考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 Coming Soon to a Theater Near You!What are special effects?Do you enjoy movies that use a lot of special effects Dinosaurs(恐 龙)from the distant past!Space battles from the distant future!There has been a revolution in special effects,and it has transformed the movies we see.The revolution began in the mid 1970s with George Lucas's Star Wars,a film that stunned (使震惊)audiences. That revolution continues to the present,with dramatic changes in special-effects technology.The company behind these changes is Lucas's Industrial Light&Magic (ILM).And the man behind the company is Dennis Muren,who has worked with Lucas since Star Wars.Muren's interest in special effects began very early.At the age of 6,he was photographing toy dinosaurs and spaceships.At10,he had an 8 millimeter movie camera and was making these things move through stop-motion.(Stop-motion is a process in which objects are shot with a camera,moved slightly,shot again,and so on .When the shots are put together,the objects appear to move.)Talk to Muren and you'll understand what ILM is all about:taking on new challenges.By 1989,Muren decided he had pushed the old technology as far as it would go.He saw computer graphics(图像)( CG ) technology as the wave of the future and took a year off to master it.With CG technology,images can be scanned into a computer for processing,for example, and many separate shots can be combined into a single image.CG technology has now reached the point,Muren says,where special effects can be used to do just about anything so that movies can tell stories better than ever before. The huge success of Jurassic Park and its sequel(续集),The Lost World,the stars of which were computer-generated dinosaurs,suggests that this may very well be true. By the stop-motion process,many separate shots can be combined into a single image.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The Gene IndustryMajor companies are already in pursuit of commercial applications of the new biology.They dream of placing enzymes in the automobile to monitor exhaust and send data on pollution to a microprocessor that will then adjust the engine. They speak of what the New York Times calls "metal-hungry microbes that might be used to mine valuable trace metal from ocean water".They have already demanded and won the right to patent new life forms.Nervous critics, including many scientists, worry that there is corporate, national, international,and inter-scientific rivalry in the entire biotechnological field.They create images not of oil spills,but of"microbe spills"that could spread disease and destroy entire populations.The creation and accidental release of extremely poisonous microbes,however,is only one cause for alarm.Completely rational and respectable scientists are talking about possibilities that stagger the imagination.Should we breed people with cow一with stomachs so they can digest grass and hay,thereby relieving the food problem by modifying us to eat lower down on the food chain?Should we biologically alter workers to fit the job requirement,for example,creating pilots with faster reaction times or assembly-line workers designed to do our monotonous work for us?Should we attempt to eliminate "inferior" people and breed a"super-race"?(Hitler tried this,but without the genetic weaponry that may soon issue from our laboratories.)Should we produce soldiers to do our fighting?Should we use genetic forecasting to pre-eliminate"unfit"babies?Should we grow reserve organs for ourselves, each of us having,as it were,a"savings bank"full of spare kidney,livers,or hands?Wild as these notions may sound,every one has its advocates(and opposers)in the scientific community as well as its striking commercial application.As two critics of genetic engineering, Jeremy Rifkin and Ted Howard,state in their book Who Should Play God?,"Broad scale genetic engineering will probably be introduced to America much the same way as assembly lines,automobiles,vaccines,computers and all the other technologies.As each new genetic advance becomes commercially practical,a new consumer need will be exploited and a market for the new technology will be created." According to the passage,which of the following would worry the critics the most?
[多选题]共用题干 Have You Filled up the Form?Of all things in the world,I most dislike filling up forms;in fact,I have a________(51)horror of it. Applying for a driving license,________(52)for an evening course,booking a holiday abroad一everything nowadays seem to involve________(53)information about one's personal life and habits that has little or nothing to do with the matter________(54)hand.When applying for a job,it may be________(55)some obscure interest to a________(56)employer to learn that I collect stamp or had measles as a child,but why should he conceivably want to know that my father was a tobacconist who died in 1988?The authorities who________(57)one to fill up forms,frequently demand answers to questions that one would hesitate to put________(58)one's intimate friends.The worst of it is that, when________(59)with such questions,my mind goes blank.Have I ever suffered from a serious illness?My mother always assured me I was"delicate".Do I suffer from any personal defects? Well,I wear contact lenses and my upper teeth are not my own,but perhaps the word"defects"________(60)to my character. Am I supposed to________(61)that I like gambling,and find it difficult to get up in the morning?Both of them are true.Of all,I think job applications are the worst,education,previous experience,post held,give________(62)…Terrified by the awful warning about giving false________(63)which appear atthe bottom of the form,I struggle to remember what exams I passed and how long I worked for what firms.________(64)hard I try,there always seems to be a year or two for which I cannot satisfactorily account and which I am certain,if left________(65),will give the impression that I was in prison or engaged in some occupation too dubious to mention. _________(62)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇On the Trail of the Honey BadgerOn a recent field trip to the Kalahari Desert,a team of researchers learnt a lot more about honey badgers (獾).The team employed a local wildlife expert,Kitso Khama,to help them locate and follow the badgers across the desert. Their main aim was to study the badgers' movements and behaviour as discreetly(谨慎地) as possible,without frightening them away or causing them to change their natural behaviour. They also planned to trap a few and study them close up before releasing them.In view of the animal's reputation,this was something that even Khama was reluctant to do."The problem with honey badgers is they are naturally curious animals,especially when they see some- thing new,"he says."That,combined with their unpredictable nature,can be a dangerous mixture.If they sense you have food,for example,they won't be shy about coming right up to you for something to eat. They're actually quite sociable creatures around humans,but as soon as they feel they might be in danger, they can become extremely vicious(凶恶的).Fortunately this is rare , but it does happen."The research confirmed many things that were already known.As expected,honey badgers ate any crea- tures they could catch and kill.Even poisonous snakes,feared and avoided by most other animals,were not safe from them.The researchers were surprised,however,by the animal'5 fondness for local melons,probably because of their high water content. Previously researchers thought that the animal got all of its liquid require- ments from its prey(猎物).The team also learnt that , contrary to previous research findings , the badgers occasionally formed loose family groups.They were also able to confirm certain results from previous research,including the fact that female badgers never socialised with each other.Following some of the male badgers was a challenge,since they can cover large distances in a short space of time.Some hunting territories cover more than 500 square kilometres.Although they seem happy toshare these territories with other males,there are occasional fights over an important food source,and male badgers can be as aggressive towards each other as they are towards other species.As the badgers became accustomed to the presence of people,it gave the team the chance to get up close to them without being the subject of the animals'curiosity一or their sudden aggression.The badgers' eating patterns,which had been disrupted,returned to normal.It also allowed the team to observe more closely some of the other creatures that form working associations with the honey badger,as these seemed to adopt the badgers' relaxed attitude when near humans. What does Kitso Khama say about honey badgers?
[多选题]共用题干 Are You a Successful Leader?1 Almost nothing we do in this world is done in isolation.At work or at play,you'll find yourself in groups,working with other people:your team at work,a meeting with colleagues,your family,a holiday with friends,a group of students working together,a day out walking in the mountains,a group of neighbours want- ing to make changes.It is now recognized that being able to work successfully with other people is one of the major keys to success,partly because we need to do it so often.2 In almost every situation where you're in a group,you will need a skilled leader. All groups need leaders and all successful groups have good leaders.Groups without leaders or with weak leaders almost always break down. Members of a leaderless group often begin to feel dissatisfied and frustrated.Time is wasted and the tasks are not achieved.There are often arguments and tensions between people as there is nobody to keep the goals clear. Some personalities dominate and others disappear. Often group members begin not to come to meetings in order to avoid more disharmony.3 Some people are natural leaders.The celebrity chef,Antonio Carluccio says,"True leaders are born and you can spot them in kitchens."They're people who combine toughness,fairness and humour. Although a lot of people agree that there are some natural-born leaders,most people now recognize that leadership can also be taught.Our professional and experienced staff can train almost anyone how to be a successful leader. Good leaders don't make people do things in a bossy,controlling way.You can learn how to involve everyone, encouraging the whole group to work towards a common goal.4 Our training courses use activities and techniques to develop a range of qualities which are necessary to be a good leader. Seff-confidence is vital and being able to overcome your own fears about being a leader.Successful leaders also need to be calm and intelligent.They need to be able to work out good strategies and make sound judgements under pressure.Lastly,and probably most importantly,good leaders need to be sensi- tive,sociable and be able to get on with a wide range of people.Good leadership is essentially the ability to influence others and good leaders allow all members of the group to contribute. Good leaders always avoid__________.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇The IcemanOn a September day in 1991,two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy.Highup on a mountain pass,they found the body of a man lying on the ice.At that height(10,499 feet,or 3,200meters),the ice is usually permanent,but 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice hadmelted more than usual and so the body had come to the surface.It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架)was in perfect condition, except for a wound in the head.There was still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes.The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots.Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮)and a holder for arrows.Who was this man?How and when had he died?Everybody had a different answer to these questions.Some people thought that it was from this century,perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War Ⅰ ,since several soldiers had already been found in the area. A Swiss woman believed it might be her father,whohad died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found.The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older,maybe even a thousand years old.With modern dating techniques,the scientists soon learned that the Iceman was about 5,300 years old. Born in about 3300 B.C.,he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe.At first scientists thought he was probablya hunter who had died in an accident in the high mountains.More recent evidence,however,tells a different story.A new kind of X-ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. It left only a tiny hole in his skin, but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He almost certainly died from this wound,and not from the wound on the back of his head.This means that he was probably in some kind of a battle.It might have been part of a larger war,or he might have been fighting bandits.He might even have been a bandit himself.By studying his clothes and tools,scientists have already learned a great deal from the Iceman about the times he lived in.We may never know the full story of how he died,but he has given us important clues to the history of those distant times. All the following are assumptions once made about the Iceman EXCEPT________.
[多选题]共用题干 US Blacks Hard-hit by CancerDeath rates for cancer are falling for all Americans,but black Americans are still more likely to die of cancer than whites,the American Cancer Society said Monday.In a special report on cancer and blacks,the organization said blacks are usually diagnosed with cancer later than whites,and they are more likely to die of the disease.This could be because of unequal access to medical care,because blacks are more likely to have other diseases like diabetes as well,and perhaps because of differences in the biology of the cancer itself,the report added.“In general,African Americans have less likelihood of surviving five years after diagnosis than whites for all cancer sites and all stages of diagnosis,”the report said.“In describing cancer statistics for African Americans,this report recognizes that socioeconomic disparities and unequal access to medical care may underlie many of the differences associated with race.”The Cancer Society said blacks should be encouraged to get check-ups earlier,when cancer was more treatable,and it said more research is needed to see if biological differences play a role.“The new statistics emphasize the continuing importance of eliminating these social disparities through public policy and education efforts,”the organization said in a statement.But it also noted a drop in cancer death rates.“Cancer death rates in both sexes for all sites combined have declined substantially among black Americans since 1992,as have incidence rates,”said the report.“Increased efforts to improve economic conditions in combination with education about the relationship of lifestyle choices to cancer could further reduce the burden of cancer among African Americans.” About 36 million Americans describe themselves as black,representing about 12 percent of the population. Cancer can be treated easier if it is detected
[多选题]共用题干 Keeping Cut Flowers(鲜切花)1. While everybody enjoys fresh cut flowers around his/her house,few people know how to keep them for as long as possible .This may be done by keeping in mind a few simple facts.2. An important thing to remember about cut flowers is that they are sensitive to temperature.For example,studies have shown that cut carnations(康乃馨)retain their freshness eight times lon-ger when kept at 12℃than when kept at 26℃.Keeping freshly harvested flowers at the right tem-peratures is probably the most important aspect of flower care.3. Flowers are not intended by nature to live very long.Their biological purpose is simply to at-tract birds or insects,such as bees,for pollination(授粉).After that,they quickly dry up and die. The process by which flowers consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide(二氧化碳), called respiration(呼吸),generates the energy the flower needs to give the flower its shape and color. The making of seeds also depends on this energy.While all living things respire,flowers have a high level of respiration.A result of all this respiration is heat,and for flowers the level of heat relative to the mass of the flower is very high.Respiration also brings about the eventual death of the flower. Thus the greater the level of respiration,the sooner the flower dies.4. How,then,to control the rate at which flowers die?By controlling respiration.How is respi-ration controlled?By controlling temperature .We know that respiration produces heat,but the re-verse(相反的过程)is also true. Thus by maintaining low temperatures , respiration is reduced and the cut flower will age more slowly.5. Another vital factor in keeping cut flowers is the quality of the water in which they are placed. Flowers find it difficult to“drink”water that is dirty or otherwise polluted.Even when water looks and smells clean,it almost certainly contains harmful substances that can endanger the flowers. To rid the water of these unwanted substances, household chlorine bleach(漂白剂)can be used in small quantities.It is recommended that 15 drops of chlorine bleach(at 4%solution)be add-ed to each litre of water. The water and solution should also be replaced each day. Respiration plays a key role________.
[多选题]共用题干 The Beg i n n i ng of America n LiteratureAmerican has always been a land of beginnings._____(51)Europeans“discovered”America in the fifteenth century,the mysterious New World became for many people a genuine hope of a new life,an escape from_____(52)and persecution,a chance to start again.We can say that,as nation,America begins with that hope.When,______(53),does American literature begin?American literature begins with American experiences.Long before the first colonists ar-rived,before Christopher Columbus,before the Northmen who“found”America about the year 1,000,_____(54)Americans lived here.Each tribe's literature was______(55)woven into the fabric of daily life and reflected the unmistakably American experience of lining with the land._______(56)kind of experience,one filled with fear and excitement,found its expression in the reports that Columbus and other explorers________(57)home in Spain,French and Eng-lish.In addition,the journals of the people who lived and died in the New England wilderness tell unforgettable tales of hard and sometimes______(58)experiences of those______(59) years.Experience,then,is the key to early American literature .The New World______(60)a great variety of experiences,and these experiences______(61)a wide variety of expressions by an even wider variety of early American writers.These writers,included John Smith,______ (62)spent only two-and-a-half years on the American continent. They included Jonathan Ed-wards and William Byrd,who______(63)of themselves as British subjects,never______(64)a revolution that would create a United States of America with a literature of its own.Ameni-can Indians,explorers,Puritan ministers,frontier wives,plantation owner-they are all the______(65)of the first American literature. 56._________
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Going Her Own WayWhen she was twelve,Maria made her first important decision about the course of her life.She decided that she wanted to continue her education.Most girls from middle-class families chose to stay at home afterprimary school,though some attended private Catholic"finishing"schools.There they learned a little about music,art,needlework,and how to make polite conversation. This was not the sort of education that interested Maria-or her mother. By this time,she had begun to take her studies more seriously.She read constantly and brought her books everywhere.One time she even brought her math book to the theater and tried to study in the dark.Maria knew that she wanted to go on learning in a serious way.That meant attending the public high school,something that very few girls did.In Italy at the time,there were two types of high schools:the"classical"schools and the"technical"schools. In the classical schools,the students followed a very tradi- tional program of studies,with courses in Latin and Greek language and literature,and Italian literature and history. The few girls who continued studying after primary school usually chose these schools.Maria,however,wanted to attend a technical school.The technical schools were more modern than the classical schools and they offered courses in modern languages,mathematics,science,and accounting. Most people一including Maria's father一believed that girls would never be able to understand these subjects. Furthermore,they did not think it was proper for girls to study them.Maria did not care if it was proper or not.Math and science were the subjects that interested her most. But before she could sign up for the technical school,she had to win her father's approval. She finally did, with her mother's help,though for many years after,there was tension in the family. Maria's father continued to oppose her plans,while her mother helped her.In 1883,at age thirteen,Maria entered the"Regia Scuola Tecnica Michelangelo Buonarroti"in Rome. Her experience at this school is difficult for us to imagine.Though the courses included modern subjects,theteaching methods were very traditional. Learning consisted of memorizing long lists of facts and repeating them back to the teacher. Students were not supposed to ask questions or think for themselves in any way. Teachers were very demanding;discipline in the classroom was strict;punishment was severe for those who failed to achieve or were disobedient. Maria's father probably__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Mother Nature Shows Her StrengthTornadoes(龙卷风)and heavy thunderstorms moved across the Great Lakes and into Trumbull County on Saturday evening. The storms were dramatic and dangerous.George Snyder was driving the fire truck down Route 88 when he first noticed that a funnel(漏斗状的)cloud was behind him. "I stopped the truck and watched the funnel cloud. It was about 100 feet off the ground and I saw it go up and down for a while.It was moving toward Bradley Road and then suddenly it disappeared."Snyder said.Snyder only saw one of the funnel clouds that passed through northeastern Ohio on Saturday.InTrumbull County,a tornado turned trees onto their sides.Some trees fell onto houses and cars.Other trees fell into telephone and electrical wires as they went down.Amanda Symcheck was having a party when the storm began."I knew something was wrong," he said. "I saw the sky go green and pink(粉红色).Then it sounded like a train rushing toward the house.I started crying and told everyone to go to the basement for protection."The tornado caused a lot of damage to cars and houses in the area.It will take a long time and much money to repair everything. There was also serious water damage from the thunderstorms.The heavy rains and high wind caused the power to go out in many homes.The storms caused serious flooding in areas near the river. More than four inches of rain fell in parts of Trumbull County.The river was so high that the water ran into streets and houses.Many streets had to be closed to cars and trucks because of the high water. This made it difficult for fire trucks,police cars,and other rescue vehicles to help people who were in trouble.Many people who live near the river had to leave their homes for their own safety.Some people reported five feet of water in their homes.Local and state officials opened emergency shelters for the people who were evacuated(撤走).The Red Cross served meals to them."This was a really intense storm,"said Snyder."People were afraid.Mother Nature can be fierce.We were lucky this time.No one was killed". Several people were missing during the storm.
[多选题]共用题干 The Interpersonal Skills of Children Without SiblingsMany parents may think that each new sibling(兄弟姐妹)offers their children the gift of companionship.But while we tend to think that siblings teach one another conflict resolution and other interpersonal skills,new research says they are no better off socially than children without siblings."Most studies look at the negative consequences of having siblings in terms of educational outcome,"said Donna Bobbitt-Zeher,lead author of Good for Nothing?Number of Siblings and Friendship Nominations Among Adolescents."But we decided to look at social skills to see if there was any other possible benefit to having brothers or sisters."She and her co-author,Douglas Downey are sociologists at Ohio State's Marion campus,and neither is an only child.They presented their findings at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association in August.The paper is in large part a reply to a previous study,Playing Well With Others in Kindergarten:The Benefits of Siblings at Home,also co-authored by Dr. Downey,which found that kindergarten teachers rated children without siblings worse in interpersonal skills,self-control and problem behaviors.But an only child isn't necessarily a loner and misfit.First,the social advantages found in children with siblings in the kindergarten study were quite modest.Second,the study relied on teacher evaluations,and teachers may not be reliable judges of friendships among their charges.And now it seems that any benefits documented in kindergarten disappear altogether by middle school. Using a metric called"peer nomination(提名)",Dr. Downey and Dr. Bobbitt Zeher found that children without siblings had just as many friends as,children with siblings."I see the two studies as a natural progression,showing what happens to the only children who didn't have much interaction before kindergarten,"Dr. Downey said.Another study he is working on shows that the same only children evaluated in kindergarten had caught up by fifth grade.While the studies don't examine the cause for the disappearing social boost to kindergartners with siblings,Dr. Downey speculates that continuing school,youth clubs and other group activities一especially in an era of overscheduled children一provide sufficient opportunity for onlys to sharpen their skills. Paragraph 7________
[多选题]共用题干 Culture ShockCulture shock is the loss of emotional balance,disorientation(茫然失措),or confusion that a person feels when moving from a familiar environment to an unfamiliar one.When it is a common experience,the degree to which it occurs will vary from one person to another. Individual personality, previous cross-cultural experience,and language proficiency all affect a person's ability to interact socially in the new culture.The basic cause of culture shock is the abrupt loss of all that is familiar, leading to a sense of isolation.When an individual enters a strange culture,all or most of those familiar signs and hints are removed. He or she is like a fish out of water. No matter how broad-minded or good-willed he may be,a series of properties have been knocked from under him.This may be followed by a feeling of frustration and anxiety.People react to the frustration in much the same way.First they reject the environment which causes the discomfort:"The ways of the host country are bad because they make us feel bad."Another aspect of culture shock is regression(倒退).The home environment suddenly assumes a tremendous importance,and everything becomes irrationally glorified.All difficulties and problems are forgotten and only the good things back home are remembered.It usually takes a trip home to bring one back to reality.Common symptoms of culture shock include the following extremes.These are excessive concerns over delays and other minor frustrations;fear of being cheated,robbed or injured; sleeplessness or a desire to sleep more;and a great longing to go home.Underlying all these is the uncomfortable feeling of not really belonging,of being an outsider. The degree of culture shock could be different from person to person.
[多选题]共用题干 InflationBusiness and government leaders also consider the inflation rate to be an important general indicator. Inflation is a period of increased spending that causes rapid rises in prices.________(51)your money buys fewer goods so that you get________(52)for the same amount of money as before,inflation is the problem. There is a general rise________(53)the price of goods and services.Your money buys less.Sometimes people describe inflation as a time when"a dollar is not worth a dollar anymore".Inflation is a problem for all consumers.People who live on a fixed income are hurt the ________(54).Retired people,for instance,cannot count on an increase in income as prices rise. Elderly people who do not work face serious problems in stretching their incomes to________(55) their needs in time of inflation.Retirement income________(56)any fixed income usually does not rise as fast as prices.Many retired people must cut their spending to________(57)rising prices.In many cases they must stop________(58)some necessary items,such as food and clothing. Even________(59)working people whose incomes are going up,inflation can be a problem.The________(60)of living goes up,too.People who work must have even more money to keep up their standard of living.Just buying the things they need costs more.When incomes do not keep________(61)with rising prices,the standard of living goes down.People may be earning the same amount of money,but they are not living as well because they are not able to buy as many goods and services.Government units gather information about prices in our economy and publish it as price indexes ________(62)the rate of change can be determined.A price index measures changes in prices using the price for a________(63)year as the base.The base price is set at 100,and the otherprices are reported as a________(64)of the base price.A price index makes________(65)possible to compare current prices of typical consumer goods,for example,with prices of the samegoods in previous years. _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 Have You Filled up the Form?Of all things in the world,I most dislike filling up forms;in fact,I have a________(51)horror of it. Applying for a driving license,________(52)for an evening course,booking a holiday abroad一everything nowadays seem to involve________(53)information about one's personal life and habits that has little or nothing to do with the matter________(54)hand.When applying for a job,it may be________(55)some obscure interest to a________(56)employer to learn that I collect stamp or had measles as a child,but why should he conceivably want to know that my father was a tobacconist who died in 1988?The authorities who________(57)one to fill up forms,frequently demand answers to questions that one would hesitate to put________(58)one's intimate friends.The worst of it is that, when________(59)with such questions,my mind goes blank.Have I ever suffered from a serious illness?My mother always assured me I was"delicate".Do I suffer from any personal defects? Well,I wear contact lenses and my upper teeth are not my own,but perhaps the word"defects"________(60)to my character. Am I supposed to________(61)that I like gambling,and find it difficult to get up in the morning?Both of them are true.Of all,I think job applications are the worst,education,previous experience,post held,give________(62)…Terrified by the awful warning about giving false________(63)which appear atthe bottom of the form,I struggle to remember what exams I passed and how long I worked for what firms.________(64)hard I try,there always seems to be a year or two for which I cannot satisfactorily account and which I am certain,if left________(65),will give the impression that I was in prison or engaged in some occupation too dubious to mention. _________(52)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Swiss BanksSince the early 1930s,Swiss banks had prided themselves on their system of banking secrecy and numbered accounts.Over the years,they had successfully withstood every challenge to this system by their own government who, in turn,had been frequently urged by foreign governments to reveal information about the financial affairs of certain account holders.The result of this policy of secrecy was that a kind of mystique had grown up around Swiss banking. There was a widely-held belief that Switzerland was irresistible to wealthy foreigners,mainly because of its numbered accounts and bankers' reluctance to ask awkward questions of depositors.Contributing to the mystique was theview,carefully propagated by the banks themselves,that if this secret was ever given up,foreigners would fall over themselves in the rush to withdraw money,and the Swiss banking system would virtually collapse overnight.To many,therefore,it came like a bolt out of the blue,when,in 1977,the Swiss banks announced they had signed a pact with the Swiss National Bank(the Central Bank).The aim of the agreement was to prevent the improper use of the country's bank secrecy laws, and its effect to curb (遏制)severely the system of secrecy.The rules which the banks had agreed to observe made the opening of numbered accounts subject to much closer scrutiny than before.The banks would be required,if necessary,to identify the origin of foreign fund going into numbered and other accounts.The idea was to stop such accounts being used for dubious(可疑的)purposes.Also,they agreed not to accept funds resulting from tax evasion or from crime.The pact represented essentially a tightening up of banking rules.Although the banks agreed to end relations with clients whose identities were unclear or who were performing improper acts,they were still not obliged to inform on a client to anyone,including the Swiss government.To some extent,therefore,the principle of secrecy had been maintained. Swiss banks are tightening its banking rules by________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Few Facts about LiesWhat exactly is a lie?Is it anything we say which we know is untrue?Or is it something more than that?For example,suppose a friend wants to borrow some money from you.You say"I wish I could help you but I'm short of money myself."In fact,you are not short of money but your friend is in the habit of not paying his debts and you don't want to hurt his feelings by reminding him of this. Is this really a lie?Professor Jereald Jellison of the University of Southern California has made a scientific study of lying. According to him,women are better liars than men,particularly when telling a"white lie," such as when a woman at a party tells another woman that she likes her dress when she really thinks it looks awful.However,this is only one side of the story. Other researchers say that men are more likely tell more serious lies,such as making a promise which they have no intention of fulfilling. This is the kind of lie politicians and businessmen are supposed to be particularly skilled at:the lie from which the liar hopes to profit or gain in some way.Research has also been done into the way people's behavior changes in a number of small,apparently unimportant ways when they lie.It has been found that if they are sitting down at the time, they tend to move about in their chairs more than usual.To the trained observer they are saying"I wish I were somewhere else now."They also tend to touch certain parts of the face more often,in particular the nose.One explanation of this may be that lying causes a slight increase in blood pressure.The tip of the nose is very sensitive to such changes and the increased pressure makes it itch (痒).Another gesture which gives liars away is what the writer Demond Morris in his book Manwatching calls"the mouth cover".He says there are several typical forms of this,such as covering part of the mouth with the fingers,touching the upper-lip or putting a finger of the hand at one side of the mouth.Such a gesture can be interpreted as an unconscious attempt on the part of the liar to stop himself or herself from lying.Of course,such gestures as rubbing the nose or covering the mouth,or moving about in a chair cannot be taken as proof that the speaker is lying. They simply tend to occur more frequently in this situation. It is not one gesture alone that gives the liar away but a whole number of things,and,in particularly,the context in which the lie is told. It can be inferred from the passage that________.
[多选题]共用题干 Gorillas Have a Word for itKoko is the first gorilla to have been taught sign language .With a vocabulary of more than 1,000 words,she is the first to prove we share a world with other intelligent beings who feel emo-tions,look forward to celebrations and also have a sense of humour.The 30-year study of Koko has redefined science's concept of gorilla intelligence.______(46)But what had not been recognised by the scientific community was that gorillas have the abil-ity to learn a language and have complex emotions.Koko lives in the Santa Cruz mountains in North America,in a wooded spot overlooking a valley._______47)She has a barrel on which she likes to sit when“talking”to humans—goril-las feel more secure when they can look down on others—while her toys are spread everywhere.In addition she has an outside enclosure where she spends her days when it is not raining.It is her conversations with her teacher,Dr. Penny Patterson,that are inspiring.Patterson explains:“The reality of my discovery is that our abilities as humans,our skills,sensibilities and emotions are very similar to the great apes._______(48)”When she began teaching Koko sign language,placing the little fingers of the one-year-old gorilla into the correct positions for“drink”,“eat”,“more”,and rewarding her with food,Dr.Patterson had no idea how quickly Koko would learn.“At first,it seemed Koko was using sign language as a tool to get something,”says Patterson.“It became the kind of reward system that you could expect of a cat or a dog.But early in her training,she began to combine signs that made me think she was capable of more.”_____(49)For example,she didn't know the word for“ring”,so she combined the signs for“ finger”and“bracelet”to express it.Dr. Patterson continues:“Koko loves babies and young people.And when she is asked what gorillas like best,she always says‘Gorilla love eat,good '.”One of Patterson's favourite stories demonstrates Koko's sense of humour.______(50)From the age of three,Koko shared her accommodation with Michael who was intended as a mate .However,Michael died suddenly two years ago of a heart attack.“Koko went into a depres-sion following Michael's death,”says Patterson.“She would sit for hours with her head hung low, looking upset.”Dr. Patterson asked her if she was looking forward to moving to Hawaii,where Patterson is raising money to build a gorilla refuge.Koko signed“Yes”,provided she could have curtains in her new home! ______(49)
[多选题]共用题干 Father's Day:All Happy Families Are AlikeSome writers are so consumed by their art that their families are eclipsed,while other writers manage an enviable closeness with their loved ones.On the occasion of Father's Day,RBTH recalls what kind of fathers the great Russian writers were and what became of their children.Leo Tolstoy,the giant of Russian literature,and his wife Sofia had 13 children,five of whom died in childhood.Tolstoy was very attentive to his family,but as his daughter Tatyana recalled, "________(46)"Tolstoy was more interested in them when they had grown up a little,when he would play with them and tell them stories.His love for his family did not deter the Count and prominent writer from giving away his property to the poor,________(47)The youngest daughter Alexandra became closest of all to Tolstoy, and she became the literary executor of his estate.Today there are more than 400 descendants of Tolstoy,the most famous of which is the writer Tatyana Tolstaya and her son Artemy Lebedev,a designer and popular blogger. Vladimir Tolstoy is the director of the"Yasnaya Polyana"Museum on the Tolstoy family estate,________(48)Four children were born to the jewel in the crown of Russian literature,the poet Alexander Pushkin,and his wife Natalya: daughters Maria and Natalya and sons Alexander and Grigory. Pushkin became distraught(忧心如焚的)when he first saw his daughter Maria. Considering himself unattractive and finding her to resemble him,________(49)But he was worrying unduly.Maria grew into a pretty young girl and a future lady-in-waiting(侍女)to the Empress, and some say that Tolstoy even gave her likeness to Anna Karenina. His eldest son Alexander emerged as a hero of the Russian-Turkish war and attained the rank of general,while the youngest son Grigory became a magistrate(法官).Pushkin's youngest daughter,the beautiful Natalya,was born just eight months before her father's fateful duel. She became the morganatic(非皇室的)spouse of the Prussian Prince Nikolai. Maria and Grigory did not have children,while Alexander fathered 13,and Natalya six.________ (50) _______(46)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Swiss BanksSince the early 1930s,Swiss banks had prided themselves on their system of banking secrecy and numbered accounts.Over the years,they had successfully withstood every challenge to this system by their own government who, in turn,had been frequently urged by foreign governments to reveal information about the financial affairs of certain account holders.The result of this policy of secrecy was that a kind of mystique had grown up around Swiss banking. There was a widely-held belief that Switzerland was irresistible to wealthy foreigners,mainly because of its numbered accounts and bankers' reluctance to ask awkward questions of depositors.Contributing to the mystique was theview,carefully propagated by the banks themselves,that if this secret was ever given up,foreigners would fall over themselves in the rush to withdraw money,and the Swiss banking system would virtually collapse overnight.To many,therefore,it came like a bolt out of the blue,when,in 1977,the Swiss banks announced they had signed a pact with the Swiss National Bank(the Central Bank).The aim of the agreement was to prevent the improper use of the country's bank secrecy laws, and its effect to curb (遏制)severely the system of secrecy.The rules which the banks had agreed to observe made the opening of numbered accounts subject to much closer scrutiny than before.The banks would be required,if necessary,to identify the origin of foreign fund going into numbered and other accounts.The idea was to stop such accounts being used for dubious(可疑的)purposes.Also,they agreed not to accept funds resulting from tax evasion or from crime.The pact represented essentially a tightening up of banking rules.Although the banks agreed to end relations with clients whose identities were unclear or who were performing improper acts,they were still not obliged to inform on a client to anyone,including the Swiss government.To some extent,therefore,the principle of secrecy had been maintained. The purpose of the pact signed with the Swiss National Bank was________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Why So Risky in Chemical FactoriesWhich is safer一staying at home,traveling to work on public transport,or working in the office?Surprisingly,each of these carries the same risk,which is very low. However,what about flying compared to working in the chemical industry?Unfortunately,the former is 65 times riskier than the latter!In fact,the accident rate of workers in the chemical industry is less than that of almost any of human activity,and almost as safe as staying at home.The trouble with the chemical industry is that when things go wrong they often cause death to those living nearby.It is this which makes chemical accidents so newsworthy.Fortunately,they are extremely rare.The most famous ones happened at Texas City(1947),Flixborough(1974),Seveso (1976),Pemex(1984)and Bhopal(1984).Some of these are always in the minds of the people even though the loss of life was small.No one died at Seveso,and only 28 workers at Flixborough.The worst accident of all was Bhopal,where up to 3,000 were killed.The Texas City explosion of fertilizer killed 552.The Pemex fire at a storage plant for natural gas in the suburbs of Mexico City took 542 lives,just a month before the unfortunate event at Bhopal.Some experts have discussed these accidents and used each accident to illustrate a particular danger. Thus the Texas City explosion was caused by tons of ammonium nitrate(硝酸铵),which is safe unless stored in great quantity.The Flixborough fireball was the fault of management,which took risks to keep production going during essential repairs.The Seveso accident shows what happens if the local authorities lack knowledge of the danger on their doorstep.When the poisonous gas drifted over the town,local leaders were incapable of taking effective action.The Pemex fire was made worse by an overloaded site in an overcrowded suburb.The fire set off a chain reaction of exploding storage tanks.Yet,by a miracle,the two largest tanks did not explode.Had these caught fire,then 3,000 strong rescue team and fire fighters would all have died. From the passage we know that ammonium nitrate is a kind of________.
[多选题]共用题干 Keeping Cut Flowers(鲜切花)1. While everybody enjoys fresh cut flowers around his/her house,few people know how to keep them for as long as possible .This may be done by keeping in mind a few simple facts.2. An important thing to remember about cut flowers is that they are sensitive to temperature.For example,studies have shown that cut carnations(康乃馨)retain their freshness eight times lon-ger when kept at 12℃than when kept at 26℃.Keeping freshly harvested flowers at the right tem-peratures is probably the most important aspect of flower care.3. Flowers are not intended by nature to live very long.Their biological purpose is simply to at-tract birds or insects,such as bees,for pollination(授粉).After that,they quickly dry up and die. The process by which flowers consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide(二氧化碳), called respiration(呼吸),generates the energy the flower needs to give the flower its shape and color. The making of seeds also depends on this energy.While all living things respire,flowers have a high level of respiration.A result of all this respiration is heat,and for flowers the level of heat relative to the mass of the flower is very high.Respiration also brings about the eventual death of the flower. Thus the greater the level of respiration,the sooner the flower dies.4. How,then,to control the rate at which flowers die?By controlling respiration.How is respi-ration controlled?By controlling temperature .We know that respiration produces heat,but the re-verse(相反的过程)is also true. Thus by maintaining low temperatures , respiration is reduced and the cut flower will age more slowly.5. Another vital factor in keeping cut flowers is the quality of the water in which they are placed. Flowers find it difficult to“drink”water that is dirty or otherwise polluted.Even when water looks and smells clean,it almost certainly contains harmful substances that can endanger the flowers. To rid the water of these unwanted substances, household chlorine bleach(漂白剂)can be used in small quantities.It is recommended that 15 drops of chlorine bleach(at 4%solution)be add-ed to each litre of water. The water and solution should also be replaced each day. A few simple facts will help you keep cut flowers________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇I was blind,but I was ashamed of it if it was known.I refused to use a white stick and hated asking for help.After all,I was a teenager girl,and I couldn't bear people to look at me and think I was not like them. I must have been a terrible danger on the roads,coming across me wandering through the traffic,motorists probably would have to step rapidly on their brakes.Apart from that, there were all sorts of disasters that used to occur on the way to and from work.One evening,I got off the bus about halfway home where I had to change buses,and as usual I ran into something."I'm awfully sorry,"I said and stepped forward only to run into it again. When it happened a third time,I realized I had been apologizing to a lamppost. This was just one of the stupid things that constantly happened to me.So I carried on and found the bus stop,which was a request stop,where the bus wouldn't stop unless passengers wanted to get on or off. No one else was there and I had to try to guess if the bus had arrived.Generally in this situation,because I hated showing I was blind by asking for help,I tried to guess at the sound. Sometimes I would stop a big lorry and stand there feeling stupid as it drew away.In the end,I usually managed to swallow my pride and ask someone at the stop for help.But on this particular evening no one joined me at the stop;It seemed that everyone had suddenly decided not to travel by bus.Of course I heard plenty of buses pass,or I thought I did.But because I had given up stopping them for fear of making a fool of myself,I let them all go by.I stood there alone for half an hour without stopping one.Then I gave up.I decided to walk on to the next stop. At the request stop that evening,the girl________.
[多选题]共用题干 A Ride in a Cable-carA ride in a cable-car is one of the exciting and enjoyable experiences a child can have.In Switzerland,which is the home of the cable-car,it is used mostly to take tourists up the slope of a mountain,to a restaurant from which one can have a bird-eye view of the surrounding country, or to a top of a ski-run,from which,in winter,skiers glide down the snow covered the slope on skis.In Singapore,however,the cable-car takes one from the summit of a hill on the main island to a low hill on Sentosa,a resort island just off the southern coast.The cable-car is really a carriage which hangs from a strong steel cable suspended in the air. It moves along the cable with other cars on pulleys,the wheels of which a re turned by electric mo-tors .The cars are painted in eye-catching colours and spaced at regular intervals.Each car can seat up six persons.After the passengers have entered a car,they are locked in from outside by an attendant,they have no control over the movement of the car.Before long,the passengers get a breath-taking view through the glass windows of the modern city,the bustling harbour,and the several islands off the coast. The car is suspended so high in the air that slips on the sea look like small boats,and boats like toys.On a clear day,both the sky above and the sea below look beautifully blue.In contrast to the fast-moving traffic on the ground,the cars in the air move in a leisurely manner,allowing passengers more than enough time to take in the scenery during the brief trip to the island of Sentosa.After a few hours on Sentosa,it will be time again to take a cable一car back to Mount Faber. The return journey is no less exciting than the outward trip. The short trip does not bother passengers who want a good view because________.
[多选题]共用题干 Federal Deposit Insurance CorporationBefore 1933,and particularly during the period 1929—1933,bank failures were not uncom-mon.________(51)a bank overextended itself in creating credit or if several of its important loans could not be________(52),depositors in the bank would frequently become panicky and begin to make large withdrawals.________(53)the bank had only a small number of its deposits backed by currency,the bank would soon be unable to meet withdrawals,and most depositors ________(54)their money.Most frequently a bank merely needed time to improve its cash posi- tion by________(55)some of its loans and not making additional ones.In 1933,the number of bank failures________(56)a peak,forcing the federal government to intervene and ________(57)the banks temporarily.To help restore the public's confidence________(58) banks and strengthen the banking community,Congress passed legislation setting up the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.________(59)corporation,an agency of the federal government, now insures over 90 percent of all mutual savings and commercial bank deposits for________(60) $100,000 per deposit.The FDIC has________(61)its insurance fund by charging member in-stitutions one-twelfth of 1 percent of their total deposits.As a result of the protection provided by the FDIC and through other kinds of supervision, bank failures have been________(62)to a few isolated instances .When deposits are federally insured,people________(63)rush to withdraw their money if they________(64)the financial condition of their bank .The delay gives the banks the necessary time to adjust their cash credit balance,and this action helps to reduce the________(65)of bankruptcy. 51._________
[多选题]共用题干 PlayPlay is the principal business of childhood,and in recent years research has shown the great importance of play in the development of a human being. From earliest infancy,every child needs opportunity and the right materials for play,and the main tools of play are toys.Their main func- tion is to suggest,encourage and assist play.To succeed in this they must he good toys,which children will play with often,and will come back to again and again.Therefore it is important to choose suitable toys for different stages of a child's development.In recent years research on infant development has shown that the standard a child is likely to reach,within the range of his inherited abilities,is largely determined in the first three years of his life .So a baby's ability to profit from the right play materials should not be underestimated.A baby,who is encouraged and stimulated,talked to and shown things and played with,has the best chance of growing up successfully.In the next stage,from three to five years old,curiosity knows no bounds.Every type of suitable toy should be made available to the child,for trying out,experimenting and learning,for discovering his own particular ability. Bricks and jigsaws(七巧板)and construction toys ; painting,scribbling(涂鸦)and making things;sand and water play;toys for imaginative and pretending play;the first social games for learning to play and get on with others.By the third stage of play development—from five to seven or eight years—the child is at school .But for a few more years play is still the best way of learning,at home or at school.It is easier to see which type of toys the child most enjoys.Until the age of seven or eight,play and work mean much the same to a child.But once reading has been mastered,then books and schools become the main source of learning.Toys are still interesting and valuable,they lead on to new hobbies,but、their significance has changed—to a child of nine or ten years,toys and games mean,as to adults,relaxation and fun. According to the passage,the abilities a child has inherited from his parents________.
[单选题]Black Holes Trigger Stars to Self-Destruct   Scientists have long understood that supermassive black holes weighing millions or billions of suns can tear apart stars that come too close. The black hotels gravity pulls harder on the nearest part of the star, an imbalance that pulls the star apart over a period of minutes or hours, once it gets close enough.   Scientists say this Uneven pulling is not the only hazard facing the star. The strain of these unbalanced forces can also trigger a nuclear explosion powerful enough to destroy the star from within. Matthieu Brassart and Jean-Pierre Luminet of the Observatoire de Paris in Meudon, France, carried out computer simulations of the final moments of such an unfortunate star's life,as it veered towards a supermassive black hole.   When the star gets close enough, the uneven forces flatten it into a pancake shape. Some previous studies had suggested this flattening would increase the density and temperature inside the star enough to trigger intense nuclear reactions that would tear it apart. But other studies had suggested that the picture would be complicated by shock waves generated during the flattening process and that no nuclear explosion should occur.   The new simulations investigated the effects of shock waves in detail,and found that even when their effects are included,the conditions favor a nuclear explosion. "There will be an explosion of the star-it will be completely destroyed," Brassart says. Although the explosion obliterates the star, it saves some of the star's matter from being devoured by the black hole. The explosion is powerful enough to hurl much of the star's matter out of the black hole's reach, he says.   The devouring of stars by black holes may already have been observed, although at a much later stage. It is thought that several months after the event that rips the star apart,its matter starts swirling into the hole itself. It heats up as it does so, releasing ultraviolet light and X-rays.   If stars disrupted near black holes really do explode, then they could in principle allow these events to be detected at a much earlier stage, says Jules Hatpern of Columbia University in New York, US. "It may make it possible to see the disruption of that star immediately if it gets hot enough," he says.   Brassart agrees. "Perhaps it can be observed in the X-rays and gamma rays, but it's something that needs to be more studied," he says. Supernova researcher Chris Fryer of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, US, says the deaths of these stars are difficult to simulate, and he is not sure whether the researchers have proven their case that they explode in the process. 文章(36~40)Something destructive could happen to a star that gets too close to a black hole. Which of the following destructive statements is NOT mentioned in the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Dog-racing and WageringMost of the dogs participating in organized competition are male or female greyhounds,although races between whippets and between salukis are also held.The racing greyhound,a slender,graceful animal weighing about 29kg(about 65lb),is in its prime at approximately the age of three; however,it actively competes between the ages of one and five.It can attain speeds of up to 64km/h (40mph).The price of a trained racing greyhound depends on its record in competition.During its racing life an outstanding greyhound may earn up to $200,000 in purses and breeding fees.Most dog-racing stadiums have specially designed facilities consisting of a grandstand,a running track, kennels, accommodations for pari-mutuel(赛马赌金计算器)betting, a judges' stand,and a system of floodlights to accommodate night racing. The racing area proper varies but is approximately 402m(1/4 mile)in length and averages 6m(20ft)in width.Its inside circumference is ringed by a metal rail along which the lure is propelled by electrical power. There are some 55 tracks currently active in the United States.Races in the United States are commonly held at the distances of 503m(5/16 mile),604m (3/8 mile),and 704m(7/16 mile).About 13 races are run during a given program,with 8 or 9 greyhounds competing in each race. The competing greyhounds are muzzled(戴上嘴套)to assist the judges in photo finishes and as a precaution against fighting. They are raced in brightly colored numbered jackets to facilitate identification by judges and spectators.As a prelude to each race,the mechanical lure is set in motion in full view of the greyhounds, which are confined in a starting box. When the lure is approximately 6m(20ft)beyond the starting box,the dogs are released in pursuit.As the race progresses,the speed of the lure is controlled so that it remains in advance of the pack.If any of the dogs interfere with the lure at any point short of the finish line,the race is automatically declared null and void.Wagering and the prospect of winning large purse amounts are the important elements in the appeal of the sport to both spectators and greyhounds owners.American stakes offer prizes up to $200,000.In the U.S.,greyhound racing is ranked sixth among spectator sports.Wagering is legal in the states of Alabama,Arizona,Arkansas,Colorado,Connecticut,Florida,Idaho,Iowa,Kansas, Massachusetts,Nevada,New Hampshire,Oregon,Rhode Island,South Dakota,Texas,Vermont, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In 1988,some 27 million spectators wagered in excess of $3 billion at U.S.dog-racing tracks. Wagering is legal in the state of________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇How We Form First ImpressionWe all have first impression of someone、just met.But why? Why do we form an opinion about someone without really knowing anything about him or her aside perhaps from a few remarks or readily observable traits?The answer is related to how your brain allows you to be~of the world.Your brain is so sensitive in picking up facial traits,Even very minor difference in how a person'5 eyes,ears,nose,or mouth are placed in relation to each other makes you see him or her as different.In fact,your brain continuously processes incoming sensory information-the sights and sounds of your world.These incoming signals are compared against a host of "memories"stored in the brain areas called the cortex(皮质)system to determine what these new signals"mean".If you see someone you know and like at school,your brain says"familiar and safe".If you see someone new it says,"new and potentially threatening".Then your brain starts to match features of this stranger with other"known"memories.The height,weight,dress,ethnicity,gestures,and tone of voice are all matched up.The more unfamiliar the characteristics are,the more your brain may say,"This is new.I don ' t like this person ".Or else , " I'm intrigued(好奇的)".Or your brain may perceive a new face but familiar clothes,ethnicity,gestures-like your other friends;so your brain says,"I like this person".But these preliminary"impressions"can be dead wrong.When we stereotype people,we use a less mature form of thinking(not unlike the immature thinking of a very young child)that makes simplistic and categorical impressions of others.Rather than learn about the depth and breadth of people-their history,interestvalues,strengths,and true character-we categorize them as jocks(骗子),peeks(反常的人),or freaks(怪人).However,if we resist initial stereotypical impressions,we have a chance to be aware of what a person is truly like.If we spend time with a person,hear about his or her life,hopes,dreams,and become aware of the person's character,we use a different,more mature style of thinking-and the most complex areas of our cortex,which allow us to be humane。 Our thinking is not mature enough when we stereotype people because_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Using Humor EffectivelyIf you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile,you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems.Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. Depending on whom you are addressing,the problems will be different. if you are talking to a group of managers,you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries;alternatively if you are addressing secretaries,you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses.Here is an example,which I heard at a nurses' convention,of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations,beautiful gardens,sunny weather,and so on.Everyone is very peaceful,polite and friendly until,waiting in a line for lunch,the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat,who rushes to the head of the line,grabs his foodand stomps over to a table by himself."Who is that?"the new arrival asked St.Peter."On,that's God,"came the reply,"but sometimes he thinks he's a doctor."If you are part of the group which you are addressing,you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it'll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman's notorious bad taste in ties.With other audiences you mustn't attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disrespect remarks about their canteen or their chairman.You will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system.If you feel awkward being humorous,you must practice so that it becomes more natural.Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile,so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark.Look for the humor' It often comes from the unexpected.A twist on a familiar quote"If at first you don't succeed,give up"or a play on words or on a situation.Search for exaggeration and understatements.Look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor. It can be inferred from the text that public services________.
[多选题]共用题干 AuctionsAuctions are public sales of goods,conducted by an officially approved auctioneer. He or she asks the assembled crowd in the auction-room to make offers,or"bids",for the various items on sale.He encourages buyers to bid higher figures,and finally names the highest bidder as the buyer of the goods.This is called"knocking down"the goods,for the bidding ends when the auctioneer bangs a small hammer on a table at which he stands.This is often set on a raised platform called a rostrum.The ancient Romans probably invented sales by auction,and the English word comes from the Latin auction,meaning"increase".The Romans usually sold in this way the spoils taken in war; these sales were called"sbu hasta",meaning"under the spear",a spear being stuck in the ground as a signal for a crowd to gather. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries goods were often sold "by the candle",a short candle was lit by the auctioneer;and bids could be made while it stayed alight.An auction is usually advertised beforehand with full particulars of the articles to be sold and where and when they can be viewed by possible buyers.If the advertisement cannot give full details, catalogues are printed,and each group of goods to be sold together,called a"lot",is usually given a number. The auctioneer need not begin with Lot 1 and continue in numerical order. He may wait until he registers the fact that certain dealers are in the room and then produce the lots they are likely to be interested in.The auctioneer's services are paid for in the form of a percentage of the price the goods are sold for. The auctioneer therefore has a direct interest in pushing up the bidding as high as possible.Practically all goods whose qualities vary are sold by auction.Among these are coffee,hides, skins,wool,tea,cocoa,furs,spices,fruit and vegetables and wines.Auction sales are also usual for land and property,antique,furniture,pictures,rare books,old china and similar works of art. The auction rooms at Christie's and Sotheby's in London and New York are world famous. Auctioned goods are sold at the lowest price.
[多选题]共用题干 Computer CrimesMore and more,the operations of our businesses,governments,and financial institutions are controlled by information that exists only inside computer memories.Anyone clever enough to modify this information for his purpose can reap substantial rewards.Even worse,________(46)It's easy for computer crimes to go undetected if no one checks up on what the computer h doing.________(47),the criminal may walk away not only unpunished but with a growing recommendation from his former employers.Of course,we have no statistics on crime that go undetected.But it's disturbing to note how many of the crimes we do know about were detected by accident,________(48)The computer criminals who have been caught may have been the victims of uncommonly bad luck.For example,________(49)Investigation revealed that the extra cards she was being asked to punch were for dishonest transactions.In another case,dissatisfied employees of the thief tipped off the company that was being robbed.Unlike other lawbreakers,who must leave the country,commit suicide,or go to jail,computer criminals sometimes escape punishment demanding not only that they not be charged but that they be given good recommendations and perhaps other benefits.All too often,their demands have been met. Why?________(50)that would result if the public found out that their computer had been misused.They hesitate at the thought of a criminalboasting in open court of how he juggled the most confidential records right under the noses of the company's executives,accountants,and security staff. And so another computer criminal departs with just the recommendations he needs to continue his crimes elsewhere. _________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 Few Facts About Singapore1.Singapore is an independent city state in southeastern Asia,consisting of one major island一the Singapore Island一and more than 50 small islands,located off the southern tip of Malay. The city of Singapore,the capital of the country,is at the southeastern end of the Singapore Island;it is one of the most important port cities and commercial centers of Southeast Asia.The total area of the republic is 640 sq.km.2. Low lying Singapore Island has no outstanding relief(轮廓鲜明的)features. A central area of hills rises to the maximum height of 176 m.The country has a wet tropical climate,with an average annual temperature of 27.20℃.The average annual rainfall is 2,413 mm;the wettest months are November through January.3. Singapore is governed under a constitution of 1959.A president,elected to a four-year term is head of state,and a prime minister is head of government.The president used to be selectedby Parliament, but by a 1991 constitutional amendment(修正案),the president is now elected directly by the people.The Parliament is the law making body with its 81 members popularly elected.4. In the late 1980s the country had some 290 primary schools with 278,300 pupils and 160 secondary schools with 200,200 students.The main institutions of higher education are the National University of Singapore,several technical colleges,and a teachers college.5. Singapore has one of the highest standards of living of any country in Asia. In the late 1980s the gross domestic product was estimated at $23.7 billion,or $8,870 per person.The fishing industry is centered on the port of During on southwestern Singapore Island.Industry has grown rapidly since the 1960s ,and Singapore now produces a diversity(多样化的)of goods ,including chemicals,electronic items,clothing,and processed foods,etc.Shipbuilding and petroleum refining are also important. Though small,Singapore has an industry of its own and can________.
[多选题]共用题干 Federal Deposit Insurance CorporationBefore 1933,and particularly during the period 1929—1933,bank failures were not uncom-mon.________(51)a bank overextended itself in creating credit or if several of its important loans could not be________(52),depositors in the bank would frequently become panicky and begin to make large withdrawals.________(53)the bank had only a small number of its deposits backed by currency,the bank would soon be unable to meet withdrawals,and most depositors ________(54)their money.Most frequently a bank merely needed time to improve its cash posi- tion by________(55)some of its loans and not making additional ones.In 1933,the number of bank failures________(56)a peak,forcing the federal government to intervene and ________(57)the banks temporarily.To help restore the public's confidence________(58) banks and strengthen the banking community,Congress passed legislation setting up the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.________(59)corporation,an agency of the federal government, now insures over 90 percent of all mutual savings and commercial bank deposits for________(60) $100,000 per deposit.The FDIC has________(61)its insurance fund by charging member in-stitutions one-twelfth of 1 percent of their total deposits.As a result of the protection provided by the FDIC and through other kinds of supervision, bank failures have been________(62)to a few isolated instances .When deposits are federally insured,people________(63)rush to withdraw their money if they________(64)the financial condition of their bank .The delay gives the banks the necessary time to adjust their cash credit balance,and this action helps to reduce the________(65)of bankruptcy. 57._________
[多选题]共用题干 Special EffectsWhat are special effects? Do you enjoy movies that use a lot of special effects Dinosaurs(恐龙) from the distant past?Space battles from the distant future!There has been a revolution in special effects,and it has transformed the movies we see.The revolution began in the mid 1970s with George Lucas's Star Wars,a film that stunned(使震惊)audiences. That revolution continues to the present, with dramatic changes in special-effectstechnology.The company behind these changes is Lucas's Industrial Light&Magic(ILM).And the man behind the company is Dennis Muren,who has worked with Lucas since Star Wars.Muren's interest in special effects began very early.At the age of 6,he was photographing toy dinosaurs and spaceships.At 10,he had an 8 millimeter movie camera and was making these things move through stop-motion.(Stop-motion is a process in which objects are shot with a camera, moved slightly,shot again,and so on.When the shots are put together,the objects appear to move. )Talk to Muren and you'll understand what ILM is all about:taking on new challenges.By 1989,Muren decided he had pushed the old technology as far as it would go.He saw computer graphics(图像)(CG) technology as the wave of the future and took a year off to master it.With CG technology,images can be scanned into a computer for processing,for example,and many separate shots can be combined into a single image.CG technology has now reached the point, Muren says,where special effects can be used to do just about anything so that movies can tell stories better than ever before. The huge success of Jurassic Park and its sequel(续集),The Lost World,the Stars of which were computer-generated dinosaurs,suggests that this may very well be true. ILM is the company responsible for many of the changes in special一effects technology.
[多选题]共用题干 Federal Deposit Insurance CorporationBefore 1933,and particularly during the period 1929—1933,bank failures were not uncom-mon.________(51)a bank overextended itself in creating credit or if several of its important loans could not be________(52),depositors in the bank would frequently become panicky and begin to make large withdrawals.________(53)the bank had only a small number of its deposits backed by currency,the bank would soon be unable to meet withdrawals,and most depositors ________(54)their money.Most frequently a bank merely needed time to improve its cash posi- tion by________(55)some of its loans and not making additional ones.In 1933,the number of bank failures________(56)a peak,forcing the federal government to intervene and ________(57)the banks temporarily.To help restore the public's confidence________(58) banks and strengthen the banking community,Congress passed legislation setting up the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.________(59)corporation,an agency of the federal government, now insures over 90 percent of all mutual savings and commercial bank deposits for________(60) $100,000 per deposit.The FDIC has________(61)its insurance fund by charging member in-stitutions one-twelfth of 1 percent of their total deposits.As a result of the protection provided by the FDIC and through other kinds of supervision, bank failures have been________(62)to a few isolated instances .When deposits are federally insured,people________(63)rush to withdraw their money if they________(64)the financial condition of their bank .The delay gives the banks the necessary time to adjust their cash credit balance,and this action helps to reduce the________(65)of bankruptcy. 60._________
[多选题]共用题干 Gorillas Have a Word for itKoko is the first gorilla to have been taught sign language .With a vocabulary of more than 1,000 words,she is the first to prove we share a world with other intelligent beings who feel emo-tions,look forward to celebrations and also have a sense of humour.The 30-year study of Koko has redefined science's concept of gorilla intelligence.______(46)But what had not been recognised by the scientific community was that gorillas have the abil-ity to learn a language and have complex emotions.Koko lives in the Santa Cruz mountains in North America,in a wooded spot overlooking a valley._______47)She has a barrel on which she likes to sit when“talking”to humans—goril-las feel more secure when they can look down on others—while her toys are spread everywhere.In addition she has an outside enclosure where she spends her days when it is not raining.It is her conversations with her teacher,Dr. Penny Patterson,that are inspiring.Patterson explains:“The reality of my discovery is that our abilities as humans,our skills,sensibilities and emotions are very similar to the great apes._______(48)”When she began teaching Koko sign language,placing the little fingers of the one-year-old gorilla into the correct positions for“drink”,“eat”,“more”,and rewarding her with food,Dr.Patterson had no idea how quickly Koko would learn.“At first,it seemed Koko was using sign language as a tool to get something,”says Patterson.“It became the kind of reward system that you could expect of a cat or a dog.But early in her training,she began to combine signs that made me think she was capable of more.”_____(49)For example,she didn't know the word for“ring”,so she combined the signs for“ finger”and“bracelet”to express it.Dr. Patterson continues:“Koko loves babies and young people.And when she is asked what gorillas like best,she always says‘Gorilla love eat,good '.”One of Patterson's favourite stories demonstrates Koko's sense of humour.______(50)From the age of three,Koko shared her accommodation with Michael who was intended as a mate .However,Michael died suddenly two years ago of a heart attack.“Koko went into a depres-sion following Michael's death,”says Patterson.“She would sit for hours with her head hung low, looking upset.”Dr. Patterson asked her if she was looking forward to moving to Hawaii,where Patterson is raising money to build a gorilla refuge.Koko signed“Yes”,provided she could have curtains in her new home! ______(47)
[多选题]共用题干 To Have and Have NotIt had been boring hanging about the hotel all afternoon.The road crew were playing a game with dollar notes.Folding them into small planes to see whose would fly the furthest.Having nothing better to do,I joined in and won five,and then took the opportunity to escape with my profit. Despite the evil-looking clouds,I had to get out for a while.I headed for a shop on the other side of the street. Unlike the others,it didn't have a sign shouting its name and business,and instead of the usual impersonal modern lighting,there was an appealing glow inside.Strangely nothing was displayed in the window.Not put off by this,I went inside.It took my breath away.I didn't know where to look,where to start. On one wall there hung three hand-stitched American quilts that were in such wonderful condition they might have been newly -made .I came across tin toys and antique furniture,and on the wall in front of me,a 1957 stratocaster guitar,also in excellent condition.A card pushed between the strings said $50.I ran my hand along a long shelf of records,reading their titles.And there was more..."Can I help you?"She startled me.I hadn't even seen the woman behind the counter come in.The way she looked at me,so directly and with such power. It was a look of such intensity that for a moment I felt as if I were wrapped in some kind of magnetic or electrical field.I found it hard to take and almost turned away.But though it was uncomfortable.I was fascinated by the experi- ence of her looking straight into me,and by the feeling that I was neither a stranger,nor strange, to her.Besides amusement her expression showed sympathy. It was impossible to tell her age.She reminded me faintly of my grandmother because,although her eyes were friendly.I could see that she was not a woman to fall out with .I spoke at last."I was just looking really",I said,though secretly wondering how much of the stuff I could cram into the bus.The woman turned away and went at once towards a back room,indicating that I should follow her. But it in no way lived up to the first room.The light made me feel peculiar,too.It came from an oil lamp that was hung from the centre of the ceiling and created huge shadows over eve-rything. There were no rare electric guitars,no old necklaces,no hand-painted boxes with deli-cate flowers.It was also obvious that it must have taken years,decades,to collect so much rub-bish,so many old documents arid papers.I noticed some old books,whose gold lettering had faded, making their titles impossible to read."they look interesting",I said,with some hesitation."To be able to understand that kind of writing you must first have had a similar experience",she said clearly.She noted the confused look on my face,but didn't add anything.She reached up for a small book which she handed to me."This is the best book I can give you at the moment",she laughed."If you use it."I opened the book to find it full,or rather empty,with blank white pages,but paid her the few dollars she asked for it,becoming embar-rassed when I realised the notes were still folded into little paper planes.I put the book in my pocket,thanked her and left. What attracted the writer to the shop?
[多选题]共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech- nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would run out of food were wrong. We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there- fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen for many years,and continues to drop.2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business, they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient. And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super- markets get bigger,the prices get lower.3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro- ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000 global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food corn- panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225 g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120zportion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to change the trend. Paragraph 2__________
[多选题]共用题干 Physician-assisted Suicide1.The Supreme Court's decisions on physician-assisted suicide carry important implications forhow medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering.2.Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide,the Court in effect supported the medical principle of"double effect,"a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects一a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen一is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.3.Doctors have used that principle in recent years to justify using high dose of morphine to control terminally ill patients' pain,even though increasing dosages will eventually kill the patient.4.Nancy Dubler,director of Montefiore Medical Center,contends that the principle will shield doctors who until now have very,very strongly insisted that they could not give patients sufficient medication to control their pain if that might hasten death.5.George Annas,chair of the health law department at Boston University,maintains that, as long as a doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose,the doctor has done nothingillegal even if the patient uses the drug to hasten death."It's like surgery,"he says."We don't callthose deaths homicides because the doctors didn't intend to kill their patients,although they risked their death.If you're a physician,you can risk your patient's suicide as long as you don't intend theirsuicide."On another level,many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted-suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying.6.Just three weeks before the Court's ruling on physician-assisted suicide,the National Academy of Science(NAS)released a two-volume report,Approaching Death:Improving Care atthe End of Life.It identifies the under-treatment of pain and the aggressive use of"ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying" as the twin problems of end-of-life care.7. The profession is taking steps to require young doctors to train in hospices(临终关怀医院), to test knowledge of aggressive pain management therapies,to develop a Medicare billing code for hospital-based care,and to develop new standards for assessing and treating pain at the end of life. Annas says lawyers can play a key role in insisting that these well-meaning medical initiatives trans-late into better care. Paragraph 1________
[多选题]共用题干 Albert Einstein's Brain1.It doesn't take an Einstein to recognize that Albert Einstein's brain was very different from yours and mine.The gray matter housed inside that shaggy head managed to revolutionize our concepts of time,space,motion一the very foundations of physical reality一not just once but several times during his astonishing career. Yet while there clearly had to be something remarkable about Einstein's brain,the pathologist who removed it from the great physicist's skull after his death reported that the organ was,to all appearances,well within the normal range一no bigger or heavier than anyone else's.2.But a new analysis of Einstein's brain by Canadian scientists,reported in the current Lancet, reveals that it has some distinctive physical characteristics after all. A portion of the brain that governs mathematical ability and spatial reasoning一two key ingredients to the sort of thinking Einstein did best一was significantly larger than average and may also have had more interconnections among its cells,which could have allowed them to work together more effectively.3.In 1996,Harvey gave much of his data and a significant fraction of the tissue itself to Dr. Sandra Witelson,a neuroscientist who maintains a"brain bank"at McMaster for comparative studies of brain structure and function.These normal,undiseased brains,willed to science by people whose intelligence had been carefully measured before death, gave Witelson a solid set of benchmarks against which to measure the seat of Einstein's brilliant thoughts.Not only was Einstein's inferior parietal region unusually bulky the scientists found,but a feature called the Sylvian fissure was much smaller than average.Without this groove that normally slices through the tissue,the brain cells were packed close together,permitting more interconnections一which in principle can permit more cross-referencing of information and idea, leading to great leaps of insight.4.That's the idea,anyway.But while it's quite plausible according to current neurological theory,that doesn't necessarily,make it true.We know Einstein was a genius,and we now know that his brain was physically different from the average.But none of this proves a cause-and-effect relationship."What you really need,"says McLean's Benes,"is to look at the brains of a number of mathematical geniuses to see if the same abnormalities are present."5.Even if they are,it's possible that the bulked一up brains are a result of strenuous mental exercise,not an inherent feature that makes genius possible.Bottom line:we still don't know whether Einstein was born with an extraordinary mind or whether he earned it,one brilliant idea at a time. Paragraph 2________
[多选题]共用题干 Rising Tuition in the USEvery spring,US university administrators gather to discuss the next academic year's budget. They consider faculty salaries,utility costs for dormitories,new building needs and repairs to old ones. They run the numbers and conclude一it seems,inevitably一that,yet again,the cost of tuition must go up.According to the US's College Board,the price of attending a four-year private university in the US rose 81 percent between 1993 and 2004.________(46)In 2005 and 2006,the numbers continued to rise.According to university officials,college cost increases are simply the result of balancing university checkbooks."Tuition increases at Cedarville University are determined by our revenue needs for each year."said the university's president,Dr Bill Brown."Student tuition pays for 78 percent ofthe university's operating costs." Brown's school is a private university that enrolls about 3,100 undergrads and is consistently recognized by annual college ranking guides like US News and World Report's and The Princeton Review's.________(47)Tuition at private universities is set by administration officials and then sent for approval to theschool's board of trustees (董事).________(48)This board oversees(监管)all of a state's publicinstitutions.John Durham,assistant secretary to the board of trustees at East Carolina University(ECU), explains that state Law says that public institutions must make their services available wheneverpossible to the people of the state for free.Durham said that North Carolina residents only pay 22 percent of the cost of their education.________(49)State residents attending ECU pay about US $10,000 for tuition,room and board before financial aid.Amid the news about continued increases in college costs,however,there is some good news. Tuition increases have been accompanied by roughly equal increases in financial aid at almost every university.To receive financial aid,US students complete a formal application with the federal government. The federal government then decides whether an applicant is eligible(有资格的)for grants or loans.________(50) __________(47)
[多选题]共用题干 When Our Words Collide"Wanna buy a body?"That was the opening line of more than a few phone calls I got from freelance (自由职业)photographers when I was a photo editor at U.S.News.Like many in the mainstream press, I wanted to separate the world of photographers into "them",who trade in pictures of bodies or chase celebrities,and"us",the serious news people.But after 16 years in that role,I came to wonder whether the two worlds were easily distinguishable.Working in the reputable world of journalism,I assigned photographers to cover other people'5 nightmares.I justified invading moments of grief, under the guise(借口)of the reader' s right to know.I didn't ask photographers to trespass(冒犯)or to stalk(跟踪),but I didn't have to.I worked with pros (同行)who did what others did, talking their way into situations or shooting from behind police lines to get pictures I was after.And I wasn't alone.In the aftermath of a car crash or some other hideous incident when ordinary people are hurt or killed, you rarely see photographers pushing past rescue workers to capture the blood and gore(血腥场面).But you are likely to see local newspaper and television photographers on the scene-and fast.How can we justify our behavior?Journalists are taught to separate doing the job from worrying about the consequence of publishing what they record.Repeatedly,they are reminded of a news-business dictum (格言):leave your conscience in the office.You get the picture of the footage ; the decision whether to print or air it comes later.A victim may lie bleeding,unconscious,or dead;your job is to record the image.You put away your emotions and document the scene.Te act this way partly because we know that the pictures can have important meaning.Photographs can change deplorable(凄惨的)situations by mobilizing public outrage or increase public understanding.However,disastrous events often bring out the worst in photographers and photo editors.In the first minutes and hours after a disaster occurs,photo agencies buy pictures.Often an agency buys a picture from a local newspaper or an amateur photographer arid put it up for bid by major magazines.The most keenly sought"exclusives"command tens of thousands of dollars through bidding contests.Many people believe that journalists need to change the way they do things,and it's our pictures that annoy people the most.Readers may not believe,as we do,that there is a distinction between sober-minded"us" and sleazy(低级庸俗的)"them".In too many cases, by our choices of images as well as how we get them,we prove our readers right. The writer was a? photographer sixteen years ago.
[多选题]共用题干 Smartphone Customers Up for GrabAbout 10 years ago I met an advertising executive in New York who explained the difficulty of advertising a new brand of deodorant(除臭剂)to consumers."Most people never change their deodorant,"I remember him saying,"They pick one brand when they are young,and stick with it for a long,long time.If it works,why switch?"The same theory can be applied________(46)Once they have picked a type of phone, whether it's Apple iOS,Google Android or something else,it's difficult,and often expensive,to switch.Consumers become comfortable with the interface and design of the phone and the apps they have purchased on that platform.________(47)That is why the race to pull in smartphone buyers is going to be especially severe over the next 18 to 24 months.________(48)there are still hundreds of millions of mobile phone owners around the world who have yet to move from a standard mobile or feature phone to its smarter,moreintelligent big brother:the smartphone.Yet the change is happening at a much quicker pace than technology analysts and companies originally theorized.A report issued this week by Nielsen,the market research firm,found that among Americans________(49)55 percent opted for a smartphone.This is up from 34 percent a year ago.At this point,who will lead that market is not up for debate.Android has been growing at a pace no one could have imagined,even Google.The company said this week that it now activates more than 500,000 Android devices each day.Mr. Llamas said Apple,which changed the smartphone game in 2007 when it introduced the iPhone,potentially has a ceiling with consumers as its mobile phone is often more expensive than those of its competitors.Although millions of customers flock to Apple products for their beauty,simplicity and powerful brand,many can't afford a new iPhone.This could change________(50)As some analysts expect. "Right now the iPhone only comes in one flavor;it's not like other Apple products like the iPod where there are several different sizes,shapes and prices,"Mr. Llamas said. _______(48)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇A New Strategy to Overcome Breast CancerPost-menopausal(绝经后的)women who walk for an hour a day can cut their chance of breast cancer significantly,a study has suggested.The report,which followed 73,000 women for 17 years,found walking for at least seven hours a week lowered the risk of the disease.The American Cancer Society team said this was the first time reduced risk was specifically linked to walking.UK experts said it was more evidence that lifestyle influenced cancer risk?A recent poll for the charity Ramblers found a quarter of adults walk for no more than an hour a week,but being active is known to reduce the risk of a number of cancers.This study,published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers&Prevention,followed 73,615 women out of 97,785 aged 50-74 who had been recruited by the American Cancer Society between 1992 and 1993,so it could monitor the incidence of cancer in the group.They were asked to complete questionnaires on their health and on how much time they were active and participating in activities such as walking, swimming and aerobics(有氧运动)and how much time they spent sitting watching television or reading.They completed the same questionnaires at two-year intervals between 1997 and 2009.Of the women,47%said walking was their only recreational activity.Those who walked for at least seven hours per week had a 14% lower risk of breast cancer compared to those who walked three or fewer hours per week.Dr.Alpa Pate1,a senior epidemiologist at the American Cancer society in Atlanta,Georgia,who led the study,said,"Given that more than 60% of women report some daily walking,promoting walking as a healthy leisure-time activity,could be an effective strategy for increasing physical activity amongst post-menopausal women.We were pleased to find that without any other recreational activity,just walking one hour a day was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer in these women." " More strenuous(紧张的)and longer activities lowered the risk even more."Baroness Delyth Morgan,chief executive of Breast Cancer Campaign,said,"This study adds further evidence that our lifestyle choices can play a part in influencing the risk of breast cancer,and even small changes incorporated into our normal day-to-day activity can make a difference."She added,"We know that the best weapon to overcome breast cancer is 'the ability to stop it occurring in the first place.The challenge now is how we turn these findings into action and identify other sustainable lifestyle changes that will help us prevent breast cancer." The word"sustainable"in the last paragraph is closest in meaning to________.