a higher proportion of players are left-handed than in the population as a whole.The word"right"in many languages means"correct"or is_________(58)with lawfulness, whereas the words associated__________(59)"left",such as"sinister",generally have_________ (60)associations.Moreover,among a number of primitive peoples,there is_________(61)close association between death and the left hand.In the past,in most Western societies,children were often forced to use their right hands,especially to write with.In some cases the left hand was_________(62)behind the child's back so that it could not be used.If,in the future,they are allowed to choose,_________(63)will certainly be more left handers,and probably_________(64)people with minor psychological disturbances as a result of being forced to use their_________(65)hand. _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 Many teachers believe that the responsibilities for learning lie with the student._________(51) a long reading assignment is given,instructors expect students to be familiar with the_________(52) in the reading even if they do not discuss it in class or take an examination.The__________(53) student is considered to be one who is motivated(激励)to learn for the sake of_________(54),not the one interested only in getting high grades.Sometimes homework is returned________(55)brief written comments but without a grade.Even if a grade is not given,the student is_________(56) for learning the material assigned.When research is________(57),the professor expects the student to take it actively and to complete it with minimum guidance.It is the_________(58)responsibility to find books, magazines,and articles in the library.Professors do not have the time to explain _________(59)a university library works;they expect students,______(60)graduate students,to be able to exhaust the reference sources in the library.Professors will help students who need it,but_________(61)that their students should not be too dependent on them. In the United States professors have many other duties________(62)teaching,such as administrative or research work.________(63),the time that a professor can spend with student outside of class is_________(64).If a student has problems with classroom work,the student should either approach a professor during office hour_________(65)make an appointment. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Gross National HappinessIn the last century,new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries.However,one country resisted these changes.High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia,the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however,was a poor country.People died at a young age.Most of its people could not read,and they did not know much about the outside world.Then,in 1972,a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck decided to help Bhutan to become modern,but without losing its traditions.King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas.He saw that most countries measured their progressby their Gross National Product(GNP).The GNP measures products and money.When the number of products sold increases,people say the country is making progress.King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan.He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness.If the people's happiness increased,the king could say that Bhutan was making progress.To decide if people were happier,he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness.People are happier if they have health care, education,and jobs.They are happier when they live in a healthy,protected environment.They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs.Finally,people are happier when they have a good,stable government.Now there is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan.People are healthier and are living longer. More people are educated and employed.Twenty-five percent of the land has become national parks,and the country has almost no pollution.The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs.Bhutan has also become a democracy.In 2008,King Wangchuck gave his power to his son.Although the country still had a king,it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time.Finally,Bhutan has connected to the rest of the world through television and internet.Bhutan is a symbol for social progress.Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH.These countries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness.They want to create new policies that takecare of their people,cultures,and land.Brazil may be the next country to use the principles of GNH.Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration.Brazil is a large country with a diverse population.If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil,perhaps the rest of the world will follow. Who was Jigme Singye Wangchuck?
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Bone Marrow TransplantationBone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones,such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells,called stem cells.The stem cells can develop into the red blood cells that carry oxygen through your body,the white blood cells that fight infections,and the platelets that help with blood clotting.If there is a problem with your bone marrow,a transplant can give you healthy new marrow. You could need a transplant because of a disease,such as bone marrow diseases or cancers like leukemia kemia or lymphoma.Or you might need one if a strong cancer treatment kills your healthy blood cells.People with cancer sometimes donate bone marrow before treatment to be transplanted later. But often the new marrow comes from a donor,either a close family member or someone unrelated.The healthy cells for a transplant can come from three sources:bone marrow;peripheral (circulating) blood that has an increased number of healthy blood-forming cells(also called peripheral blood stem cells or PBSC);umbilical cord blood that is collected after a baby is born.If you need an allogeneic transplant,your doctor will look for a marrow donor or cord blood unit that matches your HLA tissue type.HLA stands for human leukocyte antigen,a markei your immune system uses to recognize which cells belong in your body and which do not.Before your body can receive the healthy cells,the diseased cells must be destroyed.This is done using chemotherapy and sometimes radiation. The destruction of diseased cells is called a preparative regimen or a conditioning regimen.On the day of transplant,the cells from the marrow donor or cord blood unit are infused intravenously(go into your body through a large vein).These healthy cells move into the spaces inside your bones where they create new marrow. They grow and make healthy new red blood cells,white blood cells,and platelets. The new marrow usually comes from__________.
[多选题]共用题干 The Case of the Disappearing FingerprintsOne useful anti-cancer drug can effectively erase the whorls and other characteristic marks that give people their distinctive fingerprints. Losing______(51)could become troublesome. A case released online in a letter by Annals of Oncology indicates how big a______(52)of losing fingerprints is.Eng-Huat Tan,a Singapore-based medical doctor describes a 62-year old man who has used capecitabine to______(53)his nasopharyngeal cancer. After three years on the______(54),the patient decided to visit U.S. relatives last December. But he was stopped by U.S. customs officials______(55)4 hours after entering the country when those officials couldn't get fingerprints from the man.There were no distinctive swirly______(56)appearing from his in-dex finger.U.S.customs has been fingerprinting incoming foreign visitors for years,Tan says.Their in-dex fingers are______(57)and screened against digital files of the fingerprints of bad guys-terrorists and potential criminals that our federal guardians have been tasked with keeping mit of the country. Unfortunately,for the Singaporean travelers,one potential______(58)effect of his drug treatment is a smoothing of the tissue on the finger pads.______(59),no finger- pnnts."It is uncertain when fingerprint loss will______(60)to take place in patients who are taking capecitabine,"Tan points out. So he cautions any physicians who______(61)the drug to provide their patients with a doctor's note pointing out that their medicine may cause fingerprints to disappear.Eventually,the Singapore traveler made it into the United States.I guess the name on his passport didn't raise any red flags.But he's also now got the explanatory doctor's note-and won't leave home______(62)it.By the way,maybe the Food and Drug Administration,______(63)approved use of the drug 11 years ago,should consider______(64)its list of side effects associated with this medi-cine.The current list does note that patients may experience vomiting,stomach pain and some other side effects.But no where______(65)it mention the potential for loss of fingerprints. 59._________
[多选题]共用题干 1.All research to date on body image shows that women are much more critical of their appearance than men and much less likely to admire what they see in the mirror. Up to 8 out of 10 women are dissatisfied with their reflection,and more than half may see a distorted image.2.Men looking in the mirror are more likely to be either pleased with what they see or indifferent. Research shows that men generally have a much more positive body-image than women一if anything,they may tend to over-estimate their attractiveness.Some men looking in the mirror may literally not see the flaws in their appearance.3.Why are women too much more self-critical than men?Because women are judged on their appearance more than men,and standards of female beauty are considerably higher and more inflexible.Women are continually bombarded with images of the inflexible.Women are continually bombarded with images of the"ideal"face.And constant exposure to idealized images of female beauty on TV,magazines and billboards makes exceptional good looks seem normal and anything short of perfection seem abnormal and ugly.It has been estimated that young women now see more images of outstandingly beautiful women in one day than our mothers saw throughout their entire adolescence.4.Also,most women are trying to achieve the impossible:standards of female beauty have in fact become progressively more unrealistic during the last century.In 1917,the physically perfect woman was about 5 feet 4 inches tall and weighed nearly 10 stone(约140磅).Even 25 years ago, top models and beauty queens weighed only 8% less than the average woman,now they weigh 23% less.The current media ideal for women is achievable by less than 5% of the female population一and that's just in terms of weight and size.If you want the ideal shape,face,etc, it's probably more like 1%. Today the percentage of women who have the ideal shape,face,etc is probably like________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇On the Trail of The Honey BadgerOn a recent field trip to the Kalahari Desert,a team of researchers learnt a lot more about honey badgers(灌).The team employed a local wildlife expert,Kitso Khama,to help them locate and follow the badgers across the desert. Their main aim was to study the badgers'movements and behaviour as discreetly (谨慎地)as possible,without frightening them away or causing them to change their natural behaviour. They also planned to trap a few and study them close up before releasing them. In view of the animal's repu- tation,this was something that even Khama was reluctant to do."The problem with honey badgers is they are naturally curious animals,especially when they see some- thing new,"he says."That,combined with their unpredictable nature,can be a dangerous mixture.If they sense you have food,for example,they won't be shy about coming right up to you for something to eat. They're actually quite sociable creatures around humans,but as soon as they feel they might be in danger', they can become extremely vicious(凶恶的).Fortunately this is rare , but it does happen."The research confirmed many things that were already known.As expected,honey badgers ate any creatures they could catch and kill.Even poisonous snakes,feared and avoided by most other animals,were not safe from them.The researchers were surprised,however,by the animal's fondness for local melons, probably because of their high water content.Previously researchers thought that the animal got all of its liquid requirements from its prey(猎物).The team also learnt that,contrary to previous research findings, the badgers occasionally formed loose family groups.They were also able to confirm certain results from pre- vious research,including the fact that female badgers never socialised with each other.Following some of the male badgers was a challenge,since they can cover large distances in a short space of time.Some hunting territories cover more than 500 square kilometres.Although they seem happy to share these territories with other males,there are occasional fights over an important food source,and male badgers can be as aggressive towards each other as they are towards other species.As the badgers became accustomed to the presence of people,it gave the team the chance to get up close to them without being the subject of the animals'curiosity一or their sudden aggression.The badgers' eating patterns,which had been disrupted,returned to normal.It also allowed the team to observe more closely some of the other creatures that form working associations with the honey badger,as these seemed to adopt the badgers'relaxed attitude when near humans. What did the team find out about honey badgers?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇There are many ways of defining success.It is accurate to say that each of us has our own concept of success to the extent that each of us is responsible for setting our own goals and determining whether we have met these goals satisfactorily.Because each of us possesses unique differences in genetic ability and favorable environments in which to express these abilities,it is necessarily true that we must define success broadly.For some people,simply being able to live their life with a minimum of misery and suffering is considered a success.Think of the peace of mind of the poor shepherd who tends his sheep,enjoys his frugal life with his family in the beauty of nature,and who is respected because he does a good job of achieving the goals expected of and accepted by him and his society.On the other hand,it seems that even though some people appear to be rich in material possessions,many of them seem to be miserable and consider themselves unsuccessful when judged by their own standards of success. Because not all ventures can be successful,one should not set unrealistic goals for achieving suecess,but if one has self-confidence it would be unfortunate to set one's goals at too low a level of achievement.A wise counselor once said to a young man who was experiencing frustration with his own professional success:"You do not have to set your goal to reach the moon in order to have success in traveling. Sometimes one can be very successful merely by taking a walk in the park or riding the subway downtown."The counselor added,"You have not really failed and spoiled your chances for success until you have been unsuccessful at something you really like,and to which you have given your best effort." In the first paragraph,the author implies that_________are essential in achieving success.
[多选题]共用题干 The majority of people,about nine out of ten,are right-handed.Not until recently,people who were left-handed were considered__________(51),and once children showed this tendency they were forced to use their right hands. Today left-handedness is generally_________(52),but it is still a disadvantage in a world________(53)most people are right-handed.For example,most tools and implements are still designed for right-handed people.In sports,__________(54)contrast,doing things with the left hand or foot,is often an advantage.Throwing,kicking,punching or batting from the"wrong"side may result_________(55)throwing off many opponents who are more accustomed to dealing with the_________(56)of players who are right-handed.This is why,in many ________(57)at a professional level,a higher proportion of players are left-handed than in the population as a whole.The word"right"in many languages means"correct"or is_________(58)with lawfulness, whereas the words associated__________(59)"left",such as"sinister",generally have_________ (60)associations.Moreover,among a number of primitive peoples,there is_________(61)close association between death and the left hand.In the past,in most Western societies,children were often forced to use their right hands,especially to write with.In some cases the left hand was_________(62)behind the child's back so that it could not be used.If,in the future,they are allowed to choose,_________(63)will certainly be more left handers,and probably_________(64)people with minor psychological disturbances as a result of being forced to use their_________(65)hand. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 Few men have influenced the development of American English to the extent that Noah Webster did.After a short career in law,he turned to teaching,but he discovered how inadequate the available schoolbooks were for the children of a new and independent nation.In response to the need for truly American textbooks,Webster published A Grammatical Institute of the English Language,a three-volume work that consisted of a speller,a grammar,and a reader.The first volume,which was generally known as The American Spelling Book,was so popular that eventually it sold more than 80 million copies and provided him with a considerable income for the rest of his life.Can you imagine that?Anyway,in 1807,Noah Webster began his greatest work,An American Dictionary of the English Language.In preparing the manuscript,he devoted ten years to the study of English and its relationship to other languages,and seven more years to the writing itself. Published in two volumes in 1828,An American Dictionary of the English Language has become the recognized authority for usage in the United States.Webster's purpose in writing it was to demonstrate that the American language was developing distinct meanings,pronunciations,and spellings from those of British English. He is responsible for advancing many of the simplified spelling forms that distinguish American English from British.Webster was the first author to gain copyright protection in the United States by being awarded a copyright for The American Spelling Book and he continued to lobby over the next fifty years for the protection of intellectual properties,that is,for author's rights.By the time that Webster brought out the second edition of his dictionary,which included 70,000 entries instead of the original 38,000, the name Webster had become synonymous with American dictionaries.It was this second edition that served as the basis for the many revisions that have been produced by others, ironically,under the uncopyrighted Webster name. Noah Webster has been a teacher throughout his life.
[多选题]共用题干 Energize Yourself and Your FamilyBeing healthy and active can help give you the energy to keep up with the demands of your busy life,take better care of yourseff,and be there for the people who depend on you.If you are overweight and inactive,you are more likely to get Type 2 diabetes,heart disease, high blood pressure,stroke and certain forms of cancer. You may improve your health if you move more and eat better!Here are some tips on how to get moving and eat well even when your life is busy.Try to do at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (like brisk walking) on most days of the week.It is not as hard as you may think,and you do not have to do the whole 30 minutes at one time.Give up the typical excuse such as"I don't have time for physical activity". You can"sneak"it into your day,a few minutes at a time.Get started by making small changes in your daily routine,for example,get off the bus or subway one stop early and walk the rest of the way. You do not have to do your entire workout in one block of time.Break it up一taking three 10- minute walks during your day may be easier than taking one 30-minute walk.Physical activities do not have to be chores.You can make them fun.Do things you enjoy,like walking,dancing,swimming,or playing sports.Walk or take an exercise class with a friend or a group.Be active with your kids-ride bikes or toss a softball.It may be hard to eat healthy if you do not have time to cook or your kids want fast food.Here are some ways that you and your family can eat better. Eat breakfast every day.Try a whole-grain cereal like raisin bran with fat-free or low-fat milk,or whole-wheat toast spread with jam. Enjoy some fruit with your breakfast too.Teach kids that healthy foods taste good.Choose fat-free or low-fat milk,yogurt,and cheese instead of full-fat dairy products.Choose whole-grain foods like whole-wheat bread,oatmeal,and brown rice more often than refined-grain foods,like white bread and white rice.Snack on fruits and vegetables. Keep a bowl of fruit on the table,bags of mini carrots in the refrigerator,and boxes of raisins in the cupboard.Do not keep a lot of sweets like cookies,candy,or soda in the house.Set goals.Move at your own pace.Celebrate your successes.Allow for setbacks.Let your family and friends help you.And keep trying一you can do it! Physical activities can be fun.
[多选题]共用题干 Science and TechnologyThere is a difference between science and technology.______(46)Science has to do with discovering the facts and relationships between observable phenomena in nature and with establishing theories that serve to organize these facts and relationships;technology has to do with tools, techniques,and procedures for applying the findings of science.______(47)Progress in science excludes the human factor. Scientists,who seek to understand the universe and know the truth within the highest degree of accuracy and certainty,cannot pay attention to their own or other peoples likes or dislikes or to popular ideas about the fitness of things.______(48)But even an unpleasant truth is more than likely to be useful;besides,we have the choice of refusing to believe it!But hardly so with technology;we do not have the choice of refusing to hear the sound produced by a supersonic(超音速的)aircraft flying overhead ; we cannot refuse to breathe polluted air.______(49)The purpose of technology is to serve peo- pie-people in general,not merely some people;and future generations,not merely those who presently wish to gain advantage for themselves.______(50)Many people blame technology itself for widespread pollution,resource depletion(枯竭)and even social decay in generalso much so that the promise of technology is "obscured".That promise is a cleaner and healthier world.If wise applications of science and technology do not lead to a better world,what else will? ______(47)
[多选题]共用题干 InterviewThe importance and focus of the interview in the work of the print and broadcast journalist are reflected in several books that have been written on the topic .Most of these books,as well as sev-eral chapters,mainly in,but not limited to,journalism and broadcasting handbooks and reporting texts,stress the"how to"aspects of journalistic interviewing rather than the conceptual aspects of the interview,its context,and,implications. Much of the"how to"material is based on personal experiences and general impressions.As we know,in journalism as in other fields,much can be learned from the systematic study of professional practice.Such study brings together evidence from which broad generalized principles can be developed.There is,as has been suggested,a growing body of research literature in journalism and broadcasting,but very little significant attention has been devoted to the study of the interview it-self. On the other hand,many general texts as well as numerous research articles on interviewing in fields other than journalism have been written.Many of these books and articles present the theoretical and empirical aspects of the interview as well as the training of the interviewers. Un-happily,this plentiful general literature about interviewing pays little attention to the journalistic interview seems to be surprising for two reasons .First,it seems likely that most people in modern Western societies are more familiar,at least in a positive manner,with journalistic interviewing than with any other form of interviewing. Most of us are probably somewhat familiar with the clini- cal interview,such as that conducted by physicians and psychologists.In these situations the pro-fessional person or interviewer is interested in getting information necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of the person seeking help .Another familiar situation is the job interview.However, very few of us have actually been interviewed personally by the mass media,particularly by televi-sion .And yet,we have a vivid acquaintance with the journalistic interview by virtue of our roles as readers,listeners,and viewers.Even so,true understanding of the journalistic interview,es- pecially television interview,requires thoughtful analysis and even study,as this book indicates. Much research has been done on interviews in general,so the training of journalistic inter-viewers has likewise been strengthened.
[多选题]共用题干 The Tough Grass That Sweetens Our LivesSugar cane was once a wild grass that grew in New Guinea and was used by local people for roofing their houses and fencing their gardens. Gradually a different variety evolved which contained sucrose(蔗糖) and was chewed on for its sweet taste.Over time,sugar cane became a highly valuable commercial plant,grown throughout the world.___________(46)Sugar became a vital ingredient in all kinds of things , from confectionery(糖果点心)to medicine, and,as the demand for sugar grew,the industry became larger and more profitable.________(47)Many crops withered(枯萎)and died,despite growers'attempts to save them,and there were fears that the health of the plant would continue to deteriorate.In the 1960s,scientists working in Barbados looked for ways to make the commercial species stronger and more able to resist disease.They experimented with breeding programmes,mixing genes from the wild species of sugar cane,which tends to be tougher,with genes from the more delicate,commercial type. ________(48)This sugar cane is not yet ready to be sold commercially,but when this happens,it is expected to be incredibly profitable for the industry.__________(49)Brazil,which produces one quarter of the world's sugar,has coordinated an interna-tional project under Professor Paulo Arrudo of the Universidade Estaudual de Campinas in Sao Paulo.Teamsof experts have worked with him to discover more about which parts of the genetic structure of the plant are important for the production of sugar and its overall health.Despite all the research,however,we still do not fully understand how the genes act in sugar cane._________(50)This gene is particularly exciting because it makes the plant resistant to rust,a disease which probably originated in India,but is now capable of infecting sugar cane across the world.Scientists believe they will eventually be able to grow a plant which cannot be destroyed by rust. _________(46)
[多选题]共用题干 Few men have influenced the development of American English to the extent that Noah Webster did.After a short career in law,he turned to teaching,but he discovered how inadequate the available schoolbooks were for the children of a new and independent nation.In response to the need for truly American textbooks,Webster published A Grammatical Institute of the English Language,a three-volume work that consisted of a speller,a grammar,and a reader.The first volume,which was generally known as The American Spelling Book,was so popular that eventually it sold more than 80 million copies and provided him with a considerable income for the rest of his life.Can you imagine that?Anyway,in 1807,Noah Webster began his greatest work,An American Dictionary of the English Language.In preparing the manuscript,he devoted ten years to the study of English and its relationship to other languages,and seven more years to the writing itself. Published in two volumes in 1828,An American Dictionary of the English Language has become the recognized authority for usage in the United States.Webster's purpose in writing it was to demonstrate that the American language was developing distinct meanings,pronunciations,and spellings from those of British English. He is responsible for advancing many of the simplified spelling forms that distinguish American English from British.Webster was the first author to gain copyright protection in the United States by being awarded a copyright for The American Spelling Book and he continued to lobby over the next fifty years for the protection of intellectual properties,that is,for author's rights.By the time that Webster brought out the second edition of his dictionary,which included 70,000 entries instead of the original 38,000, the name Webster had become synonymous with American dictionaries.It was this second edition that served as the basis for the many revisions that have been produced by others, ironically,under the uncopyrighted Webster name.

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