卫生B

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 The Meaning of Dreams1 Dreams play an important role in our lives.If they can be correctly interpreted,we can come to understand ourselves better. Here,we look at four common dreams and what they potentially symbolize.2 I can see their laughing faces…laughing at me. But they aren't as smart. If they were,they'd be up.here flying with me!This dream has both positive and negative connotations(涵义).On the positive side,the dream may express a strong desire to travel and get away from everyday routine.It can also be interpreted as a powerful desire to achieve.On the other hand,this dream can mean the person has a problem or is afraid of something and they wish to escape. The dream could represent an inferiority complex(自卑情 结),which the dreamer attempts to escape from by putting themselves up above others.3 I'm moving fast now,but it's still behind me. Doesn 't matter how fast I go. I still can 't escape. Although this is a traditional symbol of health and vitality(生命力)like the first one,it can also suggest the dreamer is trying to escape from danger. Usually,fear is the dominant emotion.By running hard,the dreamer can possibly escape the threat.However,they can also stumble or worse still stop moving altogether. This makes the fear even more terrifying.One possible interpretation suggests that the person is under pressure in their everyday life.4 I'm sweating and my heart is beating. I'm trapped in my own bed. In this dream,the person is often standing on a high,exposed place such as on the top of a tower,or on the edge of a cliff. The overwhelming(强烈的)feeling changes from anxiety to a loss of control. There is nothing to stop the person, and the feeling as they go over the edge can be horrifyingly real.Fortunately,just before hitting the ground, the dreamer awakens with a sense of enormous relief. This dream suggests that the dreamer is afraid of losing control and has a fear of failure or even death.5 The wind is pushing me and I slip. There 's nothing I can do…nothing I can hold on to. This symbol is associated with fear:suddenly the dreamer loses all power of movement.They try hard to move their arms and legs,but they simply cannot.Frozen in a terrifying situation with no escape,they become more andmore terrified as the seconds go by.Another frequent context for this dream is failing to do something in public,often something which you are normally very good at,such as your job.Not only is this extremely embarrassing,but it also shows a deep-seated phobia(恐惧)of losing a job and a livelihood. Paragraph 3________
[多选题]共用题干 1.On November 19,1863,Abraham Lincoln went to Gettysburg in Pennsylvania to speak at the National Soldiers Cemetery.The Civil War was still going on.There was much criticism of President Lincoln at the time.He was not at all popular. He had been invited to speak at Gettyburg only out of courtesy. The principal speaker was to be Edward Everett,a famous statesman and speaker of the day.Everett was a handsome man and very popular everywhere.2.It is said that Lincoln prepared his speech on the train while going to Gettysburg. Late that night,alone in his hotel room and tired out,he again worked briefly on the speech.The next day Everett spoke first. He spoke for an hour and 57 minutes.His speech was a perfect example of the rich oratory of the day.Then Lincoln rose.The crowd of 15,000 people at first paid little attention to him.He spoke for only nine minutes.At the end there was little applause.Lincoln went to a friend and remarked,"I have failed again."On the train back to Washington he commented sadly, "That speech was a flat failure,and the people are disappointed."3.Some newspapers at first criticized the speech.But little by little,as people read the speech,they began to understand better. They began to appreciate its deep meaning and its simplicity.It was a speech which only Abraham Lincoln could have made.4.Today,every American school child learns Lincoln's Gettysburg Address by heart. Now everyone thinks of it as one of the greatest orations ever given in American history. Paragraph 3_________
[多选题]共用题干 1.All research to date on body image shows that women are much more critical of their appearance than men and much less likely to admire what they see in the mirror. Up to 8 out of 10 women are dissatisfied with their reflection,and more than half may see a distorted image.2.Men looking in the mirror are more likely to be either pleased with what they see or indifferent. Research shows that men generally have a much more positive body-image than women一if anything,they may tend to over-estimate their attractiveness.Some men looking in the mirror may literally not see the flaws in their appearance.3.Why are women too much more self-critical than men?Because women are judged on their appearance more than men,and standards of female beauty are considerably higher and more inflexible.Women are continually bombarded with images of the inflexible.Women are continually bombarded with images of the"ideal"face.And constant exposure to idealized images of female beauty on TV,magazines and billboards makes exceptional good looks seem normal and anything short of perfection seem abnormal and ugly.It has been estimated that young women now see more images of outstandingly beautiful women in one day than our mothers saw throughout their entire adolescence.4.Also,most women are trying to achieve the impossible:standards of female beauty have in fact become progressively more unrealistic during the last century.In 1917,the physically perfect woman was about 5 feet 4 inches tall and weighed nearly 10 stone(约140磅).Even 25 years ago, top models and beauty queens weighed only 8% less than the average woman,now they weigh 23% less.The current media ideal for women is achievable by less than 5% of the female population一and that's just in terms of weight and size.If you want the ideal shape,face,etc, it's probably more like 1%. Paragraph 4_________
[多选题]共用题干 About End-of-Life CareDying patients are happier,less depressed,have less pain and survive longer when their end-of-life care wishes are known and followed,researchers report.This type of patient-centered care can also help keep health costs down________(51)patients who don't want aggressive treatment,the University of California,Los Angeles (UCLA) research team said."You can improve care while________(52)cost by making sure that everything you do is centered on what the patients want,what his or her specific goals are and tailor a treatment plan to ensure we_________(53)the specific care he or she wants,"Dr. Jonathan Bergman,a clinical scholar and fellow in the urology department,said in a university news release.__________(54)many cases,dying patients are given aggressive treatments that don't help them and_________(55)higher costs.Patients who want__________(56)care should receive it,but many don't want it and haven't been_________(57)about their wishes,according to Bergman and colleagues,who are testing patient-centered care__________(58)cancer patients.To change the situation,doctors need to be educated about patient-centered care,the researchers said. They also_________(59)that changes to Medicare should be considered.But this is a highly controversial topic that has been sidelined after recent suggested changes were characterized as creating"death panels"."Given the disproportionate cost of care at the very________(60)of life,the issue should be revisited,"Bergman and colleagues wrote."We should address goals of care,not to___________(61)aggressive care to those who want it,but to ensure that we deliver aggressive care only to those who__________(62).This reduces costs and improves outcomes."The study authors noted that,according to the results of a 2004 study,30 percent of Medicare dollars are________(63)on the 5 percent of beneficiaries who die each year,and one-third of the costs in the final year of life_________(64)during the final month.Previous research has shown that patient-centered care can reduce the costs in the last week of life________(65)36 percent and that patients who receive such care are less likely to die in an intensive care unit. _________(65)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Genetic EngineeringGenetic engineering began when the DNA molecule(分子),the most basic unit of life, was first described in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick.An understanding of DNA led to the altering of normal cell reproduction.Experiments with altering human cells began in 1970.In one of the first experiments,patients were injected with a virus that would produce a life-saving enzyme,but their bodies would not accept it.In 1980 patients with a rare but fatal blood disease were injected with a purified gene that was cloned through DNA technology.Another failure.Genetic engineering got a legal boost(激励)in 1980. The U. S. Supreme Court said that a patent could be granted on a genetically engineered " oil-eating" bacterium(细菌).This bacterium would help clean up oil spills.The ruling encouraged companies to invent new life forms,and three important medical products were quickly developed.1.Human interferon(干扰素)一a possible solution to some cancers and viral diseases. A newly engineered bacterium produced human interferon as a by-product. This new product reduced the cost of interferon.2. Human growth hormone(荷尔蒙)一for children whose bodies do not grow to normal height. An expensive growth hormone was previously produced from human cadavers,but by changing the genetic make-up of the single-cell bacterium E.coli,and affordable growth hormone could be produced.3. Human insulin (胰岛素)一for the treatment of diabetes. People with diabetes used to rely on a beef-or-pork-basedproduct until 1982.Now insulin can be manufactured by genetically altered bacteria.Advances in genetic engineering have continued,though they constantly must be weighed against the safety of procedures.There is clearly much more to discover. This passage is mainly about__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Breast Cancer Deaths Record LowThe number of women dying from breast cancer has fallen to a record low by dropping under 12,000 a year for the first time since records began.The Cancer Research UK data showed that 11,990 women died in the UK in 2007.The previous lowest figure had been recorded in 1 97 1一 the year records began一after which it rose steadily year by year until the late 1980s.Professor Peter Johnson,Cancer Research UK's chief clinician,said,"It's incredibly encouraging to see fewer women dying from breast cancer now than at any time in the last 40 years,despite breast cancer being diagnosed more often.""Research has played a crucial role in this progress,leading to improved treatments and better management for women with the disease."" The introduction of the NHS(国民保健制度)breast screening program has also contributed as the earlier cancer is diagnosed,women are more likely to survive."Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in the UK with 45,500 women every year diagnosed with the disease一a 50% rise in 25 years.The number of deaths peaked in 1989,when 15,625 women died.It then fell by between 200 and 400 deaths each year until 2004.There was a slight rise in 2005 and then two years of falls.Dr. Sarah Cant,policy manager at Breakthrough Breast Cancer,said,"It is great news that fewer women are dying from breast cancer and highlights the impact of improved treatments,breast screening and awareness of the disease.""However,there are still too many women affected and the incidence of the disease is increasing year byyear.,,The rising rate of breast cancer diagnosis has been put down to a variety of factors including obesity (肥胖)and alcohol consumption. 11,990 women died from breast cancer in the UK in 2007.
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and Learning Medicine AwardTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a Series of medical______(51)for their enzyme(酶)research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have______(52)the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were______(53) out in 1901.The last female winner was U.S.researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who______(54)the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible______(55)are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who______(56)up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors(核激素受体).As usual,the award committee is giving no______(57)about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who______(58)dynamite(炸药),established the prizes in his will in the ______(59)of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to______(60)winners,but medicine winners are typically______(61)for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall , secretary of the medicine prize committee , said the 10 million kronor(瑞典克朗)prize encourages______(62)research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists."Individual researchers probably don't______(63)at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they,re______(64)work,"Jornvall told the Associated Press-They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life______(65)." 51._________
[多选题]共用题干 Chest Compressions:Most Important of CPRCardiopulmonary resuscitation,or CPR,can save the life of someone whose heart has stopped .The condition is called cardiac arrest. The heart stops pumping blood. The person stops breathing. Without lifesaving measures,the brain starts to die within four to six minutes.CPR combines breathing into the victim's mouth and repeated presses on the chest.______(46).However,a new Japanese study questions the usefulness of mouth-to-mouth breathing. The study was published in the British medical magazine,The Lancet. Doctors in Tokyo led the re- search .It examined more than four thousand people who had suffered cardiac arrest. In all the cases,witnesses saw the event happen.More than one thousand of the victims received some kind of medical assistance from witnes- ses .Seven hundred and twelve received CPR.Four hundred and thirty-nine received chest pres- ses only.______(47)The researchers say any kind of CPR improved chances of the patient's survival. But,they said those people treated with only chest presses suffered less brain damage. Twenty-two percent survived with good brain ability.______(48).The American Heart Association changed its guidelines for CPR chest presses in 2005.______(49)Gordon Ewy is a heart doctor at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson. He wrote a report that appeared with the study.Doctor Ewy thinks the CPR guidelines should be changed again.He said the heart association should remove rescue breaths from the guidelines. He argues that more witnesses to cardiac arrests would provide treatment if rescue breaths are not a part of CPR. He says this would save lives______(50).Cardiac arrest kills more than 300,000 people in the United States every year. The American Heart Association says about ninety-five percent of victims die before they get to a medical center. ______(47)
[多选题]共用题干 InterviewThe importance and focus of the interview in the work of the print and broadcast journalist are reflected in several books that have been written on the topic .Most of these books,as well as sev-eral chapters,mainly in,but not limited to,journalism and broadcasting handbooks and reporting texts,stress the"how to"aspects of journalistic interviewing rather than the conceptual aspects of the interview,its context,and,implications. Much of the"how to"material is based on personal experiences and general impressions.As we know,in journalism as in other fields,much can be learned from the systematic study of professional practice.Such study brings together evidence from which broad generalized principles can be developed.There is,as has been suggested,a growing body of research literature in journalism and broadcasting,but very little significant attention has been devoted to the study of the interview it-self. On the other hand,many general texts as well as numerous research articles on interviewing in fields other than journalism have been written.Many of these books and articles present the theoretical and empirical aspects of the interview as well as the training of the interviewers. Un-happily,this plentiful general literature about interviewing pays little attention to the journalistic interview seems to be surprising for two reasons .First,it seems likely that most people in modern Western societies are more familiar,at least in a positive manner,with journalistic interviewing than with any other form of interviewing. Most of us are probably somewhat familiar with the clini- cal interview,such as that conducted by physicians and psychologists.In these situations the pro-fessional person or interviewer is interested in getting information necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of the person seeking help .Another familiar situation is the job interview.However, very few of us have actually been interviewed personally by the mass media,particularly by televi-sion .And yet,we have a vivid acquaintance with the journalistic interview by virtue of our roles as readers,listeners,and viewers.Even so,true understanding of the journalistic interview,es- pecially television interview,requires thoughtful analysis and even study,as this book indicates. Much research has been done on interviews in general,so the training of journalistic inter-viewers has likewise been strengthened.
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and Learning Medicine AwardTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a Series of medical______(51)for their enzyme(酶)research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have______(52)the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were______(53) out in 1901.The last female winner was U.S.researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who______(54)the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible______(55)are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who______(56)up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors(核激素受体).As usual,the award committee is giving no______(57)about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who______(58)dynamite(炸药),established the prizes in his will in the ______(59)of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to______(60)winners,but medicine winners are typically______(61)for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall , secretary of the medicine prize committee , said the 10 million kronor(瑞典克朗)prize encourages______(62)research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists."Individual researchers probably don't______(63)at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they,re______(64)work,"Jornvall told the Associated Press-They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life______(65)." 65._________
[多选题]共用题干 Relieving the Pain"Exercise may be the best treatment of chronic pain,"say doctors at a new clinic for dealing with pain. "People with chronic pain need to stop lying around,go out more,and start exercising."The instinctive reaction to acute pain is to stop moving and to try to protect the source of pain. But it seems that this is often not productive,especially in the case of back pain. Back pain,after headaches and tiredness,has become the third most common reason for people to visit their doctors.Painful backs now account for millions of days off work.Lumbar(腰部的)pains are partly the price humans pay for taking their forelimbs off the ground, but they are made worse by a sedentary(久坐不动的)lifestyle. Lack of exercise slowly decreases the flexibility and strength of muscles,so that it is more difficult to take pressure off the site of pain.Exercise is essential. It releases endorphins(内啡肽),the body's "feel-good" chemicals, which are natural painkillers. In fact, these are so important that researchers are now looking for drugs that can maintain a comfortable level of endorphins in the body.Most people who go to a family doctor complaining of pain are prescribed pain-killing drugs rather than exercise.Since finding the cause of backache is not so easy,doctors frequently do not know the precise cause of the discomfort,and as the pain continues,sufferers end up taking stronger doses or a series of different drugs."It's crazy,"says Dr. Brasseur,a therapist at the International Association for the Study of Pain. "Some of them are taking different drugs prescribed by different doctors.I've just seen a patient who was taking two drugs which turned out to be the same thing under different names."A generation of new pain clinics now operates on the basis that drugs are best avoided.Once patients have undergone the initial physical and psychological check up,their medication is cut down as much as possible.Taking patients off drugs also prepares them for physical activity.In some pain一 relief clinics,patients begin the day with muscle contraction and relaxation exercises, followed by an hour on exercise bikes. Later in the day,they practice tai chi(太极),self-defense,and deepthought. This compares with an average of two-and-a-half hours' physiotherapy(理疗)a week in a traditional hospital program."The idea is to strengthen and to increase long一lasting energy,flexibility,and confidence," explains Bill Wiles,a consultant pain doctor in Liverpool."Patients undergoing this therapy get back to work and resume healthy active lifestyles much sooner than those subjected to more conservative treatment." Doctors often use drugs such as endorphins to treat patients.
[多选题]共用题干 ExerciseWhether or not exercise adds to the length of life,it is common experience that a certain amount of regular exercise_______(51)health and contributes a feeling of well-being. Furthermore,exercise________(52)involves play and recreation(娱乐),and relieves nervous tension and mental fatigue in so__________(53),is not only pleasant but beneficial.How much and what kind of exercise one should_________(54)merits careful consideration.The grow- ing child and the normal young man and young woman thrill(兴奋) with strenuous(剧烈的)sports. Theyfatigue to the__________(55)of exhaustion but recover promptly with a period of rest.But not so with thoseof middle age and beyond. For them moderation is_________(56)vital importance.Just how much exercise a person of a given age can safely take is a question hard to__________(57).In- dividual variability is too great to permit generalization.A game of tennis may be perfectly safe for one per- son of forty but folly(愚蠢)for another. The safe_________(58)for exercise depends on the condition of the heart,the condition of the muscles,the_________(59)of exercise,and the regularity with which it is taken. Two general suggestions,however,will__________(60)as sound advice for anyone.The first is thatthe___________(61)of the heart and general health should be determined periodically by careful,thorough physical examinations. The other is that exercise should be kept__________(62)the point of physical exhaustion.What type of exercise one should___________( 63)depends upon one's physical condition.Young people can safely enjoy competitive sports,but most older persons do better to limit themselves to less strenuous ___________(64).Walking,swimming and skating are among the sports that one can enjoy and safely ___________(65)in throughout life.Regularity is important if one is to get the most enjoyment and benefit out of exercise. _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 Multiple Sclerosis(多发性硬化症)1 Multiple Sclerosis ( MS) is a disease in which the patient ' s immune(免疫的)system attacks the central nervous system.This can lead to numerous physical and mental symptoms,as the disease affects the transmission of electrical signals between the body and the brain.However,the human body,being a flexible,adaptable system,can compensate for some level of damage,so a person with MS can look and feel fine even though the disease is present.2 MS patients can have one of two main varieties of the disease:the relapsing form(复发型)and the primary progressive form.In the relapsing form,the disease progresses in a series of jumps;at times it is in remission(减轻),which meatis that a person's normal functions return for a period of time before the system goes into relapse and the disease again becomes more active.This is the most common form of MS;80%~90% of people have this form of the disease when they are first diagnosed.The relapse一remission cycle can continue for many years.Eventually,however,loss of physical and cognitive functions starts to take place and the remissions become less frequent.3 In the primary progressive form of MS,there are no remissions and a continual but steady loss of physical and cognitive functions takes place. This condition affects about 10%~15% of sufferers at diagnosis.4 The expected course of the disease,or prognosis(预后),depends on many variables:the subtype of the disease,the patient's individual characteristics and the initial symptoms.Life expectancy of patients, however,is often nearly the same as that of an unaffected person一provided that a reasonable standard of care is received.In some cases a near一normal life span is possible.5 The cause of the disease is unclear ; it seems that some people have a genetic susceptibility(易感 性),which is triggered by some unknown environmental factor. Onset(发作)of the disease usually occurs in young adults between the age of 20 and 40.It is more common in women than men;however,it has also been diagnosed in young children and in elderly people. MS affects the communication of nerve cells between the body and_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Food Safety and Foodborne illnessFood safety is an increasingly important public health issue.Governments all over the world are intensifying their efforts to_______(51)food safety.These efforts are in response to an increasing number of food safety problems and__________(52)consumer concerns.Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases , usually either infectious or toxic(有毒的)in nature,caused by agents that__________(53)the body through the ingestion(摄取)of food. Every person is__________(54) risk of foodborne illnesses.Foodborne diseases are a widespread and growing public health__________(55),both in developed and developing countries.The global incidence of foodborne diseases is difficult to___________(56),but it has been reported that in 2005 alone 8 million people died from diarrhoeal(腹泻)diseases. A great proportion of these _________ ( 57 ) can be attributed to contamination(污染)of food and drinking water. Additionally, diarrhoea is a _________( 58 ) cause of malnutrition(营养不良)in infants and young children.In industrialized countries,the percentage of the population suffering from foodborne diseases each year has been__________(59)to be 10 up to 30%.In the United States of America,for example,around 76 million cases of foodborne diseases,resulting_(60)325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths,are estimated to occur each year._________( 61 ) less well documented , developing countries bear the brunt(首当其冲)of the problem due to the presence of a wide_________(62)of foodborne diseases,including those caused by parasites (寄生虫).The high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in many developing countries suggests major ________(63)food safety problems.In partnership with other stakeholders,WHO is developing___________(64)that will further promote the safety of food.These policies___________(65)the entire food chain from production to consumption and willmake use of different types of expertise(专长). _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Most young people enjoy some form of physical activity.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in winter,skating or skiing. It may be a game of some kind of football,hockey,golf, or tennis.It may be mountaineering.Those who have a passion for climbing high and difficult mountains are often looked upon with astonishment.Why are men and women willing to suffer cold and hardship,and to take risks on high mountains?This astonishment is caused probably by the difference between mountaineering and other forms of activity to which men give their leisure.Mountaineering is a sport and not a game.There are no manmade rules,as there are for such games as golf and football.There are,of course,rules of a different kind which it would be dangerous to ignore,but it is this freedom from man-made rules that makes mountaineering attractive to many people.Those who climb mountains are free to use their own methods.If we compare mountaineering and other more familiar sports,we might think that one big difference is that mountaineering is not a"team game".We should be mistaken in this.There are,it is true,no "matches " between "teams"of climbers,but when climbers are on a rock face linked by a rope on which their lives may depend,there is obviously teamwork.The mountain climber knows that he may have to fight forces that are stronger and more powerful than man.He has to fight the forces of nature.His sport requires high mental and physical qualities.A mountain climber continues to improve the skill year after year. A skier is probably past his best by the age of thirty,and most international tennis champions are in their early twenties.But it is not unusual for a man of fifty or sixty to climb the highest mountains in the Alps.They may take more time than younger men,but they probably climb with more skill and less waste of effort,and they certainly experience equal enjoyment. Mountaineering involves_________.
[多选题]共用题干 ExerciseWhether or not exercise adds to the length of life,it is common experience that a certain amount of regular exercise_______(51)health and contributes a feeling of well-being. Furthermore,exercise________(52)involves play and recreation(娱乐),and relieves nervous tension and mental fatigue in so__________(53),is not only pleasant but beneficial.How much and what kind of exercise one should_________(54)merits careful consideration.The grow- ing child and the normal young man and young woman thrill(兴奋) with strenuous(剧烈的)sports. Theyfatigue to the__________(55)of exhaustion but recover promptly with a period of rest.But not so with thoseof middle age and beyond. For them moderation is_________(56)vital importance.Just how much exercise a person of a given age can safely take is a question hard to__________(57).In- dividual variability is too great to permit generalization.A game of tennis may be perfectly safe for one per- son of forty but folly(愚蠢)for another. The safe_________(58)for exercise depends on the condition of the heart,the condition of the muscles,the_________(59)of exercise,and the regularity with which it is taken. Two general suggestions,however,will__________(60)as sound advice for anyone.The first is thatthe___________(61)of the heart and general health should be determined periodically by careful,thorough physical examinations. The other is that exercise should be kept__________(62)the point of physical exhaustion.What type of exercise one should___________( 63)depends upon one's physical condition.Young people can safely enjoy competitive sports,but most older persons do better to limit themselves to less strenuous ___________(64).Walking,swimming and skating are among the sports that one can enjoy and safely ___________(65)in throughout life.Regularity is important if one is to get the most enjoyment and benefit out of exercise. _________(62)
[多选题]共用题干 Relieving the Pain"Exercise may be the best treatment of chronic pain,"say doctors at a new clinic for dealing with pain. "People with chronic pain need to stop lying around,go out more,and start exercising."The instinctive reaction to acute pain is to stop moving and to try to protect the source of pain. But it seems that this is often not productive,especially in the case of back pain. Back pain,after headaches and tiredness,has become the third most common reason for people to visit their doctors.Painful backs now account for millions of days off work.Lumbar(腰部的)pains are partly the price humans pay for taking their forelimbs off the ground, but they are made worse by a sedentary(久坐不动的)lifestyle. Lack of exercise slowly decreases the flexibility and strength of muscles,so that it is more difficult to take pressure off the site of pain.Exercise is essential. It releases endorphins(内啡肽),the body's "feel-good" chemicals, which are natural painkillers. In fact, these are so important that researchers are now looking for drugs that can maintain a comfortable level of endorphins in the body.Most people who go to a family doctor complaining of pain are prescribed pain-killing drugs rather than exercise.Since finding the cause of backache is not so easy,doctors frequently do not know the precise cause of the discomfort,and as the pain continues,sufferers end up taking stronger doses or a series of different drugs."It's crazy,"says Dr. Brasseur,a therapist at the International Association for the Study of Pain. "Some of them are taking different drugs prescribed by different doctors.I've just seen a patient who was taking two drugs which turned out to be the same thing under different names."A generation of new pain clinics now operates on the basis that drugs are best avoided.Once patients have undergone the initial physical and psychological check up,their medication is cut down as much as possible.Taking patients off drugs also prepares them for physical activity.In some pain一 relief clinics,patients begin the day with muscle contraction and relaxation exercises, followed by an hour on exercise bikes. Later in the day,they practice tai chi(太极),self-defense,and deepthought. This compares with an average of two-and-a-half hours' physiotherapy(理疗)a week in a traditional hospital program."The idea is to strengthen and to increase long一lasting energy,flexibility,and confidence," explains Bill Wiles,a consultant pain doctor in Liverpool."Patients undergoing this therapy get back to work and resume healthy active lifestyles much sooner than those subjected to more conservative treatment." Exercise helps to take the pressure off the site of pain.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇“Don' t Drink Alone" Gets New MeaningIn what may be bad news for bars and pubs,a European research group has found that people drinking alcohol outside of meals have a significantly higher risk of cancer in the mouth and neck than do those who drink with food.Luigino Dal Maso and his colleagues studied the drinking patterns of 1,500 patients from four cancer studies and another 3,500 adults who had never had cancer.After the researchers accounted for the amount of alcohol consumed,they found that individuals who downed a significant share of their alcohol outside of meals faced at least a 50 to 80 percent risk of cancer in the oral cavity(口腔),pharynx(咽),and esophagus(食管),when compared with people who drank only at meals.Consuming alcohol without food also increased by at least 20 percent the likelihood of laryngeal cancer(喉癌)."Roughly 95 percent of cancers at these four sites traced to smoking or drinking by the study volunteers,"Dal Maso says.The discouraging news,his team reports,is that drinking with meals didn't eliminate cancer risk at any of the sites.For their new analysis,the European scientists divided people in the study into four groups,based on how many drinks they reported having in an average week.The lowest-intake group included people who averaged up to 20 drinks a week.The highest group reported downing at least 56 cups of alcohol weekly for an average of eight or more per day.Cancer risks for the mouth and neck sites rose steadily with consumption even for people who reported drinking only with meals.For instance,compared with people in the lowest group,participants who drank 21 to 34 alcohol cups a week at least doubled their cancer risk for all sites other than the larynx.If people in these consumption groups took some of those drinks outside meals,those in the higher consumption group at least quadrupled(四倍)their risk for oral cavity and esophageal cancers.People in the highest-consumption group who drank only with meals had 10 times the risk of oral cancer,7 times the risk of pharyngeal cancer,and 16 times the risk of esophageal cancer compared with those who averaged 20 or fewer drinks a week with meals.In contrast,laryngeal cancer risk in the high-in- take,with-meals-only group was only triple that in the low-intake consumers who drank with meals."Alcohol can inflame(使发炎)tissues. Over time,that inflammation can trigger cancer."Dal Maso says. He suspects that food reduced cancer risk either by partially covering digestive-tract(消化道)tissues or by taking alcohol off those tissues.He speculates that the reason laryngeal risks were dramatically lowerfor all study participants traces to the tissue's lower exposure to alcohol. How many drinks do the lowest-intake group average per week?
[多选题]共用题干 Eating Potatoes Gives Your Immune System a BoostEating potatoes is not only good for bowel health,but also for the whole immune system,espe- cially when they come in the form of a potato salad or eaten cold.In a study on an animal model, researchers in Spain found that pigs fed large_________(51)of raw potato starch(RPS)not on-ly had a healthier bowel,but also decreased levels of white blood cells,________(52)as leuco- cytes and lymphocytes in their blood.White blood cells are produced as a_________(53)of in-fEammation or disease,generally when the body is challenged.The general down-regulation of leucocytes observed by the Spanish researchers suggests an overall beneficial effect,a generally more_________(54)body.The reduction in leucocyte levels was about 15 percent.Lower lymphocyte levels are also indicative of_________(55)levels of in-flammation,but the observed reduction in both lymphocyte density_________(56)lymphocyte apoptosis is surprising.In_________(57)was the longest study of its kind,pigs were fed RPS over 14 weeks to _________(58)the effect of starch on bowel health.“The use of raw potato starch in this experi-ment is_________(59)to simulate the effects of a diet high in resistant starch,”said study leader Jose Francisco Perez at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona,Spain.Humans do not eat_________(60)potatoes,but they do eat a lot of foods that contain resist-ant starch,such as cold boiled potatoes,legumes,grains,green bananas,pasta and cereals.About 10 percent of the starch eaten by human is resistant starch—starch that is not_________(61)in the small intestine and so is shunted into the large intestine where it ferments.Starch consumption is thought to reduce the_________(62)of large bowel cancer and may also have an effect on irritable bowel syndrome(IBS).Immunology expert Lena Ohman' s team_________(63)found that the overall lymphocyte levels do not vary for IBS patients,but that lymphocytes are transferred from the peripheral blood to the gut,which support the hypothesis of lBS being_________(64)least partially an inflammato- ry disorder. She says the decrease in lymphocytes observed by the Spanish is therefore interest-ing,and a diet of resistant starch may be worth_________(65)in lBS patients.Ohman is cur-rently at the Department of Internal Medicine,Goteborg University,Sweden.The study is pub-lished in the Journal Chemistry and Industry,the magazine of the SCI. 59._________
[多选题]共用题干 Study Says Dogs Can Smell CancerDogs are known for their sense of smell. They can find missing people and things like bombs and illegal drugs .Now a study suggests that the animal known as man's best friend can even find bladder(膀胧)cancer.Cancer cells are thought to produce chemicals with unusual odors(气味).Researchers think dogs have the ability to smell these odors,even in very small amounts,in urine(尿).The sense of smell in dogs is thousands of times better than in humans.The study follows reports of cases where,for example,a dog showed great interest in a growth on the leg of its owner. The mole(痣)was later found to be skin cancer.Carolyn Willis led a team of researchers at Amersham Hospital in England.They trained different kinds of dogs for the experiment. The study involved urine collected from bladder cancer patie nts,from people with other diseases and from healthy people.Each dog was tested eight times.In each test there were seven samples for the dogs to smell.The dog was supposed to signal the one from a bladder cancer patient by lying down next to it.Two cocker spaniels(短腿长毛垂耳小猎犬)were correct fifty-six percent of the time. But the scientists reported an average success rate of forty-one percent.As a group,the study found that the dogs chose the correct sample twenty-two out of fifty-four times .That is almost three times more often than would be expected by chance alone.The British Medical Journal published the research .In all,thirty-six bladder cancer patients and one hundred and eight other people took part.During training,all the dogs reportedly even identified a cancer in a person who had testedhealthy before the study.Doctors found a growth on the person's right kidney(肾).Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer worldwide.The International Agency for Research on Cancer says this disease kills more than one hundred thousand people each year. Doctors say cigarette smoking is the leading cause of bladder cancer. The person who had tested healthy before the study______.
[多选题]共用题干 Approaches to Understanding Intelligences It pays to be smart, but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician, but you might not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psy- chologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on all tests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelligent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believesthat all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelli- gences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelli- gences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured, other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathe- matical , spatial , musical , interpersonal , intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic. According to Gardner,schools should______.
[多选题]共用题干 Many teachers believe that the responsibilities for learning lie with the student._________(51) a long reading assignment is given,instructors expect students to be familiar with the_________(52) in the reading even if they do not discuss it in class or take an examination.The__________(53) student is considered to be one who is motivated(激励)to learn for the sake of_________(54),not the one interested only in getting high grades.Sometimes homework is returned________(55)brief written comments but without a grade.Even if a grade is not given,the student is_________(56) for learning the material assigned.When research is________(57),the professor expects the student to take it actively and to complete it with minimum guidance.It is the_________(58)responsibility to find books, magazines,and articles in the library.Professors do not have the time to explain _________(59)a university library works;they expect students,______(60)graduate students,to be able to exhaust the reference sources in the library.Professors will help students who need it,but_________(61)that their students should not be too dependent on them. In the United States professors have many other duties________(62)teaching,such as administrative or research work.________(63),the time that a professor can spend with student outside of class is_________(64).If a student has problems with classroom work,the student should either approach a professor during office hour_________(65)make an appointment. _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 Young Adults Who Exercise Get Higher IQ ScoresYoung adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more likely to go on to university,reveals a major new study carried out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)The study involved 1 .2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born be-tween 1950 and 1976 .The research group analyzed the results of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.The study shows a clear link between good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test. The strongest links are for logical thinking and verbal comprehension.But it is only fitness that plays a role in the results for the IQ test,and not strength.“Being fit means that you also have good heart and lung capacity and that your brain gets plenty of oxygen,”says Michael Nilsson, professor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital. “This may be one of the reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness,but not with muscular strength .We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important.”By analyzing data for twins,the researchers have been able to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that explain the link between fitness and higher IQ.“We have also shown that those youngsters who improve their physical fitness between the ages of 15 and 18 increase their cognitive performance,”says Maria Aberg,researcher at the Sahi-grenska Academy and physician at Aby health centre.“This being the case,physical education is a subject that has an important place in schools,and is an absolute must if we want to do well in maths and other theoretical subjects.”The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests during national service with the socio-economic status of the men later in life.Those who were fit at 18 were more likely to go into higher education,and many secured more qualified jobs. Which of the following is an implication of physical fitness?
[多选题]共用题干 Words and Word OriginsWhen you are learning languages,what do you think is the most interesting?One of the most interesting of all studies is the study of words and word origins.Each language is_________(51)of several earlier languages and the words of a language can sometimes be traced__________(52)through two or three different languages to their origins.Again a word from one language may pass into other languages and___________(53)a new meaning.The word"etiquette,"which is__________(54)French origin and originally meant a label(标志),or a sign,passed into Spanish and kept its original meaning. So in Spanish the word"etiquette" today is used to _________(55) the small tags(标签)which a store __________(56) to a suit,a dress or a bottle.The word"etiquette"in French, _________(57), gradually developed a different meaning. It________(58)became the custom to write directions on small cards, or "etiquette",as to how visitors should dress themselves and act during an important ceremony at the royal court.________(59)the word"etiquette"began to indicate a system of correct manners for people to follow. With this meaning,the word passed into English.Consider the word"breakfast"."To fast"is to go for some period of time without________ (60).Thus in the morning after many hours during the night without food,one_________(61)one's fast.Consider the everyday English_________(62) "Goodbye".Many many years ago,people would say to each _________(63)on parting "God be with you".As this was ________(64)over and over millions of times,it gradually became________(65)to "Goodbye". _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 The Worker 's Role in ManagementTraditionally,it has been the workers'role to work and management's role to manage.Managers have planned and directed the firm's operations with little thought of consulting the labor force.Managers have rarely felt compelled(被迫的)to obtain the workers ' opinions or to explain their decisions to their employees.At most,companies have provided"suggestion boxes"in which workers could place ideas for improving procedures.In recent years,however,many management specialists have been arguing that workers are more than sellers of labor-they have a vital stake in the company and may be able to make significant contributions to its management.Furthermore,major company decisions profoundly affect workers and their dependents.This isparticularly true of plant closings,which may put thousands on the unemployment lines.Should workers, then,play a stronger role in management?Workers should have a role in management.At the very least,the labor force should be informed of major policy decisions(A common complaint among rank-and-file workers is the lack of information about company policies and actions).Between 1980 and 1985 about five million workers were the victims of plant closings and permanent layoffs(失业),often with no warning.At least 90 days'notice ought to be given in such instances so that workers have time to adjust.Management should consult workers before closing a plant,because the workers might be able to suggest ways of improving productivity and reducing costs and might be willing to make concessions that will help keep the plant operating.It should become a general practice to include workers in some managerial decision making.There ought to be representatives of the workers on the firm's board of directors or other major policymaking groups.If rank-and-file workers are given a voice in the planning and management of the work flow,they will help to make improvements,their morale will rise,and their productivity will increase.As a further incentive,they must be given a share in the company's profits.This can be done through employee stock-ownership plans,bonuses,or rewards for efficiency and productivity.Finally,when a plant can no longer operate at a profit,the workers should be given the opportunity to purchase the plant and run it themselves. According to the passage,what happened between 1980 and 1985?
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and Learning Medicine AwardTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a Series of medical______(51)for their enzyme(酶)research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have______(52)the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were______(53) out in 1901.The last female winner was U.S.researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who______(54)the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible______(55)are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who______(56)up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors(核激素受体).As usual,the award committee is giving no______(57)about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who______(58)dynamite(炸药),established the prizes in his will in the ______(59)of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to______(60)winners,but medicine winners are typically______(61)for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall , secretary of the medicine prize committee , said the 10 million kronor(瑞典克朗)prize encourages______(62)research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists."Individual researchers probably don't______(63)at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they,re______(64)work,"Jornvall told the Associated Press-They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life______(65)." 56._________
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇The Culture of Campus DrinkingDrinking on college campuses in the United States is more pervasive and destructive than many people realize.Studies show that alcohol consumption is linked to at least 1,400 student deaths and 500,000 unintentional injuries annually.Alcohol consumption by college students is associated with drinking and driving,diminished academic performance,and medical and legal problems.Nondrinking students also may experience alcohol-related consequences,such as increased rates of crime,traffic crashes,rapes and assaults,and property damage.Traditions and beliefs handed down through generations of college drinkers serve to reinforce students' expectations that alcohol is a necessary component of social success.The role of alcohol in college life is evident in the advertising and sale of alcoholic beverages on or near campuses.This combination of social and environmental influences creates a culture of drinking that passively or actively promotes the use of alcohol.Yet efforts to reduce student drinking have largely been unsuccessful,in part because proven, research-based prevention strategies have not been consistently applied.It is first necessary to change the culture of college drinking if prevention strategies are to be effective.The analysis strongly supports the use of a"3-in-1 Framework"to target three primary audiences simultaneously:individual students,including high-risk drinkers;the student body as a whole;and the surrounding community.The leadership of college presidents and school administrators is crucial to develop appropriate plans,supervise the integration of policies pertaining to different aspects of student life,and ensure consistent enforcement of drinking-related policies. The culture of campus drinking is created by_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Few men have influenced the development of American English to the extent that Noah Webster did.After a short career in law,he turned to teaching,but he discovered how inadequate the available schoolbooks were for the children of a new and independent nation.In response to the need for truly American textbooks,Webster published A Grammatical Institute of the English Language,a three-volume work that consisted of a speller,a grammar,and a reader.The first volume,which was generally known as The American Spelling Book,was so popular that eventually it sold more than 80 million copies and provided him with a considerable income for the rest of his life.Can you imagine that?Anyway,in 1807,Noah Webster began his greatest work,An American Dictionary of the English Language.In preparing the manuscript,he devoted ten years to the study of English and its relationship to other languages,and seven more years to the writing itself. Published in two volumes in 1828,An American Dictionary of the English Language has become the recognized authority for usage in the United States.Webster's purpose in writing it was to demonstrate that the American language was developing distinct meanings,pronunciations,and spellings from those of British English. He is responsible for advancing many of the simplified spelling forms that distinguish American English from British.Webster was the first author to gain copyright protection in the United States by being awarded a copyright for The American Spelling Book and he continued to lobby over the next fifty years for the protection of intellectual properties,that is,for author's rights.By the time that Webster brought out the second edition of his dictionary,which included 70,000 entries instead of the original 38,000, the name Webster had become synonymous with American dictionaries.It was this second edition that served as the basis for the many revisions that have been produced by others, ironically,under the uncopyrighted Webster name. Noah Webster has been a teacher throughout his life.
[多选题]共用题干 Young Adults Who Exercise Get Higher IQ ScoresYoung adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more likely to go on to university,reveals a major new study carried out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)The study involved 1 .2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born be-tween 1950 and 1976 .The research group analyzed the results of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.The study shows a clear link between good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test. The strongest links are for logical thinking and verbal comprehension.But it is only fitness that plays a role in the results for the IQ test,and not strength.“Being fit means that you also have good heart and lung capacity and that your brain gets plenty of oxygen,”says Michael Nilsson, professor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital. “This may be one of the reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness,but not with muscular strength .We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important.”By analyzing data for twins,the researchers have been able to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that explain the link between fitness and higher IQ.“We have also shown that those youngsters who improve their physical fitness between the ages of 15 and 18 increase their cognitive performance,”says Maria Aberg,researcher at the Sahi-grenska Academy and physician at Aby health centre.“This being the case,physical education is a subject that has an important place in schools,and is an absolute must if we want to do well in maths and other theoretical subjects.”The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests during national service with the socio-economic status of the men later in life.Those who were fit at 18 were more likely to go into higher education,and many secured more qualified jobs. The word"secured"in the last paragraph is closest in meaning to_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Nurse!I Want My MummyWhen a child is ill in hospital,a parent's first reaction is to be________(51)them.Most hospitals now allow parents to sleep________(52)with their child,providing a bed or sofa on the ward.But until the 1970s this _________ (53) was not only frowned upon(不被赞同)—it was actively discouraged.Staff worried that the children would be______(54)when their parents left,and so there was a blanket(通用的)ban.A concerned nurse,Pamela Hawthorn,disagreed and her study"Nurse,I Want My Mummy!"published in 1974,_________ (55 ) the face of paediatric(儿科的)nursing.Martin Johnson,a professor of nursing at the University of Salford,said that the work of_________(56) like Pamela had changed the face of patient care."Pamela's study was done against the__________(57)of a lively debate in paediatrics and psychology as to the degree women should spend with children in the outside world and the degree to which they should be allowed to visit children in__________(58).""The idea was that if mum came to__________(59)a small child in hospital the child would be upset and inconsolable(无法安慰的)for hours.""Yet the nurse noticed that if mum did not come at_________(60)the child stayed in a relatively stable state but they might be depressed.""Of course we know now that they had almost given up hope__________(61)mum was ever comingback.""To avoid a little bit of pain they said that no one should visit.""But children were alone and depressed,so Hawthorn said parents should be__________(62)to visit." Dr. Peter Carter,chief executive and general secretary of the Royal College of Nursing,said her _________( 63 ) had been seminal(开创性的)."Her research put an end to the__________(64)when parents handed their children over to strangers at the door of the hospital ward.""As a result of her work,parents are now recognized as partners in care and are offered the opportunity to stay with their children while they are in hospital,__________(65)has dramatically improved both parents'and children's experience of care." _________(52)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇If you want to teach your children how to say sorry,you must be good at saying it yourself,especially to your own children.But how you say it can be quite tricky.If you say to your children"I'm sorry I got angry with you,but…”what follows that"but"can render the apology ineffective:"I had a bad day"or"your noise was giving me a headache"leaves the person who has been injured feeling that he should be apologizing for his bad behavior in expecting an apology.Another method by which people appear to apologize without actually doing so is to say"I'm sorry you're upset";this suggests that you are somehow at fault for allowing yourself to get upset by what the other person has done.Then there is the general,all-covering apology,which avoids the necessity of identifying a specific act that was particularly hurtful or insulting,and which the person who is apologizing should promise never to do again.Saying"I'm useless as a parent"does not commit a person to any specific improvement.These pseudo-apologies are used by people who believe saying sorry shows weakness.Parents who wish to teach their children to apologize should see it as a sign of strength,and therefore not resort to these pseudo-apologies.But even when presented with examples of genuine contrition,children still need help to become aware of the complexities of saying sorry. A three-year-old might need help in understanding that other children feel pain just as he does,and that hitting a playmate over the head with a heavy toy requires an apology.A six-year-old might need reminding that spoiling other children's expectations can require an apology. A 12-year-old might need to be shown that raiding the biscuit tin without asking permission is acceptable,but that borrowing a parent's clothes without permission is not. We learn from the last paragraph that in teaching children to say sorry________.
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and Learning Medicine AwardTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a Series of medical______(51)for their enzyme(酶)research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have______(52)the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were______(53) out in 1901.The last female winner was U.S.researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who______(54)the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible______(55)are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who______(56)up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors(核激素受体).As usual,the award committee is giving no______(57)about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who______(58)dynamite(炸药),established the prizes in his will in the ______(59)of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to______(60)winners,but medicine winners are typically______(61)for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall , secretary of the medicine prize committee , said the 10 million kronor(瑞典克朗)prize encourages______(62)research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists."Individual researchers probably don't______(63)at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they,re______(64)work,"Jornvall told the Associated Press-They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life______(65)." 55._________
[多选题]共用题干 Deaths Associated with Sugary Soft DrinksSugar-sweetened sodas,sports drinks and fruit drinks may be associated with about 180,000 deaths around the world each year,according to a recent research.Sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed throughout the world,and contribute to excess body weight,which increases the risk of developing diabetes,cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. Using data collected as part of the 2010 Global Burden of Diseases Study,the researchers linked intake of sugar-sweetened beverages to 133,,000 diabetes deaths,44,000 deaths from cardiovascular diseases and 6,000 cancer deaths.Seventy-eight percent of these deaths due to over-consuming sugary drinks were in low and middle-income countries,rather than high-income countries."In the U.S.,our research shows that about 25,000 deaths in 2010 were linked to drinking sugar-sweetened beverages,"said Mr. Singh,a postdoctoral research fellow at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston.Of nine world regions,Latin America/Caribbean had the most diabetes deaths(38,000)related to the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in 2010.Japan,one of the countries with lowest per-capita consumption of sugary beverages in the world,had the lowest death rate associated with the consumption of sugary beverages,at about 10 deaths due to per million adults."Because we were focused on deaths due to chronic diseases,our study focused on adults.Future research should assess the amount of sugary beverage consumption in children across the world and how this affects their current and future health,"Singh said.The American Heart Association recommends adults consume no more than 450 calories per week,from sugar-sweetened beverages,based on a 2,000 calorie diet and offers tips to help you make better lifestyle choices and eat healthier. It is advised that adults consume no more than 450 calories per week.
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and Learning Medicine AwardTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a Series of medical______(51)for their enzyme(酶)research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have______(52)the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were______(53) out in 1901.The last female winner was U.S.researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who______(54)the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible______(55)are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who______(56)up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors(核激素受体).As usual,the award committee is giving no______(57)about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who______(58)dynamite(炸药),established the prizes in his will in the ______(59)of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to______(60)winners,but medicine winners are typically______(61)for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall , secretary of the medicine prize committee , said the 10 million kronor(瑞典克朗)prize encourages______(62)research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists."Individual researchers probably don't______(63)at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they,re______(64)work,"Jornvall told the Associated Press-They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life______(65)." 62._________
[多选题]共用题干 Nurse!I Want My MummyWhen a child is ill in hospital,a parent's first reaction is to be________(51)them.Most hospitals now allow parents to sleep________(52)with their child,providing a bed or sofa on the ward.But until the 1970s this _________ (53) was not only frowned upon(不被赞同)—it was actively discouraged.Staff worried that the children would be______(54)when their parents left,and so there was a blanket(通用的)ban.A concerned nurse,Pamela Hawthorn,disagreed and her study"Nurse,I Want My Mummy!"published in 1974,_________ (55 ) the face of paediatric(儿科的)nursing.Martin Johnson,a professor of nursing at the University of Salford,said that the work of_________(56) like Pamela had changed the face of patient care."Pamela's study was done against the__________(57)of a lively debate in paediatrics and psychology as to the degree women should spend with children in the outside world and the degree to which they should be allowed to visit children in__________(58).""The idea was that if mum came to__________(59)a small child in hospital the child would be upset and inconsolable(无法安慰的)for hours.""Yet the nurse noticed that if mum did not come at_________(60)the child stayed in a relatively stable state but they might be depressed.""Of course we know now that they had almost given up hope__________(61)mum was ever comingback.""To avoid a little bit of pain they said that no one should visit.""But children were alone and depressed,so Hawthorn said parents should be__________(62)to visit." Dr. Peter Carter,chief executive and general secretary of the Royal College of Nursing,said her _________( 63 ) had been seminal(开创性的)."Her research put an end to the__________(64)when parents handed their children over to strangers at the door of the hospital ward.""As a result of her work,parents are now recognized as partners in care and are offered the opportunity to stay with their children while they are in hospital,__________(65)has dramatically improved both parents'and children's experience of care." _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 Medicine Award Kicks off NobelPrize AnnouncementsTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a series of medical honors for their enzyme research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have won the medicine prize since the first Nobel'Prizes were handed out in 1901 .The last female winner was U .S .researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who shared the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible rivals are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who opened up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors.As usual,the award committee is giving no hints about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who invented dynamite,established the prizes in his will in the categories of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to select winners,but medicine winners are typically awarded for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall,secretary of the medicine prize committee,said the 10 million kronor(US$ 1.3 million)prize encourages groundbreaking research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists.“Individual researchers probably don't look at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they're at work,”Jornvall told The Associated Press.“They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life functions.”In 2006,Blackburn,of the University of California,San Francisco,and Greider,of JohnsHopkins University in Baltimore,shared the Lasker prize for basic medical research with JackSzostak of Harvard Medical School. Their work set the stage for research suggesting that cancer cells use telomerase to sustain their uncontrolled growth. Which was NOT originally one of the Nobel Prizes?
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Liver DiseaseThe liver is the second largest organ in your body. The liver performs many jobs in your body. It filters harmful substances from the blood,makes substances that digest food,and changes food into energy.One out of every 10 Americans is affected by liver disease.Liver disease is one of the top 10 causes of death in the United States.There are more than 100 liver diseases.Viruses cause some of them,like hepatitis A,hepatitis B and hepatitis C.Others can be the result of drugs,poisons or drinking too much alcohol. If the liver forms scar tissue because of an illness,it's called cirrhosis. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also inherit a liver disease such as hemochromatosis.Liver disease can manifest in many different ways. Characteristic manifestations include jaundice,liver enlargement,portal hypertensionand etc.Sometimes the manifestations of liver disease are not obvious.For example,symptoms may include fatigue,a general feeling of illness,loss of appetite,and mild weight loss. However,people may not notice these symptoms,and these symptoms are also typical of many other diseases.Thus,liver disease can easily be overlooked,particularly in its early stages.Hepatitis A vaccination is the best way to prevent HAV (hepatitis A virus).Hepatitis B vaccination is the best way to prevent HBV.Other ways to stop the spread of HBV are:not sharing needles;practicing safe sex;not sharing razors,toothbrushes,or other personal items;using only clean needles for tattoos and body piercings.There is no vaccine to prevent HCV.The only way to prevent HCV is to avoid direct contact with infected blood.Eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly help the liver to work well. Limit the amount of alcohol you drink.When medicines are taken incorrectly,the liver can be harmed.So follow dosing instructions and talk to a doctor or pharmacist about the medicines you are taking. Mixing alcohol and medicines can harm your liver,even if they are not taken at the same time.Toxins can injure liver cells.So limit direct contact with toxins from cleaning and aerosol products,insecticides, chemicals,and additives in cigarettes.Do not smoke. Which following statement is true according to the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 Food Safety and Foodborne illnessFood safety is an increasingly important public health issue.Governments all over the world are intensifying their efforts to_______(51)food safety.These efforts are in response to an increasing number of food safety problems and__________(52)consumer concerns.Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases , usually either infectious or toxic(有毒的)in nature,caused by agents that__________(53)the body through the ingestion(摄取)of food. Every person is__________(54) risk of foodborne illnesses.Foodborne diseases are a widespread and growing public health__________(55),both in developed and developing countries.The global incidence of foodborne diseases is difficult to___________(56),but it has been reported that in 2005 alone 8 million people died from diarrhoeal(腹泻)diseases. A great proportion of these _________ ( 57 ) can be attributed to contamination(污染)of food and drinking water. Additionally, diarrhoea is a _________( 58 ) cause of malnutrition(营养不良)in infants and young children.In industrialized countries,the percentage of the population suffering from foodborne diseases each year has been__________(59)to be 10 up to 30%.In the United States of America,for example,around 76 million cases of foodborne diseases,resulting_(60)325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths,are estimated to occur each year._________( 61 ) less well documented , developing countries bear the brunt(首当其冲)of the problem due to the presence of a wide_________(62)of foodborne diseases,including those caused by parasites (寄生虫).The high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in many developing countries suggests major ________(63)food safety problems.In partnership with other stakeholders,WHO is developing___________(64)that will further promote the safety of food.These policies___________(65)the entire food chain from production to consumption and willmake use of different types of expertise(专长). _________(65)
[多选题]共用题干 DepressionEveryone occasionally feels blue or sad.But these feelings are usually short-lived and pass within a couple of days.Depression is a common but serious illness.Major depression prevents a person from functioning normally.It interferes with a person's ability to work,sleep,study,eat,and enjoy once-pleasurable activities.Minor depression is character-ized by having symptoms for 2 weeks or longer that do not meet full criteria for major depression. Without treatment,people with minor depression are at high risk for developing major depressive disorder.The severity,frequency,and duration of symptoms vary depending on the individual and his or her particular illness.They include persistent sad,anxious,feelings of hopelessness,guilt,worth-lessness,or helplessness,loss of interest in activities or hobbies once-pleasurable,fatigue and decreased energy,difficulty in concentrating,remembering details,and making decisions,insomnia, early-morning wakefulness,or excessive sleeping,suicide attempts.Depression also may occur with other serious medical illnesses such as heart disease,stroke, cancer,HI V/AIDS,diabetes,and Parkinson's disease.Depression is related to a combination of genetic,biological,environmental,and psychological factors.Research indicates that depressive illnesses are disorders of the brain.Brain-imaging tech-nologies,such as magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),have shown that the brains of people who have depression look different than those of people without depression.Some types of depression tend to run in families.In addition,trauma,loss of a loved one,a difficult relationship,or any stressful situation may trigger a depressive episode.Biological,life cycle,hormonal,and psychosocial factors that women experience may be related to women's higher depression rate.For example,women are especially vulnerable to developing postpartum depression after giving birth.Besides,during the transition into menopause,some women experience an increased risk for depression.It is still unclear,though,why some women faced with enormous challenges develop depression,while others with similar challenges do not. Paragraph 6_________
[多选题]共用题干 The majority of people,about nine out of ten,are right-handed.Not until recently,people who were left-handed were considered__________(51),and once children showed this tendency they were forced to use their right hands. Today left-handedness is generally_________(52),but it is still a disadvantage in a world________(53)most people are right-handed.For example,most tools and implements are still designed for right-handed people.In sports,__________(54)contrast,doing things with the left hand or foot,is often an advantage.Throwing,kicking,punching or batting from the"wrong"side may result_________(55)throwing off many opponents who are more accustomed to dealing with the_________(56)of players who are right-handed.This is why,in many ________(57)at a professional level,a higher proportion of players are left-handed than in the population as a whole.The word"right"in many languages means"correct"or is_________(58)with lawfulness, whereas the words associated__________(59)"left",such as"sinister",generally have_________ (60)associations.Moreover,among a number of primitive peoples,there is_________(61)close association between death and the left hand.In the past,in most Western societies,children were often forced to use their right hands,especially to write with.In some cases the left hand was_________(62)behind the child's back so that it could not be used.If,in the future,they are allowed to choose,_________(63)will certainly be more left handers,and probably_________(64)people with minor psychological disturbances as a result of being forced to use their_________(65)hand. _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 About End-of-Life CareDying patients are happier,less depressed,have less pain and survive longer when their end-of-life care wishes are known and followed,researchers report.This type of patient-centered care can also help keep health costs down________(51)patients who don't want aggressive treatment,the University of California,Los Angeles (UCLA) research team said."You can improve care while________(52)cost by making sure that everything you do is centered on what the patients want,what his or her specific goals are and tailor a treatment plan to ensure we_________(53)the specific care he or she wants,"Dr. Jonathan Bergman,a clinical scholar and fellow in the urology department,said in a university news release.__________(54)many cases,dying patients are given aggressive treatments that don't help them and_________(55)higher costs.Patients who want__________(56)care should receive it,but many don't want it and haven't been_________(57)about their wishes,according to Bergman and colleagues,who are testing patient-centered care__________(58)cancer patients.To change the situation,doctors need to be educated about patient-centered care,the researchers said. They also_________(59)that changes to Medicare should be considered.But this is a highly controversial topic that has been sidelined after recent suggested changes were characterized as creating"death panels"."Given the disproportionate cost of care at the very________(60)of life,the issue should be revisited,"Bergman and colleagues wrote."We should address goals of care,not to___________(61)aggressive care to those who want it,but to ensure that we deliver aggressive care only to those who__________(62).This reduces costs and improves outcomes."The study authors noted that,according to the results of a 2004 study,30 percent of Medicare dollars are________(63)on the 5 percent of beneficiaries who die each year,and one-third of the costs in the final year of life_________(64)during the final month.Previous research has shown that patient-centered care can reduce the costs in the last week of life________(65)36 percent and that patients who receive such care are less likely to die in an intensive care unit. _________(62)
[多选题]共用题干 Adaptation of Living ThingsCertain animals and plants develop characteristics that help them cope with their environ-ment better than others of their kind.This natural biological process is called adaptation.Among the superior characteristics developed through adaptation are those that may help in getting food or shelter,in providing protection,and in producing and protecting the young. That results in the evolution of more and more organisms(生物体)that are better fitted to their environments.Each living thing is adapted to its way of life in a general way,but each is adapted especially to its own distinct class.A plant,for example,depends upon its roots to fix itseff firmly and to absorb water and inorganic chemicals(无机物).It depends upon its green leaves for using the sun's energy to make food from inorganic chemicals.These are general adaptations,common to most plants .In addition,there are special adaptations that only certain kinds of plants have.Many animals have adaptations that help them escape from their enemies.Some are hidden by their body color or shape,and many look like a leaf or a little branch.The coats of deer are colored to mix with the surroundings.Many animals have the ability to remain completely still when an enemy is near.Organisms have a great variety of ways of adapting. They may adapt in their structure,func- tion,and genetics;in their development and production of the young;and in other respects.An organism may create its own environment, as do warm-blooded mammals(哺乳动物),which have the ability to adjust body heat exactly to maintain their ideal temperature despite changing weather. Usually adaptations are an advantage,but sometimes an organism is so well adapted to a particular environment that if conditions change,it finds it difficult or impossible to readapt to the new conditions. Some plants and animals develop superior characteristics so that they may______.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Carbon FootprintHow often do you travel by plane?How much electricity do you use?These days everyone is worried about the size of their carbon footprint.In order to reduce global warming we need to make our carbon footprints smaller. But how much CO2 are we responsible for?A new book might be able to help.The Carbon Footprint of Everything looks at the different things we do and buy,and calculates the amount of CO2 all of the following created:the ingredients, the electricity used in the brewery,the equipment,the travel and commuting of the beer,and the packaging. It's amazing how many different things need to be included in each calculation.And it's frightening how much carbon dioxide everything produces.But all of this can help us decide which beer to drink.From Berners-Lee's calculations,it's clear that a pint(568ml)of locally-brewed beer has a smaller carbon footprint than a bottle of imported beer. This is because the imported beer has been transported from far away,and it uses more packaging. The local beer only produces 300g of CO2,but the imported beer produces 900g! So, one pint of local beer is better for the environment than three cans of cheap foreign lager from the supermarket.Berners-Lee has even calculated the carbon footprint of cycling to work.Nothing is more environmentally-friendly than riding a bike,surely?Well,it depends on what you've had to eat before. To ride a bike we need energy and for energy we need food.So if we eat a banana and then ride a kilometer and a half,our footprint is 65g of CO2.However,if we eat bacon before the bike ride,it's 200g. In fact,bananas are good in general because they don't need packaging,they can be transported by boat and they grow in natural sunlight.So,does this mean that cycling is bad for the environment?Absolutely not,for a start,if you cycle,you don't use your car,and the fewer cars on the road,the fewer traffic jams.And cars in traffic jams produce three times more CO2 than cars traveling at speed.Cycling also makes you healthy and less likely to go to a hospital. And hospitals have very big carbon footprints!So maybe it's time for us all to start making some changes.Pass me a banana and a pint of local beer,please. To make our carbon footprints smaller,we should often________.
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and Learning Medicine AwardTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a Series of medical______(51)for their enzyme(酶)research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have______(52)the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were______(53) out in 1901.The last female winner was U.S.researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who______(54)the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible______(55)are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who______(56)up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors(核激素受体).As usual,the award committee is giving no______(57)about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who______(58)dynamite(炸药),established the prizes in his will in the ______(59)of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to______(60)winners,but medicine winners are typically______(61)for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall , secretary of the medicine prize committee , said the 10 million kronor(瑞典克朗)prize encourages______(62)research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists."Individual researchers probably don't______(63)at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they,re______(64)work,"Jornvall told the Associated Press-They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life______(65)." 53._________
[多选题]共用题干 Few men have influenced the development of American English to the extent that Noah Webster did.After a short career in law,he turned to teaching,but he discovered how inadequate the available schoolbooks were for the children of a new and independent nation.In response to the need for truly American textbooks,Webster published A Grammatical Institute of the English Language,a three-volume work that consisted of a speller,a grammar,and a reader.The first volume,which was generally known as The American Spelling Book,was so popular that eventually it sold more than 80 million copies and provided him with a considerable income for the rest of his life.Can you imagine that?Anyway,in 1807,Noah Webster began his greatest work,An American Dictionary of the English Language.In preparing the manuscript,he devoted ten years to the study of English and its relationship to other languages,and seven more years to the writing itself. Published in two volumes in 1828,An American Dictionary of the English Language has become the recognized authority for usage in the United States.Webster's purpose in writing it was to demonstrate that the American language was developing distinct meanings,pronunciations,and spellings from those of British English. He is responsible for advancing many of the simplified spelling forms that distinguish American English from British.Webster was the first author to gain copyright protection in the United States by being awarded a copyright for The American Spelling Book and he continued to lobby over the next fifty years for the protection of intellectual properties,that is,for author's rights.By the time that Webster brought out the second edition of his dictionary,which included 70,000 entries instead of the original 38,000, the name Webster had become synonymous with American dictionaries.It was this second edition that served as the basis for the many revisions that have been produced by others, ironically,under the uncopyrighted Webster name. Webster's purpose in writing An American Dictionary of the English Language is to prove that American English was superior to British English.
[多选题]共用题干 One-third of Parents Lack Facts about Child DevelopmentOne-third of parents of babies have a surprisingly low knowledge of child development,in-cluding basic concepts about what their children should know or how they should act,a new study finds.For instance,the study found that many parents don't know that 1 -year-olds can't tell the difference between right and wrong,and often don't cooperate or share when playing with other children.The results are surprising because the parents who took part in the survey had young chil-dren,said lead author Dr. Heather Paradis,a pediatric fellow at the University of Rochester Med- ical Center in New York.“They were watching or had just watched their kids go through this de-velopment,and they were probably the most knowledgeable of anybody.”Paradis and her colleagues examined the results of a survey of parents—98 .6 percent of whom were mothers—of more than 10,000 9-month-old babies.As part of the survey,the parents were asked 11 questions designed to test their knowledge of a baby's development.The researchers also examined what the parents said about their interactions with their chil- dren,and watched videotapes of how the parents taught new things to their kids.One-third of those surveyed incorrectly answered four or more of the questions .Even when the researchers ad-justed the statistics to account for such factors as education levels and income,those parents were still less likely to enjoy“healthy interactions”with their children.A lack of proper understanding of a child's development can cause assorted problems,Para- dis said. For example,she said,a mother might expect an 18-month-old child to sit still for a doctor's appointment,even though children that age are normally curious and like to wander around.“A mom could misinterpret a child's normal curiosity as intentionally being defiant,and could respond with harsh discipline,withdrawal of affection and repetition of that pattern over time,”Paradis said.“That could hinder the child's potential for full growth and development.” The findings were to be presented Sunday at the Pediatric Academic Societies' meeting in Honolulu.One solution,Paradis said,is for pediatricians to take a more active role in educating new parents.“By improving knowledge of child development among all parents,not just those who are at highest risk,there's an opportunity to enhance parent-child interaction,”she said.“It can ul-timately lead to better parenting.” Babies of one year old have no sense of right or wrong.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Professor Jerald Jellison of the University of Southern California has made a scientific study of lying. According to him,women are better liars than men,particularly when telling a"white lie", such as when a woman at a party tells another woman that she likes her dress when she really thinks it looks awful.However,this is only one side of the story. Other researchers say that men are more likely to tell more serious lies,such as making a promise which they have no intention of fulfilling. This is the kind of lie politicians and businessmen are supposed to be particularly skilled at the lie from which the liar hopes to profit or gain in some way.Research has also been done into the way people's behavior changes in a number of small,apparently unimportant ways when they lie.It has been found that if they are sitting down at the time, they tend to move about in their chairs more than usual.To the trained observer,they are saying,"I wish I were somewhere else now."They also tend to touch certain parts of the face more often,in particular the nose.One explanation of this may be that lying causes a slight increase in blood pressure.The tip of the nose is very sensitive to such changes and the increased pressure makes it itch.Another gesture which gives liars away is what the writer Desmond Morris in his book"Man-watching"calls"the mouth cover".He says there are several typical forms of this,such as covering part of the mouth with the fingers,touching the upper-lip or putting a finger of the hand at one side of the mouth.Such a gesture can be interpreted as all unconscious attempts on the part of the liar to stop himself or herself from lying. Of course,such gestures as rubbing the nose or covering the mouth,or squirming about in a chair cannot be taken as proof that the speaker is lying. They simply tend to occur more frequently in this situation.It is not one gesture alone that gives the liar away but a whole number of things,and in particular the context in which the lie is told. When people lie,they tend to rub their noses in order to_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Deaths Associated with Sugary Soft DrinksSugar-sweetened sodas,sports drinks and fruit drinks may be associated with about 180,000 deaths around the world each year,according to a recent research.Sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed throughout the world,and contribute to excess body weight,which increases the risk of developing diabetes,cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. Using data collected as part of the 2010 Global Burden of Diseases Study,the researchers linked intake of sugar-sweetened beverages to 133,,000 diabetes deaths,44,000 deaths from cardiovascular diseases and 6,000 cancer deaths.Seventy-eight percent of these deaths due to over-consuming sugary drinks were in low and middle-income countries,rather than high-income countries."In the U.S.,our research shows that about 25,000 deaths in 2010 were linked to drinking sugar-sweetened beverages,"said Mr. Singh,a postdoctoral research fellow at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston.Of nine world regions,Latin America/Caribbean had the most diabetes deaths(38,000)related to the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in 2010.Japan,one of the countries with lowest per-capita consumption of sugary beverages in the world,had the lowest death rate associated with the consumption of sugary beverages,at about 10 deaths due to per million adults."Because we were focused on deaths due to chronic diseases,our study focused on adults.Future research should assess the amount of sugary beverage consumption in children across the world and how this affects their current and future health,"Singh said.The American Heart Association recommends adults consume no more than 450 calories per week,from sugar-sweetened beverages,based on a 2,000 calorie diet and offers tips to help you make better lifestyle choices and eat healthier. More deaths due to over-consuming sugary drinks were in low and middle-income countries
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇New Attempts to Eradicate AIDS VirusA high-profile attempt to eradicate the AIDS virus in a few patients continues to show promise.But researchers won't know for a year or more whether it will work,scientist David Ho told journalists here Wednesday for the Fourth Conference on Viruses and Infections."This is a study that's in progress,"says Ho,head of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York.The study involves 20 people who started combinations of anti-HIV drugs very early in the course of the disease,within 90 days of their infections.They'ye been treated for up to 18 months.Four others have dropped out because of side effects or problems complying with the exacting drug system.The drugs have knocked the AIDS virus down to undetectable levels in the blood of all remaining patients.And,in the latest development,scientists have now tested lymph nodes and semen from a few patients and found no virus reproducing there,Ho says."Bear in mind that undetectable does not equal absent,"Ho says.Ho has calculated that the drugs should be able to wipe out remaining viruses一at least from known reservoirs throughout the body—in two to three years.But the only way to prove eradication would be to stop the drugs and see if the virus comes back.On Wednesday,Ho said he wouldn't ask any patient to consider that step before 2(1/2)years of treatment.And he emphasized that he is not urging widespread adoption of such early,aggressive treatment outside of trials.No one knows the long-term risks.But other scientists are looking at similar experiments.A federally funded study will put 300 patients on triple-drug treatments and then see if some responding well after six months can continue to suppress the virus on just one or two drugs,says researcher Douglas Richman of the University of California,San Diego. Some patients in that study also may be offered the chance to stop therapy after 1 8 months or more,he says. Other scientists are looking at experiments that are similar in that they are studying_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Nurse!I Want My MummyWhen a child is ill in hospital,a parent's first reaction is to be________(51)them.Most hospitals now allow parents to sleep________(52)with their child,providing a bed or sofa on the ward.But until the 1970s this _________ (53) was not only frowned upon(不被赞同)—it was actively discouraged.Staff worried that the children would be______(54)when their parents left,and so there was a blanket(通用的)ban.A concerned nurse,Pamela Hawthorn,disagreed and her study"Nurse,I Want My Mummy!"published in 1974,_________ (55 ) the face of paediatric(儿科的)nursing.Martin Johnson,a professor of nursing at the University of Salford,said that the work of_________(56) like Pamela had changed the face of patient care."Pamela's study was done against the__________(57)of a lively debate in paediatrics and psychology as to the degree women should spend with children in the outside world and the degree to which they should be allowed to visit children in__________(58).""The idea was that if mum came to__________(59)a small child in hospital the child would be upset and inconsolable(无法安慰的)for hours.""Yet the nurse noticed that if mum did not come at_________(60)the child stayed in a relatively stable state but they might be depressed.""Of course we know now that they had almost given up hope__________(61)mum was ever comingback.""To avoid a little bit of pain they said that no one should visit.""But children were alone and depressed,so Hawthorn said parents should be__________(62)to visit." Dr. Peter Carter,chief executive and general secretary of the Royal College of Nursing,said her _________( 63 ) had been seminal(开创性的)."Her research put an end to the__________(64)when parents handed their children over to strangers at the door of the hospital ward.""As a result of her work,parents are now recognized as partners in care and are offered the opportunity to stay with their children while they are in hospital,__________(65)has dramatically improved both parents'and children's experience of care." _________(58)
[多选题]共用题干 Words and Word OriginsWhen you are learning languages,what do you think is the most interesting?One of the most interesting of all studies is the study of words and word origins.Each language is_________(51)of several earlier languages and the words of a language can sometimes be traced__________(52)through two or three different languages to their origins.Again a word from one language may pass into other languages and___________(53)a new meaning.The word"etiquette,"which is__________(54)French origin and originally meant a label(标志),or a sign,passed into Spanish and kept its original meaning. So in Spanish the word"etiquette" today is used to _________(55) the small tags(标签)which a store __________(56) to a suit,a dress or a bottle.The word"etiquette"in French, _________(57), gradually developed a different meaning. It________(58)became the custom to write directions on small cards, or "etiquette",as to how visitors should dress themselves and act during an important ceremony at the royal court.________(59)the word"etiquette"began to indicate a system of correct manners for people to follow. With this meaning,the word passed into English.Consider the word"breakfast"."To fast"is to go for some period of time without________ (60).Thus in the morning after many hours during the night without food,one_________(61)one's fast.Consider the everyday English_________(62) "Goodbye".Many many years ago,people would say to each _________(63)on parting "God be with you".As this was ________(64)over and over millions of times,it gradually became________(65)to "Goodbye". _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 Deaths Associated with Sugary Soft DrinksSugar-sweetened sodas,sports drinks and fruit drinks may be associated with about 180,000 deaths around the world each year,according to a recent research.Sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed throughout the world,and contribute to excess body weight,which increases the risk of developing diabetes,cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. Using data collected as part of the 2010 Global Burden of Diseases Study,the researchers linked intake of sugar-sweetened beverages to 133,,000 diabetes deaths,44,000 deaths from cardiovascular diseases and 6,000 cancer deaths.Seventy-eight percent of these deaths due to over-consuming sugary drinks were in low and middle-income countries,rather than high-income countries."In the U.S.,our research shows that about 25,000 deaths in 2010 were linked to drinking sugar-sweetened beverages,"said Mr. Singh,a postdoctoral research fellow at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston.Of nine world regions,Latin America/Caribbean had the most diabetes deaths(38,000)related to the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in 2010.Japan,one of the countries with lowest per-capita consumption of sugary beverages in the world,had the lowest death rate associated with the consumption of sugary beverages,at about 10 deaths due to per million adults."Because we were focused on deaths due to chronic diseases,our study focused on adults.Future research should assess the amount of sugary beverage consumption in children across the world and how this affects their current and future health,"Singh said.The American Heart Association recommends adults consume no more than 450 calories per week,from sugar-sweetened beverages,based on a 2,000 calorie diet and offers tips to help you make better lifestyle choices and eat healthier. Korea had the lowest death rate associated with the consumption of sugary beverages.
[多选题]共用题干 InterviewThe importance and focus of the interview in the work of the print and broadcast journalist are reflected in several books that have been written on the topic .Most of these books,as well as sev-eral chapters,mainly in,but not limited to,journalism and broadcasting handbooks and reporting texts,stress the"how to"aspects of journalistic interviewing rather than the conceptual aspects of the interview,its context,and,implications. Much of the"how to"material is based on personal experiences and general impressions.As we know,in journalism as in other fields,much can be learned from the systematic study of professional practice.Such study brings together evidence from which broad generalized principles can be developed.There is,as has been suggested,a growing body of research literature in journalism and broadcasting,but very little significant attention has been devoted to the study of the interview it-self. On the other hand,many general texts as well as numerous research articles on interviewing in fields other than journalism have been written.Many of these books and articles present the theoretical and empirical aspects of the interview as well as the training of the interviewers. Un-happily,this plentiful general literature about interviewing pays little attention to the journalistic interview seems to be surprising for two reasons .First,it seems likely that most people in modern Western societies are more familiar,at least in a positive manner,with journalistic interviewing than with any other form of interviewing. Most of us are probably somewhat familiar with the clini- cal interview,such as that conducted by physicians and psychologists.In these situations the pro-fessional person or interviewer is interested in getting information necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of the person seeking help .Another familiar situation is the job interview.However, very few of us have actually been interviewed personally by the mass media,particularly by televi-sion .And yet,we have a vivid acquaintance with the journalistic interview by virtue of our roles as readers,listeners,and viewers.Even so,true understanding of the journalistic interview,es- pecially television interview,requires thoughtful analysis and even study,as this book indicates. Westerners are familiar with the journalistic interview,but most of them may not have been interviewed in person.

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