考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 The Worker 's Role in ManagementTraditionally,it has been the workers'role to work and management's role to manage.Managers have planned and directed the firm's operations with little thought of consulting the labor force.Managers have rarely felt compelled(被迫的)to obtain the workers ' opinions or to explain their decisions to their employees.At most,companies have provided"suggestion boxes"in which workers could place ideas for improving procedures.In recent years,however,many management specialists have been arguing that workers are more than sellers of labor-they have a vital stake in the company and may be able to make significant contributions to its management.Furthermore,major company decisions profoundly affect workers and their dependents.This isparticularly true of plant closings,which may put thousands on the unemployment lines.Should workers, then,play a stronger role in management?Workers should have a role in management.At the very least,the labor force should be informed of major policy decisions(A common complaint among rank-and-file workers is the lack of information about company policies and actions).Between 1980 and 1985 about five million workers were the victims of plant closings and permanent layoffs(失业),often with no warning.At least 90 days'notice ought to be given in such instances so that workers have time to adjust.Management should consult workers before closing a plant,because the workers might be able to suggest ways of improving productivity and reducing costs and might be willing to make concessions that will help keep the plant operating.It should become a general practice to include workers in some managerial decision making.There ought to be representatives of the workers on the firm's board of directors or other major policymaking groups.If rank-and-file workers are given a voice in the planning and management of the work flow,they will help to make improvements,their morale will rise,and their productivity will increase.As a further incentive,they must be given a share in the company's profits.This can be done through employee stock-ownership plans,bonuses,or rewards for efficiency and productivity.Finally,when a plant can no longer operate at a profit,the workers should be given the opportunity to purchase the plant and run it themselves. The word"rank-and-file" in Paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to______.
[多选题]共用题干 Every Dog Has Its SayKimiko Fukuda,a Japanese girl,always wondered what her dog was trying to say.Whenever she put on makeup,it would pull at her sleeve._______(46)When the dog barks,she glances at a small electronic gadget(装置).The following“ human” translation appears on its screen:“ Please take me with you .I realized that's how he was feeling.”said Fukuda.The gadget is called Bowlingual,and it translates dog harks into feelings .People laughed when the Japanese toymaker Takara Company made the world's first dog-human translation ma- chine in 2002 .But 300,000 Japanese dog owners bought it.________(47)“Nobody else had thought about it,”said Masahiko Kajita,who works for Takara. We spend so much time training dogs to understand our orders;what would it be like if we could understand dogs?Bowlingual has two parts.________(48)The translation is done in the gadget using a data- base(资料库)containing every kind of bark. Based on animal behaviour research,these noises are divided into six categories:happiness,sadness,frustration,anger,declaration and desire.________ (49)In this way,the database scientifically matches a bark to an emotion,which is then translated into one of 200 phrases.When a visitor went to Fukuda's house recently,the dog barked a loud“bow wow”.This translated as“Don't come this way”.________(50)The product will be available in US pet stores this summer for about US$120 .It tail store up to 100 barks,even recording the dog's emotions when the owner is away. ________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 Obesity(肥胖)in the Western WorldObesity is rapidly becoming a new problem of the western world,delegates agreed at the 1 1 th European Conference on the issue in Vienna Wednesday to Saturday.According to statements before the opening of the conference-of 2,000 specialists from more than 50 countries-1.2 billion people worldwide are overweight, and 250 million are obese.Professor Bernhard Ludvik of Vienna General Hospital said:"Obesity is a chronic illness.In Germany, 20 per cent of the people are already affected,but in Japan only one per cent."But he said that there was hope for sufferers thanks to the new scientific discoveries and medication.Professor Friedrich Hopichier of Salzberg said:"We are living in the new age(but)with the metabolism (新陈代谢)of a stone-age man."" I have just been to the United States.It is really terrible.A pizza shop is spnnglng up on every corner.We have been overrun by fast food and Coca-Cola-ization."Many of the experts stressed that obesity was a potential killer.Hopichier said:"Eighty percent of all diabetics are obese,also fifty per cent of all patients with high blood pressure and fifty per cent with adipose (脂肪的)tissue complaints." " Ten per cent more weight means thirteen per cent more risk of heart disease. Reducing one's weight by ten per cent leads to thirteen per cent lower blood pressure."Another expert Hermann Toplak said that the state health services should improve their financing of preventive programs."Though the health insurance pays for surgery(such as reducing the size of the stomach) when the bodymass index is more than 40.That is equivalent to a weight of 1 1 6 kilograms for a height of 1.70 meters.One should start earlier."Ludvik said that prevention shoald begin in school."Child obesity(fat deposits)correlates(与……相关)with the time which children spend in front of TV sets."The consequences were only apparent later on.No more than fifteen per cent of obese people lived to the average life expectancy for their population group. Which of the following is true about obesity in Paragraph 2?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Most young people enjoy some form of physical activity.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in winter,skating or skiing. It may be a game of some kind of football,hockey,golf, or tennis.It may be mountaineering.Those who have a passion for climbing high and difficult mountains are often looked upon with astonishment.Why are men and women willing to suffer cold and hardship,and to take risks on high mountains?This astonishment is caused probably by the difference between mountaineering and other forms of activity to which men give their leisure.Mountaineering is a sport and not a game.There are no manmade rules,as there are for such games as golf and football.There are,of course,rules of a different kind which it would be dangerous to ignore,but it is this freedom from man-made rules that makes mountaineering attractive to many people.Those who climb mountains are free to use their own methods.If we compare mountaineering and other more familiar sports,we might think that one big difference is that mountaineering is not a"team game".We should be mistaken in this.There are,it is true,no "matches " between "teams"of climbers,but when climbers are on a rock face linked by a rope on which their lives may depend,there is obviously teamwork.The mountain climber knows that he may have to fight forces that are stronger and more powerful than man.He has to fight the forces of nature.His sport requires high mental and physical qualities.A mountain climber continues to improve the skill year after year. A skier is probably past his best by the age of thirty,and most international tennis champions are in their early twenties.But it is not unusual for a man of fifty or sixty to climb the highest mountains in the Alps.They may take more time than younger men,but they probably climb with more skill and less waste of effort,and they certainly experience equal enjoyment. Mountaineering compete against________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Things We Know about TVWe keep reading that TV is bad for you.If this is true,how come the current generation of TV-addicted kids is much smarter than we are?In my home,the only people who can work the remote control are the children.Perhaps TV does educate you.For example,you learn a useful medical fact:A person who has been shot always has time to speak an incomplete sentence before he dies.“The killer was…” (dies).But I guess the biggest things we learn from TV can be regarded as"Life Skills".Bad things only happen on dark and stormy nights.Emotional breakdowns cause people to wander in the heavy rain without umbrellas.And contrary to what scientists say,the crack(霹雳)of lightning and the accompanying flash happen at exactly the same time,wherever you are.Making use of what we learn from TV can improve our security.Consider these truths.If you are ever attacked by 20 bad guys,don't worry about being outnumbered.The criminals will hang back and take turns to approach you in ones and twos just so you can conveniently defeat them all.TV also teaches us important information about escaping from danger. Watch and learn.If anyone is running after you down a passage,you will find that boxes have been conveniently placed near all the walls you need to jump over. If you are tall and handsome,you can run from any number of armed criminals,and every shot will miss you.Be warned, however. If your name card says "henchman"(帮凶)and you are part of a group of plain-looking people trying' to catch a handsome individual,a single shot will kill you.TV even teaches us about TV.Whenever anyone turns on a TV,it shows a news flash about someone they know. They then turn the box off immediately after that news item. What's the main idea of this passage?
[多选题]共用题干 The majority of people,about nine out of ten,are right-handed.Not until recently,people who were left-handed were considered__________(51),and once children showed this tendency they were forced to use their right hands. Today left-handedness is generally_________(52),but it is still a disadvantage in a world________(53)most people are right-handed.For example,most tools and implements are still designed for right-handed people.In sports,__________(54)contrast,doing things with the left hand or foot,is often an advantage.Throwing,kicking,punching or batting from the"wrong"side may result_________(55)throwing off many opponents who are more accustomed to dealing with the_________(56)of players who are right-handed.This is why,in many ________(57)at a professional level,a higher proportion of players are left-handed than in the population as a whole.The word"right"in many languages means"correct"or is_________(58)with lawfulness, whereas the words associated__________(59)"left",such as"sinister",generally have_________ (60)associations.Moreover,among a number of primitive peoples,there is_________(61)close association between death and the left hand.In the past,in most Western societies,children were often forced to use their right hands,especially to write with.In some cases the left hand was_________(62)behind the child's back so that it could not be used.If,in the future,they are allowed to choose,_________(63)will certainly be more left handers,and probably_________(64)people with minor psychological disturbances as a result of being forced to use their_________(65)hand. _________(60)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Solving a problem can be broken down into several steps.First,the problem must be identified correctly.Psychologists refer to this step as problem representation.For many problems,a figuring out which information is relevant and which is irrelevant can be difficult and can interfere with arriving at a good solution.Clearly,a problem can be solved,it must be obvious what the problem is; however,this is not as easy as it might seem.One obstacle to efficient problem representation is functional fixedness,that is,allowing preconceived notions and even prejudices to color the facts. Most people tend to see objects and events in certain fixed ways,and by being inflexible in viewing the problem,they may be unable to notice the tools for the solution.Once the problem is identified accurately,however,the second step consists of considering the alternatives for a solution.A common way to evaluate alternatives is to write them down and then make a list of advantages and disadvantages for each solution. Here again,people may be limited by prior experiences.Often people adopt mental sets that lead them to the same problem-solving strategies that were successful for problems in the past. Although that can be helpful most of the time, sometimes a new situation requires a different strategy. In that case,the mental set must be abandoned,and new alternatives must be explored.This can be a difficult adjustment for some people.After the alternatives have been compared,a strategy must be selected from among them.One way to avoid becoming stuck in the options is to try the best option with a view to abandoning it for another if the results are unfavorable.This attitude allows many people to move on expeditiously to the next step—action.The strategy selected must be implemented and tested.If it solves the problem,no further action is necessary,but if not,then an unsuccessful solution may actually lead to a more successful option.If the solution is still not apparent,then the cycle begins again,starting with problem identification.By continuing to review the problem and repeat the problem-solving steps,the solution can be improved upon and refined. One way to avoid being stuck in the different options to solve the problem is to________.
[多选题]共用题干 Just one hour's listening to an MP3 player can damage hearing,claim scientists.It causes temporary changes in hearing sensitivity which may lead to long-term harm,according to a new study.The findings show over -stimulation of hair cells within the ear occurs even at varying volume levels for short periods of time.The study of almost 60 young people carried out by researchers at Ghent University,Belgium,is published in the Archives of Otolaryngology -Head&Neck Surgery journal.It follows previous warnings from doctors that using MP3 players at high volumes with earphones that fit into the ear canal could lead to loss of hearing. In the latest study,21 people aged 19 to 28 years were exposed to pop and rock music using MP3 players at varying volumes for one hour. A second group of 28 men and women were a control group who were not exposed to MP3 music.Hearing tests were carried out before and after the exposure,which found significant threshold or emission shifts were observed between almost every session of the noise exposure group compared with the control group.Lead researcher Hannah Kempler said:Excessive noise exposure can lead to metabolic and mechanical effects resulting in alterations of the structural elements of the inner ear that contains auditory sensory cells or"hair cells".The European Commission has warned up to 10% of 30-year-old would have to wear a hearing device within the next decade because they listen to music too loudly through headphones.Surveys showed more than 90% of young people in Europe and the U.S.used MP3 players,often for several hours a day at maximum volume.Hearing experts recommend the 60/60 rule一listening to MP3 players for no more than 60 minutes at a time at 60% of maximum volume.Concern among EU health and safety officials has led to plan to ensure all MP3 players have the same maximum volume of 85 decibels(dB)一although users may be able to individually override it at their own risk. MP3 player can't damage hearing when one listens to MP3 music for only 60 minutes.
[多选题]共用题干 ExerciseWhether or not exercise adds to the length of life,it is common experience that a certain amount of regular exercise_______(51)health and contributes a feeling of well-being. Furthermore,exercise________(52)involves play and recreation(娱乐),and relieves nervous tension and mental fatigue in so__________(53),is not only pleasant but beneficial.How much and what kind of exercise one should_________(54)merits careful consideration.The grow- ing child and the normal young man and young woman thrill(兴奋) with strenuous(剧烈的)sports. Theyfatigue to the__________(55)of exhaustion but recover promptly with a period of rest.But not so with thoseof middle age and beyond. For them moderation is_________(56)vital importance.Just how much exercise a person of a given age can safely take is a question hard to__________(57).In- dividual variability is too great to permit generalization.A game of tennis may be perfectly safe for one per- son of forty but folly(愚蠢)for another. The safe_________(58)for exercise depends on the condition of the heart,the condition of the muscles,the_________(59)of exercise,and the regularity with which it is taken. Two general suggestions,however,will__________(60)as sound advice for anyone.The first is thatthe___________(61)of the heart and general health should be determined periodically by careful,thorough physical examinations. The other is that exercise should be kept__________(62)the point of physical exhaustion.What type of exercise one should___________( 63)depends upon one's physical condition.Young people can safely enjoy competitive sports,but most older persons do better to limit themselves to less strenuous ___________(64).Walking,swimming and skating are among the sports that one can enjoy and safely ___________(65)in throughout life.Regularity is important if one is to get the most enjoyment and benefit out of exercise. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 Stomach UlcerStomach ulcers are the cause of severe pain for many people. Doctors have been able to help lessen the pain of ulcers. They could not cure them.Now doctors have discovered a cause of ulcers .This means they may have found a way to cure people who suffer from the stomach pain.Studies show that ten percent of the population will develop an ulcer at some time in their life. So a possible cure is good news for many people.Ulcers are wounds in the stomach that are similar to small cuts or tears.These wounds canharm the tissue in the stomach,the pipe that carries the food to the stomach or parts of the small intestines .Fluids in the stomach then increase the pain of an ulcer. How does a person know he or she has an ulcer? Doctors say most people with ulcers feel a burning pain in their chest or stomach .This pain often is called heart burn. It usually happens before eating or during the night. It causes some people to lose their desire to eat,or they are unable to keep food in their stomachs.Doctors believed that ulcers were caused by unusually strong stomach fluids,which damaged stomach tissue. Now they have discovered that most ulcers are caused by a bacterial organism called Hillico Bactor Pilorie or H .Pillorie .H .Pillorie bacteria are what make stomach produce extra stomach fluid.Doctors found that they can kill the bacteria with medicines called antibiotics .Health experts say the discovery of a cure for ulcers can save thousands of millions of dollars in medical costs. They also believe curing ulcers will reduce the number of people who develop stomach cancer. The number of people with stomach cancer is very high in Japan,Southeast Asia and parts of Africa.Doctors say a person is more likely to get an ulcer if his or her family has had one.In fact a person with the family history of ulcers is three times more likely to get one than other people. There are ways people can protect themselves from developing an ulcer. Doctors say it is more important to reduce the amount of strong fluids in the stomach .To do this,doctors say,people should not smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol. And they say people should reduce tension in their lives. In the past,doctors could not do anything about stomach ulcers.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Gross National HappinessIn the last century,new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries.However,one country resisted these changes.High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia,the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however,was a poor country.People died at a young age.Most of its people could not read,and they did not know much about the outside world.Then,in 1972,a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck decided to help Bhutan to become modern,but without losing its traditions.King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas.He saw that most countries measured their progressby their Gross National Product(GNP).The GNP measures products and money.When the number of products sold increases,people say the country is making progress.King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan.He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness.If the people's happiness increased,the king could say that Bhutan was making progress.To decide if people were happier,he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness.People are happier if they have health care, education,and jobs.They are happier when they live in a healthy,protected environment.They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs.Finally,people are happier when they have a good,stable government.Now there is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan.People are healthier and are living longer. More people are educated and employed.Twenty-five percent of the land has become national parks,and the country has almost no pollution.The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs.Bhutan has also become a democracy.In 2008,King Wangchuck gave his power to his son.Although the country still had a king,it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time.Finally,Bhutan has connected to the rest of the world through television and internet.Bhutan is a symbol for social progress.Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH.These countries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness.They want to create new policies that takecare of their people,cultures,and land.Brazil may be the next country to use the principles of GNH.Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration.Brazil is a large country with a diverse population.If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil,perhaps the rest of the world will follow. Who was Jigme Singye Wangchuck?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Carbon FootprintHow often do you travel by plane?How much electricity do you use?These days everyone is worried about the size of their carbon footprint.In order to reduce global warming we need to make our carbon footprints smaller. But how much CO2 are we responsible for?A new book might be able to help.The Carbon Footprint of Everything looks at the different things we do and buy,and calculates the amount of CO2 all of the following created:the ingredients, the electricity used in the brewery,the equipment,the travel and commuting of the beer,and the packaging. It's amazing how many different things need to be included in each calculation.And it's frightening how much carbon dioxide everything produces.But all of this can help us decide which beer to drink.From Berners-Lee's calculations,it's clear that a pint(568ml)of locally-brewed beer has a smaller carbon footprint than a bottle of imported beer. This is because the imported beer has been transported from far away,and it uses more packaging. The local beer only produces 300g of CO2,but the imported beer produces 900g! So, one pint of local beer is better for the environment than three cans of cheap foreign lager from the supermarket.Berners-Lee has even calculated the carbon footprint of cycling to work.Nothing is more environmentally-friendly than riding a bike,surely?Well,it depends on what you've had to eat before. To ride a bike we need energy and for energy we need food.So if we eat a banana and then ride a kilometer and a half,our footprint is 65g of CO2.However,if we eat bacon before the bike ride,it's 200g. In fact,bananas are good in general because they don't need packaging,they can be transported by boat and they grow in natural sunlight.So,does this mean that cycling is bad for the environment?Absolutely not,for a start,if you cycle,you don't use your car,and the fewer cars on the road,the fewer traffic jams.And cars in traffic jams produce three times more CO2 than cars traveling at speed.Cycling also makes you healthy and less likely to go to a hospital. And hospitals have very big carbon footprints!So maybe it's time for us all to start making some changes.Pass me a banana and a pint of local beer,please. To make our carbon footprints smaller,we should often________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇If you want to teach your children how to say sorry,you must be good at saying it yourself,especially to your own children.But how you say it can be quite tricky.If you say to your children"I'm sorry I got angry with you,but…”what follows that"but"can render the apology ineffective:"I had a bad day"or"your noise was giving me a headache"leaves the person who has been injured feeling that he should be apologizing for his bad behavior in expecting an apology.Another method by which people appear to apologize without actually doing so is to say"I'm sorry you're upset";this suggests that you are somehow at fault for allowing yourself to get upset by what the other person has done.Then there is the general,all-covering apology,which avoids the necessity of identifying a specific act that was particularly hurtful or insulting,and which the person who is apologizing should promise never to do again.Saying"I'm useless as a parent"does not commit a person to any specific improvement.These pseudo-apologies are used by people who believe saying sorry shows weakness.Parents who wish to teach their children to apologize should see it as a sign of strength,and therefore not resort to these pseudo-apologies.But even when presented with examples of genuine contrition,children still need help to become aware of the complexities of saying sorry. A three-year-old might need help in understanding that other children feel pain just as he does,and that hitting a playmate over the head with a heavy toy requires an apology.A six-year-old might need reminding that spoiling other children's expectations can require an apology. A 12-year-old might need to be shown that raiding the biscuit tin without asking permission is acceptable,but that borrowing a parent's clothes without permission is not. According to the author,saying"I'm sorry you're upset"most probably means"_________".
[多选题]共用题干 Personality and Career1.When you select your career,there's a whole lot more to it than assessing your skills and matching them with a particular position.If you ignore your personality,it will hurt you long-term regardless of your skills or the job's pay.There are several areas of your personality that you need to consider to help you find a good job.2. There are isolating(使孤立)jobs that will drive an outgoing person crazy and also interactive jobs that will make a shy person uneasy.Most people are not extremes in either direction but do have a tendency that they prefer. There are also positions that are sometimes a combination of the two, which may be best for someone in the middle who adapts easily to either situation.3.Most jobs these days have some elements of change to them,but some are more than others. If you need stability in your life,you may need a job where the changes don't happen so often.Other people would be bored of the same daily routine.4.There are people who are happy to spend more than 40 hours a week on a computer,while there are others who need a lot of human interaction throughout the day.Again,these are extremes and you'll likely find a lot of positions somewhere in the middle as well.5.Some people prefer a smaller setting where you'll get to know almost all the people there fairly quickly to being in a large building with a lot of people you won't know immediately.6.Anyway,these are a great starting point for you.I've seen it over and over again with people that they make more money over time when they do something they love.It may take you a little longer,but making a move to do what you have a passion for can change the course of your life for the better. Paragraph 3_________
[多选题]共用题干 Personality and Career1.When you select your career,there's a whole lot more to it than assessing your skills and matching them with a particular position.If you ignore your personality,it will hurt you long-term regardless of your skills or the job's pay.There are several areas of your personality that you need to consider to help you find a good job.2. There are isolating(使孤立)jobs that will drive an outgoing person crazy and also interactive jobs that will make a shy person uneasy.Most people are not extremes in either direction but do have a tendency that they prefer. There are also positions that are sometimes a combination of the two, which may be best for someone in the middle who adapts easily to either situation.3.Most jobs these days have some elements of change to them,but some are more than others. If you need stability in your life,you may need a job where the changes don't happen so often.Other people would be bored of the same daily routine.4.There are people who are happy to spend more than 40 hours a week on a computer,while there are others who need a lot of human interaction throughout the day.Again,these are extremes and you'll likely find a lot of positions somewhere in the middle as well.5.Some people prefer a smaller setting where you'll get to know almost all the people there fairly quickly to being in a large building with a lot of people you won't know immediately.6.Anyway,these are a great starting point for you.I've seen it over and over again with people that they make more money over time when they do something they love.It may take you a little longer,but making a move to do what you have a passion for can change the course of your life for the better. Paragraph 5__________
[多选题]共用题干 Medicine Award Kicks off NobelPrize AnnouncementsTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a series of medical honors for their enzyme research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have won the medicine prize since the first Nobel'Prizes were handed out in 1901 .The last female winner was U .S .researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who shared the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible rivals are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who opened up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors.As usual,the award committee is giving no hints about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who invented dynamite,established the prizes in his will in the categories of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to select winners,but medicine winners are typically awarded for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall,secretary of the medicine prize committee,said the 10 million kronor(US$ 1.3 million)prize encourages groundbreaking research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists.“Individual researchers probably don't look at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they're at work,”Jornvall told The Associated Press.“They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life functions.”In 2006,Blackburn,of the University of California,San Francisco,and Greider,of JohnsHopkins University in Baltimore,shared the Lasker prize for basic medical research with JackSzostak of Harvard Medical School. Their work set the stage for research suggesting that cancer cells use telomerase to sustain their uncontrolled growth. The research by Blackburn and Greider helps suggest the role of_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Looking to help the environment?Consider the following simple ideas.Turn off electrical devices when they're not being used.Turning off,rather than leaving on stand-by,things like your TV and computer will save huge amounts of energy. With this,we can all help reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the earth's atmosphere,thereby reducing pollution and global warming.Share your car.Rather than traveling to work alone,why not arrange car-sharing with one or more of your friends or colleagues?To give you an example,if you drive a fashionable car,you will use more energy in a year than you would leaving your fridge open for seven years,or your TV on for thirty-two years!Imagine the savings if you shared your car with 2,3 or even 4 other people!Refuse junk mail.While we all complain about how much junk mail we get,we very rarely do anything about it. The mail continues to go straight from our letter-boxes into the garbage bin-with 99% of it not even opened.What can you do about this?There are various websites where you can register to receive no junk mail.As well as saving time,you'll also be doing a lot for the environment. Each year,100 million trees are used to produce junk mail. 250,000 homes could be heated with one day's supply of junk mail.There are many other everyday changes you can make to help the environment. They will cost you nothing,and many will actually save you money!Why not give it a try?We can all help, if we really want to. Even if we want to make some changes to help the environment,we can do nothing.
[多选题]共用题干 The majority of people,about nine out of ten,are right-handed.Not until recently,people who were left-handed were considered__________(51),and once children showed this tendency they were forced to use their right hands. Today left-handedness is generally_________(52),but it is still a disadvantage in a world________(53)most people are right-handed.For example,most tools and implements are still designed for right-handed people.In sports,__________(54)contrast,doing things with the left hand or foot,is often an advantage.Throwing,kicking,punching or batting from the"wrong"side may result_________(55)throwing off many opponents who are more accustomed to dealing with the_________(56)of players who are right-handed.This is why,in many ________(57)at a professional level,a higher proportion of players are left-handed than in the population as a whole.The word"right"in many languages means"correct"or is_________(58)with lawfulness, whereas the words associated__________(59)"left",such as"sinister",generally have_________ (60)associations.Moreover,among a number of primitive peoples,there is_________(61)close association between death and the left hand.In the past,in most Western societies,children were often forced to use their right hands,especially to write with.In some cases the left hand was_________(62)behind the child's back so that it could not be used.If,in the future,they are allowed to choose,_________(63)will certainly be more left handers,and probably_________(64)people with minor psychological disturbances as a result of being forced to use their_________(65)hand. _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 How Two Great Conflicts Helped to Change EuropeNinety years ago on a sunny morning in Northern France,something happened that changed Britain and Europe for ever. At half past seven on the morning of July 1,1916 , whistles(哨子) blew and thousands of British soldiers left their positions to attack their German enemies. By the end of the day,20,000 of them were dead,and another 30,000 wounded or missing. The Battle of the Somme,______(51)it is called,lasted for six months.When it ended,125,000 British soldiers were dead. They had gained five kilometers of ground.This was one of a series of great battles during WWI.The attack on the Somme was staged to relieve______(52)on the French,who were engaged in a great battle of their own at a place called Verdun. By the time the battle ended,over a million French and German troops had been killed.About 17 million people were killed in WWI. There have been wars with greater numbers of dead .But there has never been one in______(53)most of the dead were concentrated in such a small area. On the Somme battlefield,two men died for every meter of space.Local farmers working in the land still______(54)the bodies of those who died in that battle .The dead of all nations were buried in a series of giant graveyards along the line of the bor- der______(55)France and Belgium.Relatives and descendants(子孙)of those who died still visit these graveyards today.What the French call the"tourism of death"______(56)an im- portant contribution to the local economy.It took a second great conflict before Europe was to turn______(57)war itself. Twenty-eight years after the Somme battle,a liberating army of British,American and Canadian troops took back______(58)from another German invasion. More than 500,000 people were killed.New______(59)were built.Two great conflicts across two generations helped to change the European mind about war. Germany,once the most warlike country in Europe,is now probably more in______(60)of peace than any other. One major cause of war in Europe was rivalry(竞争)between France and Germany .The European Union was specifically formed to end that______(61).According to US commentator William Pfaff,"Europeans are interested in a slow development of civilized and tolerant international relations,______(62)on problems while avoiding catastrophes(灾难)along the way. They have themselves only recently______(63)from the catas-trophes of WWI and WWII,when tens of millions of people were destroyed.They don't want______(64)."The last British veteran of the Somme battle died in 2005,aged 108.And WWI is passing out of memory and into history. But for anyone who wants to understand how Europeans ______(65),it is still important to know a little about the terrible events of July 1,1916. 55._________
[多选题]共用题干 Approaches to Understanding Intelligences It pays to be smart, but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician, but you might not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psy- chologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on all tests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelligent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believesthat all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelli- gences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelli- gences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured, other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathe- matical , spatial , musical , interpersonal , intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic. According to Gardner,schools should______.
[多选题]共用题干 DepressionEveryone occasionally feels blue or sad.But these feelings are usually short-lived and pass within a couple of days.Depression is a common but serious illness.Major depression prevents a person from functioning normally.It interferes with a person's ability to work,sleep,study,eat,and enjoy once-pleasurable activities.Minor depression is character-ized by having symptoms for 2 weeks or longer that do not meet full criteria for major depression. Without treatment,people with minor depression are at high risk for developing major depressive disorder.The severity,frequency,and duration of symptoms vary depending on the individual and his or her particular illness.They include persistent sad,anxious,feelings of hopelessness,guilt,worth-lessness,or helplessness,loss of interest in activities or hobbies once-pleasurable,fatigue and decreased energy,difficulty in concentrating,remembering details,and making decisions,insomnia, early-morning wakefulness,or excessive sleeping,suicide attempts.Depression also may occur with other serious medical illnesses such as heart disease,stroke, cancer,HI V/AIDS,diabetes,and Parkinson's disease.Depression is related to a combination of genetic,biological,environmental,and psychological factors.Research indicates that depressive illnesses are disorders of the brain.Brain-imaging tech-nologies,such as magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),have shown that the brains of people who have depression look different than those of people without depression.Some types of depression tend to run in families.In addition,trauma,loss of a loved one,a difficult relationship,or any stressful situation may trigger a depressive episode.Biological,life cycle,hormonal,and psychosocial factors that women experience may be related to women's higher depression rate.For example,women are especially vulnerable to developing postpartum depression after giving birth.Besides,during the transition into menopause,some women experience an increased risk for depression.It is still unclear,though,why some women faced with enormous challenges develop depression,while others with similar challenges do not. Paragraph 5_________
[多选题]共用题干 Food Safety and Foodborne illnessFood safety is an increasingly important public health issue.Governments all over the world are intensifying their efforts to_______(51)food safety.These efforts are in response to an increasing number of food safety problems and__________(52)consumer concerns.Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases , usually either infectious or toxic(有毒的)in nature,caused by agents that__________(53)the body through the ingestion(摄取)of food. Every person is__________(54) risk of foodborne illnesses.Foodborne diseases are a widespread and growing public health__________(55),both in developed and developing countries.The global incidence of foodborne diseases is difficult to___________(56),but it has been reported that in 2005 alone 8 million people died from diarrhoeal(腹泻)diseases. A great proportion of these _________ ( 57 ) can be attributed to contamination(污染)of food and drinking water. Additionally, diarrhoea is a _________( 58 ) cause of malnutrition(营养不良)in infants and young children.In industrialized countries,the percentage of the population suffering from foodborne diseases each year has been__________(59)to be 10 up to 30%.In the United States of America,for example,around 76 million cases of foodborne diseases,resulting_(60)325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths,are estimated to occur each year._________( 61 ) less well documented , developing countries bear the brunt(首当其冲)of the problem due to the presence of a wide_________(62)of foodborne diseases,including those caused by parasites (寄生虫).The high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in many developing countries suggests major ________(63)food safety problems.In partnership with other stakeholders,WHO is developing___________(64)that will further promote the safety of food.These policies___________(65)the entire food chain from production to consumption and willmake use of different types of expertise(专长). _________(64)
[多选题]共用题干 Nurse!I Want My MummyWhen a child is ill in hospital,a parent's first reaction is to be________(51)them.Most hospitals now allow parents to sleep________(52)with their child,providing a bed or sofa on the ward.But until the 1970s this _________ (53) was not only frowned upon(不被赞同)—it was actively discouraged.Staff worried that the children would be______(54)when their parents left,and so there was a blanket(通用的)ban.A concerned nurse,Pamela Hawthorn,disagreed and her study"Nurse,I Want My Mummy!"published in 1974,_________ (55 ) the face of paediatric(儿科的)nursing.Martin Johnson,a professor of nursing at the University of Salford,said that the work of_________(56) like Pamela had changed the face of patient care."Pamela's study was done against the__________(57)of a lively debate in paediatrics and psychology as to the degree women should spend with children in the outside world and the degree to which they should be allowed to visit children in__________(58).""The idea was that if mum came to__________(59)a small child in hospital the child would be upset and inconsolable(无法安慰的)for hours.""Yet the nurse noticed that if mum did not come at_________(60)the child stayed in a relatively stable state but they might be depressed.""Of course we know now that they had almost given up hope__________(61)mum was ever comingback.""To avoid a little bit of pain they said that no one should visit.""But children were alone and depressed,so Hawthorn said parents should be__________(62)to visit." Dr. Peter Carter,chief executive and general secretary of the Royal College of Nursing,said her _________( 63 ) had been seminal(开创性的)."Her research put an end to the__________(64)when parents handed their children over to strangers at the door of the hospital ward.""As a result of her work,parents are now recognized as partners in care and are offered the opportunity to stay with their children while they are in hospital,__________(65)has dramatically improved both parents'and children's experience of care." _________(52)
[多选题]共用题干 Eating Potatoes Gives Your Immune System a BoostEating potatoes is not only good for bowel health,but also for the whole immune system,espe- cially when they come in the form of a potato salad or eaten cold.In a study on an animal model, researchers in Spain found that pigs fed large_________(51)of raw potato starch(RPS)not on-ly had a healthier bowel,but also decreased levels of white blood cells,________(52)as leuco- cytes and lymphocytes in their blood.White blood cells are produced as a_________(53)of in-fEammation or disease,generally when the body is challenged.The general down-regulation of leucocytes observed by the Spanish researchers suggests an overall beneficial effect,a generally more_________(54)body.The reduction in leucocyte levels was about 15 percent.Lower lymphocyte levels are also indicative of_________(55)levels of in-flammation,but the observed reduction in both lymphocyte density_________(56)lymphocyte apoptosis is surprising.In_________(57)was the longest study of its kind,pigs were fed RPS over 14 weeks to _________(58)the effect of starch on bowel health.“The use of raw potato starch in this experi-ment is_________(59)to simulate the effects of a diet high in resistant starch,”said study leader Jose Francisco Perez at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona,Spain.Humans do not eat_________(60)potatoes,but they do eat a lot of foods that contain resist-ant starch,such as cold boiled potatoes,legumes,grains,green bananas,pasta and cereals.About 10 percent of the starch eaten by human is resistant starch—starch that is not_________(61)in the small intestine and so is shunted into the large intestine where it ferments.Starch consumption is thought to reduce the_________(62)of large bowel cancer and may also have an effect on irritable bowel syndrome(IBS).Immunology expert Lena Ohman' s team_________(63)found that the overall lymphocyte levels do not vary for IBS patients,but that lymphocytes are transferred from the peripheral blood to the gut,which support the hypothesis of lBS being_________(64)least partially an inflammato- ry disorder. She says the decrease in lymphocytes observed by the Spanish is therefore interest-ing,and a diet of resistant starch may be worth_________(65)in lBS patients.Ohman is cur-rently at the Department of Internal Medicine,Goteborg University,Sweden.The study is pub-lished in the Journal Chemistry and Industry,the magazine of the SCI. 62._________
[多选题]共用题干 About End-of-Life CareDying patients are happier,less depressed,have less pain and survive longer when their end-of-life care wishes are known and followed,researchers report.This type of patient-centered care can also help keep health costs down________(51)patients who don't want aggressive treatment,the University of California,Los Angeles (UCLA) research team said."You can improve care while________(52)cost by making sure that everything you do is centered on what the patients want,what his or her specific goals are and tailor a treatment plan to ensure we_________(53)the specific care he or she wants,"Dr. Jonathan Bergman,a clinical scholar and fellow in the urology department,said in a university news release.__________(54)many cases,dying patients are given aggressive treatments that don't help them and_________(55)higher costs.Patients who want__________(56)care should receive it,but many don't want it and haven't been_________(57)about their wishes,according to Bergman and colleagues,who are testing patient-centered care__________(58)cancer patients.To change the situation,doctors need to be educated about patient-centered care,the researchers said. They also_________(59)that changes to Medicare should be considered.But this is a highly controversial topic that has been sidelined after recent suggested changes were characterized as creating"death panels"."Given the disproportionate cost of care at the very________(60)of life,the issue should be revisited,"Bergman and colleagues wrote."We should address goals of care,not to___________(61)aggressive care to those who want it,but to ensure that we deliver aggressive care only to those who__________(62).This reduces costs and improves outcomes."The study authors noted that,according to the results of a 2004 study,30 percent of Medicare dollars are________(63)on the 5 percent of beneficiaries who die each year,and one-third of the costs in the final year of life_________(64)during the final month.Previous research has shown that patient-centered care can reduce the costs in the last week of life________(65)36 percent and that patients who receive such care are less likely to die in an intensive care unit. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 New U. S. Plan for Disease PreventionUrging Americans to take responsibility for their health,Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson on Tuesday launched a$15 million program to try to encourage communities to do more to prevent chronic diseases like heart disease,cancer and diabetes(糖尿病).The initiative highlights the costs of chronic diseases—the leading causes of death in the United States—and outlines ways that people can prevent them,including better diet and in-creased exercise.“In the United States today,7 of 10 deaths and the vast majority of serious illness,disability and health care costs are caused by chronic diseases,”the Health and Human Services Depart-ment said in a statement.The causes are often behavioral—smoking,poor eating habits and a lack of exercise.“I am convinced that preventing disease by promoting better health is a smart policy choice for our future,”Thompson told a conference held to launch the initiative.“Our current health care system is not structured to deal with the rising costs of treating dis-eases that are largely preventable through changes in our lifestyle choices.”Thompson said heart disease and strokes will cost the country more than $351 billion in 2003.“These leading causes of death for men and women are largely preventable,yet we as a na- tion are not taking the steps necessary for us to lead healthier,longer lives,”he said.The $15 million is designed to go to communities to promote prevention,pushing for chan-ges as simple as building sidewalks to encourage people to walk more.Daily exercise such as walking can prevent and even reverse heart disease and diabetes,and prevent cancer and strokes.The money will also go to community organizations,clinics and nutritionists who are being en-couraged to work together to educate people at risk of diabetes about what they can do to prevent it and encourage more cancer screening.The American Cancer Society estimates that half of all cancers can be caught by screening, including Pap tests(巴氏试验)for cervical cancer(宫颈癌), mammograms for breast cancer, colonoscopies(结肠镜检查), and prostate(前列腺的)checks.If such cancers were all caught by early screening,the group estimates that the survival rate for cancer would rise to 95 percent. Which of the following is NOT true of chronic diseases in the U.S.?
[多选题]共用题干 Looking to help the environment?Consider the following simple ideas.Turn off electrical devices when they're not being used.Turning off,rather than leaving on stand-by,things like your TV and computer will save huge amounts of energy. With this,we can all help reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the earth's atmosphere,thereby reducing pollution and global warming.Share your car.Rather than traveling to work alone,why not arrange car-sharing with one or more of your friends or colleagues?To give you an example,if you drive a fashionable car,you will use more energy in a year than you would leaving your fridge open for seven years,or your TV on for thirty-two years!Imagine the savings if you shared your car with 2,3 or even 4 other people!Refuse junk mail.While we all complain about how much junk mail we get,we very rarely do anything about it. The mail continues to go straight from our letter-boxes into the garbage bin-with 99% of it not even opened.What can you do about this?There are various websites where you can register to receive no junk mail.As well as saving time,you'll also be doing a lot for the environment. Each year,100 million trees are used to produce junk mail. 250,000 homes could be heated with one day's supply of junk mail.There are many other everyday changes you can make to help the environment. They will cost you nothing,and many will actually save you money!Why not give it a try?We can all help, if we really want to. 99%junk mail is thrown into the garbage bin without being opened.
[多选题]共用题干 Deaths Associated with Sugary Soft DrinksSugar-sweetened sodas,sports drinks and fruit drinks may be associated with about 180,000 deaths around the world each year,according to a recent research.Sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed throughout the world,and contribute to excess body weight,which increases the risk of developing diabetes,cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. Using data collected as part of the 2010 Global Burden of Diseases Study,the researchers linked intake of sugar-sweetened beverages to 133,,000 diabetes deaths,44,000 deaths from cardiovascular diseases and 6,000 cancer deaths.Seventy-eight percent of these deaths due to over-consuming sugary drinks were in low and middle-income countries,rather than high-income countries."In the U.S.,our research shows that about 25,000 deaths in 2010 were linked to drinking sugar-sweetened beverages,"said Mr. Singh,a postdoctoral research fellow at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston.Of nine world regions,Latin America/Caribbean had the most diabetes deaths(38,000)related to the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in 2010.Japan,one of the countries with lowest per-capita consumption of sugary beverages in the world,had the lowest death rate associated with the consumption of sugary beverages,at about 10 deaths due to per million adults."Because we were focused on deaths due to chronic diseases,our study focused on adults.Future research should assess the amount of sugary beverage consumption in children across the world and how this affects their current and future health,"Singh said.The American Heart Association recommends adults consume no more than 450 calories per week,from sugar-sweetened beverages,based on a 2,000 calorie diet and offers tips to help you make better lifestyle choices and eat healthier. Sugar-sweetened sodas may be associated with about 180,000 deaths around the world each year.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Genetic EngineeringGenetic engineering began when the DNA molecule(分子),the most basic unit of life, was first described in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick.An understanding of DNA led to the altering of normal cell reproduction.Experiments with altering human cells began in 1970.In one of the first experiments,patients were injected with a virus that would produce a life-saving enzyme,but their bodies would not accept it.In 1980 patients with a rare but fatal blood disease were injected with a purified gene that was cloned through DNA technology.Another failure.Genetic engineering got a legal boost(激励)in 1980. The U. S. Supreme Court said that a patent could be granted on a genetically engineered " oil-eating" bacterium(细菌).This bacterium would help clean up oil spills.The ruling encouraged companies to invent new life forms,and three important medical products were quickly developed.1.Human interferon(干扰素)一a possible solution to some cancers and viral diseases. A newly engineered bacterium produced human interferon as a by-product. This new product reduced the cost of interferon.2. Human growth hormone(荷尔蒙)一for children whose bodies do not grow to normal height. An expensive growth hormone was previously produced from human cadavers,but by changing the genetic make-up of the single-cell bacterium E.coli,and affordable growth hormone could be produced.3. Human insulin (胰岛素)一for the treatment of diabetes. People with diabetes used to rely on a beef-or-pork-basedproduct until 1982.Now insulin can be manufactured by genetically altered bacteria.Advances in genetic engineering have continued,though they constantly must be weighed against the safety of procedures.There is clearly much more to discover. In this passage,the three genetically engineered medical products are presented__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Professor Jerald Jellison of the University of Southern California has made a scientific study of lying. According to him,women are better liars than men,particularly when telling a"white lie", such as when a woman at a party tells another woman that she likes her dress when she really thinks it looks awful.However,this is only one side of the story. Other researchers say that men are more likely to tell more serious lies,such as making a promise which they have no intention of fulfilling. This is the kind of lie politicians and businessmen are supposed to be particularly skilled at the lie from which the liar hopes to profit or gain in some way.Research has also been done into the way people's behavior changes in a number of small,apparently unimportant ways when they lie.It has been found that if they are sitting down at the time, they tend to move about in their chairs more than usual.To the trained observer,they are saying,"I wish I were somewhere else now."They also tend to touch certain parts of the face more often,in particular the nose.One explanation of this may be that lying causes a slight increase in blood pressure.The tip of the nose is very sensitive to such changes and the increased pressure makes it itch.Another gesture which gives liars away is what the writer Desmond Morris in his book"Man-watching"calls"the mouth cover".He says there are several typical forms of this,such as covering part of the mouth with the fingers,touching the upper-lip or putting a finger of the hand at one side of the mouth.Such a gesture can be interpreted as all unconscious attempts on the part of the liar to stop himself or herself from lying. Of course,such gestures as rubbing the nose or covering the mouth,or squirming about in a chair cannot be taken as proof that the speaker is lying. They simply tend to occur more frequently in this situation.It is not one gesture alone that gives the liar away but a whole number of things,and in particular the context in which the lie is told. According to Professor Jellison,a"white lie"appears to be a lie_________.
[多选题]共用题干 1.All research to date on body image shows that women are much more critical of their appearance than men and much less likely to admire what they see in the mirror. Up to 8 out of 10 women are dissatisfied with their reflection,and more than half may see a distorted image.2.Men looking in the mirror are more likely to be either pleased with what they see or indifferent. Research shows that men generally have a much more positive body-image than women一if anything,they may tend to over-estimate their attractiveness.Some men looking in the mirror may literally not see the flaws in their appearance.3.Why are women too much more self-critical than men?Because women are judged on their appearance more than men,and standards of female beauty are considerably higher and more inflexible.Women are continually bombarded with images of the inflexible.Women are continually bombarded with images of the"ideal"face.And constant exposure to idealized images of female beauty on TV,magazines and billboards makes exceptional good looks seem normal and anything short of perfection seem abnormal and ugly.It has been estimated that young women now see more images of outstandingly beautiful women in one day than our mothers saw throughout their entire adolescence.4.Also,most women are trying to achieve the impossible:standards of female beauty have in fact become progressively more unrealistic during the last century.In 1917,the physically perfect woman was about 5 feet 4 inches tall and weighed nearly 10 stone(约140磅).Even 25 years ago, top models and beauty queens weighed only 8% less than the average woman,now they weigh 23% less.The current media ideal for women is achievable by less than 5% of the female population一and that's just in terms of weight and size.If you want the ideal shape,face,etc, it's probably more like 1%. Today the percentage of women who have the ideal shape,face,etc is probably like________.
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and Learning Medicine AwardTwo scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday,kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.Australian-born U.S.citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a Series of medical______(51)for their enzyme(酶)research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.Only seven women have______(52)the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were______(53) out in 1901.The last female winner was U.S.researcher Linda Buck in 2004,who______(54)the prize with Richard Axel.Among the pair's possible______(55)are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen,who______(56)up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors(核激素受体).As usual,the award committee is giving no______(57)about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.Alfred Nobel,the Swede who______(58)dynamite(炸药),established the prizes in his will in the ______(59)of medicine,physics,chemistry,literature and peace.The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.Nobel left few instructions on how to______(60)winners,but medicine winners are typically______(61)for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.Hans Jornvall , secretary of the medicine prize committee , said the 10 million kronor(瑞典克朗)prize encourages______(62)research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists."Individual researchers probably don't______(63)at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they,re______(64)work,"Jornvall told the Associated Press-They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life______(65)." 60._________
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Liver DiseaseThe liver is the second largest organ in your body. The liver performs many jobs in your body. It filters harmful substances from the blood,makes substances that digest food,and changes food into energy.One out of every 10 Americans is affected by liver disease.Liver disease is one of the top 10 causes of death in the United States.There are more than 100 liver diseases.Viruses cause some of them,like hepatitis A,hepatitis B and hepatitis C.Others can be the result of drugs,poisons or drinking too much alcohol. If the liver forms scar tissue because of an illness,it's called cirrhosis. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also inherit a liver disease such as hemochromatosis.Liver disease can manifest in many different ways. Characteristic manifestations include jaundice,liver enlargement,portal hypertensionand etc.Sometimes the manifestations of liver disease are not obvious.For example,symptoms may include fatigue,a general feeling of illness,loss of appetite,and mild weight loss. However,people may not notice these symptoms,and these symptoms are also typical of many other diseases.Thus,liver disease can easily be overlooked,particularly in its early stages.Hepatitis A vaccination is the best way to prevent HAV (hepatitis A virus).Hepatitis B vaccination is the best way to prevent HBV.Other ways to stop the spread of HBV are:not sharing needles;practicing safe sex;not sharing razors,toothbrushes,or other personal items;using only clean needles for tattoos and body piercings.There is no vaccine to prevent HCV.The only way to prevent HCV is to avoid direct contact with infected blood.Eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly help the liver to work well. Limit the amount of alcohol you drink.When medicines are taken incorrectly,the liver can be harmed.So follow dosing instructions and talk to a doctor or pharmacist about the medicines you are taking. Mixing alcohol and medicines can harm your liver,even if they are not taken at the same time.Toxins can injure liver cells.So limit direct contact with toxins from cleaning and aerosol products,insecticides, chemicals,and additives in cigarettes.Do not smoke. Which following statement is NOT true according to the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 How Two Great Conflicts Helped to Change EuropeNinety years ago on a sunny morning in Northern France,something happened that changed Britain and Europe for ever. At half past seven on the morning of July 1,1916 , whistles(哨子) blew and thousands of British soldiers left their positions to attack their German enemies. By the end of the day,20,000 of them were dead,and another 30,000 wounded or missing. The Battle of the Somme,______(51)it is called,lasted for six months.When it ended,125,000 British soldiers were dead. They had gained five kilometers of ground.This was one of a series of great battles during WWI.The attack on the Somme was staged to relieve______(52)on the French,who were engaged in a great battle of their own at a place called Verdun. By the time the battle ended,over a million French and German troops had been killed.About 17 million people were killed in WWI. There have been wars with greater numbers of dead .But there has never been one in______(53)most of the dead were concentrated in such a small area. On the Somme battlefield,two men died for every meter of space.Local farmers working in the land still______(54)the bodies of those who died in that battle .The dead of all nations were buried in a series of giant graveyards along the line of the bor- der______(55)France and Belgium.Relatives and descendants(子孙)of those who died still visit these graveyards today.What the French call the"tourism of death"______(56)an im- portant contribution to the local economy.It took a second great conflict before Europe was to turn______(57)war itself. Twenty-eight years after the Somme battle,a liberating army of British,American and Canadian troops took back______(58)from another German invasion. More than 500,000 people were killed.New______(59)were built.Two great conflicts across two generations helped to change the European mind about war. Germany,once the most warlike country in Europe,is now probably more in______(60)of peace than any other. One major cause of war in Europe was rivalry(竞争)between France and Germany .The European Union was specifically formed to end that______(61).According to US commentator William Pfaff,"Europeans are interested in a slow development of civilized and tolerant international relations,______(62)on problems while avoiding catastrophes(灾难)along the way. They have themselves only recently______(63)from the catas-trophes of WWI and WWII,when tens of millions of people were destroyed.They don't want______(64)."The last British veteran of the Somme battle died in 2005,aged 108.And WWI is passing out of memory and into history. But for anyone who wants to understand how Europeans ______(65),it is still important to know a little about the terrible events of July 1,1916. 52._________
[多选题]共用题干 Science and TechnologyThere is a difference between science and technology.______(46)Science has to do with discovering the facts and relationships between observable phenomena in nature and with establishing theories that serve to organize these facts and relationships;technology has to do with tools, techniques,and procedures for applying the findings of science.______(47)Progress in science excludes the human factor. Scientists,who seek to understand the universe and know the truth within the highest degree of accuracy and certainty,cannot pay attention to their own or other peoples likes or dislikes or to popular ideas about the fitness of things.______(48)But even an unpleasant truth is more than likely to be useful;besides,we have the choice of refusing to believe it!But hardly so with technology;we do not have the choice of refusing to hear the sound produced by a supersonic(超音速的)aircraft flying overhead ; we cannot refuse to breathe polluted air.______(49)The purpose of technology is to serve peo- pie-people in general,not merely some people;and future generations,not merely those who presently wish to gain advantage for themselves.______(50)Many people blame technology itself for widespread pollution,resource depletion(枯竭)and even social decay in generalso much so that the promise of technology is "obscured".That promise is a cleaner and healthier world.If wise applications of science and technology do not lead to a better world,what else will? ______(50)
[多选题]共用题干 InterviewThe importance and focus of the interview in the work of the print and broadcast journalist are reflected in several books that have been written on the topic .Most of these books,as well as sev-eral chapters,mainly in,but not limited to,journalism and broadcasting handbooks and reporting texts,stress the"how to"aspects of journalistic interviewing rather than the conceptual aspects of the interview,its context,and,implications. Much of the"how to"material is based on personal experiences and general impressions.As we know,in journalism as in other fields,much can be learned from the systematic study of professional practice.Such study brings together evidence from which broad generalized principles can be developed.There is,as has been suggested,a growing body of research literature in journalism and broadcasting,but very little significant attention has been devoted to the study of the interview it-self. On the other hand,many general texts as well as numerous research articles on interviewing in fields other than journalism have been written.Many of these books and articles present the theoretical and empirical aspects of the interview as well as the training of the interviewers. Un-happily,this plentiful general literature about interviewing pays little attention to the journalistic interview seems to be surprising for two reasons .First,it seems likely that most people in modern Western societies are more familiar,at least in a positive manner,with journalistic interviewing than with any other form of interviewing. Most of us are probably somewhat familiar with the clini- cal interview,such as that conducted by physicians and psychologists.In these situations the pro-fessional person or interviewer is interested in getting information necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of the person seeking help .Another familiar situation is the job interview.However, very few of us have actually been interviewed personally by the mass media,particularly by televi-sion .And yet,we have a vivid acquaintance with the journalistic interview by virtue of our roles as readers,listeners,and viewers.Even so,true understanding of the journalistic interview,es- pecially television interview,requires thoughtful analysis and even study,as this book indicates. The main idea of the first paragraph is that importance should be attached to the systematic study of journalistic interviewing.
[多选题]共用题干 The Drink Your Body Needs Most1. Our bodies are estimated to be about 60%to 70%water. Blood is mostly water, and our mus- dles,lungs and brain all contain a lot of water. Water is needed to regulate body temperature and to provide the means for nutrients(滋养物)to travel to all our organs. Water also transports oxy-gen to our cells,removes waste,and protects our joints and organs.2. We lose water through urination(排尿), respiration(呼吸), and by sweating. If you are very active,you lose more water than if you do not take much exercise.Symptoms of mild dehydration (脱水)include chronic pains in joints and muscles,lower back pain,headaches,and constipation(便秘).A strong smell to your urine,along with a yellow color indicates that you are not getting enough water. Thirst is an obvious sign of dehydration and in fact,you need water long before you feel thirsty.3 .A good rule of thumb(好的做法)is to take your body weight in pounds and divide that num- her in half. That gives you the number of ounces(盎司)of water per day that you need.For ex-ample,if you weigh 160 pounds,you should drink at least 80 ounces of water per day.If you ex- ercise you should drink another 8-ounce glass of water for every 20 minutes you are active.If you drink coffee or alcohol,you should add at least an equal amount of water. When you are traveling on an airplane,it is good to have 8 ounces of water for every hour you are on board the plane.4 .It may be difficult to drink enough water on a busy day.Be sure you have water handy at all times by keeping a bottle for water with you when you are working,traveling,or exercising. If you get bored with plain water,add a bit of lemon for a touch of flavor. There are some brands of fla-vored water available,but some of them have sugar or artificial sweeteners that you don't need. Don't forget to drink enough water even_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Things We Know about TVWe keep reading that TV is bad for you.If this is true,how come the current generation of TV-addicted kids is much smarter than we are?In my home,the only people who can work the remote control are the children.Perhaps TV does educate you.For example,you learn a useful medical fact:A person who has been shot always has time to speak an incomplete sentence before he dies.“The killer was…” (dies).But I guess the biggest things we learn from TV can be regarded as"Life Skills".Bad things only happen on dark and stormy nights.Emotional breakdowns cause people to wander in the heavy rain without umbrellas.And contrary to what scientists say,the crack(霹雳)of lightning and the accompanying flash happen at exactly the same time,wherever you are.Making use of what we learn from TV can improve our security.Consider these truths.If you are ever attacked by 20 bad guys,don't worry about being outnumbered.The criminals will hang back and take turns to approach you in ones and twos just so you can conveniently defeat them all.TV also teaches us important information about escaping from danger. Watch and learn.If anyone is running after you down a passage,you will find that boxes have been conveniently placed near all the walls you need to jump over. If you are tall and handsome,you can run from any number of armed criminals,and every shot will miss you.Be warned, however. If your name card says "henchman"(帮凶)and you are part of a group of plain-looking people trying' to catch a handsome individual,a single shot will kill you.TV even teaches us about TV.Whenever anyone turns on a TV,it shows a news flash about someone they know. They then turn the box off immediately after that news item. By saying"A person who has been shot always has time to speak an incomplete sentence before he dies"(Paragraph 2),the writer shows his_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Voice Your Opinion一Change is Needed in Youth SportsEverywhere you look, you see kids bouncing a basketball or waving a tennis racquet(网球拍).And these kids are getting younger and younger. In some countries,children can compete on basketball, baseball,and volleyball teams starting at age nine._________(46)And swimming and gymnastics classes begin at age four,to prepare children for competition.It's true that a few of these kids will develop into highly skilled athletes and may even become members of the national Olympic teams._________(47)This emphasis on competition in sports is having serious negative effects.Children who get involved in competitive sports at a young age often grow tired of their sport. Many parents pressure their kids to choose one sport and devote all their time to it._______(48)But 66 percent of the young athletes wanted to play more than one sport一for fun.Another problem is the pressure imposed by over-competitive parents and coaches.Children are not naturally competitive.In fact,a recent study by Paulo David found that most children don't even understandthe idea of competition until they are seven years old. ________(49)The third,and biggest,problem for young athletes is the lack of time to do their homework,have fun, be with friends一in short,time to be kids.When they are forced to spend every afternoon at sports practice, they often start to hate their chosen sport.A research found that 70 percent of kids who take part in competitive sports before the age of twelve quit before they turn eighteen.__________(50)Excessive competitive sports take away all the enjoyment.Need to remember the purpose of youth sports一to give kids a chance to have developing,strong, healthy bodies. __________(46)
[多选题]共用题干 About End-of-Life CareDying patients are happier,less depressed,have less pain and survive longer when their end-of-life care wishes are known and followed,researchers report.This type of patient-centered care can also help keep health costs down________(51)patients who don't want aggressive treatment,the University of California,Los Angeles (UCLA) research team said."You can improve care while________(52)cost by making sure that everything you do is centered on what the patients want,what his or her specific goals are and tailor a treatment plan to ensure we_________(53)the specific care he or she wants,"Dr. Jonathan Bergman,a clinical scholar and fellow in the urology department,said in a university news release.__________(54)many cases,dying patients are given aggressive treatments that don't help them and_________(55)higher costs.Patients who want__________(56)care should receive it,but many don't want it and haven't been_________(57)about their wishes,according to Bergman and colleagues,who are testing patient-centered care__________(58)cancer patients.To change the situation,doctors need to be educated about patient-centered care,the researchers said. They also_________(59)that changes to Medicare should be considered.But this is a highly controversial topic that has been sidelined after recent suggested changes were characterized as creating"death panels"."Given the disproportionate cost of care at the very________(60)of life,the issue should be revisited,"Bergman and colleagues wrote."We should address goals of care,not to___________(61)aggressive care to those who want it,but to ensure that we deliver aggressive care only to those who__________(62).This reduces costs and improves outcomes."The study authors noted that,according to the results of a 2004 study,30 percent of Medicare dollars are________(63)on the 5 percent of beneficiaries who die each year,and one-third of the costs in the final year of life_________(64)during the final month.Previous research has shown that patient-centered care can reduce the costs in the last week of life________(65)36 percent and that patients who receive such care are less likely to die in an intensive care unit. _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 About End-of-Life CareDying patients are happier,less depressed,have less pain and survive longer when their end-of-life care wishes are known and followed,researchers report.This type of patient-centered care can also help keep health costs down________(51)patients who don't want aggressive treatment,the University of California,Los Angeles (UCLA) research team said."You can improve care while________(52)cost by making sure that everything you do is centered on what the patients want,what his or her specific goals are and tailor a treatment plan to ensure we_________(53)the specific care he or she wants,"Dr. Jonathan Bergman,a clinical scholar and fellow in the urology department,said in a university news release.__________(54)many cases,dying patients are given aggressive treatments that don't help them and_________(55)higher costs.Patients who want__________(56)care should receive it,but many don't want it and haven't been_________(57)about their wishes,according to Bergman and colleagues,who are testing patient-centered care__________(58)cancer patients.To change the situation,doctors need to be educated about patient-centered care,the researchers said. They also_________(59)that changes to Medicare should be considered.But this is a highly controversial topic that has been sidelined after recent suggested changes were characterized as creating"death panels"."Given the disproportionate cost of care at the very________(60)of life,the issue should be revisited,"Bergman and colleagues wrote."We should address goals of care,not to___________(61)aggressive care to those who want it,but to ensure that we deliver aggressive care only to those who__________(62).This reduces costs and improves outcomes."The study authors noted that,according to the results of a 2004 study,30 percent of Medicare dollars are________(63)on the 5 percent of beneficiaries who die each year,and one-third of the costs in the final year of life_________(64)during the final month.Previous research has shown that patient-centered care can reduce the costs in the last week of life________(65)36 percent and that patients who receive such care are less likely to die in an intensive care unit. _________(62)
[多选题]共用题干 Adaptation of Living ThingsCertain animals and plants develop characteristics that help them cope with their environ-ment better than others of their kind.This natural biological process is called adaptation.Among the superior characteristics developed through adaptation are those that may help in getting food or shelter,in providing protection,and in producing and protecting the young. That results in the evolution of more and more organisms(生物体)that are better fitted to their environments.Each living thing is adapted to its way of life in a general way,but each is adapted especially to its own distinct class.A plant,for example,depends upon its roots to fix itseff firmly and to absorb water and inorganic chemicals(无机物).It depends upon its green leaves for using the sun's energy to make food from inorganic chemicals.These are general adaptations,common to most plants .In addition,there are special adaptations that only certain kinds of plants have.Many animals have adaptations that help them escape from their enemies.Some are hidden by their body color or shape,and many look like a leaf or a little branch.The coats of deer are colored to mix with the surroundings.Many animals have the ability to remain completely still when an enemy is near.Organisms have a great variety of ways of adapting. They may adapt in their structure,func- tion,and genetics;in their development and production of the young;and in other respects.An organism may create its own environment, as do warm-blooded mammals(哺乳动物),which have the ability to adjust body heat exactly to maintain their ideal temperature despite changing weather. Usually adaptations are an advantage,but sometimes an organism is so well adapted to a particular environment that if conditions change,it finds it difficult or impossible to readapt to the new conditions. Which of the following is NOT directly mentioned in the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 Some Schooling on BackpacksAccording to the U.S.Consumer Product Safety Commission,5,900 kids were treated at hospital emergency rooms , clinics , and doctors ' offices last year for sprains(扭伤)and strains caused by backpacks.Such injuries are so widespread that more than 70 percent of physicians'surveyed by the American Academy of Orthopedic(整形外科的)Surgeons listed backpacks as a potential clinical problem for children.How do you avoid such problems? Choose bags that have wide , padded straps(有垫的背带)and a belt.That will help transfer some of the weight from the back and shoulders to the hips.You should also tighten both straps firmly,so the pack rests about 2 inches above your waist.Also,remember to pack your bag with the heaviest items closest to your back and to bend both knees when you pick it up.How much should you stuff into your pack?That depends on your size and strength,but a general rule is not to exceed 20 percent of your body weight.So if a child weighs 100 pounds,the backpack and its load should not be more than 20 pounds.One hint : Make frequent trips to your locker(储物柜)to exchange books between classes.Backpacks with wheels let you pull the weight along the ground,but they have problems too.Many are larger than the average shoulder bag,so students are tempted to carry more than they would in a conventional pack.Roller bags often don't fit into a locker.They can also lead to tripping and falls in crowded halls.Whatever you use,10 or 15 minutes of stretching and back strengthening is a good idea. A 10-15 minutes'exercise will help you bear a heavier backpack.
[多选题]共用题干 According to the most recent research on parenting,caretakers tend to use three strategies for disciplining children.Power includes the use of physical punishment such as spanking or the threat of physical punishment,but parents can also demonstrate power by taking away a privilege such as using the car,attending a sporting event,or in the case of a very young child,playing with a favorite toy.In spite of the fact that power strategies,especially severe physical punishment,can cause children to fear or even hate parents,it's surprising that power remains the strategy used most often in discipli-ning children.It's also worth noting that children who are harshly disciplined in this way tend to be hostile,defiant,and aggressive socially.Second in popularity after power is the withholding of affection.This can take the form of re-fusal to communicate with a child,threatening to abandon or reject the child,or otherwise treating children as though they were unworthy of love .Interesting enough,children disciplined in this way appear on the surface to be very self-disciplined,even model children who are seldom in trouble, but underneath,these same children are generally very nervous,insecure and dependent others to approve of and guide their evaluation of behavior.Finally,management techniques are employed for discipline .These begin with a set of rules that are clearly expressed at an age-appropriate level.To enforce the rules,parents use a combina- tion of praise and approval with explanation and reasoning,always referring back to the rules.But regardless of the strategy,the behavior that has precipitated punishment should be clearly understood,and the consequences should be consistent. Key to any kind of discipline is a pattern of consistency so that children understand the relationship between the rules,their behavior,and the consequences. Which is the best title for the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 When Teen Dating Turns Abusive and ViolentWhen teens start dating,parents' worries grow.__________(46)Nearly 10 percent of teenagers experience some form of violence in their dating relationships,according to the U.S.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Dating violence encompasses physical,emotional and sexual abuse,the CDC notes.___________ (47)A study in the January issue of Pediatrics found that teens who had experienced dating violence were more likely to binge drink,smoke,have depression symptoms,think about suicide and experience additional intimate partner violence than were their peers who'd never experienced dating violence.Often,though,abusive behavior starts with teasing and name-calling,which teens may see as a normal part of a relationship but which,according to the CDC,can lead to more serious violence, such as hitting or rape.Nancy Diaz,a domestic violence consultant who has provided services to Outreach in New York City,said that when she explains verbal abuse to teens,many think it's just normal conversation. __________(48) "It's the cycle of violence,"Diaz said.If a teen girl slaps a teen boy,the boy often says it's not abuse because it doesn't hurt,but Diaz explains that it is._________(49)"That's rape,but the girls don't think of it as rape,"Diaz said.For parents,protection starts with knowing the person their teen is dating."Invite them in,or offer to drive them somewhere," Diaz said."Just make sure you know who they're connecting with."__________(50)"Look for sores,bruises or scratches,and check out what they're doing on social media like Facebook." ________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Most young people enjoy some form of physical activity.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in winter,skating or skiing. It may be a game of some kind of football,hockey,golf, or tennis.It may be mountaineering.Those who have a passion for climbing high and difficult mountains are often looked upon with astonishment.Why are men and women willing to suffer cold and hardship,and to take risks on high mountains?This astonishment is caused probably by the difference between mountaineering and other forms of activity to which men give their leisure.Mountaineering is a sport and not a game.There are no manmade rules,as there are for such games as golf and football.There are,of course,rules of a different kind which it would be dangerous to ignore,but it is this freedom from man-made rules that makes mountaineering attractive to many people.Those who climb mountains are free to use their own methods.If we compare mountaineering and other more familiar sports,we might think that one big difference is that mountaineering is not a"team game".We should be mistaken in this.There are,it is true,no "matches " between "teams"of climbers,but when climbers are on a rock face linked by a rope on which their lives may depend,there is obviously teamwork.The mountain climber knows that he may have to fight forces that are stronger and more powerful than man.He has to fight the forces of nature.His sport requires high mental and physical qualities.A mountain climber continues to improve the skill year after year. A skier is probably past his best by the age of thirty,and most international tennis champions are in their early twenties.But it is not unusual for a man of fifty or sixty to climb the highest mountains in the Alps.They may take more time than younger men,but they probably climb with more skill and less waste of effort,and they certainly experience equal enjoyment. Mountaineering can be called a team sport because_________.