考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 What's Killing the BatsFirst it was bees.Now it is bats.Biologists in America are working hard to discover the cause of the mysterious deaths of tens of thousands of bats in the northeastern part of the country.Most of the bats affected are the common little brown bats(Myotis lucifugus,)but other species, such as the long-eared bat,the small-footed bat,the eastern pipistrelle,and the Indiana bat have also been affected. In some caves,more than 90 percent of the bat populations have died.One possibility is disease. A white fungus(真菌)known as fusarium has been found on the noses of both living and dead bats.However,scientists don't know if the fungus is the primary cause of death,a secondary cause of death,or not a cause at all,but the result of some other conditions.Another possible cause is a lack of food.For example,bats typically eat a large number of moths(蛾),and in some states such as New York,the number of moths has been declining in recent years. if bats can't eat enough food,they starve to death.Still other scientists believe that global warming is to blame.Warmer temperatures in recent years have been waking up hibernating(冬眠)bats earlier than usual. If bats break their hiberna- lion at the wrong time,they might not find their expected food sources. The weather might also turn cold again and weaken or kill the bats.Scientists might not agree on the causes of the bat die-off, but they do agree on the conse- quences. Bats are an important predator of mosquitoes:a single brown bat can eat 1,000 or more insects in an hour. They also eat beetles and other insects that damage plant crops.If there aren't enough bats,damage will be great from the insects they eat. While bats live a long time for their size-the little brown bat can live for more than 30 years-a female bat has only one baby per year,so bat populations grow slowly. Many bat species in the United States are already protected or endangered.How can you help?Do not disturb sleeping or nesting bats.If you discover bats that seem to be sick or that are dead,contact your local Fish& Wildlife Department with the details.However, be careful not to touch the animals. What does the first sentence in Paragraph 1 mean?
[多选题]共用题干 The Fridge1.The fridge is considered a necessity.It has been so since the l960s when packaged food first appeared with the label:"Store in the refrigerator."2.In my fridgeless fifties childhood,I was fed well and healthily.The milkman came daily,the grocer,the butcher,the baker,and the ice-cream man delivered two or three times a week.The Sunday meat would last until Wednesday and surplus bread and milk became all kinds of cakes. Nothing was wasted and we were never troubled by rotten food.Thirty years on,food deliveries have ceased,fresh vegetables are almost unobtainable in the country.3.The invention of the fridge contributed comparatively little to the art of food preservation.A vast variety of well-tried techniques already existed一natural cooling,drying,smoking,slating, sugaring,bottling…4.What refrigeration did promote was marketing一marketing hardware and electricity,marketing soft drinks,marketing dead bodies of animals around the globe in search of a good price.5.Consequently,most of the world's fridges are to be found,not in the tropics where they might prove useful,but in the wealthy countries with mild temperatures where they are climatically almost unnecessary.Every winter,millions of fridges hum away continuously,and at vast expanse,busily maintaining an artificially-cooled space inside an artificially一heated house一while outside,nature provides the desired temperature free of charge.6.The fridge's effect upon the environment has been evident,while its contribution to human happiness has been insignificant. If you don't believe me,try it yourself. Invest in a food cabinet and turn off your fridge next winter. You may miss the hamburgers but at least you'll get ride of that terrible hum. The invention of the fridge has not provided a new,economical way in which_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Time in the Animal WorldRhythm controls everything in Nature._______(46)The sun provides a basic time rhythm for all living creatures including humans.Nearly all animals are influenced by sun cycles and have developed a biological clock in their bodies following these cycles.The moon also exerts its force and influence on the sea. Its gravitational attraction causes the rising of the tide._______(47)When the moon is behind the Earth,centrifugal force causes the second tide of the day.Animals living in tidal areas must have the instinct of predicting these changes,to avoid being stranded and dying of dehydration.Since the time of the dinosaurs,the king crab has been laying eggs at the seaside in a set way.To avoid predator fish,the eggs are always far from seawater and protected by sand.In the following two months,the eggs undergo dramatic changes related to the cycles of the moon.When the second spring tide comes,the young king crabs have matured._______(48)Most of the mammals,either the giant elephant or the small shrew,have the same average total number of heartbeats in their lifetime.Shrews live only for two and a half years,and spend their life at a high speed and high tempo.Animals like shrews with a pulse rate of 600 per minute have an average total of eight hundred million heartbeats throughout their life.The African elephant has a pulse rate of 25 beats per minute,and a life span of 60 years.The size of the body determines the speed of life._______(49)As we get older,our sense of time is being influenced by the physiological changes of our body.The elderly spend more time resting,and do few sports._______(50)For a child,a week is seen as a long time. _________(47)
[多选题]共用题干 Europa's Watery UnderworldEuropa,one of Jupiter's 63 known moons,looks bright and icy on the surface.But appearances can be deceiving:Miles within its cracked,frigid shell,Europa probably hides giant pools of liquid water. Where scientists find liquid water,they hope to find life as well.Since we can't go diving into Europa's depths just yet,scientists instead have to investigate the moon's surface for clues to what lies beneath.In a new study,scientists investigated one group of strange ice patterns on Europa and concluded that the formations mark the top of an underground pool that holds as much water as the U.S.Great Lakes.Pictures of Europa,which is slightly smaller than Earth's moon,clearly show a tangled,icy mishmash of lines and cracks known as"chaos terrains".These chaotic places cover more than half of Europa. For more than 10 years,scientists have wondered what causes the formations.The new study suggests that they arise from the mixing of vast underground stores of liquid water with icy material near the surface.For scientists who suspect that Europa also may be hiding life beneath its icy surface,the news about the new lake is exciting."It would be great if these lakes harbored life,"Britney Schmidt,a planetary scientist who worked onthe study,told Science News."But even if they didn't,they say that Europa is doing something interesting and active right now."Schmidt,a scientist at the University of Texas at Austin,and her colleagues wanted to know how chaos terrains form.Since they couldn't rocket to Europa to see for themselves,they searched for similar forma- tions here on Earth.They studied collapsed ice shelves in Antarctica and icy caps on volcanoes in Iceland. Those features on Earth formed when liquid water mixed with ice.The scientists now suspect something similar might be happening on Europa:that as water and ice of different temperatures mingle and shift,the surface fractures.This would explain the jumbled ice sculptures."Fracturing catastrophically disrupts the ice in the same way that it causes ice shelves to collapse on Earth,"Schmidt told Science News.She and her team found that the process could be causing chaos terrains to form quickly on Europa.The new study suggests that on this moon,elements such as oxygen from the surface blend with the deep bodies of water. That mixture may create an environment that supports life. The formations on Europa's surface are rather unique in the universe.
[多选题]共用题干 Young Adults Who Exercise Get Higher IQ ScoresYoung adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more likely to go on to university,reveals a major new study_________(51)out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(PNAS).The study__________(52)1._________(1.)2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born between 1950 and1976._________(1976.)The research group analyzed the ________(53)of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.The study shows a clear link _________(54)good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test.The strongest links are for ________(55)thinking and verbal comprehension.But it is only fitness thatplays a _________ (56)in the results for the IQ test,and not strength."Being fit means that you also havegood heart and lung __________(57)and that your brain gets plenty of oxygen."says Michael Nilsson,pro-fessor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital."This may be one of the reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness,but not with muscular_________(58).We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important."By analyzing data for twins,the researchers have been________(59)to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that___________(60)the link between fitness and a higher IQ."We have also shown that those youngsters who _______(61)their physical fitness between the ages of 1 5 and 1 8 increase their performance."says Maria Aberg,researcher at the Sahlgrenska Academy andphysician at Aby health centre."This being the case,physical education is a_______(62)that has an important place in schools,and is an absolute must________(63)we want to do well in math and other theoretical subjects."The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests during national service_______(64) the socioeconomic status of the men later in life.Those who were fit at I 8 were more__________(65)to go into higher education,and many secured more qualified jobs. _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 The Differences Among Various Types of AdoptionIn the US,there is a difference between public and private adoption.Public adoption typically involves taking _________ (51) foster(收养的)children and then adopting them after several months.It's significantly less expensive than private or international adoption,but more often than not_______(52)adopting children who are older than 5 or who have_______(53)needs.Private adoptions offer a better chance of adopting newborns,and increasingly,birth parents _______(54)the adoptive parents themselves.That's not a bad idea on its face,as it gives biological parents_______ (55)say in whom they will relinquish(放弃)their children. But this effectively puts_______(56)parents in the position of advertising themselves to birth parents in newspapers and online,_______(57)many couples feel uncomfortable with.Most states allow birth parents to reclaim their children_______(58)the children have been placed with adoptive families,for time periods ranging from a few days in some states to several months in others.Critics of international adoption say this rarely happens.They are only_______ (59)right:it's true that American birth parents don't usually reclaim their children once they've been placed with their adoptive families,but they can and do_______(60)their minds before the papers are signed.International adoption is more expensive than any form of domestic adoption,but in many ways, it is also more straightforward.The_______(61)of a birth parent calling the adoption_______ (62)are effectively zero and while costs are high,they're also determined at the_______(63) and tend not to change as the_______(64)wears on.Couples seeking to adopt should consider all_______(65)and get a range of perspectives before deciding which method is best for them. _________(59)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Cell Phones : Hang Up or Keep Talking?Millions of people are using cell phones today.In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one.In many countries,cell phones are very popular with young people.They find that the phones are more than a means of communication一having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected.The explosions around the world in mobile phone use make some health professionals worried.Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones.In England,there has been a serious debate about this issue.Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas.They say that there is no proof that mobile phones are bad for your health.On the other hand,why do some medical studies show changes in the brain cells of some people who use mobile phones?Signs of change in the tissues of the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning (扫描)equipment. In one case , a traveling salesman had to retire at a young age because of serious memory Loss.He couldn't remember even simple tasks.He would often forget the name of his own son.This man usedto talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day,every day of his working week,for a couple of years.His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use,but his employer's doctor didn't agree.What is it that makes mobile phones potentially harmful?The answer is radiation.High-tech machines can detect very small amounts of radiation from mobile phones.Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation,but they say the amount is too small to worry about.As the discussion about their safety continues,it appears that it's best to use mobile phones less often. Use your regular phone if you want to talk for a long time.Use your mobile phone only when you really need it.Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient,especially in emergencies.In the future,mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health.So for now,it's wise not to use your mobile phone too often. The writer's purpose of wnting this article is to advise people__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Transport and Trade1.Transport is one of the aids to trade.By moving goods from places where they are plentiful to places where they are scarce,transport adds to their value.The more easily goods can be brought over the distance that separates producer and consumer,the better for trade.When there were no railways,no good roads,no canals,and only small sailing ships,trade was on a small scale.2.The great advances made in transport during the last two hundred years were accompanied by a big increase in trade.Bigger and faster ships enabled a trade in meat to develop between Britain and New Zealand,for instance.Quicker transport makes possible mass-production and big business, drawing supplies from,and selling goods to,all parts of the globe.Big factories could not exist with-out transport to carry the large number of workers they need to and from their homes.Big city stores could not have developed unless customers could travel easily from the suburbs and goods delivered to their homes.Big cities could not survive unless food could be brought from a distance.3.Transport also prevents waste.Much of the fish landed at the ports would be wasted if it could not be taken quickly to inland towns.Transport has given us a much greater variety of foods and goods since we no longer have to live on what is produced locally.Foods which at one time could be obtained only during a part of the year can now, be obtained all through the year. Transport has raised the standard of living.4.By moving fuel,raw materials,and even power,as,for example,through electric cables, transport has led to the establishment of industries and trade in areas where they would have been impossible before.Districts and countries can concentrate on making things which they can do better and more cheaply than others and can then exchange them with one another. The cheaper and quicker transport becomes,the longer the distance over which goods can profitably be carried.Countries with poor transport have a lower standard of living.5.Commerce requires not only the moving of goods and people but also the carrying of messages and information. Means of communication,like telephones,cables and radio,send information about prices,supplies,and changing conditions in different parts of the world.In this way,advanced communication systems also help to develop trade. Paragraph 5_______
[多选题]共用题干 Sharks Perform a Service for Earth's WatersIt is hard to get people to think of sharks as anything but a deadly enemy.They are thought to ______(51)people frequently .But these fish perform a______(52)service for earth's waters and for human beings .Yet business and sport fishing are threatening their______(53).Some sharks are at______(54)of disappearing from earth.Warm weather may influence both fish and shark activity.Many fish swim near coastal areas ______(55)their warm waters. Experts say sharks may follow the fish into the same areas, ______(56)people also swim.In fact,most sharks do not purposely charge at or bite humans.They are thought to mistake a person______(57)a sea animal,such as a seal or sea lion.That is why people should not swim in the ocean when the sun goes down or comes up .Those are the ______(58)when sharks are looking for food.Experts also say that bright colors and shiny jewelry may cause sharks to attack.A shark has an extremely good sense of smell.It can find small amounts of substances in water,such as blood,body liquids and______(59)produced by animals.These powerful ______(60)help sharks find their food.Sharks eat fish,any______(61)sharks,and plants that live in the ocean.Medical researchers want to learn more about the shark's body defense and immune systems ______(62)disease.Researchers know that sharks______(63)quickly from injuries.They study the shark in hopes of finding a way to fight human disease.Sharks are important for the world's______(64).They eat injured and diseased fish. Their hunting activities mean that the numbers of other fish in ocean waters do not become too ______(65).This protects the plants and other forms of life that exist in the oceans. 64._________
[多选题]共用题干 I Know Just How You FeelDo you feel sad?Happy?Frustrated?Insouciant?Exonerated?Infuriated?Do you think that the way you display these emotions is unique?Well,think again.Even the expression of the most personal feelings can be divided into groups,classified,and perhaps,taught. This week sees the publication of Mind Reading, an interactive DVD displaying every possible human emotion.It demonstrates 412 distinct ways in which we feel:the first visual dictionary of the human heart.The attempt to classify expressions began with Darwin.His The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals,published in 1872,divided the emotions into six types一anger,fear,sadness,disgust,surprise and enjoyment.__________(46)Every other feeling,of which there may be thousands,was thought to derive from Darwin's small group.More complex expressions of emotion were likely to be learned and therefore more specific to each culture.But now it is believed that,whereas gestures do not cross cultural boundaries well,many more facial ex-pressions than Darwin's half-dozen are shared worldwide.________(47)The Mind Reading DVD is a systematic visual record of each of these expressions being acted out.The project was conceived by Professor Simon Baron-Cohen of the autism(孤独症)research centre in Cambridge as an aid for people with autism,who has difficulty both reading and expressing emotions.But it quickly became apparent that it had broader uses.Novelists,actors and portrait painters,for example,all need to understand a wide range of emotional expression,and teachers could use it for classes in personal and so- cial development. Baron-Cohen's team first had to decide what counted as an emotion._________( 48) Using this definition,1,5 12 emotion terms were identified and put to a panel who had to decide if each repre- sented a separate emotion,or if they were synonyms.This list was whittled down to 412,arranged in 24 groups from"afraid"to"wanting".Once the emotions were defined and classified,a DVD seemed the clearest and most efficient way to dis- play them.In Mind Reading,each expression is acted out一six times,by six different actors一in three seconds. _________(49)The explanation for this is simple:we may find it difficult to describe emotions usingwords,but we instantly recognize one when we see it on someone's face."It was really clear when the actors had got it right,"says Cathy Collis,who directed the DVD."Although the actors were given some direction," says Ms Collis,"they were not told which facial muscles they should move."__________(50)For example, when someone feels contempt,you can't say for certain that their eyebrows always go down.Someone who has tried to establish such rules is the American,Professor Paul Ekman,who has built a database of how the face moves for every emotion.The face can make 43 distinct muscle movements called "action units".These can be combined into more than 10,000 visible facial shapes.Ekman has written out a pattern of facial muscular movements to represent each emotion. __________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 A Special JourneyI am often asked to describe the experience of_______(51)a child with a disability一to try to help people who have not shared that unique experience to understand it,to imagine how it would feel.It's like this…_______(52)you're going to have a baby,it's like planning a fabulous vacation trip to Italy. You buy a bunch of guide books and make your wonderful_______(53).The Coliseum,the Michelangelo,David,the gondolas in Venice.You may learn some handy phrases in Italian. It's all very exciting.After months of eager anticipation,the day finally_______(54).You pack your bags and _______(55)you go.Several hours later,the plane lands.The_______(56)comes in and says,"Welcome to Holland.""Holland?"you say."What do you mean by Holland?I signed up for Italy!I'm supposed to be in Italy. All my life I've dreamed_______(57)going to Italy."But there's been a change in the flight plan.They've landed in Holland and there you must stay.The important thing is that they haven't taken you to a horrible,disgusting,filthy place,full of pestilence,_______(58)and disease.It's just a_______(59)place._______(60)you must go out and buy new guide books.And you must learn a whole new language.And you will meet a whole new group of people you would never have met.It's just a different place.It's slower-paced than Italy,less flashy than Italy. But after you've been there for a while and you catch your breath,you look around…and you begin to_______ (61)that Holland has windmills…and Holland has tulips.Holland even has Rembrandts.But everyone you know is busy coming and going_______(62)Italy…and they're all bragging about_______(63)a wonderful time they had there. And for the rest of your life,you will say"Yes,that's where I was_______(64)to go.That's what I had planned."But if you spend your life_______(65)the fact that you didn't get to Italy,you may never be free to enjoy the very special,the very lovely things about Holland. _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 InflationBusiness and government leaders also consider the inflation rate to be an important general indicator. Inflation is a period of increased spending that causes rapid rises in prices._______(51)your money buys fewer goods so that you get_______(52)for the same amount of money as before,inflation is the problem. There is a general rise_______(53)the price of goods and services.Your money buys less.Sometimes people describe inflation as a time when"a dollar is not worth a dollar anymore".Inflation is a problem for all consumers.People who live on a fixed income are hurt the _______(54).Retired people,for instance,cannot count on an increase in income as prices rise. Elderly people who do not work face serious problems in stretching their incomes to_______(55) their needs in time of inflation.Retirement income_______(56)any fixed income usually does not rise as fast as prices.Many retired people must cut their spending to_______(57)rising prices.In many cases they must stop_______(58)some necessary items,such as food and clothing. Even _______(59)working people whose incomes are going up,inflation can be a problem. The_______(60)of living goes up,too. People who work must have even more money to keep up their standard of living. Just buying the things they need costs more.When incomes do not keep _______(61)with rising prices,the standard of living goes down.People may be earning the same amount of money,but they are not living as well because they are not able to buy as many goods and services.Government units gather information about prices in our economy and publish it as price indexes _______(62)the rate of change can be determined.A price index measures changes in prices using the price for a_______(63)year as the base.The base price is set at 100,and the other prices are reported as a_______(64)of the base price.A price index makes_______(65)possible to compare current prices of typical consumer goods,for example,with prices of the same goods in previous years. _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 Study Helps Predict Big Mediterranean Quake1.Scientists have found evidence that an overlooked fault in the eastern Mediterranean is likely to produce an earthquake and tsunami every 800 years as powerful as the one that destroyed Alexandria in AD 365.2.Using radiocarbon dating techniques,simulations and computer models,the researchers recreated the ancient disaster in order to identify the responsible fault."We are saying there is probably a repeat time of 800 years for this kind of earthquake,"said Ms Beth Shaw,an earthquake scientist at the University of Cambridge,who led the study. Scientists study past earthquakes in order to deter-mine the future possibility of similar large shocks.3.Identifying the fault for the AD 365 earthquake and tsunami is important for the tens of millions of people in the region,Ms.Shaw said.The fault close to the southwest coast of Crete last produced a big enough quake to generate a tsunami about 1300,which means the next powerful one could come in the next 100 years,she added in a telephone interview.4.Ms.Shaw and her colleagues calculate the likely intervals by measuring the motion of either side of the fault to find how often such large earthquakes would have to occur to account for that level of motion,she said.Their computer model suggested an 8 magnitude quake on the fault would pro-duce a tsunami that floods the coastal regions of Alexandria and North Africa,the southern coast of Greece and Sicily all the way up the Adriati to Dubrovnik.This would be similar to the ancient quake in AD 365 that caused widespread destruction in much of Greece and unleashed a tsunami that flooded Alexandria and the Nile Delta likely killing tens of thousands of people,she said. Scientists predict that the next powerful earthquake in the eastern Mediterranean may take place some time before 2100.
[多选题]共用题干 InflationBusiness and government leaders also consider the inflation rate to be an important general indicator. Inflation is a period of increased spending that causes rapid rises in prices._______(51)your money buys fewer goods so that you get_______(52)for the same amount of money as before,inflation is the problem. There is a general rise_______(53)the price of goods and services.Your money buys less.Sometimes people describe inflation as a time when"a dollar is not worth a dollar anymore".Inflation is a problem for all consumers.People who live on a fixed income are hurt the _______(54).Retired people,for instance,cannot count on an increase in income as prices rise. Elderly people who do not work face serious problems in stretching their incomes to_______(55) their needs in time of inflation.Retirement income_______(56)any fixed income usually does not rise as fast as prices.Many retired people must cut their spending to_______(57)rising prices.In many cases they must stop_______(58)some necessary items,such as food and clothing. Even _______(59)working people whose incomes are going up,inflation can be a problem. The_______(60)of living goes up,too. People who work must have even more money to keep up their standard of living. Just buying the things they need costs more.When incomes do not keep _______(61)with rising prices,the standard of living goes down.People may be earning the same amount of money,but they are not living as well because they are not able to buy as many goods and services.Government units gather information about prices in our economy and publish it as price indexes _______(62)the rate of change can be determined.A price index measures changes in prices using the price for a_______(63)year as the base.The base price is set at 100,and the other prices are reported as a_______(64)of the base price.A price index makes_______(65)possible to compare current prices of typical consumer goods,for example,with prices of the same goods in previous years. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 The iPad1 The iPad is a tablet computer(平板电脑)designed and developed by Apple. It is particularly mar- keted as a platform for audio and visual media such as books,periodicals,movies,music,and games,as well as web content.At about 1.5 pounds(680 grams),its size and weight are between those of most contempora- ry smartphones and laptop computers.Apple released the iPad in April 2010,and sold 3 million of the de- vices in 80 days.2 The iPad runs the same operating system as iPod Touch and iPhone.It can run its own applications as well as ones developed for iPhone.Without modification,it will only run programs approved by Apple and distributed via its online store.3 Like iPhone and iPod Touch,the iPad is controlled by a multitouch display一a break from most pre- vious tablet computers , which uses a pressure-triggered stylus(触控笔).The iPad uses a Wi-Fi data connec- tion to browse(浏览)the Internet, load and stream media ,and install software. Some models also have a 3G wireless data connection which can connect to GSM 3 G data networks.The device is managed and synchro- nized by iTunes on a personal computer via USB cable.4 An iPad has different features and applications one can use to execute different and interesting things.There are lots of iPad applications that the owner can use to enhance the way they communicate.Some of these are how to use social networking sites and other online options.One of the most common uses is for e-mail services.iPad applications like Markdown Mail allow the adoption of specific and particular options. They enable the owner to personalize their email accounts.5 While the iPad is mostly used by consumers it also has been taken up by business users.Some com- panies are adopting iPads in their business offices by distributing or making available iPads to employees.Ex- amples of uses in the workplace include lawyers responding to clients,medical professionals accessing health records during patient exams,and managers approving employee requests.A survey by Frost&Sullivan shows that iPad usage in workplaces is linked to the goals of increased employee productivity,reduced paperwork,and increased revenue. The iPad will only run programs approved by Apple if not_________.
[多选题]共用题干 First Image-recognition Software1. Dartmouth researchers and their colleagues have created an artificial intelligence software that uses photos to locate documents on the Internet with far greater accuracy than ever before.2. The new system,which was tested on photos and is now being applied to videos,shows for the first time that a machine learning algorithm(运算法则)for image recognition and retrieval is accurate and efficient enough to improve large-scale document searches online. The system uses pixel(像素)data in images and potentially video-rather than just text-to locate documents. It learns to recognize the pixels associated with a search phrase by studying the results from text-based image search en-gines. The knowledge gleaned(收集)from those results can then be applied to other photos without tags or captions(图片说明),making for more accurate document search results.3. "Over the last 30 years,"says Associate Professor Lorenzo Torresani,a co-author of the stud-y,"the Web has evolved from a small collection of mostly text documents to a modern,massive, fast-growing multimedia data set,where nearly every page includes multiple pictures or videos. When a person looks at a Web page, he immediately gets the gist(主旨)of it by looking at the pictures in it.Yet,surprisingly,all existing popular search engines,such as Google or Bing, strip away the information contained in the photos and use exclusively the text of Web pages to perform the document retrieval. Our study is the first to show that modern machine vision systems are accurate and efficient enough to make effective use of the information contained in image pix- els to improve document search."4. The researchers designed and tested a machine vision system-a type of artificial intelligence that allows computers to learn without being explicitly programmed-that extracts semantic(语义的)information from the pixels of photos in Web pages. This information is used to enrich the description of the HTML page used by search engines for document retrieval.The researchers test-ed their approach using more than 600 search queries(查询)on a database of 50 million Web pages. They selected the text-retrieval search engine with the best performance and modified it to make use of the additional semantic information extracted by their method from the pictures of the Web pages.They found that this produced a 30 percent improvement in precision over the original search engine purely based on text. When performing document retrieval the existing search engines ignore______.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Cell Phones : Hang Up or Keep Talking?Millions of people are using cell phones today.In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one.In many countries,cell phones are very popular with young people.They find that the phones are more than a means of communication一having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected.The explosions around the world in mobile phone use make some health professionals worried.Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones.In England,there has been a serious debate about this issue.Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas.They say that there is no proof that mobile phones are bad for your health.On the other hand,why do some medical studies show changes in the brain cells of some people who use mobile phones?Signs of change in the tissues of the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning (扫描)equipment. In one case , a traveling salesman had to retire at a young age because of serious memory Loss.He couldn't remember even simple tasks.He would often forget the name of his own son.This man usedto talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day,every day of his working week,for a couple of years.His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use,but his employer's doctor didn't agree.What is it that makes mobile phones potentially harmful?The answer is radiation.High-tech machines can detect very small amounts of radiation from mobile phones.Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation,but they say the amount is too small to worry about.As the discussion about their safety continues,it appears that it's best to use mobile phones less often. Use your regular phone if you want to talk for a long time.Use your mobile phone only when you really need it.Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient,especially in emergencies.In the future,mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health.So for now,it's wise not to use your mobile phone too often. The word"detected"in Paragraph 3 could be best replaced by__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Students Learn Better with Touchscreen DesksObserve the criticisms of nearly any major public education system in the world,and a few of the many complaints are more or less universal.Technology moves faster than the education system.Teachers must teach at the pace of the slowest student rather than the fastest. And一particularly in the United States一 school children as a group don't care much for,or excel(擅长)at,mathemnatics. So it's heartening to learn that a new kind of"classroom of the future"shows promise at easing some of these problems,starting with that fundamental piece of classroom furniture:the desk.A UK study involving roughly 400 students,mostly aged 8一10 years,and a new generation of multis-touch,multi-user,computerized desktop surfaces is showing that over the last three years the technology has appreciably boosted students'math skills compared with peers learning the same material via the con- ventional paper-and-pencil method.How?Through collaboration,mostly,as well as by giving teachers better tools by which to micromanage individual students who need some extra instruction while allowing the rest of the class to continue moving forward.Traditional instruction still shows respectable efficacy(效力)at increasing students'fluency in mathe- matics,essentially through memorization and practice一dull,repetitive practice.But the researchers have con-cluded that these new touchscreen desks boost both fluency and flexibility一the critical thinking skills that al- low students to solve complex problems not simply through knowing formulas and devices,but by being able to figure out what the real problem is and the most effective means of stripping it down and solving it.One reason for this,the researchers say,is the multi-touch aspect of the technology.Students working in the next-gen classroom can work together at the same tabletop,each of them contributing and engaging with the problem as part of a group.Known as SynergyNet,the software uses computer vision systems that see in the infrared(红外线的)spectrum to distinguish between different touches on different parts of the surface, allowing students to access and use tools on the screen,move objects and visual aids around on their desk- tops,and otherwise physically interact with the numbers and information on their screens.By using these screens collaboratively,the researchers say,the students are to some extent teaching themselves as those with a stronger grasp on difficult concepts pull other students forward along with them. Which of the following statements is NOT true of the public education system?
[多选题]共用题干 The Impact of Antarctic Ozone HoleThe Antarctic ozone(臭氧)hole is changing weather patterns across the Southern Hemisphere (半球),even affecting the tropics,scientists have concluded. The scientists______(51)the new study added the ozone hole into standard climate models to_______(52)how it might have affected winds and rains. They say rainfall has moved further south towards the pole and the effect has been_______(53)strong over Australia.And of_______(54)interest was the southward of the Southern Hemisphere jet stream. These high一altitude winds are_______(55)to determining weather patterns,in both hemispheres. Much of the cold weather felt in the UK_______(56)the last couple of winters,for example,was caused by blocking of the Northern Hemisphere stream.The team found that overall,the ozone hole has_______(57)in rainfall moving south along with the winds._______(58)there are regional differences,particularly concerning Australia. In terms of the average for that zone,the ozone hole_______(59)about a 10% change一but for Australia,it's about 35%.Their modeling indicated that global warming_______(60)greenhouse gas emissions is also a factor in changing rainfall patterns.Natural climate cycles are also thought to be important here,as different rainfall patterns were _______(61)in the era before ozone depletion(消耗)and late 20th Century warming.Although the_______(62)international organization has significantly checked emissions of harmful substances,they_______(63)for decades in the atmosphere,and so their effects are still being felt.Earlier,and international organization forecast that even the Antarctic ozone hole一which is more severe than its_______(64)in the Northern Hemisphere一should be_______(65)by 2045—2060. _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 InflationBusiness and government leaders also consider the inflation rate to be an important general indicator. Inflation is a period of increased spending that causes rapid rises in prices._______(51)your money buys fewer goods so that you get_______(52)for the same amount of money as before,inflation is the problem. There is a general rise_______(53)the price of goods and services.Your money buys less.Sometimes people describe inflation as a time when"a dollar is not worth a dollar anymore".Inflation is a problem for all consumers.People who live on a fixed income are hurt the _______(54).Retired people,for instance,cannot count on an increase in income as prices rise. Elderly people who do not work face serious problems in stretching their incomes to_______(55) their needs in time of inflation.Retirement income_______(56)any fixed income usually does not rise as fast as prices.Many retired people must cut their spending to_______(57)rising prices.In many cases they must stop_______(58)some necessary items,such as food and clothing. Even _______(59)working people whose incomes are going up,inflation can be a problem. The_______(60)of living goes up,too. People who work must have even more money to keep up their standard of living. Just buying the things they need costs more.When incomes do not keep _______(61)with rising prices,the standard of living goes down.People may be earning the same amount of money,but they are not living as well because they are not able to buy as many goods and services.Government units gather information about prices in our economy and publish it as price indexes _______(62)the rate of change can be determined.A price index measures changes in prices using the price for a_______(63)year as the base.The base price is set at 100,and the other prices are reported as a_______(64)of the base price.A price index makes_______(65)possible to compare current prices of typical consumer goods,for example,with prices of the same goods in previous years. _________(65)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Eye-tracker Lets You Drag and Drop Files With a GlanceBored of using a mouse?Soon you'11 be able to change stuff on your computer screen-and then move it directly onto your smartphone or tablet(平板电脑)-with nothing more than a glance.A system called EyeDrop uses a head-mounted eye tracker that simultaneously records your field of view, so it knows where you are looking on the screen.Gazing at an object-a photo,say-and then pressing a key, selects that object.It can then be moved from the screen to a tablet or smartphone just by glancing at the second device,as long as the two are connected wirelessly."The beauty of using gaze to support this is that our eyes naturally focus on content that we want to acquire,"says Jayson Turner,who developed the system with colleagues at Lancaster University,UK.Turner believes EyeDrop would be useful to transfer an interactive map or contact information from a public display to your smartphone or tablet for sharing photos.A button needs to be used to select the object you are looking at otherwise you end up with the"Midas touch"(点石成金)effect , whereby everything you look at gets selected by your gaze , says Turner."Imagine if your mouse clicked on everything it pointed at,"he says.Christian Holz,a researcher in human-computer interaction at Yahoo Labs in Sunnyvale,California, says the system is a nice take on getting round this fundamental problem of using gaze-tracking to interact." EyeDrop solves this in a slick(灵巧的)way by combining it with input on the touch devices we carry with us most of the time anyway and using touch input as a clutching mechanism,"he says."This now allows users to seamlessly(无缝地)interact across devices far and close in a very natural manner."While current eye-trackers are rather bulky,mainstream consumer devices are not too far away.Swedish firm Tobii is developing gaze-tracking technology that can be installed in laptops and tablets and is expected to be available to buy next year.And the Google Glass headset is expected to include eye-tracking in the future.Turner says he has also looked at how content can be cut and pasted or drag-and-dropped using a mix of gaze and taps on a touchscreen.The system was presented at the Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia in Sweden,last week. The eye-tracker technology enables us to______.
[多选题]共用题干 Sharks Perform a Service for Earth's WatersIt is hard to get people to think of sharks as anything but a deadly enemy.They are thought to ______(51)people frequently .But these fish perform a______(52)service for earth's waters and for human beings .Yet business and sport fishing are threatening their______(53).Some sharks are at______(54)of disappearing from earth.Warm weather may influence both fish and shark activity.Many fish swim near coastal areas ______(55)their warm waters. Experts say sharks may follow the fish into the same areas, ______(56)people also swim.In fact,most sharks do not purposely charge at or bite humans.They are thought to mistake a person______(57)a sea animal,such as a seal or sea lion.That is why people should not swim in the ocean when the sun goes down or comes up .Those are the ______(58)when sharks are looking for food.Experts also say that bright colors and shiny jewelry may cause sharks to attack.A shark has an extremely good sense of smell.It can find small amounts of substances in water,such as blood,body liquids and______(59)produced by animals.These powerful ______(60)help sharks find their food.Sharks eat fish,any______(61)sharks,and plants that live in the ocean.Medical researchers want to learn more about the shark's body defense and immune systems ______(62)disease.Researchers know that sharks______(63)quickly from injuries.They study the shark in hopes of finding a way to fight human disease.Sharks are important for the world's______(64).They eat injured and diseased fish. Their hunting activities mean that the numbers of other fish in ocean waters do not become too ______(65).This protects the plants and other forms of life that exist in the oceans. 59._________
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The Age of being Bullied and Its EffectThe age at which kids first fall victim to bullying(欺辱)could influence how strongly they are affected,suggests a new study.And,surprisingly,it is not the youngest kids who are hurt the most in the long term. Bullying can have long-lasting effects,but particularly when it begins in adolescence(青春期),the researchers say.People subjected to either oral or physical bullying are known to be at greater risk for developing depression,anxiety disorders or to behave violently.But not everyone reacts in this way.Children bullied for the first time before their adolescence seem to get over it,but those who are victimized for the first time late on in adolescence seem to become more aggressive or are more likely to turn to drink as a means of coping. These are the conclusions of psychologist Matthew Newman and his colleagues from the University of Texas at Austin,U.S.The team gave questionnaires to nearly 1,500 college students regarding their experience of physical and psychological bullying before adolescence一before high school一and in late adolescence一at high school.They assessed mood and mental state,judging by signs of anxiety or depression,such as sleeplessness.The group was also questioned about how they would react to certain challenges,such as being embarrassed or provoked.People who were bullied all revealed slightly higher levels of stress.But while those bullied earlier in life seemed to respond normally to provocation,people bullied for the first time late in adolescence are more withdrawn and sensitive to violence.The best solution was strong social support,whether from friends,family or school.Those with no one to share their problems were suffered the most.So perhaps it is best not to shelter children completely from bullying early on,suggests Newman."They may get stressed,but unhealthy coping really jumps out when they are bullied for the first time later on."The effects are likely to be related to the developing stress hormone system, which matures during adolescence,he concludes.Studies show abnormal stress responses in adult animals that experience social stress or aggression from other animals during adolescence. According to the study,the age at which bullying begins is related to_______.
[多选题]共用题干 The Differences Among Various Types of AdoptionIn the US,there is a difference between public and private adoption.Public adoption typically involves taking _________ (51) foster(收养的)children and then adopting them after several months.It's significantly less expensive than private or international adoption,but more often than not_______(52)adopting children who are older than 5 or who have_______(53)needs.Private adoptions offer a better chance of adopting newborns,and increasingly,birth parents _______(54)the adoptive parents themselves.That's not a bad idea on its face,as it gives biological parents_______ (55)say in whom they will relinquish(放弃)their children. But this effectively puts_______(56)parents in the position of advertising themselves to birth parents in newspapers and online,_______(57)many couples feel uncomfortable with.Most states allow birth parents to reclaim their children_______(58)the children have been placed with adoptive families,for time periods ranging from a few days in some states to several months in others.Critics of international adoption say this rarely happens.They are only_______ (59)right:it's true that American birth parents don't usually reclaim their children once they've been placed with their adoptive families,but they can and do_______(60)their minds before the papers are signed.International adoption is more expensive than any form of domestic adoption,but in many ways, it is also more straightforward.The_______(61)of a birth parent calling the adoption_______ (62)are effectively zero and while costs are high,they're also determined at the_______(63) and tend not to change as the_______(64)wears on.Couples seeking to adopt should consider all_______(65)and get a range of perspectives before deciding which method is best for them. _________(64)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇DepressionAlthough the stigma(耻辱)once associated with mental illness has gradually gone away in recent years,most of the Americans who have clinical depression still don't get treated for it partly because many are too embarrassed to go to a psychologist. In fact,the majority of depressed people who seek professional help turn first not to a psychologist but to their primary care physician.But do regular doctors really know how to identify depression?A large new scientific review suggests they don't. In a review of 41 previous studies,the authors found that general practitioners make frequent mistakes,missing true cases of depression about half the time and incorrectly diagnosing it in 19%of healthy people.Alex Mitchell,Amol Vaze and Sanjay Rao of Leicester General Hospital in the U.K. estimate that about 1 in 5 people in developed nations will experience depression in their lifetime.That means that among a general patient population of 100,about 20 will develop the condition,but the typical doctor will find it in only 10 of those who have it. And among the 80 healthy people,the doctor will incorrectly identify depression in 15.This is significant because depression can make the patient and his or her family weak.Depression also carries an enormous social burden,leading to missed work days,loss of productivity and increases in health-care spending. Further,those misdiagnosed with depression may end up being prescribed medicine that not only costs a lot but can have serious side effects.The various studies that Mitchell,Vaze and Rao reviewed used different methods to verify whether doctors had missed depression in their patients.Virtually all the studies pointed to the same conclusion:general physicians aren't very good at recognizing the most common mental illness in the world.Why?One reason is that the typical doctor visit is quite short,usually no longer than 15 minutes.It's hard for patients to open up about their symptoms during that brief period.Doctors should spend more time or schedule follow-up appointments with patients they suspect have depression, which would dramatically increase the rate of accurate diagnoses. According to the passage,depression can result in________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The IcemanOn a September day in 1991,two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy. High up on a mountain pass,they found the body of a man lying on the ice.At that height(10,499 feet,or 3,200 meters),the ice is usually permanent,but 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice had melted more than usual and so the body had come to the surface.It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架)was in perfect condition , except for a wound in the head.There was still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes.The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots.Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮)and a holder for arrows.Who was the man?How and when had he died?Everybody had a different answer to these questions. Some people thought that it was from this century,perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War Ⅰ, since several soldiers had already been found in the area.A Swiss woman believed it might be her father,who had died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found.The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older,maybe even a thousand years old.With modem dating techniques,the. scientists soon leamed that the iceman was about 5,300 years old. Bom in about 3300 B.C.,he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe.At first scientists thought he was proba- bly a hunter who had died in an accident in the high mountains.More recent evidence,however,tells a differ- ent story.A new kind of X-ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. It left only a tiny hole in his skin,but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He almost certainly died from this wound,and not from the wound on the back of his head.This means that he was probably in some kind of a battle.It might have been part of a larger war,or he might have been fighting bandits. He might even have been a bandit himself.By studying his clothes and tools,scientists have already leamed a great deal from the iceman about the times he lived in.we may never know the full story of how he died,but he has given us important clues to the history of those distant times. What can be inferred from Paragraph 2?
[多选题]共用题干 Better Solar Energy Systems: More Heat, More LightSolar photovoltaic thermal energy systems,or PVTs,generate both heat and electricity,but until now they haven't been very good at the heat-generating part compared to a stand-alone solar thermal collector. That's because they operate at low temperatures to cool crystalline silicon solar cells,which lets the silicon generate more electricity but isn't a very efficient way to gather heat.That's a problem of economics. Good solar hot-water systems can harvest much more energy than a solar-electric system at a substantially lower cost. And it's also a space problem:photovol-taic cells can take up all the space on the roof,leaving little room for thermal applications.In a pair of studies,Joshua Pearce,an associate professor of materials science and engineer-ing,has devised a solution in the form of a better PVT made with a different kind of silicon.His research collaborators are Kunal Girotra from Thin Silicon in California and Michael Pathak and Stephen Harrison from Queen's University,Canada.Most solar panels are made with crystalline silicon,but you can also make solar cells out of amorphous silicon,commonly known as thin-film silicon.They don't create as much electricity, but they are lighter,flexible,and cheaper. And,because they require much less silicon,they have a greener footprint. Unfortunately,thin-film silicon solar cells are vulnerable to some bad-news physics in the form of the Staebler-Wronski effect."That means that their efficiency drops when you expose them to light-pretty much the worst possible effect for a solar cell,"Pearce explains,which is one of the reasons thin-film solar panels make up only a small fraction of the market.However,Pearce and his team found a way to engineer around the Staebler-Wronski effect by incorporating thin-film silicon in a new type of PVT. You don't have to cool down thin-film silicon to make it work.In fact,Pearce's group discovered that by heating it to solar-thermal operating temperatures,near the boiling point of water,they could make thicker cells that largely overcame the Staebler-Wronski effect. When they applied the thin-fulm silicon directly to a solar thermal en-ergy collector,they also found that by baking the cell once a day,they boosted the solar cell's e-lectrical efficiency by over 10 percent. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an advantage of thin-film silicon solar cells?
[多选题]共用题干 The Impact of Antarctic Ozone HoleThe Antarctic ozone(臭氧)hole is changing weather patterns across the Southern Hemisphere (半球),even affecting the tropics,scientists have concluded. The scientists______(51)the new study added the ozone hole into standard climate models to_______(52)how it might have affected winds and rains. They say rainfall has moved further south towards the pole and the effect has been_______(53)strong over Australia.And of_______(54)interest was the southward of the Southern Hemisphere jet stream. These high一altitude winds are_______(55)to determining weather patterns,in both hemispheres. Much of the cold weather felt in the UK_______(56)the last couple of winters,for example,was caused by blocking of the Northern Hemisphere stream.The team found that overall,the ozone hole has_______(57)in rainfall moving south along with the winds._______(58)there are regional differences,particularly concerning Australia. In terms of the average for that zone,the ozone hole_______(59)about a 10% change一but for Australia,it's about 35%.Their modeling indicated that global warming_______(60)greenhouse gas emissions is also a factor in changing rainfall patterns.Natural climate cycles are also thought to be important here,as different rainfall patterns were _______(61)in the era before ozone depletion(消耗)and late 20th Century warming.Although the_______(62)international organization has significantly checked emissions of harmful substances,they_______(63)for decades in the atmosphere,and so their effects are still being felt.Earlier,and international organization forecast that even the Antarctic ozone hole一which is more severe than its_______(64)in the Northern Hemisphere一should be_______(65)by 2045—2060. _________(60)
[多选题]共用题干 The World's Longest BridgeRumor has it that a legendary six-headed monster lurks in the deep waters of the Tyrrhenian Sea between Italy and the island of Sicily._______(46)When completed in 2010,the world's longest bridge will weigh nearly 300,000 tons一equivalent to the iceberg that sank the Titanic一and stretch 5 kilometers long."That's nearly 50 percent longer than any other bridge ever built."says structural engineer Shane Rixon._______(47)They're suspension bridges,massive structures built to span vast water channels or gorges.A suspension bridge needs just two towers to shoulder the structure's mammoth weight, thanks to hefty supporting cables slung between the towers and anchored firmly in deep pools of cement at each end of the bridge.The Messina Strait Bridge will have two 54,100-ton towers,which will support most of the bridge's load.The beefy cables of the bridge,each 1.2 meter in diameter, will hold up the longest and widest bridge deck ever built.When construction begins on the Messina Strait Bridge in 2005,the first job will be to erect two 370 meter-tall steel towers._______(48)Getting these cables up will be something. It's not just their length一totally 5.3 kilometers一but their weight._______(49)After lowering vertical"suspender"cables from the main cables,builders will erect a 60- meter一wide 54,630一ton steel roadway,or deck一wide enough to accommodate 12 lanes of traffic.The deck's weight will pull down on the cables with a force of 70,500 tons.In return,the cables yank up against their firmly rooted anchors with a force of 139,000 tons一equivalent to the weight of about 100,000 cars. Those anchors are essential._______(50) _______(49)
[多选题]共用题干 Virtual DriverDriving involves sharp eyes and keen ears,analyzing with a brain,and coordination between hands,feet and brain.A man has sharp eyes and keen ears,analyzes through his brain,and maintains coordination between his hands and brains.He can control a fast-moving car with different parts of his body._______(46)Apparently there isn't anyone in the driver's cab,but there is in fact a virtual driver. This virtual driver has eyes,brains,hands and feet too.The minicameras on each side of the car are its eyes and are responsible for observing the road conditions ahead of it as well as the traffic to its left and right.If you open the boot,you can see the most important part of the automatic driving system:a built-in computer._______(47)The brain is responsible for calculating the speeds objects surrounding the car are moving at,analyzing their position on the road, choosing the right path,and giving orders to the wheel and the control system.In comparison with the human brain,the virtual driver's best advantage is that it reacts quickly. _______(48)However,it takes the world's best racecar driver at least one second to react,and this doesn't include the time he needs to take action.With its rapid reaction and accurate control,the virtual driver can reduce the accident rate on expressways considerably.In this case,is it possible for us to let it have the wheel at any time and in any place?_______(49)With its limited ability to recognize things,the car can now only travel on expressways.The intelligent car determines its direction by the clear lines that mark the lanes clearly and recognizes vehicles according to their regular shapes._______(50)This being the case,people still have high hopes about driverless cars,and think highly intelligent cars are what the cars of the future should be like. ________(46)
[多选题]共用题干 A Special JourneyI am often asked to describe the experience of_______(51)a child with a disability一to try to help people who have not shared that unique experience to understand it,to imagine how it would feel.It's like this…_______(52)you're going to have a baby,it's like planning a fabulous vacation trip to Italy. You buy a bunch of guide books and make your wonderful_______(53).The Coliseum,the Michelangelo,David,the gondolas in Venice.You may learn some handy phrases in Italian. It's all very exciting.After months of eager anticipation,the day finally_______(54).You pack your bags and _______(55)you go.Several hours later,the plane lands.The_______(56)comes in and says,"Welcome to Holland.""Holland?"you say."What do you mean by Holland?I signed up for Italy!I'm supposed to be in Italy. All my life I've dreamed_______(57)going to Italy."But there's been a change in the flight plan.They've landed in Holland and there you must stay.The important thing is that they haven't taken you to a horrible,disgusting,filthy place,full of pestilence,_______(58)and disease.It's just a_______(59)place._______(60)you must go out and buy new guide books.And you must learn a whole new language.And you will meet a whole new group of people you would never have met.It's just a different place.It's slower-paced than Italy,less flashy than Italy. But after you've been there for a while and you catch your breath,you look around…and you begin to_______ (61)that Holland has windmills…and Holland has tulips.Holland even has Rembrandts.But everyone you know is busy coming and going_______(62)Italy…and they're all bragging about_______(63)a wonderful time they had there. And for the rest of your life,you will say"Yes,that's where I was_______(64)to go.That's what I had planned."But if you spend your life_______(65)the fact that you didn't get to Italy,you may never be free to enjoy the very special,the very lovely things about Holland. _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 The Fridge1.The fridge is considered a necessity.It has been so since the l960s when packaged food first appeared with the label:"Store in the refrigerator."2.In my fridgeless fifties childhood,I was fed well and healthily.The milkman came daily,the grocer,the butcher,the baker,and the ice-cream man delivered two or three times a week.The Sunday meat would last until Wednesday and surplus bread and milk became all kinds of cakes. Nothing was wasted and we were never troubled by rotten food.Thirty years on,food deliveries have ceased,fresh vegetables are almost unobtainable in the country.3.The invention of the fridge contributed comparatively little to the art of food preservation.A vast variety of well-tried techniques already existed一natural cooling,drying,smoking,slating, sugaring,bottling…4.What refrigeration did promote was marketing一marketing hardware and electricity,marketing soft drinks,marketing dead bodies of animals around the globe in search of a good price.5.Consequently,most of the world's fridges are to be found,not in the tropics where they might prove useful,but in the wealthy countries with mild temperatures where they are climatically almost unnecessary.Every winter,millions of fridges hum away continuously,and at vast expanse,busily maintaining an artificially-cooled space inside an artificially一heated house一while outside,nature provides the desired temperature free of charge.6.The fridge's effect upon the environment has been evident,while its contribution to human happiness has been insignificant. If you don't believe me,try it yourself. Invest in a food cabinet and turn off your fridge next winter. You may miss the hamburgers but at least you'll get ride of that terrible hum. An important contribution made by the invention of the fridge is that_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Robotic Highway ConesA University of Nebraska professor has developed robotic cones and barrels.These robotic cones and barrels can move out of the way,or into______(51),from computer commands made miles away. They can even be programmed to move on their own at any particular part of the day,said Shane Farritor,an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Nebraska.For example,if workers arrived at 6 am,the cones could move from the side of the highway to______(52)off the lane at that time.And they can return to the______(53)place at the end of the day."It just seems like a very good application for robots."Farritor said."The robot-ic cones would also help______(54)people from hazardous jobs on the highway putting barrels and cones into place,"Farritor said in a report on his creation.Work on the idea began in 2002 using a National Academy of Sciences grant. The______ (55)allowed Farritor to work on the project with graduate students at Nebraska and his assistant Steve Goddard.The robots are placed at the bottom of the cones and barrels and are______(56)enough not to greatly change the appearance of the construction aides."It would look exactly the same," Farritor said."______(57)there's a kind of rubbery,black base to them. We replace that ______(58)a robot."Farritor has talked with officials from the Nebraska Department of Roads about how the robots would be most______(59)to what they might need.The robots could come in handy following a slow-moving maintenance operation,like paint-ing a stripe on a road or moving asphalt,______(60)now the barrels have to be picked up and moved as the operation______(61)."That way you don't have to block off a 10-mile strip for the operation,"Farritor said.______(62)prototypes have been made,they are not in use anywhere. Farritor said he has______(63)for a patent and is considering what to do next. He is thinking about starting a small business. He is also thinking about______(64)the robots to roads departments and others across the country who may______(65)from them. 54._________
[多选题]共用题干 Computer MouseThe basic computer mouse is an amazingly clever invention with a relatively simple design that allows us to point at things on the computer and it is very productive.Think of all the things you can do with a mouse like selecting text for copying and pasting,drawing,and even scrolling on the page with the newer mice with the wheel. Most of us use the computer mouse daily without stopping to think how it works until it gets dirty and we have to learn how to clean it. We learn to point at thing before we learn to speak,so the mouse is a very natural pointing device.Other computer pointing devices include light pens,graphics tablets and touch screen,but the mouse is still our workhorse.The computer mouse was invented in 1964 by Douglas Englehart of Stanford University.As computer screens became popular and arrow keys were used to more around a body of text,it became clear that a pointing device that allowed easier motion through the text and even selection of text would be very useful.The introduction of the mouse,with the Apple Lisa computer in 1983,really started the computer public on the road to relying on the mouse for routine computer tasks.How does the mouse work?We have to start at the bottom,so think upside down for now. It all starts with mouse ball. As the mouse ball in the bottom of the mouse rolls over the mouse pad,it presses against and turns two shafts.The shafts are connected to wheels with several small holes in them. The wheels have a pair of small electronic light-emitting devices called light emitting diodes (LED)mounted on either side.One LED sends a light beam to the LED on the other side.As the wheels spin and a hole rotates by,the light beam gets through to the LED on the other side.But a moment later the light beam is blocked until the next hole is in place.The LED detects a changing pattern of light,converts the pattern into an electronic signal,and sends the signal to the computer through wires in a cable that goes out the mouse body.This cable is the tail that helps give the mouse its name.The computer interprets the signal to tell it where to position the cursor on the computer screen.So far we have only discussed the basic computer mouse that most of you probably have or have used.One problem with this design is that the mouse gets dirty as the ball rolls over the surface and picks up the dirt. Eventually you have to clean your mouse. The newer optical mice avoid this problem by having no moving parts. The optical mouse is superior to the basic one in that the former has no moving parts.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇DepressionAlthough the stigma(耻辱)once associated with mental illness has gradually gone away in recent years,most of the Americans who have clinical depression still don't get treated for it partly because many are too embarrassed to go to a psychologist. In fact,the majority of depressed people who seek professional help turn first not to a psychologist but to their primary care physician.But do regular doctors really know how to identify depression?A large new scientific review suggests they don't. In a review of 41 previous studies,the authors found that general practitioners make frequent mistakes,missing true cases of depression about half the time and incorrectly diagnosing it in 19%of healthy people.Alex Mitchell,Amol Vaze and Sanjay Rao of Leicester General Hospital in the U.K. estimate that about 1 in 5 people in developed nations will experience depression in their lifetime.That means that among a general patient population of 100,about 20 will develop the condition,but the typical doctor will find it in only 10 of those who have it. And among the 80 healthy people,the doctor will incorrectly identify depression in 15.This is significant because depression can make the patient and his or her family weak.Depression also carries an enormous social burden,leading to missed work days,loss of productivity and increases in health-care spending. Further,those misdiagnosed with depression may end up being prescribed medicine that not only costs a lot but can have serious side effects.The various studies that Mitchell,Vaze and Rao reviewed used different methods to verify whether doctors had missed depression in their patients.Virtually all the studies pointed to the same conclusion:general physicians aren't very good at recognizing the most common mental illness in the world.Why?One reason is that the typical doctor visit is quite short,usually no longer than 15 minutes.It's hard for patients to open up about their symptoms during that brief period.Doctors should spend more time or schedule follow-up appointments with patients they suspect have depression, which would dramatically increase the rate of accurate diagnoses. Most depressed people refuse to see a psychologist partly because________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Rising College SelectivityRising college selectivity doesn't mean that students are smarter and more serious than in the past.It's a function of excess demand for higher education,occurring at a time of increased financial privatization of the industry.The recession has only increased demand.The vast majority of students aren't going to college because of a thirst for knowledge.They're there because they need a job,and they need to get the credentials(证书)and one hopes, the knowledge and skills behind the credentials一that will get them into the labor market.As higher education has become a seller's market,the institutions in a position to do so are doing what comes naturally:raising their tuitions and their admissions requirements,but at the expense of contributing to the national goal to increase college attainment.The result is that the United States is losing ground in the international race for educational talent.The increasing stratification(阶层化)of higher education is happening on the spending side, as well.As the selective institutions have become more expensive and less attainable,the rest have had to struggle with the responsibility to enroll more students without being paid to do so.Gaps be-tween rich and poor have grown even more dramatically than gaps in entering test scores.While spending is a poor measure of educational quality,we can't seriously expect to increase educational attainment if we're not prepared to do something to address these growing inequities in funding.That said,the educational policy problem in our country is not that the elite institutions are becoming more selective.The problem is on the public policy side.The president and many governors have set a goal to return America to a position of international leadership in educational attainment.It's the right goal,we just need a financing strategy to get there.That doesn't mean just more money,although some more money will be needed.It also means better attention to effectiveness and to efficiency,and to making sure that spending goes to the places that will make a difference in educational attainment.We know how to do it,if we want to. The demand for higher education has increased because________.
[多选题]共用题干 A Special JourneyI am often asked to describe the experience of_______(51)a child with a disability一to try to help people who have not shared that unique experience to understand it,to imagine how it would feel.It's like this…_______(52)you're going to have a baby,it's like planning a fabulous vacation trip to Italy. You buy a bunch of guide books and make your wonderful_______(53).The Coliseum,the Michelangelo,David,the gondolas in Venice.You may learn some handy phrases in Italian. It's all very exciting.After months of eager anticipation,the day finally_______(54).You pack your bags and _______(55)you go.Several hours later,the plane lands.The_______(56)comes in and says,"Welcome to Holland.""Holland?"you say."What do you mean by Holland?I signed up for Italy!I'm supposed to be in Italy. All my life I've dreamed_______(57)going to Italy."But there's been a change in the flight plan.They've landed in Holland and there you must stay.The important thing is that they haven't taken you to a horrible,disgusting,filthy place,full of pestilence,_______(58)and disease.It's just a_______(59)place._______(60)you must go out and buy new guide books.And you must learn a whole new language.And you will meet a whole new group of people you would never have met.It's just a different place.It's slower-paced than Italy,less flashy than Italy. But after you've been there for a while and you catch your breath,you look around…and you begin to_______ (61)that Holland has windmills…and Holland has tulips.Holland even has Rembrandts.But everyone you know is busy coming and going_______(62)Italy…and they're all bragging about_______(63)a wonderful time they had there. And for the rest of your life,you will say"Yes,that's where I was_______(64)to go.That's what I had planned."But if you spend your life_______(65)the fact that you didn't get to Italy,you may never be free to enjoy the very special,the very lovely things about Holland. _________(52)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇What's NASDAQ?NASDAQ is a familiar but strange name for people.We often learn its news via different kinds of media,though quite a lot of people can not tell what exactly it means.NASDAQ,short for the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations system,is one of the largest market in the world for stocks trading. The number of companies in NASDAQ is more than that of the other stock exchange in America,including the New York Stock Exchange(NYSE)and the American Stock Exchange(AMEX).Most of the companies listed on NASDAQ are smaller than most of those on the NYSE and AMEX.NASDAQ has become recognized as the home of new technology companies,especially computer and computer-related businesses.Trading on NASDAQ is initiated by stock brokers acting on behalf of their clients.The brokers negotiate with market makers who concentrate on trading specific stocks to reach a price for the stock.Different from other stock exchange,NASDAQ has no central location where trading takes place.Instead,its market makers can be found all over the country and make trades by telephone and via the Internet. Since brokers and market makers trade stocks directly instead of on the floor of a stock exchange,NASDAQ is called an over-the-counter market. The term over-the-counter refers to the direct nature of the trading,as in a store where goods are handed over a counter.Since its foundation in 1971,the NASDAQ Stock Market has been the innovator. As the world's first electronic stock market,NASDAQ long ago set a precedent for technological trading innovation that is unrivaled.Now poised to become the world's first truly global market,the NASDAQ Stock Market is the market of choice for business industry leaders worldwide.By providing an efficient environment for raising capital NASDAQ has helped thousands of companies achieve their desired growth and successfully make the leap into public ownership. What can be inferred from the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Small but WiseOn December 14,NASA blasted a small but mighty telescope into space.The telescope is called WISE and is about as wide around as a trashcan.Don't let its small size fool you:WISE has a powerful digital camera,and it will be taking pictures of some of the wildest objects in the known universe,including asteroids,faint stars,blazing galaxies and giant clouds of dust where planets and stars are born."I'm very excited because we're going to be seeing parts of the universe that we haven't seen be- fore,"said Ned Wright,a scientist who directs the WISE project.Since arriving in space,the WISE telescope has been circling the Earth,held by gravity in a polar orbit (this means it crosses close to the north and south poles with each lap).Its camera is pointed outward,awayfrom the Earth,and WISE will snap a picture of a different part of the sky every 11 minutes.After six months it will have taken pictures across the entire sky.The pictures taken by WISE won't be like everyday digital photographs,however. WISE stands for "Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer".As its name suggests,the WISE camera takes pictures of features that give off infrared radiation.Radiation is energy that travels as a wave.Visible light,including the familiar spectrum of light that be- comes visible in a rainbow,is an example of radiation.When an ordinary digital camera takes a picture of a tree,for example,it receives the waves of visible light that are reflected off the tree.When these waves enter the camera through the lens,they're processed by the camera,which then puts the image together.Waves of infrared radiation are longer than waves of visible light,so ordinary digital cameras don't see them,and neither do the eyes of human beings.Although invisible to the eye,longer infrared radiation can be detected as warmth by the skin.That's a key idea to why WISE will be able to see things other telescopes can't. Not everything in the universe shows up in visible light.Asteroids,for example, are giant rocks that float through space一but they absorb most of the light that reaches them.They don't reflect light,so they're difficult to see.But they do give off infrared radiation,so an infrared telescope like WISE will be able to produce images of them.During its mission WISE will take pictures of hundreds of thousands of asteroids.Brown dwarfs are another kind of deep-space objects that will show up in WISE's pictures.These ob- jects are "failed" stars一which means they are not massive enough to jump-start the same kind of reactions that power stars such as the sun.Instead,brown dwarfs simply shrink and cool down.They're so dim that they're almost impossible to see with visible light,but in the infrared spectrum they glow. Which of the following statements about asteroids is NOT true?
[多选题]共用题干 InflationBusiness and government leaders also consider the inflation rate to be an important general indicator. Inflation is a period of increased spending that causes rapid rises in prices._______(51)your money buys fewer goods so that you get_______(52)for the same amount of money as before,inflation is the problem. There is a general rise_______(53)the price of goods and services.Your money buys less.Sometimes people describe inflation as a time when"a dollar is not worth a dollar anymore".Inflation is a problem for all consumers.People who live on a fixed income are hurt the _______(54).Retired people,for instance,cannot count on an increase in income as prices rise. Elderly people who do not work face serious problems in stretching their incomes to_______(55) their needs in time of inflation.Retirement income_______(56)any fixed income usually does not rise as fast as prices.Many retired people must cut their spending to_______(57)rising prices.In many cases they must stop_______(58)some necessary items,such as food and clothing. Even _______(59)working people whose incomes are going up,inflation can be a problem. The_______(60)of living goes up,too. People who work must have even more money to keep up their standard of living. Just buying the things they need costs more.When incomes do not keep _______(61)with rising prices,the standard of living goes down.People may be earning the same amount of money,but they are not living as well because they are not able to buy as many goods and services.Government units gather information about prices in our economy and publish it as price indexes _______(62)the rate of change can be determined.A price index measures changes in prices using the price for a_______(63)year as the base.The base price is set at 100,and the other prices are reported as a_______(64)of the base price.A price index makes_______(65)possible to compare current prices of typical consumer goods,for example,with prices of the same goods in previous years. _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 Toads are Arthritic and in PainArthritis(关节炎)is an illness that can cause pain and swelling in your bones. Toads(蟾蜍),a big problem 'in the north of Australia,are suffering from painful arthritis in their legs and backbone,a new stu街has shown. The toads that jump the fastest are more likely to be larger and to have longer legs.______(46)The large yellow toads,native to South and Central America,were introduced into the north-eastern Aus- tralian state of Queensland in 1935 in an attempt to stop beetles and other insects from destroying sugarcane crops.Now up to 200 million of the poisonous toads exist in the country,and they are rapidly spreading through the state of Northern Territory at a rate of up to 60 km a year. The toads can now be found across more than one million square kilometres.________(47)A Venezuelan poison virus was tried in the 1990s but had to be abandoned after it was found to also kill native frog species.The toads have severely affected ecosystems in Australia. Ariinials,arid sometimes pets,that eat the toads die im- mediately from their poison,and the toads themselves eat anything they can fit inside their mouth._________(48)A co-author of the new study,Rick Shine,a professor at the University of Sydney,says that little atten- tion has been given to the problems that toads face.Rick and his colleagues studied nearly 500 toads from Queensland and the Northern Territory and found that those in the latter state were very different.They were active,sprinting down roads and breeding quickly.According to the results of the study,the fastest toads travel nearly one kilometre a night._________(49) But speed and strength come at a price一arthritis of the legs and backbone due to constant pressure placed on them.In laboratory tests,the researchers found that after about 15 minutes of hopping,arthritic toads wouldtravel less distance with each hop(跳跃).________(50)These toads are so programmed to move, apparently,that even when in pain the toads travelled as fast and as far as the healthy ones,continuing their constant march across the landscape. __________(50)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Can Gene Technology Make Human Smarter?Almost everyone wants to get smarter. To achieve that,some choose to do exercise,others choose to take in more nutritions good for brains.Princeton neurobiologist Joseph Z.Tsien possibly found a different way to make it. In September he announced that he'd built a better mouse by altering a gene that affects learning and memory.A similar process of gene manipulation might conceivably be used one day to boost intelligence in humans.The key of this technology lies in a feature of brain cells called the NMDA receptor,which Tsien likens to a cylindrical tube or window that mediates the flow of information.When the window is open,chemicals called neurotransmitters flow through easily and memory is registered and stored. But as organisms mature,the window begins to close.(This may explain why children lose their facility for learning new languages when they reach sexual maturity and why some people suffer memory loss as they age.)Tsien also found out that the receptor worked more efficiently if it is teamed with the gene NR2B,so he introduced extra NR2B genes into a batch of fertilized mouse eggs.In a normal mouse,the memory window is open for just 150-thousandths of a second.In Tsien's specially engineered mice,the window opens for 250-thousandths of a second,long enough to make a remarkable difference in memory retention.When he pitted his mice against common mice,they won paws down.Ordinary mice could recognize a Lego block for 12 hours,but smart mice could remember the block for up to three days."That's a profound enhancement,"Tsien says.Can this technology be applied to humans?Maybe,but genetic engineering will have to make some extraordinary advances first. And some thorny ethical issues will have to be resolved. Mean-while,Tsien promises to keep his furry little geniuses locked up in a lab,far from your larder. "Otherwise,"he says,"you might need a smart cat or a smart mousetrap to catch them." According to the passage,what special method did Tsien find to make a smarter mouse?
[多选题]共用题干 Experience the World in 3D Game Ever wondered how your cat or dog sees the world?Now you can look through their eyes with the first 3 D game that recreates the vision of different species based on scientific evidence. The online simulation,created by the French 3 D design company Dassault Systemes,with the guidance of veterinary ophthalmologist(眼科专家)Didier Schmidt-Morand , mimics(模仿)the vision of five animals-cats,dogs,rats,hawks and bees-as a player steers them through Place in Paris. Due to differences in field of view,colour perception and night vision,for example,sight can be drastically different from species to species."In terms of performance,eyes are as variable as different models of cars,"says Schmidt-Morand. The game was created by using existing virtual models of the square then applying effects based on descriptions of each animal's vision.Dassault's 3 D software allows a scene to be modified by adding blur or changing the colours,angle of vision and depth of field. Although it was easy to recreate vision inferior to that of humans-cats and dogs,for example,have trouble distinguishing shades of red-replicating features that we are unable to see was a challenge.Hawks have more detailed vision than ours,whereas dogs are better at seeing movement and have a wider field of view."We used virtual cameras to precisely simulate larger viewing angles but the result made people nauseous(令人作呕的),"says Schmidt-Morand."So we tweaked(微调)the model to give a sense of the wider view without sticking to reality." The rat's view also departs from reality:because they are near-sighted,everything more than 15 centimetres away is a blur,so they typically move close to walls to help them navigate."A rat would never throw itself into the middle of an open area,"says Schmidt-Morand.The simulation for this animal is supplemented with a map in the top right corner to help determine the rat's position:because of their limited eyesight,most landmarks are obscured. The game is intended as an educational resource and players can discuss their experience with others through community features on the website.If there is interest from schools and zoos,the team hopes to recreate the vision of more animals. Dassault's 3 D software takes different perspectives like color perception and angle of vision into account.
[多选题]共用题干 Lack of Oxygen Delayed the Rise of Animals on EarthScientists have long speculated as to why animal species didn't flourish sooner,once sufficient oxygen covered the Earth's surface. Animals began to prosper at the end of the Proterozoic period,about 800 million years ago-but what about the billion-year stretch before that,when most researchers think there also was plenty of oxygen?Well,it seems the air wasn't so great then,after all.In a study published Oct. 3 1 in Science,Yale researcher Noah Planavsky and his colleagues found that oxygen levels during the"boring billion"period were only 0.1%of what they are today .In other words,Earth's atmosphere couldn't have supported a diversity of creatures,no matter what genetic advancements were poised to occur."There is no question that genetic and ecological innovation must ultimately be behind the rise of animals,but it is equally unavoidable that animals need a certain level of oxygen,"said Planavsky,colead author of the research along with Christopher Reinhard of the Georgia Institute of Technology.“We're providing the first evidence that oxygen levels were low enough during this period to potentially prevent the rise of animals."The scientists found their evidence by analyzing chromium(Cr)isotopes in ancient sediments from China,Australia,Canada,and the United States.Chromium is found in the Earth's continental crust,and chromium oxidation is directly linked to the presence of free oxygen in the atmosphere.Specifically,the team studied samples deposited in shallow,iron-rich ocean areas,near the shore.They compared their data with other samples taken from younger locales known to have higher levels of oxygen.Oxygen's role in controlling the first appearance of animals has long vexed scientists."We were missing the right approach until now,"Planavsky said."Chromium gave us the proxy."Previous estimates put the oxygen level at 40%of today's conditions during pre-animal times. leaving open the possibility that oxygen was already plentiful enough to support animal life.In the new study,the researchers acknowledged that oxygen levels were"highly dynamic"in the early atmosphere,with the potential for occasional spikes. However,they said,"It seems clear that there is a first-order difference in the nature of Earth surface Cr cycling"before and af- ter the rise of animals."If we are right,our results will really change how people view the origins of animals and other complex life,and their relationships to the co-evolving environment,"said co-author TimLyons of the University of California-Riverside."This could be a game changer.""There's a lot'of interest right now in a broader discussion surrounding the role that environ- mental stability played in the evolution of complex life,and we think our results are a significant contribution to that,"Reinhard said. Many researchers believe the oxygen level was high during pre-animal times.
[多选题]共用题干 The Differences Among Various Types of AdoptionIn the US,there is a difference between public and private adoption.Public adoption typically involves taking _________ (51) foster(收养的)children and then adopting them after several months.It's significantly less expensive than private or international adoption,but more often than not_______(52)adopting children who are older than 5 or who have_______(53)needs.Private adoptions offer a better chance of adopting newborns,and increasingly,birth parents _______(54)the adoptive parents themselves.That's not a bad idea on its face,as it gives biological parents_______ (55)say in whom they will relinquish(放弃)their children. But this effectively puts_______(56)parents in the position of advertising themselves to birth parents in newspapers and online,_______(57)many couples feel uncomfortable with.Most states allow birth parents to reclaim their children_______(58)the children have been placed with adoptive families,for time periods ranging from a few days in some states to several months in others.Critics of international adoption say this rarely happens.They are only_______ (59)right:it's true that American birth parents don't usually reclaim their children once they've been placed with their adoptive families,but they can and do_______(60)their minds before the papers are signed.International adoption is more expensive than any form of domestic adoption,but in many ways, it is also more straightforward.The_______(61)of a birth parent calling the adoption_______ (62)are effectively zero and while costs are high,they're also determined at the_______(63) and tend not to change as the_______(64)wears on.Couples seeking to adopt should consider all_______(65)and get a range of perspectives before deciding which method is best for them. _________(65)
[多选题]共用题干 Robotic Highway ConesA University of Nebraska professor has developed robotic cones and barrels.These robotic cones and barrels can move out of the way,or into______(51),from computer commands made miles away. They can even be programmed to move on their own at any particular part of the day,said Shane Farritor,an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Nebraska.For example,if workers arrived at 6 am,the cones could move from the side of the highway to______(52)off the lane at that time.And they can return to the______(53)place at the end of the day."It just seems like a very good application for robots."Farritor said."The robot-ic cones would also help______(54)people from hazardous jobs on the highway putting barrels and cones into place,"Farritor said in a report on his creation.Work on the idea began in 2002 using a National Academy of Sciences grant. The______ (55)allowed Farritor to work on the project with graduate students at Nebraska and his assistant Steve Goddard.The robots are placed at the bottom of the cones and barrels and are______(56)enough not to greatly change the appearance of the construction aides."It would look exactly the same," Farritor said."______(57)there's a kind of rubbery,black base to them. We replace that ______(58)a robot."Farritor has talked with officials from the Nebraska Department of Roads about how the robots would be most______(59)to what they might need.The robots could come in handy following a slow-moving maintenance operation,like paint-ing a stripe on a road or moving asphalt,______(60)now the barrels have to be picked up and moved as the operation______(61)."That way you don't have to block off a 10-mile strip for the operation,"Farritor said.______(62)prototypes have been made,they are not in use anywhere. Farritor said he has______(63)for a patent and is considering what to do next. He is thinking about starting a small business. He is also thinking about______(64)the robots to roads departments and others across the country who may______(65)from them. 58._________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Eye-tracker Lets You Drag and Drop Files With a GlanceBored of using a mouse?Soon you'11 be able to change stuff on your computer screen-and then move it directly onto your smartphone or tablet(平板电脑)-with nothing more than a glance.A system called EyeDrop uses a head-mounted eye tracker that simultaneously records your field of view, so it knows where you are looking on the screen.Gazing at an object-a photo,say-and then pressing a key, selects that object.It can then be moved from the screen to a tablet or smartphone just by glancing at the second device,as long as the two are connected wirelessly."The beauty of using gaze to support this is that our eyes naturally focus on content that we want to acquire,"says Jayson Turner,who developed the system with colleagues at Lancaster University,UK.Turner believes EyeDrop would be useful to transfer an interactive map or contact information from a public display to your smartphone or tablet for sharing photos.A button needs to be used to select the object you are looking at otherwise you end up with the"Midas touch"(点石成金)effect , whereby everything you look at gets selected by your gaze , says Turner."Imagine if your mouse clicked on everything it pointed at,"he says.Christian Holz,a researcher in human-computer interaction at Yahoo Labs in Sunnyvale,California, says the system is a nice take on getting round this fundamental problem of using gaze-tracking to interact." EyeDrop solves this in a slick(灵巧的)way by combining it with input on the touch devices we carry with us most of the time anyway and using touch input as a clutching mechanism,"he says."This now allows users to seamlessly(无缝地)interact across devices far and close in a very natural manner."While current eye-trackers are rather bulky,mainstream consumer devices are not too far away.Swedish firm Tobii is developing gaze-tracking technology that can be installed in laptops and tablets and is expected to be available to buy next year.And the Google Glass headset is expected to include eye-tracking in the future.Turner says he has also looked at how content can be cut and pasted or drag-and-dropped using a mix of gaze and taps on a touchscreen.The system was presented at the Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia in Sweden,last week. What is Turner likely to study next?
[多选题]共用题干 EcoDormThoreau said education often made straight-cut ditches out of twisting small streams.But not at the EcoDorm,which houses 36 undergraduates and is the spiritual heart of Warren Willege,a liberal arts school of fewer than 1,000 students in Swannanoa,N.C.In recent years,colleges like Warren Wilson took a leading role in the sustainability movement, which seeks to develop a durable human relationship with the environment.More than 600 US colleges and universities have signed up for a pledge to become carbon neutral.Ninety dorms are now LEED certified,the most widely accepted national standard for green design.The EcoDorm is one of only two student residences that have LEED's highest rating.Two Warren Wilson students first proposed the dorm a decade ago.Undergraduates on the planning committee initially suggested that it be built with corncobs or straw. The design,by Asheville一based Samsel Architects, required compromises一as well as a number of creative solutions.The wood used for building the walls was harvested from campus trees that were suffering from a certain disease.The kitchen cabinets were made from recycled fence posts.Rainwater is collected into a disused railway tanker car and pumped back into the house to clean the low-flow toilets.Two toilets,which convert decaying organic matter to fertilizer,are also available on the second floor; students shovel(铲)in wood chips after they use them. The EcoDorm consumes nearly two-thirds less electricity than would a conventional building of the same size.Margo Flood,the executive director of Warren Wilson's Environmental Leadership Center,says those who apply to live there"see an integration between their actions and their values".They pledge not to use hair dryers.Their music does not have its sound made louder electronically. The residents plant and harvest scores of fruits and vegetables in their garden.The EcoDorm's residents speak of the comfort of finding a home where their values are shared. "I didn't have to worry about paper towels being wasted or feeling bad about drying my clothes out-side,"Jeremy Lekich,a senior who oversees the dorm's garden,says."Basically,it has made my life easier." The design by Asheville-based Samsel Architects required compromises in________.
[多选题]共用题干 Study Helps Predict Big Mediterranean Quake1.Scientists have found evidence that an overlooked fault in the eastern Mediterranean is likely to produce an earthquake and tsunami every 800 years as powerful as the one that destroyed Alexandria in AD 365.2.Using radiocarbon dating techniques,simulations and computer models,the researchers recreated the ancient disaster in order to identify the responsible fault."We are saying there is probably a repeat time of 800 years for this kind of earthquake,"said Ms Beth Shaw,an earthquake scientist at the University of Cambridge,who led the study. Scientists study past earthquakes in order to deter-mine the future possibility of similar large shocks.3.Identifying the fault for the AD 365 earthquake and tsunami is important for the tens of millions of people in the region,Ms.Shaw said.The fault close to the southwest coast of Crete last produced a big enough quake to generate a tsunami about 1300,which means the next powerful one could come in the next 100 years,she added in a telephone interview.4.Ms.Shaw and her colleagues calculate the likely intervals by measuring the motion of either side of the fault to find how often such large earthquakes would have to occur to account for that level of motion,she said.Their computer model suggested an 8 magnitude quake on the fault would pro-duce a tsunami that floods the coastal regions of Alexandria and North Africa,the southern coast of Greece and Sicily all the way up the Adriati to Dubrovnik.This would be similar to the ancient quake in AD 365 that caused widespread destruction in much of Greece and unleashed a tsunami that flooded Alexandria and the Nile Delta likely killing tens of thousands of people,she said. Ms.Shaw has her colleagues help her in the study of earthquake prediction.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Small but WiseOn December 14,NASA blasted a small but mighty telescope into space.The telescope is called WISE and is about as wide around as a trashcan.Don't let its small size fool you:WISE has a powerful digital camera,and it will be taking pictures of some of the wildest objects in the known universe,including asteroids,faint stars,blazing galaxies and giant clouds of dust where planets and stars are born."I'm very excited because we're going to be seeing parts of the universe that we haven't seen be- fore,"said Ned Wright,a scientist who directs the WISE project.Since arriving in space,the WISE telescope has been circling the Earth,held by gravity in a polar orbit (this means it crosses close to the north and south poles with each lap).Its camera is pointed outward,awayfrom the Earth,and WISE will snap a picture of a different part of the sky every 11 minutes.After six months it will have taken pictures across the entire sky.The pictures taken by WISE won't be like everyday digital photographs,however. WISE stands for "Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer".As its name suggests,the WISE camera takes pictures of features that give off infrared radiation.Radiation is energy that travels as a wave.Visible light,including the familiar spectrum of light that be- comes visible in a rainbow,is an example of radiation.When an ordinary digital camera takes a picture of a tree,for example,it receives the waves of visible light that are reflected off the tree.When these waves enter the camera through the lens,they're processed by the camera,which then puts the image together.Waves of infrared radiation are longer than waves of visible light,so ordinary digital cameras don't see them,and neither do the eyes of human beings.Although invisible to the eye,longer infrared radiation can be detected as warmth by the skin.That's a key idea to why WISE will be able to see things other telescopes can't. Not everything in the universe shows up in visible light.Asteroids,for example, are giant rocks that float through space一but they absorb most of the light that reaches them.They don't reflect light,so they're difficult to see.But they do give off infrared radiation,so an infrared telescope like WISE will be able to produce images of them.During its mission WISE will take pictures of hundreds of thousands of asteroids.Brown dwarfs are another kind of deep-space objects that will show up in WISE's pictures.These ob- jects are "failed" stars一which means they are not massive enough to jump-start the same kind of reactions that power stars such as the sun.Instead,brown dwarfs simply shrink and cool down.They're so dim that they're almost impossible to see with visible light,but in the infrared spectrum they glow. What is so special about WISE?
[多选题]共用题干 The Impact of Antarctic Ozone HoleThe Antarctic ozone(臭氧)hole is changing weather patterns across the Southern Hemisphere (半球),even affecting the tropics,scientists have concluded. The scientists______(51)the new study added the ozone hole into standard climate models to_______(52)how it might have affected winds and rains. They say rainfall has moved further south towards the pole and the effect has been_______(53)strong over Australia.And of_______(54)interest was the southward of the Southern Hemisphere jet stream. These high一altitude winds are_______(55)to determining weather patterns,in both hemispheres. Much of the cold weather felt in the UK_______(56)the last couple of winters,for example,was caused by blocking of the Northern Hemisphere stream.The team found that overall,the ozone hole has_______(57)in rainfall moving south along with the winds._______(58)there are regional differences,particularly concerning Australia. In terms of the average for that zone,the ozone hole_______(59)about a 10% change一but for Australia,it's about 35%.Their modeling indicated that global warming_______(60)greenhouse gas emissions is also a factor in changing rainfall patterns.Natural climate cycles are also thought to be important here,as different rainfall patterns were _______(61)in the era before ozone depletion(消耗)and late 20th Century warming.Although the_______(62)international organization has significantly checked emissions of harmful substances,they_______(63)for decades in the atmosphere,and so their effects are still being felt.Earlier,and international organization forecast that even the Antarctic ozone hole一which is more severe than its_______(64)in the Northern Hemisphere一should be_______(65)by 2045—2060. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 Natural Gas1 Natural gas is produced from reservoirs deep beneath the earth's surface. It is a fossil fuel(矿物燃 料),meaning that it is derived from orgaiiic material buried in the earth millions of years ago.The main corn- ponent of natural gas is methane(甲烷).2 The popularity and use of clean natural gas have increased dramatically over the past 50 years as pipeline infrastructure(基础设施)has been installed to deliver it conveniently and economically to millions of residential,commercial and industrial customers worldwide.Today,natural gas service is available in all 50 states in the U.S.,and is the leading energy choice for fueling American homes and industries.More than 65 million American homes use natural gas.In fact,natural gas is the most economical source for home energyneeds,costing one-third as much as electricity.In addition to heating homes,much of the gas used in the United States is used as a raw material to manufacture a wide variety of products,from paint,to fibers for clothing,to plastics for healthcare,computing and furnishings.Natural gas is also used in a significant number of new electricity-generating power plants.3 Natural gas is one of the safest and cleanest fuels available. It emits(发出)less pollution than other fossil fuel sources. When natural gas is burned , it produces mostly carbon dioxide(二氧化碳)and water va- por一the same substances emitted when humans breathe.Compared with some other fossil fuels,natural gas emits the least amount of carbon dioxide into the air when combusted(燃烧)一making natural gas the clea-nest burning fossil fuel of all.4 The United States consumes about one一third of the world's natural gas output,making it the largest gas-consuming region in the world.The U.S.Department of Energy Information Administration forecasts that natural gas demand will grow by more than 50 percent by 2025.5 There are huge reserves of natural gas beneath the earth's surface.The largest reserves of natural gas can be found in Russia , West and North Africa and the Middle East. LNG(液化天然气)has been pro- duced domestically and imported in the United States for more than four decades.Today,the leading import- ers of LNG are Japan,Korea,France and Spain. Paragraph 5___________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Download Knowledge Directly to Your BrainFor the first time,researchers have been able to hack into the process of learning in the biain,using induced brain patterns to create a learned behavior. It's not quite as advanced as an instant Kung-fu down- load,and it's not as sleek as cognitive inception,but it's still an important finding that could lead to new teaching and rehabilitation techniques.Future therapies could decode the brain activity patterns of an athlete or a musician,and use them as a benchmark for teaching another person a new activity,according to the researchers.Scientists from Boston University and ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories in Kyoto used functional magnetic resonance imaging,or fMRI,to study the learning process.They were examining the adult brain's aptitude for visual perceptual learning,or VPL,in which repetitive training improves a per- son's performance on a particular task.Whether adults can do this as well as young people has been an on- going debate in neuroscience.Led by BU neuroscientist Takeo Watanabe,researchers used a method called decoded fMRI neurofeed- back to stimulate the visual cortex.First they showed participants circles at different orientations.Then they used fMRI to watch the participants'brain activity.The researchers were then able to train the participants to recreate this visual cortex activity.The volunteers were again placed in MRI machines and asked to visualize shapes of certain colors.The participants were asked to"somehow regulate activity in the posterior part of the brain"to make a solid green disc as large as they could.They were told they would get a paid bonus proportional to the size of this disc, but they weren't told anything about what the disc meant.The researchers watched the participants'brain activity and monitored the activation patterns in their visual cortices."Participants can be trained to control the overall mean activation of an entire brain region,"the study authors write,"or the adtivation in one region relative to that in another region."This worked even when test subjects were not aware of what they were learning,the researchers said."The most surprising thing in this study is that mere inductions of neural activation patterns corresponding to a specific visual feature led to visual performance improvement on the visual feature,without presenting the fea- ture or subjects' awareness of what was to be learned,"Watanabe said in a statement.Watanabe and colleagues said this method can be a powerful tool."It can'incept' a person to acquire new learning, skills,or memory,or possibly to restore skills or knowledge that has been damaged through accident,disease,or aging,without a person's awareness of what is learned or memorized,"they write. What helps a person to do a particular task better in visual perceptual learning?
[多选题]共用题干 The Weight ExperimentNicola Walters has been taking part in experiments in Scotland to discover why humans gain and lose weight. Being locked in a small room called a“calorimeter”(热量测量室)is one way to find out.1. The signs above the two rooms read simply“Chamber One”and“Chamber Two”.These are the calorimeters:4m by 2m white-walled rooms where human volunteers are locked up in the name of science .Outside these rooms another sign reads“Please do not enter work in progress” and in front of the rooms advanced machinery registers every move the volunteers make.Each day,meals measured to the last gram are passed through a hole in the wall of the calorimeter to the resident volunteer.2. Nicola Walters is one of twenty volunteers who,over the past eight months,have spent varying periods inside the calorimeter. Tall and slim,Nicola does not have a weight problem,but thought the strict diet might help with her training and fitness programme.As a self-employed community dance worker,she was able to fit the experiment in around her work .She saw an advert for volun- teers at her local gym and as she is interested in the whole area of diet and exercise,she thought she would help out.3. The experiment on Nicola involved her spending one day on a fixed diet at home and the next in the room.This sequence was repeated four times over six weeks.She arrived at the calorimeter at8:30 am on each of the four mornings and from then on everything she ate or drank was carefully measured.Her every move was noted too,her daily exercise routine,timed to the last second.At regular intervals,after eating,she filled in forms about how hungry she felt and samples were taken for analysis.4. The scientists help volunteers impose a kind of order on the long days they face in the room. “The first time,I only took one video and a book,but it was OK because I watched TV the rest of the time,”says Nicola. And twice a day she used the exercise bike. She pedaled(踩踏板) for half an hour,watched by researchers to make sure she didn't go too fast. 5. It seems that some foods encourage you to eat more,while others satisfy you quickly.Volun- teers are already showing that high-fat diets are less likely to make you feel full.Believing that they may now know what encourages people to overeat,the researchers are about to start testing a high-protein weight-loss diet. Volunteers are required and Nicola has signed up for further ses- slons。 Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 The World's Longest BridgeRumor has it that a legendary six-headed monster lurks in the deep waters of the Tyrrhenian Sea between Italy and the island of Sicily._______(46)When completed in 2010,the world's longest bridge will weigh nearly 300,000 tons一equivalent to the iceberg that sank the Titanic一and stretch 5 kilometers long."That's nearly 50 percent longer than any other bridge ever built."says structural engineer Shane Rixon._______(47)They're suspension bridges,massive structures built to span vast water channels or gorges.A suspension bridge needs just two towers to shoulder the structure's mammoth weight, thanks to hefty supporting cables slung between the towers and anchored firmly in deep pools of cement at each end of the bridge.The Messina Strait Bridge will have two 54,100-ton towers,which will support most of the bridge's load.The beefy cables of the bridge,each 1.2 meter in diameter, will hold up the longest and widest bridge deck ever built.When construction begins on the Messina Strait Bridge in 2005,the first job will be to erect two 370 meter-tall steel towers._______(48)Getting these cables up will be something. It's not just their length一totally 5.3 kilometers一but their weight._______(49)After lowering vertical"suspender"cables from the main cables,builders will erect a 60- meter一wide 54,630一ton steel roadway,or deck一wide enough to accommodate 12 lanes of traffic.The deck's weight will pull down on the cables with a force of 70,500 tons.In return,the cables yank up against their firmly rooted anchors with a force of 139,000 tons一equivalent to the weight of about 100,000 cars. Those anchors are essential._______(50) _______(50)
[多选题]共用题干 Working for Fun and Profit1.It's a sunny weekend morning. You decide to take a walk.Everything is quite except for a.group of people and some colorful objects you see about three blocks away.As you get closer,you notice that there are many things lying on the ground:some National Geographic magazines,a collection of toy trucks,some weight lifting equipment,two bicycles,and a set of chairs.People are parking cars,getting out,and looking over the objects in the driveway.You consider taking a detour around the group of people,but you are curious.Was there an accident?Is this a party?No!Welcome to your first garage sale!2.On the same morning,a friend of yours takes a drive.He makes a mistake at an intersection and takes a wrong turn.He passes a large parking lot full of people,not cars.He sees many multicolored objects.At first he thinks it's an art show. Then he decides it's a fair. He parks his car and gets out to explore.He's just arrived at his first flea market.3.Garage sales and flea market are popular in the United States.Many Americans find that they can make a little extra money and have fun being"weekend entrepreneurs”.They take outgrown clothing,appliances,toys,and books and resell them at garage sales and flea markets.4.Flea markets are generally open spaces in or out of town that become busy sales centers on weekends.People who want to sell new or used clothing,tools,furniture,or books rent a space for the day for a small amount of money and sell their merchandise.Shoppers from near and far come to get good buys on imported watches,house plants,magazines,microscopes,children's clothes,and handmade goods such as embroidered pillowcases or jewelry.Some shoppers even buy and sell antiques.They search flea markets for special treasures that they can resell in their own stores for lots of money.5.Garage sales are smaller than flea markets,and the merchandise consists mainly of household items.Dishes,pots and pans,coat hangers,and children's clothing are inexpensive and common at garage sales. People frequently have garage sales before they move and on weekends when the weather is nice.Sometimes several families gather their unwanted household goods and sell them together. More merchandise attracts more customers.6.Cleaning,organizing,pricing,and moving merchandise is hard work,but the popularity of flea market and garage sales proves that many Americans work for fun! All sorts of things are bought and sold in the flea markets,even hair pins.
[多选题]共用题干 A Ride in a Cable-carA ride in a cable-car is one of the exciting and enjoyable experiences a child can have.InSwitzerland,which is the home of the cable-car,it is used mostly to take tourists up the slope of a mountain,to a restaurant from which one can have a bird-eye view of the surrounding country, or to a top of a ski-run,from which,in winter,skiers glide down the snow covered the slope on skis .In Singapore,however,the cable-car takes one from the summit of a hill on the main island to a low hill on Sentosa,a resort island just off the southern coast.The cable-car is really a carriage which hangs from a strong steel cable suspended in the air.It moves along the cable with other cars on pulleys,the wheels of which are turned by electric motors. The cars are painted in eye-catching colours and spaced at regular intervals.Each car can seat up six persons.After the passengers have entered a car,they are locked in from outside by an attendant,they have no control over the movement of the car.Before long,the passengers get a breath-taking view through the glass windows of the modern city,the bustling harbour,and the several islands off the coast. The car is suspended so high in the air that slips on the sea look like small boats,and boats like toys.On a clear day,both the sky above and the sea below look beautifully blue.In contrast to the fast-moving traffic on the ground,the cars in the air move in a leisurely manner,allowing passengers more than enough time to take in the scenery during the brief trip to the island of Sentosa.After a few hours on Sentosa,it will be time again to take a cable-car back to Mount Faber. The return journey is no less exciting than the outward trip. Which of the following about the cable-cars is true?