综合A

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Water Resources on the EarthThe second most important constituent(构成成分)of the biosphere(生物圈)is liquid water. This can only exist in a very narrow range of temperatures,since water freezes at 0℃and boils a 100℃.Life as we know it would only be possible on the surface of a planet which had temperature: somewhere within this narrow range.The earth's supply of water probably remains fairly constant in quantity.The total quantity of water is not known very accurately,but it is about enough to cover the surface of the globe to a depth of about two and three-quarter kilometers.Most of it is in the form of the salt water of the oceans一about 97 percent. The rest is fresh.But three-quarters of this is in the form of ice at the poles and or mountains and cannot be used by living systems until melted.Of the remaining fraction,which h somewhat less than one percent of the whole.There is 10—20 times as much stored underground water as there is actually on the surface.There is also a tiny,but extremely important fraction of the water supply which is present as water vapour in the atmosphere.Water vapour in the atmosphere is the channel through which the whole water circulation(循环) of the biosphere has to pass.Water evaporated(蒸发)from the surface of the oceans,from lakes and rivers and from moist(潮湿的)earth is added to it. From it the water comes out again as rain or snow,falling on either the sea or the land. There is,as might be expected, a more intensive evaporation per unit area over the sea and oceans than over the land,but there is more rainfall over the land than over the oceans and the balance is restored by the run off from the land in the form of rivers. The word"fraction"in the second paragraph means________.
[多选题]共用题干 Special EffectsWhat are special effects? Do you enjoy movies that use a lot of special effects Dinosaurs(恐龙) from the distant past?Space battles from the distant future!There has been a revolution in special effects,and it has transformed the movies we see.The revolution began in the mid 1970s with George Lucas's Star Wars,a film that stunned(使震惊)audiences. That revolution continues to the present, with dramatic changes in special-effectstechnology.The company behind these changes is Lucas's Industrial Light&Magic(ILM).And the man behind the company is Dennis Muren,who has worked with Lucas since Star Wars.Muren's interest in special effects began very early.At the age of 6,he was photographing toy dinosaurs and spaceships.At 10,he had an 8 millimeter movie camera and was making these things move through stop-motion.(Stop-motion is a process in which objects are shot with a camera, moved slightly,shot again,and so on.When the shots are put together,the objects appear to move. )Talk to Muren and you'll understand what ILM is all about:taking on new challenges.By 1989,Muren decided he had pushed the old technology as far as it would go.He saw computer graphics(图像)(CG) technology as the wave of the future and took a year off to master it.With CG technology,images can be scanned into a computer for processing,for example,and many separate shots can be combined into a single image.CG technology has now reached the point, Muren says,where special effects can be used to do just about anything so that movies can tell stories better than ever before. The huge success of Jurassic Park and its sequel(续集),The Lost World,the Stars of which were computer-generated dinosaurs,suggests that this may very well be true. Dennis Muren started his schooling at a very early age.
[多选题]共用题干 When Our Words Collide"Wanna buy a body?"That was the opening line of more than a few phone calls I got from freelance (自由职业)photographers when I was a photo editor at U.S.News.Like many in the mainstream press, I wanted to separate the world of photographers into "them",who trade in pictures of bodies or chase celebrities,and"us",the serious news people.But after 16 years in that role,I came to wonder whether the two worlds were easily distinguishable.Working in the reputable world of journalism,I assigned photographers to cover other people'5 nightmares.I justified invading moments of grief, under the guise(借口)of the reader' s right to know.I didn't ask photographers to trespass(冒犯)or to stalk(跟踪),but I didn't have to.I worked with pros (同行)who did what others did, talking their way into situations or shooting from behind police lines to get pictures I was after.And I wasn't alone.In the aftermath of a car crash or some other hideous incident when ordinary people are hurt or killed, you rarely see photographers pushing past rescue workers to capture the blood and gore(血腥场面).But you are likely to see local newspaper and television photographers on the scene-and fast.How can we justify our behavior?Journalists are taught to separate doing the job from worrying about the consequence of publishing what they record.Repeatedly,they are reminded of a news-business dictum (格言):leave your conscience in the office.You get the picture of the footage ; the decision whether to print or air it comes later.A victim may lie bleeding,unconscious,or dead;your job is to record the image.You put away your emotions and document the scene.Te act this way partly because we know that the pictures can have important meaning.Photographs can change deplorable(凄惨的)situations by mobilizing public outrage or increase public understanding.However,disastrous events often bring out the worst in photographers and photo editors.In the first minutes and hours after a disaster occurs,photo agencies buy pictures.Often an agency buys a picture from a local newspaper or an amateur photographer arid put it up for bid by major magazines.The most keenly sought"exclusives"command tens of thousands of dollars through bidding contests.Many people believe that journalists need to change the way they do things,and it's our pictures that annoy people the most.Readers may not believe,as we do,that there is a distinction between sober-minded"us" and sleazy(低级庸俗的)"them".In too many cases, by our choices of images as well as how we get them,we prove our readers right. Many people say that they are annoyed by the U.S.News pictures.
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching Is“One of the Least Popular Jobs in the UK”1. The UK government has just published a report on the future of secondary-school teaching (pupils aged 11-16),and the conclusion of the report is that many secondary schools now face great difficulties in finding people who want to be teachers.Since the 1980s,the number of grad-uates who say they would“seriously consider”teaching as a career has fallen sharply,from 64% in 1982 to just 17%today.The report suggests that urgent action needs to be taken in order to encourage more intelligent young graduates into teaching.2. The main drawback of secondary teaching,according to the report,is the low salary.Earnings in teaching are much lower than in many other jobs,and this means that fewer and fewer young people decide to be teachers.Joanne Manners,24 is a good example:“I graduated in maths last year,and I was thinking of doing a teacher training course to become a maths teacher,but when I looked into the details , it became clear that teaching isn't a very lucrative(赚钱的)job these days .I saw I could earn twice as much if I worked in marketing or advertising,and so I decided not to become a teacher.”3 .It's not just about the money,however. The survey concluded that another reason why people don't want to be teachers is that some teenagers behave very badly in school. A lot of schools have problems with discipline,and it seems clear that children do not have the same respect for teachers as in the past.Here's the view of Dave Hallam,an accountant from London:“I think parents are to blame .They should have stricter rules with their children at home and also teach their children to have more respect for teachers.”4.“I love teaching;it's my passion.I've been a secondary-school teacher of Spanish for ten years now,and although it's a very demanding job,it's very satisfying.When I see my students passing their Spanish exams,or singing along to Spanish pop songs,It makes me feel so proud.” Says Brian Jones,who works in a secondary school in London.So what does he think the government should do to encourage more people to become teachers?“My view is that the government should reduce the burden of work on teachers.I find that I always have too much work to do.”5.The report is clear that the problem of teacher shortage is a very serious one.It says that the government should raise teachers' pay significantly,to catch up with workers in other professions. It also suggests that the government could launch a nationwide publicity campaign,with some advertisements on TV and in the newspapers,to show the positive sides of teaching to young people. Another solution could be set a maximum number of hours per week that teachers can work,in order to reduce stress on teachers.“Hopefully,”the report concludes,“these solutions can improve the poor image of secondary teaching,and increase the number of young people who want to become teachers in the future.” The government should reduce the workload on teachers to ease______.
[多选题]共用题干 Man of Few WordsEveryone chases success,but not all of us want to be famous.South African writer John Maxwell Coetzee is _______(51)for keeping to himself. When the 63-year-old man was named the 2003 Nobel Prize winner for literature,reporters were warned that they would find him"particularly difficult to_________(52)".Coetzee lives in Australia but spends part of the year teaching at the, University of Chicago.He seemed _________(53)by the news that he won the US $1.3 million prize."It came as a complete surprise.I wasn't even aware they were due to make the announcement,"he said. His_________(54)of privacy led to doubts as to whether Coetzee will attend prize-giving in Stockholm,Sweden,on December 10.But despite being described as_______(55)to track down,the critics agree that his writing is easy to get to know.Born in Cape Town,South Africa,to an English-speakingfamily,Coetzee_______(56)his break-through in 1980 with the novel"Waiting for the Barbarians".He__________(57)hisplace among the world's leading writers with two Booker prize victories,Britain's highest honour for novels.He first _______(58)in 1983 for the Life and Times of Michael K and his second title came in 1999 for Disgrace.A major theme in his work is South Africa's former apartheid system,which divided whites from blacks. _______(59)with the problems of violence,crime and racial division that still exist in the country,his books have enabled ordinary people to understand apartheid_________(60)within."I have always been more interested in the past than the future,"he said in a rare interview."The past________(61)its shadow over the present.I hope I have made one or two people think _______(62)about whether they want to forget the past completely."In fact this purity in his writing seems to be_________(63)in his personal life.Coetzee is a vegetarian,a cyclist rather than a motorist and he doesn't drink alcohol.But what he has________(64)to literature,culture and the people of South Africa is far greater than the things he has given up."In looking at weakness and failure in life,"the Nobel prize judging panel said,"Coetzee's work_________(65)the divine spark in man." _________(60)
[多选题]共用题干 Physician-assisted Suicide1.The Supreme Court's decisions on physician-assisted suicide carry important implications forhow medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering.2.Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide,the Court in effect supported the medical principle of"double effect,"a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects一a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen一is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.3.Doctors have used that principle in recent years to justify using high dose of morphine to control terminally ill patients' pain,even though increasing dosages will eventually kill the patient.4.Nancy Dubler,director of Montefiore Medical Center,contends that the principle will shield doctors who until now have very,very strongly insisted that they could not give patients sufficient medication to control their pain if that might hasten death.5.George Annas,chair of the health law department at Boston University,maintains that, as long as a doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose,the doctor has done nothingillegal even if the patient uses the drug to hasten death."It's like surgery,"he says."We don't callthose deaths homicides because the doctors didn't intend to kill their patients,although they risked their death.If you're a physician,you can risk your patient's suicide as long as you don't intend theirsuicide."On another level,many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted-suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying.6.Just three weeks before the Court's ruling on physician-assisted suicide,the National Academy of Science(NAS)released a two-volume report,Approaching Death:Improving Care atthe End of Life.It identifies the under-treatment of pain and the aggressive use of"ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying" as the twin problems of end-of-life care.7. The profession is taking steps to require young doctors to train in hospices(临终关怀医院), to test knowledge of aggressive pain management therapies,to develop a Medicare billing code for hospital-based care,and to develop new standards for assessing and treating pain at the end of life. Annas says lawyers can play a key role in insisting that these well-meaning medical initiatives trans-late into better care. Paragraph 2________
[多选题]共用题干 Man of Few WordsEveryone chases success,but not all of us want to be famous.South African writer John Maxwell Coetzee is _______(51)for keeping to himself. When the 63-year-old man was named the 2003 Nobel Prize winner for literature,reporters were warned that they would find him"particularly difficult to_________(52)".Coetzee lives in Australia but spends part of the year teaching at the, University of Chicago.He seemed _________(53)by the news that he won the US $1.3 million prize."It came as a complete surprise.I wasn't even aware they were due to make the announcement,"he said. His_________(54)of privacy led to doubts as to whether Coetzee will attend prize-giving in Stockholm,Sweden,on December 10.But despite being described as_______(55)to track down,the critics agree that his writing is easy to get to know.Born in Cape Town,South Africa,to an English-speakingfamily,Coetzee_______(56)his break-through in 1980 with the novel"Waiting for the Barbarians".He__________(57)hisplace among the world's leading writers with two Booker prize victories,Britain's highest honour for novels.He first _______(58)in 1983 for the Life and Times of Michael K and his second title came in 1999 for Disgrace.A major theme in his work is South Africa's former apartheid system,which divided whites from blacks. _______(59)with the problems of violence,crime and racial division that still exist in the country,his books have enabled ordinary people to understand apartheid_________(60)within."I have always been more interested in the past than the future,"he said in a rare interview."The past________(61)its shadow over the present.I hope I have made one or two people think _______(62)about whether they want to forget the past completely."In fact this purity in his writing seems to be_________(63)in his personal life.Coetzee is a vegetarian,a cyclist rather than a motorist and he doesn't drink alcohol.But what he has________(64)to literature,culture and the people of South Africa is far greater than the things he has given up."In looking at weakness and failure in life,"the Nobel prize judging panel said,"Coetzee's work_________(65)the divine spark in man." _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Dog-racing and WageringMost of the dogs participating in organized competition are male or female greyhounds,although races between whippets and between salukis are also held.The racing greyhound,a slender,graceful animal weighing about 29kg(about 65lb),is in its prime at approximately the age of three; however,it actively competes between the ages of one and five.It can attain speeds of up to 64km/h (40mph).The price of a trained racing greyhound depends on its record in competition.During its racing life an outstanding greyhound may earn up to $200,000 in purses and breeding fees.Most dog-racing stadiums have specially designed facilities consisting of a grandstand,a running track, kennels, accommodations for pari-mutuel(赛马赌金计算器)betting, a judges' stand,and a system of floodlights to accommodate night racing. The racing area proper varies but is approximately 402m(1/4 mile)in length and averages 6m(20ft)in width.Its inside circumference is ringed by a metal rail along which the lure is propelled by electrical power. There are some 55 tracks currently active in the United States.Races in the United States are commonly held at the distances of 503m(5/16 mile),604m (3/8 mile),and 704m(7/16 mile).About 13 races are run during a given program,with 8 or 9 greyhounds competing in each race. The competing greyhounds are muzzled(戴上嘴套)to assist the judges in photo finishes and as a precaution against fighting. They are raced in brightly colored numbered jackets to facilitate identification by judges and spectators.As a prelude to each race,the mechanical lure is set in motion in full view of the greyhounds, which are confined in a starting box. When the lure is approximately 6m(20ft)beyond the starting box,the dogs are released in pursuit.As the race progresses,the speed of the lure is controlled so that it remains in advance of the pack.If any of the dogs interfere with the lure at any point short of the finish line,the race is automatically declared null and void.Wagering and the prospect of winning large purse amounts are the important elements in the appeal of the sport to both spectators and greyhounds owners.American stakes offer prizes up to $200,000.In the U.S.,greyhound racing is ranked sixth among spectator sports.Wagering is legal in the states of Alabama,Arizona,Arkansas,Colorado,Connecticut,Florida,Idaho,Iowa,Kansas, Massachusetts,Nevada,New Hampshire,Oregon,Rhode Island,South Dakota,Texas,Vermont, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In 1988,some 27 million spectators wagered in excess of $3 billion at U.S.dog-racing tracks. During competition,dogs________will be in its prime time of performance.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Dog-racing and WageringMost of the dogs participating in organized competition are male or female greyhounds,although races between whippets and between salukis are also held.The racing greyhound,a slender,graceful animal weighing about 29kg(about 65lb),is in its prime at approximately the age of three; however,it actively competes between the ages of one and five.It can attain speeds of up to 64km/h (40mph).The price of a trained racing greyhound depends on its record in competition.During its racing life an outstanding greyhound may earn up to $200,000 in purses and breeding fees.Most dog-racing stadiums have specially designed facilities consisting of a grandstand,a running track, kennels, accommodations for pari-mutuel(赛马赌金计算器)betting, a judges' stand,and a system of floodlights to accommodate night racing. The racing area proper varies but is approximately 402m(1/4 mile)in length and averages 6m(20ft)in width.Its inside circumference is ringed by a metal rail along which the lure is propelled by electrical power. There are some 55 tracks currently active in the United States.Races in the United States are commonly held at the distances of 503m(5/16 mile),604m (3/8 mile),and 704m(7/16 mile).About 13 races are run during a given program,with 8 or 9 greyhounds competing in each race. The competing greyhounds are muzzled(戴上嘴套)to assist the judges in photo finishes and as a precaution against fighting. They are raced in brightly colored numbered jackets to facilitate identification by judges and spectators.As a prelude to each race,the mechanical lure is set in motion in full view of the greyhounds, which are confined in a starting box. When the lure is approximately 6m(20ft)beyond the starting box,the dogs are released in pursuit.As the race progresses,the speed of the lure is controlled so that it remains in advance of the pack.If any of the dogs interfere with the lure at any point short of the finish line,the race is automatically declared null and void.Wagering and the prospect of winning large purse amounts are the important elements in the appeal of the sport to both spectators and greyhounds owners.American stakes offer prizes up to $200,000.In the U.S.,greyhound racing is ranked sixth among spectator sports.Wagering is legal in the states of Alabama,Arizona,Arkansas,Colorado,Connecticut,Florida,Idaho,Iowa,Kansas, Massachusetts,Nevada,New Hampshire,Oregon,Rhode Island,South Dakota,Texas,Vermont, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In 1988,some 27 million spectators wagered in excess of $3 billion at U.S.dog-racing tracks.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Making a Loss Is the Height of FashionGiven that a good year in the haute couture(高级定制女装)business is one where you lose even more money than usual,the prevailing mood in Paris last week was sensational.The big-name designers were fall- ing over themselves to boast of how many outfits they had sold at below cost price,and how this proved that the fashion business was healthier than ever. Jean-Paul Gaultier reported record sales,"but we don't makeany money out of it,"the designer assured journalists backstage."No matter how successful you are,you can't make a profit from couture,"explained Jean-Jacques Picart,a veteran fashion PR man,and co-founder of the now-bankrupt Lacroix house.Almost 20 years have passed since the unusual economics of the couture business were first exposed. Outraged that he was losing money on evening dresses costing tens of thousands of pounds,the couturier Jean-Louis Scherrer published a detailed summary of his costs.One outfit he described curtained over half a mile of gold thread ,18 ,000 sequins(亮片),and had required hundreds of hours of hand-stitching in an ate- her(制作室).A fair price would have been£50 ,000, but the couturier could only get£35,000 for it. Rather than riding high on the foolishness of the super-rich,he and his team could barely feed their hungry families.The result was an outcry and the first of a series of government-and industry-sponsored inquiries into the surreal(超现实的)world of ultimate fashion. The trade continues to insist that couture offers you more than you pay for,but it's not as simple as that.When such a temple of old wealth starts talking about value for money,it jsn't to convince anyone that dresses costing as much as houses are a bargain.Rather,it is to pre- serve the peculiar mystique(神秘),lucrative(利润丰厚的)associations and threatened interests that couture represents.Essentially,the arguments couldn't be simpler. On one side are those who say that the business will die if it doesn't change.On the other are those who say it will die if it does.What's not in doubt is that haute couture一the term translates as"high sewing”一is highly dated. Huge in its costs,tiny in its clientele and questionable in its influence,it still remains one of the great themes of Parisian life.In his book,The Fashion Conspiracy , Nicholas Coleridge estimates that the entire couture industry rests on the whims(一时兴起)of less than 30 immensely wealthy women,and although the number may have grown in recent years with the new prosperity of Asia,the number of couture customers worldwide is no more than 4,000.To qualify as couture,a garment must be entirely handmade by one of the 1 1 Paris couture houses regis- tered to the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture.Each house must employ at least 20 people,and show a minimum of 75 new designs a year. So far, so traditional,but the Big Four operators一Chanel,Dior,Givenchy and Gaultier一increasingly use couture as a marketing device for their far more profitable ready-to-wear,fra- grance and accessory lines.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Life Connected with ComputerAfter too long on the Net,even a phone call can be a shock.My boyfriend's Liverpudlian accent sud- denly becomes indecipherable after the clarity of his words on screen,a secretary's tone seems more rejecting than I'd imagined it would be.Time itself becomes fluid一hours become minutes,and alternately seconds stretch into days.Weekends,once a highlight of my week,are now just two ordinary days.For the last three years,since I stopped working as a producer for Charlie Rose,I have done much of my work as a telecommuter. I submit articles and edit them via E-mail and communicate with colleagues on In- ternet mailing lists.My boyfriend lives in England,so much of our relationship is computer-mediated.If I desired,I could stay inside for weeks without wanting anything.I can order food,and manage my money,love and work.In fact,at times I have spent as long as three weeks alone at home,going out only to get mail and buy newspapers and groceries.I watched most of the blizzard of 96 on TV.But after a while,life itself begins to feel unreal.I start to feel as though I've merged with my ma- chines,taking data in,spitting them back out,just another node on the Net.Others on line report the same symptoms.We start to strongly dislike the outside forms of socializing. It's like attending an A.A.meeting in a bar with everyone holding a half-sipped drink.We have become the Net Opponents' worst nightmare.What first seemed like a luxury,crawling from bed to computer,not worrying about hair,and clothes and face,has become an avoidance,a lack of discipline.And once you start replacing real human contact with cy- ber-interaction,coming back out of the cave can be quite difficult.At times,I turn on the television and just leave it to chatter in the background,something that I'd never done previously.The voices of the programs soothe me,but then I'm jarred by the commercials.I find myself sucked in by soap operas,or compulsively needing to keep up with the latest news and the weather."Date- line,""Frontline,""Nightline,"CNN,NewYork 1,every possible angle of every story over and over,evenwhen they are of no possible use to me.Work moves from foreground to background. What is the author's attitude to the comnputer?
[多选题]共用题干 On SleepBaekeland and Hartmann report that the"short sleepers"had been more or less average in their sleep needs until the men were in their teens.But at about age 15 or so,the men voluntarily began cutting down their nightly sleep time because of pressures from school,work,and other activities.These men tended to view their nightly periods of unconsciousness as bothersome interruptions in their daily routines.In general,these"short sleepers" appeared ambitious,active,energetic,cheerful,conformist(不动摇)in their opinions,and very sure about their career choices. They often held several jobs at once,or workers full or part-time while going to school.And many of them had a strong urge to appear"normal"or"acceptable"to their friends and associates.When asked to recall their dreams,the"short sleepers"did poorly.More than this,they seemed to prefer not remembering.In similar fashion,their usual way of dealing with psychological problems was to deny that the problem existed,and then to keep busy in the hope that the trouble would go away.The sleep patterns of the"short sleepers"were similar to,but less extreme than,sleep patterris shown by many mental patients categorized as manic(疯人).The"long sleepers"were quite different indeed.Baekeland and Hartmann report that these young men had been lengthy sleeps since childhood.They seemed to enjoy their sleep,protected it,and were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest.They tended to recall their dreams much better than did the"short sleepers."Many of the " long sleepers " were shy , anxious , introverted(内向),inhibited(压抑), passive,mildly depressed,and unsure of themselves(particularly in social situations).Several openly states that sleep was an escape from their daily problems. When sometimes long sleepers cannot enjoy adequate sleep,they might______.
[多选题]共用题干 InflationBusiness and government leaders also consider the inflation rate to be an important general indicator. Inflation is a period of increased spending that causes rapid rises in prices.________(51)your money buys fewer goods so that you get________(52)for the same amount of money as before,inflation is the problem. There is a general rise________(53)the price of goods and services.Your money buys less.Sometimes people describe inflation as a time when"a dollar is not worth a dollar anymore".Inflation is a problem for all consumers.People who live on a fixed income are hurt the ________(54).Retired people,for instance,cannot count on an increase in income as prices rise. Elderly people who do not work face serious problems in stretching their incomes to________(55) their needs in time of inflation.Retirement income________(56)any fixed income usually does not rise as fast as prices.Many retired people must cut their spending to________(57)rising prices.In many cases they must stop________(58)some necessary items,such as food and clothing. Even________(59)working people whose incomes are going up,inflation can be a problem.The________(60)of living goes up,too.People who work must have even more money to keep up their standard of living.Just buying the things they need costs more.When incomes do not keep________(61)with rising prices,the standard of living goes down.People may be earning the same amount of money,but they are not living as well because they are not able to buy as many goods and services.Government units gather information about prices in our economy and publish it as price indexes ________(62)the rate of change can be determined.A price index measures changes in prices using the price for a________(63)year as the base.The base price is set at 100,and the otherprices are reported as a________(64)of the base price.A price index makes________(65)possible to compare current prices of typical consumer goods,for example,with prices of the samegoods in previous years. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Dog-racing and WageringMost of the dogs participating in organized competition are male or female greyhounds,although races between whippets and between salukis are also held.The racing greyhound,a slender,graceful animal weighing about 29kg(about 65lb),is in its prime at approximately the age of three; however,it actively competes between the ages of one and five.It can attain speeds of up to 64km/h (40mph).The price of a trained racing greyhound depends on its record in competition.During its racing life an outstanding greyhound may earn up to $200,000 in purses and breeding fees.Most dog-racing stadiums have specially designed facilities consisting of a grandstand,a running track, kennels, accommodations for pari-mutuel(赛马赌金计算器)betting, a judges' stand,and a system of floodlights to accommodate night racing. The racing area proper varies but is approximately 402m(1/4 mile)in length and averages 6m(20ft)in width.Its inside circumference is ringed by a metal rail along which the lure is propelled by electrical power. There are some 55 tracks currently active in the United States.Races in the United States are commonly held at the distances of 503m(5/16 mile),604m (3/8 mile),and 704m(7/16 mile).About 13 races are run during a given program,with 8 or 9 greyhounds competing in each race. The competing greyhounds are muzzled(戴上嘴套)to assist the judges in photo finishes and as a precaution against fighting. They are raced in brightly colored numbered jackets to facilitate identification by judges and spectators.As a prelude to each race,the mechanical lure is set in motion in full view of the greyhounds, which are confined in a starting box. When the lure is approximately 6m(20ft)beyond the starting box,the dogs are released in pursuit.As the race progresses,the speed of the lure is controlled so that it remains in advance of the pack.If any of the dogs interfere with the lure at any point short of the finish line,the race is automatically declared null and void.Wagering and the prospect of winning large purse amounts are the important elements in the appeal of the sport to both spectators and greyhounds owners.American stakes offer prizes up to $200,000.In the U.S.,greyhound racing is ranked sixth among spectator sports.Wagering is legal in the states of Alabama,Arizona,Arkansas,Colorado,Connecticut,Florida,Idaho,Iowa,Kansas, Massachusetts,Nevada,New Hampshire,Oregon,Rhode Island,South Dakota,Texas,Vermont, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In 1988,some 27 million spectators wagered in excess of $3 billion at U.S.dog-racing tracks. What will happen to the dogs who are short of the finish line?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇DNA TestingDNA testing reveals the genes of each individual person.Since the early twentieth century scientists have known that all human characteristics are contained in a person's genes and are passed from parents to children.Genes work as a chemical instruction manual for each part and each function of the body.Their basic chemical element is called DNA,a copy of which can be found in every cell. The existence of genes and the chemical structure of DNA were understood by the mid-1900s,but scientists have only recently been able to identify a person from just a drop of blood or a single hair.One of the most important uses of DNA testing is in criminal investigation.The very first use of DNA testing in a criminal case was in 1985 in Great Britain,when a man confessed to killing a young woman in the English countryside.Because police had found samples of the killer's DNA at the scene of the crime,a biologist suggested that it might be possible to compare that DNA to some from the confessor's blood.To everyone's surprise,the tests showed that he was not the killer. Nor was he guilty of a similar murder thathad happened some time earlier. At that point he admitted that he had confessed to the crimes out of fear and police pressure.The police then asked 5,000 local men for samples of their blood,and DNA testing revealed that one of them was the real murderer,so the first man was set free.In 1992,two law professors,Peter Neufeld and Bany Scheck,decided to use DNA evidence to help set free such mistakenly convicted prisoners.With the help of their students.they created a not-for-profit organizationcalled the Innocence Project. Most of their clients are poor men,many from racial and ethnic minorities.In fact,studies have shown that U. S. judges and juries are often influenced by racial and ethnic background,and that people from minority groups are more likely to be convicted. Some of these men had been sentenced to death,a form of punishment used in thirty eight states out of fifty(as of 2006).For most of these prisoners,their only hope was another trial in which DNA testing could be used to prove their innocence.Between 1992 and 2006,the Innocence Project helped free 100 men.Some of these prisoners had been in jail for ten,twenty years or more for crimes they did not commit.However,the goal of the Innocence Project is not simply to set free those who are wrongfully in jail.They also hope to bring about real changes in the criminal justice system.Illinois in the late 1990s,a group of journalism students at Northwestern University were able to bring about such a change in that state.They began investigating some Illinois prisoners who claimed to be inno- cent. Through DNA testing,the students were able to prove that in fact the prisoners were not guilty of the crimes they had been accused of. Thirteen of these men were set free,and in 2000,Governor Ryan of Illinois decided to stop carrying out death sentences until further study could be made of the prisoners' cases。The use of DNA in criminal cases is still being debated around the world.Some fear that governments will one day keep records of everyone'sDNA,which could put limits on the privacy and freedom of citizens. Other people mistrust the science of DNA testing and think that lawyers use it to get their clients free whether or not they are guilty.But for those whose innocence has been proven and who are now free men,DNA testing has meant nothing less than a return to life.And with the careful use of DNA testing,no innocent person should ever be convicted again. What is the main idea of this passage?
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Life Connected with ComputerAfter too long on the Net,even a phone call can be a shock.My boyfriend's Liverpudlian accent sud- denly becomes indecipherable after the clarity of his words on screen,a secretary's tone seems more rejecting than I'd imagined it would be.Time itself becomes fluid一hours become minutes,and alternately seconds stretch into days.Weekends,once a highlight of my week,are now just two ordinary days.For the last three years,since I stopped working as a producer for Charlie Rose,I have done much of my work as a telecommuter. I submit articles and edit them via E-mail and communicate with colleagues on In- ternet mailing lists.My boyfriend lives in England,so much of our relationship is computer-mediated.If I desired,I could stay inside for weeks without wanting anything.I can order food,and manage my money,love and work.In fact,at times I have spent as long as three weeks alone at home,going out only to get mail and buy newspapers and groceries.I watched most of the blizzard of 96 on TV.But after a while,life itself begins to feel unreal.I start to feel as though I've merged with my ma- chines,taking data in,spitting them back out,just another node on the Net.Others on line report the same symptoms.We start to strongly dislike the outside forms of socializing. It's like attending an A.A.meeting in a bar with everyone holding a half-sipped drink.We have become the Net Opponents' worst nightmare.What first seemed like a luxury,crawling from bed to computer,not worrying about hair,and clothes and face,has become an avoidance,a lack of discipline.And once you start replacing real human contact with cy- ber-interaction,coming back out of the cave can be quite difficult.At times,I turn on the television and just leave it to chatter in the background,something that I'd never done previously.The voices of the programs soothe me,but then I'm jarred by the commercials.I find myself sucked in by soap operas,or compulsively needing to keep up with the latest news and the weather."Date- line,""Frontline,""Nightline,"CNN,NewYork 1,every possible angle of every story over and over,evenwhen they are of no possible use to me.Work moves from foreground to background. The phrase"coming back out of the cave"in the fifth paragraph means_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Why So Risky in Chemical FactoriesWhich is safer一staying at home,traveling to work on public transport,or working in the office?Surprisingly,each of these carries the same risk,which is very low. However,what about flying compared to working in the chemical industry?Unfortunately,the former is 65 times riskier than the latter!In fact,the accident rate of workers in the chemical industry is less than that of almost any of human activity,and almost as safe as staying at home.The trouble with the chemical industry is that when things go wrong they often cause death to those living nearby.It is this which makes chemical accidents so newsworthy.Fortunately,they are extremely rare.The most famous ones happened at Texas City(1947),Flixborough(1974),Seveso (1976),Pemex(1984)and Bhopal(1984).Some of these are always in the minds of the people even though the loss of life was small.No one died at Seveso,and only 28 workers at Flixborough.The worst accident of all was Bhopal,where up to 3,000 were killed.The Texas City explosion of fertilizer killed 552.The Pemex fire at a storage plant for natural gas in the suburbs of Mexico City took 542 lives,just a month before the unfortunate event at Bhopal.Some experts have discussed these accidents and used each accident to illustrate a particular danger. Thus the Texas City explosion was caused by tons of ammonium nitrate(硝酸铵),which is safe unless stored in great quantity.The Flixborough fireball was the fault of management,which took risks to keep production going during essential repairs.The Seveso accident shows what happens if the local authorities lack knowledge of the danger on their doorstep.When the poisonous gas drifted over the town,local leaders were incapable of taking effective action.The Pemex fire was made worse by an overloaded site in an overcrowded suburb.The fire set off a chain reaction of exploding storage tanks.Yet,by a miracle,the two largest tanks did not explode.Had these caught fire,then 3,000 strong rescue team and fire fighters would all have died. From the passage we know that ammonium nitrate is a kind of________.
[多选题]共用题干 Battle Hymn of Tiger MotherIn general,I think Western parenting gives children too much freedom at too young an age.The average American child spends almost 70 percent more time watching television than attending school.In the recent PISA international tests,the US came out an embarrassing 23rd in science and 34th in math一with Shanghai children ranked No 1.Western children have alarming rates of alcohol and drug abuse and teenage pregnancy,too.On the other hand,American universities continue to be the envy of the world,and the US excels at teaching creativity,innovation and leadership.What are the lessons for China then?Here are a few things China may be able to learn from the West.First,while children in the West have too much choice,their counterparts in China may have too little.In between school,tutoring and lessons,many Chinese children work nonstop,getting little opportunity to have fun with friends,explore on their own and discover what they truly enjoy.What I learned is that as children grow up,parents should listen to their choices more carefully and graduallygive them more freedom to pursue their own passions.Second,Chinese parents should pay more attention to their children's individual personalities. Every child is different. So depending on children's natural predispositions(秉性),different career paths will make them happy. Some people may find it more fulfilling to become a photographer or fashion designer instead of a doctor. If Chinese parents become more open-minded in what they consider"success",it may help lessen the intense competition and pressure that many Chinese children feel.Finally,Chinese parents are good at getting their children to memorize,practice and drill一skills I believe the West needs more of一but they should also find ways to encourage creativity and initiative.My daughters were lucky because my husband taught them the value of independent thinking. He always asked"why".Just because someone told you so,how do you know it's right?Parenting is the hardest job I've ever had.When Lulu rebelled and I began questioning everything I'd done.I feel very lucky that I adjusted in time一today my daughters and I are close friends一and I wanted to share my story with other mothers,because we are all struggling with the same problem:how can we raise happy,strong,self-reliant children? Western parents needs to get their children memorize and practice and drill to encourage their initiative.
[多选题]共用题干 Man of Few WordsEveryone chases success,but not all of us want to be famous.South African writer John Maxwell Coetzee is _______(51)for keeping to himself. When the 63-year-old man was named the 2003 Nobel Prize winner for literature,reporters were warned that they would find him"particularly difficult to_________(52)".Coetzee lives in Australia but spends part of the year teaching at the, University of Chicago.He seemed _________(53)by the news that he won the US $1.3 million prize."It came as a complete surprise.I wasn't even aware they were due to make the announcement,"he said. His_________(54)of privacy led to doubts as to whether Coetzee will attend prize-giving in Stockholm,Sweden,on December 10.But despite being described as_______(55)to track down,the critics agree that his writing is easy to get to know.Born in Cape Town,South Africa,to an English-speakingfamily,Coetzee_______(56)his break-through in 1980 with the novel"Waiting for the Barbarians".He__________(57)hisplace among the world's leading writers with two Booker prize victories,Britain's highest honour for novels.He first _______(58)in 1983 for the Life and Times of Michael K and his second title came in 1999 for Disgrace.A major theme in his work is South Africa's former apartheid system,which divided whites from blacks. _______(59)with the problems of violence,crime and racial division that still exist in the country,his books have enabled ordinary people to understand apartheid_________(60)within."I have always been more interested in the past than the future,"he said in a rare interview."The past________(61)its shadow over the present.I hope I have made one or two people think _______(62)about whether they want to forget the past completely."In fact this purity in his writing seems to be_________(63)in his personal life.Coetzee is a vegetarian,a cyclist rather than a motorist and he doesn't drink alcohol.But what he has________(64)to literature,culture and the people of South Africa is far greater than the things he has given up."In looking at weakness and failure in life,"the Nobel prize judging panel said,"Coetzee's work_________(65)the divine spark in man." _________(62)
[多选题]共用题干 "Happy Birthday to You"The main problem in discussing American popular culture is also one of its main characteristics:it won't stay American.No matter what it is,whether it is films,food and fashion,music,casual sports or slang, it's soon at home elsewhere in the world.There are several theories why American popular culture has had this appeal.One theory is that it has been"advertised"and marketed through American films,popular music,and more recently,television.________(46)They are,after all,in competition with those produced by other countries. Another theory,probably a more common one,is that American popular culture is internationally associ-ted with something called"the spirit of America"._______(47)The final theory is less complex:American popular culture is popular because a lot of people in theworld like it.Regardless of why it spreads,American popular culture is usually quite rapidly adopted and then adapted in many other countries.________(48)"Happy Birthday to You",for instance,is such an everyday song tha its source,its American copyright,so to speak,is not remembered.Black leather jackets worn by many heroe in American movies could be found,a generation later,on all those young men who wanted to make this manly-look their own.Two areas where this continuing process is most clearly seen are clothing and music.Some people canstill remember a time when T-shirts,jogging clothes,tennis shoes,denim jackets,and blue jeans were notcommon daily wear everywhere.Only twenty years ago,it was possible to spot an American in Paris by his or her clothes.No longer so:Those bright colors,checkered jackets and trousers,hats and socks which were once made fun of in cartoons are back again in Paris as the latest fashion._____(49)The situation with American popular music is more complex because in the beginning,when it was still clearly American,it was often strongly resisted.Jazz was once thought to be a great danger to youth and their morals,and was actually outlawed in several countries.Today,while still showing its rather American roots, has become so well established.Rock 'n' roll and all its variations,country & western music,all have moi or less similar histories.They were first resisted,often in America as well,as being"low-class",and then: "a danger to our nation's youth".______(50)And then the music became accepted and was extende and developed,and exported back to the US.46.________(46)A.As a result,its American origins and roots are often quickly forgotten.B.But this theory fails to explain why American films,music,and television programs are so popular in then selves.C.American in origin,informal clothing has become the world's first truly universal style.D.The BBC,for example,banned rock and roll until 1962.E.American food has become popular around the world,too.F.This spirit is variously described as being young and free,optimistic and confident,informal and disrespectfu. ________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 The Forbidden AppleNew York used to be the city that never sleeps.Theses days it's the city that never smokes,drinks or does anything naughty(at least,not in public).The Big Apple is quickly turning into the Forbidden Apple.If you wanted a glass of wine with your picnic in Central Park,could you have one?No chance.Drinking alcohol in public isn't allowed. If you decided to feed the birds with the last crumbs(碎屑)of your sandwich, you could be arrested.It's illegal.If you went to a bar for a drink and a cigarette,that would be OK,wouldn't it?Er…no.You can't smoke in public in New York City.What's going on?Why is the city that used to be so open-minded becoming like this?The mayor of New York is behind it all.He has brought in a whole lot of new laws to stop citizens from doing what they want, when they want.The press are shocked.Even the New York police have joined the argument.They recently spent $100,000 on a"Don't blame the cop"campaign.One New York police officer said,"We raise money for the city by giving people fines for breaking some very stupid laws.It's all about money."The result is a lot of fines for minor offences.Yoav Kashida,an Israeli tourist,fell asleep on the subway. When he woke up,two police officers fined him because he had fallen asleep on two seats(you mustn't use two seats in the subway).Elle and Serge Schroitman were fined for blocking a driveway with their car. It was their own driveway.The angry editor of Vanity Fair magazine,Graydon Carter,says,"Under New York City law it is accept- able to keep a gun in your place of work,but not an empty ashtray."He should know.The police came to his office and took away his ashtray(烟灰缸).But not all of the New York's inhabitants are complaining. Marcia Dugarry,72,said,"The city has changed for the better. If more cities had these laws,America would be a better place to live."Nixon Patotkis, 38,a barman,said,"I like the new laws.If people smoked in here,we'd go home smelling of cigarettes."Recent figures show that New York now has fewer crimes per 100,000 people than 193 other US cities. And it's true一it's safer,cleaner and more healthy than before.But let's be honest一who goes to New York for its clean streets? Elle and Serge Schroitman parked their car on the public driveway.
[多选题]共用题干 Us Blacks Hard-hit by CancerDeath rates for cancer are falling for all Americans,but black Americans are still more likely to die of cancer than whites,the American Cancer Society said Monday. In a special report on cancer and blacks,the organization said blacks are usually diagnosed with cancer later than whites,and they are more likely to die of the disease.This could be because of unequal access to medical care,because blacks are more likely to have other diseases like diabetes as well,and perhaps because of differences in the biology of the cancer itself,the report added. "In general,African Americans have less likelihood of surviving five years after diagnosis than whites for all cancer sites and all stages of diagnosis,"the report said."In describing cancer statistics for Mrican Americans,this report recognizes that socioeconomic disparities and unequal access to medical care may underlie many of the differences associated with race." The Cancer Society said blacks should be encouraged to get check-ups earlier,when cancer is more treatable,and it said more research was needed to see if biological differences play a role."The new statistics emphasize the continuing importance of eliminating these social disparities through public policy and education efforts,"the organization said in a statement. But it also noted a drop in cancer death rates."Cancer death rates in both sexes for all sites combined have declined substantially among African Amnericans since 1992,as have incidence rates,"said the report. "Increased efforts to improve economic conditions in combination with education about the relationship of lifestyle choices to cancer could further reduce the burden of cancer among African Americans."About 36 million Americans describe themselves as black,representing about 12 percent of the population. Black Americans are more likely to die of cancer than______.
[多选题]共用题干 Less Is MoreIt sounds all wrong-drilling holes in a piece of wood to make it more resistant to knocks.But it works because the energy from the blow gets distributed throughout the wood rather than focusing on one weak spot.The discovery should lead to more effective and lighter packaging materials.Carpenters have known______(51) centuries that some woods are tougher than others.Hickory(山核桃木),for example, was turned into axe handles and cartwheel spokes(轮辐)because it can absorb shocks without breaking.White oak,for example,is much more easily damaged,______(52)it is almost as dense.Julian Vincent at Bathe University and his team were convinced that the wood's internal structure could explain the differences. Many trees have tubular(管状的)vessels that run _______(53) the trunk and carry water to the leaves.In oak they are large,and arranged in narrow bands,but in hickory they are smaller,and moreevenly distributed.The researchers_______(54)this layout might distribute a blow's energy throughout the wood,soaking up a bigger hit.To test the idea,they drilled holes 0.65 millimetres across into a block of spruce(云杉),a wood with ________( 55 ) vessels , and found that______( 56 ) withstood a harder knock.______(57)when there were more than about 30 holes per square centimetre did the wood's performance drop off. A uniform substance doesn't cope well with knocks because only a small proportion of the material is actually______(58).All the energy from the blow goes towards breaking the material in one or two places , but often the pieces left ______(59 ) are pristine(未经破坏的).But instead of the energy being concentrated in one place,the holes provide many weak spots that all absorb energy as they break,says Vincent."You are controlling the places_______(60)the wood breaks,and it can then absorb more______(61),more safely."The researchers believe the principle could be applied to any material________(62)example,to manufacture lighter and more protective packaging.It could_______(63)be used in car bumpers,crash barriers and armour for military vehicles,says Ulrike Wegst,a_______(64)at the Max Plank Institute for Mental Research in Stuttgart.But she emphasizes that you______(65)to design the substance with the direction of force in mind. "The direction of loading is crucial,"she says. 65._________
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Goal of American EducationEducation is an enormous and expensive part of American life.Its size is matched by its variety.Differences in American schools compared with those found in the majority of other countries lie in the fact that education here has long been intended for everyone一not just for a privileged elite.Schools are ex- pected to meet the needs of every child,regardless of ability,and also the needs of society itself. This means that public schools offer more than academic subjects.It surprises many people when they come here to find high schools offering such courses as typing,sewing,radio repair,computer programming or driver training, along with traditional academic subjects such as mathematics,history,and languages.Students choose their curricula depending on their interests,future goals,and level of ability. The underlying goal of American edu-cation is to develop every child to the utmost of his or her own possibilities,and to give each one a sense ofcivic and community consciousness.Schools have traditionally played an important role in creating national unity and"Americanizing"the millions of immigrants who have poured into this country from many different backgrounds and origins. Schools still play a large role in the community,especially in the small towns.The approach to teaching may seem unfamiliar to many,not only because it is informal,but also because there is not much emphasis on learning facts.Instead,Americans try to teach their children to think for themselves and to develop their own intellectual and creative abilities.Students spend much time,learning how to use resource materials,libraries,statistics and computers.Americans believe that if children are taught to reason well and to research well,they will be able to find whatever facts they need throughout the rest of their lives.Knowing how to solve problems is considered more important than the accumulation offacts.This is America's answer to the searching question that thoughtful parents all over the world are asking themselves in the fast-moving time:"How can one prepare today's child for a tomorrow that one can neitherpredict nor understand?" It is implied in the passage that_________.
[多选题]共用题干 The Fat Problem That Men FaceIt is a pleasure to see men of a certain age worrying about their weight.Listening to them is not such a pleasure.Because the men are new at the game,they don't hesitate to discuss the fat problem incessantly. However,women of the same age do not discuss the fat problem,especially not in mixed company.They prefer to face the problem with quiet dignity.Discussing the problem might only draw attention to some stray body part that may be successfully tucked away under an article of clothing.The age at which a man begins to explore the fat problem can vary.The actual problem can manifest itself in the early 30's,but broad-range discussion usually starts later.There are early nonverbal symptoms. I've watched the rugged journalist who shares my apartment sneak by with a Diet Coke.His shirts are no longer neatly tucked in to display a trim waist.Recently he has begun to verbalize his anxiety.He tells me, with a sheepish grin,that he is taking his suits to Chinatown to have them"tailored".Still older men have lost their dignity and rattle on unabashedly.Often wives and children play important roles in their fat-inspection rituals.Take my oldest brother,a former college football player,as an example.His daughter says that several times a day he will stand at attention and call out,"Fat,medium or thin?" She knows the correct answer:medium.Thin would be an obvious stretch,and fat may not get her that new video.According to his wife,he stands in front of the mirror in the morning(before the day's meals take their toll),puts his hands be- hind his head and lurches into a side bend,then clutches the roll that has developed and says,"Am I getting fat- ter?"His wife is expected to answer,"You look like you may have lost a few pounds."And then there are the ex-husbands a pitiful group.They are extremely vocal.When I go to the movies with one,he confides that he is suffering from great hunger because he is dieting.He hasn't eaten since the pancakes and sausages he wolfed down that morning.He pauses in his monologue while he buys his popcorn. After the movie,we sprint to a restaurant,where he again pauses to devour a basket of bread.Before he orders his chaste salad and soup,he grows plaintive.Do I think he's fat? Men usually begin to worry about their weight when they are nearly 40.
[多选题]共用题干 Rising Tuition in the USEvery spring,US university administrators gather to discuss the next academic year's budget. They consider faculty salaries,utility costs for dormitories,new building needs and repairs to old ones. They run the numbers and conclude一it seems,inevitably一that,yet again,the cost of tuition must go up.According to the US's College Board,the price of attending a four-year private university in the US rose 81 percent between 1993 and 2004.________(46)In 2005 and 2006,the numbers continued to rise.According to university officials,college cost increases are simply the result of balancing university checkbooks."Tuition increases at Cedarville University are determined by our revenue needs for each year."said the university's president,Dr Bill Brown."Student tuition pays for 78 percent ofthe university's operating costs." Brown's school is a private university that enrolls about 3,100 undergrads and is consistently recognized by annual college ranking guides like US News and World Report's and The Princeton Review's.________(47)Tuition at private universities is set by administration officials and then sent for approval to theschool's board of trustees (董事).________(48)This board oversees(监管)all of a state's publicinstitutions.John Durham,assistant secretary to the board of trustees at East Carolina University(ECU), explains that state Law says that public institutions must make their services available wheneverpossible to the people of the state for free.Durham said that North Carolina residents only pay 22 percent of the cost of their education.________(49)State residents attending ECU pay about US $10,000 for tuition,room and board before financial aid.Amid the news about continued increases in college costs,however,there is some good news. Tuition increases have been accompanied by roughly equal increases in financial aid at almost every university.To receive financial aid,US students complete a formal application with the federal government. The federal government then decides whether an applicant is eligible(有资格的)for grants or loans.________(50) __________(46)
[多选题]共用题干 Pool Watch______(46)The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents says that on average 1 5 pe6ple drown in British pools each year,but many more suffer major injury after getting into difficulties.Nowa French company has developed an artificial intelligence system called Poseidon that sounds the alarm when it sees someone in danger of drowning.When a swimmer sinks towards the bottom of the pool,the new system sends an alarm signal to a poolside monitoring station and a lifeguard ' s pager(携带式电子呼叫机).In trials at a pool in Ancenis , it saved a life within just a few months,says Alistair McQuade,a spokesman for its maker,Poseidon Technologies.______(47)AI software analyses the images to work out swimmers'trajectories(轨迹).To do this re-liably,it has to tell the difference between a swimmer and the shadow of someone being cast onto the bottom or side of the pool."The underwater environment is a very dynamic one,with many shadows and reflections dancing around,"says McQuade.The software does this师"projecting" a shape in its field of view onto an image of the far wall of the pool.It does the same with an image from another camera viewing the shape from a different angle.If the two projections are in the same position,the shape is identified as a shadow and is ignored.______(48)To pick out potential drowning victims,anyone in the water who starts to descend slowly is added to the software's"pre-alert"list,says McQuade.______(49)Poseidon double-checks that the image really is of a swimmer,not a shadow, by seeing whether it obscures the pool's floor texture when viewed from overhead.if so, it alerts the lifeguard,showing the swimmer's location on a poolside screen.The first full-scale Poseidon system will be officially opened next week at a pool in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire.______(50)Baylis runs a company that installs swimming pools-and he was once an underwater escapologist (擅长从捆扎的绳索中脱身的杂技演员)with a circus." I say full marks to them if this works and can save lives,"he says. ______(49)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The Exploding Lakes of CameroonWhat comes to mind when you think of a lake?You probably imagine a pretty scene with blue water,birds,and fish.For the people in the northwestern Cameroon,however,the image is very different. For them,lakes may mean terrible disasters.In 1984,poisonous gases exploded out of Lake Monoun and came down into the nearby villages,killing thirty-seven people.Two years later,Lake Nyos erupted.A cloud of gases rolled down the hills and into the valleys and killed 1,700 people.Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun are crater(火山口)lakes. They were formed when water collected in the craters of old volcanoes.The volcanoes under Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun are not active anymore.However,poisonous gases from the center of the earth continue to flow up through cracks in the bottom of the lake.This is normal in a crater lake.In most crater lakes,these gases are released often because the water"turns over"regularly.That is,the water from the bottom of the lake rises and mixes with the water at the top,allowing the gases to escape slowly.However,in Lakes Nyos and Monoun,there is no regular turning over. No one knows the reason for this fact,but as a result,these lakes have more gases trapped at the bottom than other crater lakes.In fact,scientists who have studied Lakes Nyos and Monoun have found 16,000 times more gases. When a strong wind , cool weather, a storm, or a landslide(滑坡)causes the water to turn over suddenly,the gases escape in a violent explosion.In the past,no one knew when the gases might explode,so there was no way for the villagers to escape disaster. Now scientists from the United States,France,and Cameroon have found a way to reduce the gas pressure at the bottom of Lake Nyos.They stood a 672-foot plastic pipe in the middle of the lake,with one end of the pipe near the bottom and the other end in the air. Near the top of the pipe,the team put several holes that could be opened or closed by a computer. Now,when the gas pressure gets too high,the holes are opened and some of the gas-filled water shoots up through the nine into the air like a fountain.With less pressure,a disastrous explosion is much less likely.However,the scientists are not sure that one pipe will be enough to prevent explosions.They hope to put in others soon and they plan to install a similar pipe and a computer system at Lake Monoun as well.To protect people nearby until all of the pipes are in place,the scientists have installed early warning systems at both lakes.If the gas pressure rises to a dangerous level,computers will set off loud sirens(警报)and bright lights to warn the people in the villages. In that way,they will have time to escape from the dangerous gases. Which of the following statements about Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun is true?
[多选题]共用题干 Man of Few WordsEveryone chases success,but not all of us want to be famous.South African writer John Maxwell Coetzee is______(51)for keeping to himself.When the 63-year-old man was named the 2003 Nobel Prize winner for literature,reporters were warned that they would find him"particularly difficult to______(52)".Coetzee lives in Australia but spends part of the year teaching at the University of Chicago.He seemed ______(53)by the news that he won the US $1.3 million prize."It came as a complete surprise.I wasn't even aware they were due to make the announcement,"he said.His_______(54)of privacy led to doubts as to whether Coetzee will attend prize-giving in Stockholm, Sweden,on December 10.But despite being described as_______(55)to track down,the critics agree that his writing is easy to get to know.Born in Cape Town,South Africa,to an English-speaking family,Coetzee______(56)his break- through in 1980 with the novel"Waiting for the Barbarians".He_______(57)his place among the wor1d's leading writers with two Booker prize victories,Britain's highest honour for novels.He first _______(58)in 1983 for the Life and Times of Michael K and his second title came in 1999 for Disgrace.A major theme in his work is South Africa's former apartheid system,which divided whites from blacks. _______(59)with the problems of violence,crime and racial division that still exist in the country,his books have enabled ordinary people to understand apartheid_______(60)within."I have always been more interested in the past than the future,"he said in a rare interview."The past_______(61)its shadow over the present.I hope I have made one or two people think _______(62)about whether they want to forget the past completely."In fact,this purity in his writing seems to be______(63)in his personal life.Coetzee is a vegetarian,a cyclist rather than a motorist and he doesn't drink alcohol.But what he has______(64)to literature,culture and the people of South Africa is far greater than the things he has given up."In looking at weakness and failure in life,"the Noble prize judging panel said,"Coetzee's work_______(65)the divine spark in man." 65._________
[多选题]共用题干 InflationBusiness and government leaders also consider the inflation rate to be an important general indicator. Inflation is a period of increased spending that causes rapid rises in prices.________(51)your money buys fewer goods so that you get________(52)for the same amount of money as before,inflation is the problem. There is a general rise________(53)the price of goods and services.Your money buys less.Sometimes people describe inflation as a time when"a dollar is not worth a dollar anymore".Inflation is a problem for all consumers.People who live on a fixed income are hurt the ________(54).Retired people,for instance,cannot count on an increase in income as prices rise. Elderly people who do not work face serious problems in stretching their incomes to________(55) their needs in time of inflation.Retirement income________(56)any fixed income usually does not rise as fast as prices.Many retired people must cut their spending to________(57)rising prices.In many cases they must stop________(58)some necessary items,such as food and clothing. Even________(59)working people whose incomes are going up,inflation can be a problem.The________(60)of living goes up,too.People who work must have even more money to keep up their standard of living.Just buying the things they need costs more.When incomes do not keep________(61)with rising prices,the standard of living goes down.People may be earning the same amount of money,but they are not living as well because they are not able to buy as many goods and services.Government units gather information about prices in our economy and publish it as price indexes ________(62)the rate of change can be determined.A price index measures changes in prices using the price for a________(63)year as the base.The base price is set at 100,and the otherprices are reported as a________(64)of the base price.A price index makes________(65)possible to compare current prices of typical consumer goods,for example,with prices of the samegoods in previous years. _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 AuctionsAuctions are public sales of goods,conducted by an officially approved auctioneer. He or she asks the assembled crowd in the auction-room to make offers,or"bids",for the various items on sale.He encourages buyers to bid higher figures,and finally names the highest bidder as the buyer of the goods.This is called"knocking down"the goods,for the bidding ends when the auctioneer bangs a small hammer on a table at which he stands.This is often set on a raised platform called a rostrum.The ancient Romans probably invented sales by auction,and the English word comes from the Latin auction,meaning"increase".The Romans usually sold in this way the spoils taken in war; these sales were called"sbu hasta",meaning"under the spear",a spear being stuck in the ground as a signal for a crowd to gather. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries goods were often sold "by the candle",a short candle was lit by the auctioneer;and bids could be made while it stayed alight.An auction is usually advertised beforehand with full particulars of the articles to be sold and where and when they can be viewed by possible buyers.If the advertisement cannot give full details, catalogues are printed,and each group of goods to be sold together,called a"lot",is usually given a number. The auctioneer need not begin with Lot 1 and continue in numerical order. He may wait until he registers the fact that certain dealers are in the room and then produce the lots they are likely to be interested in.The auctioneer's services are paid for in the form of a percentage of the price the goods are sold for. The auctioneer therefore has a direct interest in pushing up the bidding as high as possible.Practically all goods whose qualities vary are sold by auction.Among these are coffee,hides, skins,wool,tea,cocoa,furs,spices,fruit and vegetables and wines.Auction sales are also usual for land and property,antique,furniture,pictures,rare books,old china and similar works of art. The auction rooms at Christie's and Sotheby's in London and New York are world famous. The auctioneer may decide to sell the"lots"out of order.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇How We Form First ImpressionWe all have first impression of someone、just met.But why? Why do we form an opinion about someone without really knowing anything about him or her aside perhaps from a few remarks or readily observable traits?The answer is related to how your brain allows you to be~of the world.Your brain is so sensitive in picking up facial traits,Even very minor difference in how a person'5 eyes,ears,nose,or mouth are placed in relation to each other makes you see him or her as different.In fact,your brain continuously processes incoming sensory information-the sights and sounds of your world.These incoming signals are compared against a host of "memories"stored in the brain areas called the cortex(皮质)system to determine what these new signals"mean".If you see someone you know and like at school,your brain says"familiar and safe".If you see someone new it says,"new and potentially threatening".Then your brain starts to match features of this stranger with other"known"memories.The height,weight,dress,ethnicity,gestures,and tone of voice are all matched up.The more unfamiliar the characteristics are,the more your brain may say,"This is new.I don ' t like this person ".Or else , " I'm intrigued(好奇的)".Or your brain may perceive a new face but familiar clothes,ethnicity,gestures-like your other friends;so your brain says,"I like this person".But these preliminary"impressions"can be dead wrong.When we stereotype people,we use a less mature form of thinking(not unlike the immature thinking of a very young child)that makes simplistic and categorical impressions of others.Rather than learn about the depth and breadth of people-their history,interestvalues,strengths,and true character-we categorize them as jocks(骗子),peeks(反常的人),or freaks(怪人).However,if we resist initial stereotypical impressions,we have a chance to be aware of what a person is truly like.If we spend time with a person,hear about his or her life,hopes,dreams,and become aware of the person's character,we use a different,more mature style of thinking-and the most complex areas of our cortex,which allow us to be humane。 Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Nuclear Power and Its DangerNuclear power's danger to health,safety,and even life itself can be summed up in one word:radiation.Nuclear radiation has a certain mystery about it,partly because it cannot be detected by human senses.It can't be seen or heard,or touched or tasted,even though it may be all around us.There are other things like that. For example,radio waves are all around us but we can't detect them,sense them,without a radio receiver. Similarly,we can't sense radioactivity without a radiation detector. But unlike common radio waves,nuclear radiation is not harmless to human beings and other living things.At very high levels,radiation can kill an animal or human being outright by killing masses of cells in vital organs.But even the lowest level of radiation can do serious damage.There is no level of radiation that is completely safe.If the radiation does not hit anything important,the damage may not be significant. This is the case when only a few cells are hit,and if they are killed outright,your body will replace the dead cells with healthy ones.But if the few cells are only damaged,and if they reproduce themselves,you may be in trouble.They reproduce themselves in a deformed way.They can grow into cancer. Sometimes this does not show up for many years.This is another reason for some of the mystery about nuclear radiation.Serious damage can be done without the victim being aware at the time that damage has occurred.A person can be irradiated and feel fine,then die of cancer five,ten,or twenty years later as a result.Or a child can be born weak or liable to serious illness as result of radiation absorbed by its grandparents.Radiation can hurt us.We must know the truth. Which of the following can be best inferred from the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇On SleepBaekeland and Hartmann report that the"short sleepers"had been more or less average in their sleep needs until the men were in their teens.But at about age 15 or so,the men voluntarily began cutting down their nightly sleep time because of pressures from school,work,and other activities. These men tended to view their nightly periods of unconsciousness as bothersome interruptions in their daily routines.In general,these"short sleeps"appeared ambitious,active,energetic,cheerful,conformist(不动摇)in their opinions,and very sure about their career choices. They often held several jobs at once,or worked full-or part-time while going to school. And many of them had a strong urge to appear"normal"or" acceptable"to their friends and associates.When asked to recall their dreams,the "short sleepers" did poorly.More than this,they seemed to prefer not remembering. In similar fashion,their usual way of dealing with psychological problems was to deny that the problem existed,and then to keep busy in the hope that the troublewould go away.The sleep patterns of the"short sleepers"were similar to,but less extreme than,sleep patterns shown by many mental patients categorized as manic(疯人).The"long sleepers"were quite different indeed.Baekeland and Hartmann report that these young men had been lengthy sleeps since childhood.They seemed to enjoy their sleep,protected it, and were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest. They tended to recall their dreams much better than did the"short sleepers."Many of the "long sleepers" were shy, anxious , introverted(内向),inhibited(压抑),passive, mildly depressed,and unsure of themselves(particularly in social situations).Several openly states that sleep was an escape from their daily problems. Many"short sleepers"are likely to hold the view that________.
[多选题]共用题干 Sex Change Surgery Guidelines DraftedChina is set to issue its first clinical guideline on sex-change surgery,according to a notice put on the website of the Ministry of Health yesterday. The ministry is now soliciting(征求)public and professional __________(51)on the draft guideline.The coming guideline aims to regulate and standardize sex reassign- ment surgery.Experts___________(52)nearly 2,000 Chinese have undergone sex-change surgery while 100,000 to 400,000 are still considering it. However,no official number is available.In the draft,the MOH sets mini-mum _________(53)for both surgical candidates and medical institutions.Candidates for the surgery must be older than 20 and single,the draft guideline said.They are also required to prove a persistent_________(54)for a sex change,to live for at least five consecutive years full-time in the new gender role,and to engage in mental therapy for at least one year.Before surgery can take place,a candidate must receive a recommendation for the operation from a ___________(55)after an appropriate series of therapy sessions.Also,several legal requirements must be met_________(56)the procedure.The candidate must provide proof from police that he or she does not have any criminal_________(57)in the past. Police must also agree to change the sex status on the identity card of the prospective(未来的)receiver before the_________ (58) can take place.The advent(出现)of such a guideline is believed to show that the government is concerned __________(59)the needs of a relatively small number of people who want to change sex.But doctors also warn___________(60)all stakeholders,including the hospital and prospective receivers,should be highly cautious about this surgery.The operation is more than a medical_________(61)due to its huge social and legal consequences. Doctors should make it clear to those__________(62)sex-change surgeries that the option always remains to continue to live in the original role.The guideline_________(63)surgeons to tell patients about other options such as hormone therapy.They are also required to explain the_________(64)involved,and under- lying social barriers including discrimination,and administrative recognition and approval.For the candidates,the surgery itself is not the_________(65)issue in the long run.The real issue is the kind of life he or she will have to lead afterward. _________(65)
[多选题]共用题干 Man of Few WordsEveryone chases success,but not all of us want to be famous.South African writer John Maxwell Coetzee is _______(51)for keeping to himself. When the 63-year-old man was named the 2003 Nobel Prize winner for literature,reporters were warned that they would find him"particularly difficult to_________(52)".Coetzee lives in Australia but spends part of the year teaching at the, University of Chicago.He seemed _________(53)by the news that he won the US $1.3 million prize."It came as a complete surprise.I wasn't even aware they were due to make the announcement,"he said. His_________(54)of privacy led to doubts as to whether Coetzee will attend prize-giving in Stockholm,Sweden,on December 10.But despite being described as_______(55)to track down,the critics agree that his writing is easy to get to know.Born in Cape Town,South Africa,to an English-speakingfamily,Coetzee_______(56)his break-through in 1980 with the novel"Waiting for the Barbarians".He__________(57)hisplace among the world's leading writers with two Booker prize victories,Britain's highest honour for novels.He first _______(58)in 1983 for the Life and Times of Michael K and his second title came in 1999 for Disgrace.A major theme in his work is South Africa's former apartheid system,which divided whites from blacks. _______(59)with the problems of violence,crime and racial division that still exist in the country,his books have enabled ordinary people to understand apartheid_________(60)within."I have always been more interested in the past than the future,"he said in a rare interview."The past________(61)its shadow over the present.I hope I have made one or two people think _______(62)about whether they want to forget the past completely."In fact this purity in his writing seems to be_________(63)in his personal life.Coetzee is a vegetarian,a cyclist rather than a motorist and he doesn't drink alcohol.But what he has________(64)to literature,culture and the people of South Africa is far greater than the things he has given up."In looking at weakness and failure in life,"the Nobel prize judging panel said,"Coetzee's work_________(65)the divine spark in man." _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Dog-racing and WageringMost of the dogs participating in organized competition are male or female greyhounds,although races between whippets and between salukis are also held.The racing greyhound,a slender,graceful animal weighing about 29kg(about 65lb),is in its prime at approximately the age of three; however,it actively competes between the ages of one and five.It can attain speeds of up to 64km/h (40mph).The price of a trained racing greyhound depends on its record in competition.During its racing life an outstanding greyhound may earn up to $200,000 in purses and breeding fees.Most dog-racing stadiums have specially designed facilities consisting of a grandstand,a running track, kennels, accommodations for pari-mutuel(赛马赌金计算器)betting, a judges' stand,and a system of floodlights to accommodate night racing. The racing area proper varies but is approximately 402m(1/4 mile)in length and averages 6m(20ft)in width.Its inside circumference is ringed by a metal rail along which the lure is propelled by electrical power. There are some 55 tracks currently active in the United States.Races in the United States are commonly held at the distances of 503m(5/16 mile),604m (3/8 mile),and 704m(7/16 mile).About 13 races are run during a given program,with 8 or 9 greyhounds competing in each race. The competing greyhounds are muzzled(戴上嘴套)to assist the judges in photo finishes and as a precaution against fighting. They are raced in brightly colored numbered jackets to facilitate identification by judges and spectators.As a prelude to each race,the mechanical lure is set in motion in full view of the greyhounds, which are confined in a starting box. When the lure is approximately 6m(20ft)beyond the starting box,the dogs are released in pursuit.As the race progresses,the speed of the lure is controlled so that it remains in advance of the pack.If any of the dogs interfere with the lure at any point short of the finish line,the race is automatically declared null and void.Wagering and the prospect of winning large purse amounts are the important elements in the appeal of the sport to both spectators and greyhounds owners.American stakes offer prizes up to $200,000.In the U.S.,greyhound racing is ranked sixth among spectator sports.Wagering is legal in the states of Alabama,Arizona,Arkansas,Colorado,Connecticut,Florida,Idaho,Iowa,Kansas, Massachusetts,Nevada,New Hampshire,Oregon,Rhode Island,South Dakota,Texas,Vermont, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In 1988,some 27 million spectators wagered in excess of $3 billion at U.S.dog-racing tracks. Who are attracted by wagering and the prospect of winning large amount of money?
[多选题]共用题干 Electronic MailDuring the past few years,scientists all over the world have suddenly found themselves productively engaged in task they once spent their lives avoiding-writing,any kind of writing,butparticularly letter writing. Encouraged by electronic mail's surprisingly high speed,convenienceand economy,people who never before touched the stuff are regularly,skillfully,even cheerfullytapping out a great deal of correspondence.Electronic networks,woven into the fabric of scientific communication these days,are theroute to colleagues in distant countries,shared data,bulletin boards and electronic journals. Anyone with a personal computer,a modern and the software to link computers over telephone linescan sign on.An estimated five million scientists have done so with more joining every day,mostof them communicating through a bundle of interconnected domestic and foreign routes known collectively as the Internet,or net.E-mail is starting to edge out the fax,the telephone,overnight mail,and of course,land mail.It shrinks time and distance between scientific collaborators,in part because it is conveniently asynchronous(异步的)( Writer can type while their colleagues across time zones sleep; their message will be waiting).If it is not yet speeding discoveries,it is certainly accelerating communication.Jeremy Bernstein,the physicist and science writer,once called E-mail the physicist's umbilical cord(脐带).Later other people , too , have been discovering its connective virtues. Physicists are using it;college students are using it;everybody is using it;and as a sign that it has come of age,the New Yorker has celebrated its liberating presence with a cartoon-an appreciative dog seated at a keyboard,saying happily,“On the Internet,nobody knows you're a dog.” The reasons given below about the popularity of E-mail can be found in the passage except
[多选题]共用题干 Mau Piailug,Ocean NavigatorMau sailed from Hawaii to Tahiti using traditional methods.In early 1976,Mau Piailug,a fisherman,led an expedition in which he sailed a traditional Polynesian boat across 2,500 miles of ocean from Hawaii to Tahiti.The Polynesian Voyaging Society had organised the expe-dition. Its purpose was to find out if seafarers(海员)in the distant past could have found their way from one island to the other without navigational instruments,or whether the islands had been populated by accident. At the time,Mau was the only man alive who knew how to navigate just by observing the stars,the wind and the sea.He had never before sailed to Tahiti,which was a long way to the south.However,he understood how the wind and the sea behave around islands,so he was confident he could find his way.The voyage took him and his crew a month to complete and he did it without a compass or charts.His grandfather began the task of teaching him how to navigate when he was still a baby.He showed him pools of water on the beach to teach him how the behaviour of the waves and wind changed in different places.Later,Mau used a circle of stones to memorise the positions of the stars.Each stone was laid out in the sand to represent a star.The voyage proved that Hawaii's first inhabitants came in small boats and navigated by reading the sea and the stars.Mau himself became a keen teacher,passing on his traditional secrets to people of other cul-tures so that his knowledge would not be lost.He explained the positions of the stars to his students,but he allowed them to write things down because he knew they would never be able to rememnber everything as he had done. Mau expected his students to remember the positions of the stars immediately.
[多选题]共用题干 In Sports,Red is the Winning ColorWhen opponents of a game are equally matched,the team dressed in red is more likely to win,accord- ing to a new study.British anthropologists Russell Hill and Robert Barton of the University of Durham reached that conclu- sion by studying the outcomes of one-on-one boxing,tae kwon do,Greco-Roman-wresting,and freestyle- wrestling matches at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens,Greece.In each event Olympic staff randomly assigned red or blue clothing or body protection to competitors. When otherwise equally matched with their opponent in fitness and skill,athletes wearing red were more likely to win the bout."Where there was a large point difference一presumably because one contestant was far superior to the other一color had no effect on the outcome,"Barton said."Where there was a small point difference,the effect of color was sufficient to tip the balance."In equally matched bouts,the preponderance of red wins was great enough that it could not be attributed to chance,the anthropologists say.Hill and Barton found similar results in a review of the colors worn at the Euro 2004 international soccer tournament.Their report will be published in tomorrow's issue of the journal Nature.Joanna Setchell,a primate researcher at the University of Cambridge in England,has found similar results in nature.Her work with the large African monkeys known as mandrills shows that red colorationgives males an advantage when it comes to mating.The finding that red also has an advantage in human sporting events does not surprise her,adding that "the idea of the study is very clever."Hill and Barton got the idea for their study out of a mutual interest in the evolution of sexual signals in primates一“red seems to be the color,across species,that signals male dominance and testosterone levels," Barton said.For example,studies by Setchell,the Cambridge primate researcher,show that dominant male man- drills have increased red coloration in their faces and rumps. Another study by other scientists shows that red plastic rings experimentally placed on the legs of male zebra finches increase the birds'dominance.Barton said he and Hill speculated that"there might be a similar effect in humans.And if so,it could be apparent in sporting contests."The pair say their results indicate that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of humans' response to color.Setchell,the primatologist,agrees."As Hill and Barton say,humans redden when we are angry and pale when we're scared.These are very important signals to other individuals,"she said.The advantage of red may be intuitively known,judging from the prevalence of red uniforms in sports一 "though it is clearly not very widely appreciated,on a conscious level at least,"Barton said.He adds that the finding of red's advantage might have implications for regulations that govern sporting attire.In the Olympic matches he surveyed for the new study;for example,it is possible some medal winners may have reached the pedestal with an unintended advantage."That is the implication,though we cannot say that it made the difference in any specific case,"Bartonsaid.Meanwhile,Setchell noted一tongue-in-cheek一that a red advantage may not be limited to sports. "Going by the recent U.S.election results,red is indeed quite successful,"she said. Hill and Barton are both interested in primates.
[多选题]共用题干 The Sandwich GenerationToday people often look forward to their middle age as a time when they will be able to take things easier. After their children are grown,they expect to enjoy the life they have worked hard to create .However,the reality is often very different. In middle age,many people discover that they have two ongoing responsibilities:one is to look after their aging parents,and the other is to help their young adult children deal with the pressures of life.Around the world,there are mil-lions of people who are“sandwiched”in between the older and the younger generations.Some-times there may be two or three generations living in the same household-a situation that is corn-mon in many Asian countries and in some parts of Europe .In other cases,a couple may be taking care of parents and children,but they do not live with them.There are two important reasons for the rise of the sandwich generation.First,people are liv-ing longer than they used to.In the early nineteenth century,the average life expectancy for adults in the United States,for example,was about 40,whereas today people live to an average age of 75 .Therefore,children are taking care of their parents over a longer period of time.The see-ond reason is that these days,young adults often live with their parents for a longer time than they did in the past. This is often for financial reasons.It's also more common for today's young adults to return home during or after college if they need financial or emotional support.Young adults feel sandwiched between their financial responsibilities and their desire to enjoy life .They may have to cover expenses that their parents cannot.They may have to manage their parents' financial and legal affairs.They may have to prepare for their parents' future needs,such as special medical care or a move to a nursing home. This can be a traumatic(长期困扰的)ex-perience for everyone.Caring for adult children presents challenges as well,and caregivers have to resolve important questions:How can financial responsibilities be shared among members of the household?How can household chores be shared?What is the best way to ensure everyone's privacy?Successfully cop-ing with these issues can avoid a lot of stress for the whole family.The financial and emotional pressures on the sandwich generation can be overwhelming. However,this time in life also has its rewards.It can be a time to rediscover the special qualities of one's parents or children.It can also provide a valuable opportunity to spend more time with them. However,in order to survive this difficult period in their lives,the members of the sand-wich generation must remember that they also need to pay attention to their own needs and look af-ter the quality of their own lives.They can't be totally selfless. Why do some young adults choose to live with their parents these days?
[多选题]共用题干 Messages from the Media1.The weather forecast,a story about the candidates in an election,and movie reviews are examples of messages from the media. A communication medium , of which the plural(复数的) form is media,is a means of communicating a message.Examples of media are television,radio, newspapers and books and the telephone.The media that can reach many people at once are callemass media.2.It is not difficult to think of other messages we receive through the mass media. Every day we get hundreds of them.Think about advertisements,for example.We see and hear these messages almost everywhere we go.Advertisements are important messages,even though they are sometimes annoying.They help us compare and evaluate products.3.Most of us get more information from the media than from the classroom. Think for a moment, about how you learn about local news and events.Do you depend on other people or the media?What about international news?What is the most important source of information for you?People who are asked this question usually answer,"Television".4.Think of all the messages you received today.Perhaps you read a newspaper during breakfast, or maybe you read advertisements on billboards(露天广告牌)on your way to school. Did you listen to a weather forecast or the sports news on the radio this morning?Right now you are getting information through a very important medium of mass communication一a book.5.We use the information we get from radio,television,newspapers and other media to make decisions and form opinions.That is why the mass media are so important.Editorials and articles in newspapers help us decide how to vote,consumer reports on television help up decide how to spend our money,and international news on the radio makes us think and form opinions about questions of war and peace. Television,radio and books are all important media of________.
[多选题]共用题干 The Writing's on the Wall?Is it art or is it just vandalism(故意破坏公共财物罪)?Well, it's still a crime ,but graffiti(涂鸦)has changed since the days of spraying your name on a wall to mark your territory.Street art has become much more sophisticated since a 17-year-old called Demetrius started spraying his"tag",TAKI 183,all over the New York underground in 1971,and hip-hop culture was born.Hip-hop is a mixture of art,music,dancing, poetry,language and fashion.It came from 'young inner-city people,who felt left out by their richer classmates and who were desperate to express themselves in any way they could.An experiment to control the spread of graffiti in Rochdale,Greater Manchester,has been so successful that plans have been made by local street artists for an international convention in June."We're planning to get people together from different countries like France and Germany for a week,"says Liam,one of the organizers. The scheme started in 2000,and has attracted people of all age groups and both sexes."We all share a common interest and get on really well with each other."The first site to be chosen was a subway. "Before we began,people were afraid to use the subway.We had it cleaned up,and now,with all the artists hanging out down there,people are using it again.People can relate to graffiti much more now."By providing places to display their talents legally,there has been a fall in the amount of"tagging"on people's private property.Street artist Temper developed his drawing skills at a young age.In art classes at school he was really frustrated because the art teachers didn't spend time with him. They thought he was already very good at artand so spent more time with other students.So,at 12 years old,Temper started painting with all these guys he'd hooked up with and who were about 22 years old.He looked up to them and loved what they were doing on the streets of Wolverhampton,England."The whole hip-hop scene was built up of different things and I did a bit of everything. But it was always the graffiti I was best at."he says. Since the scheme started,no walls in the town were sprayed with graffiti.
[多选题]共用题干 Smartphone Customers Up for GrabAbout 10 years ago I met an advertising executive in New York who explained the difficulty of advertising a new brand of deodorant(除臭剂)to consumers."Most people never change their deodorant,"I remember him saying,"They pick one brand when they are young,and stick with it for a long,long time.If it works,why switch?"The same theory can be applied________(46)Once they have picked a type of phone, whether it's Apple iOS,Google Android or something else,it's difficult,and often expensive,to switch.Consumers become comfortable with the interface and design of the phone and the apps they have purchased on that platform.________(47)That is why the race to pull in smartphone buyers is going to be especially severe over the next 18 to 24 months.________(48)there are still hundreds of millions of mobile phone owners around the world who have yet to move from a standard mobile or feature phone to its smarter,moreintelligent big brother:the smartphone.Yet the change is happening at a much quicker pace than technology analysts and companies originally theorized.A report issued this week by Nielsen,the market research firm,found that among Americans________(49)55 percent opted for a smartphone.This is up from 34 percent a year ago.At this point,who will lead that market is not up for debate.Android has been growing at a pace no one could have imagined,even Google.The company said this week that it now activates more than 500,000 Android devices each day.Mr. Llamas said Apple,which changed the smartphone game in 2007 when it introduced the iPhone,potentially has a ceiling with consumers as its mobile phone is often more expensive than those of its competitors.Although millions of customers flock to Apple products for their beauty,simplicity and powerful brand,many can't afford a new iPhone.This could change________(50)As some analysts expect. "Right now the iPhone only comes in one flavor;it's not like other Apple products like the iPod where there are several different sizes,shapes and prices,"Mr. Llamas said. _______(48)
[多选题]共用题干 Computer CrimesMore and more,the operations of our businesses,governments,and financial institutions are controlled by information that exists only inside computer memories.Anyone clever enough to modify this information for his purpose can reap substantial rewards.Even worse,________(46)It's easy for computer crimes to go undetected if no one checks up on what the computer h doing.________(47),the criminal may walk away not only unpunished but with a growing recommendation from his former employers.Of course,we have no statistics on crime that go undetected.But it's disturbing to note how many of the crimes we do know about were detected by accident,________(48)The computer criminals who have been caught may have been the victims of uncommonly bad luck.For example,________(49)Investigation revealed that the extra cards she was being asked to punch were for dishonest transactions.In another case,dissatisfied employees of the thief tipped off the company that was being robbed.Unlike other lawbreakers,who must leave the country,commit suicide,or go to jail,computer criminals sometimes escape punishment demanding not only that they not be charged but that they be given good recommendations and perhaps other benefits.All too often,their demands have been met. Why?________(50)that would result if the public found out that their computer had been misused.They hesitate at the thought of a criminalboasting in open court of how he juggled the most confidential records right under the noses of the company's executives,accountants,and security staff. And so another computer criminal departs with just the recommendations he needs to continue his crimes elsewhere. _________(46)
[多选题]共用题干 Keeping Cut Flowers(鲜切花)1. While everybody enjoys fresh cut flowers around his/her house,few people know how to keep them for as long as possible .This may be done by keeping in mind a few simple facts.2. An important thing to remember about cut flowers is that they are sensitive to temperature.For example,studies have shown that cut carnations(康乃馨)retain their freshness eight times lon-ger when kept at 12℃than when kept at 26℃.Keeping freshly harvested flowers at the right tem-peratures is probably the most important aspect of flower care.3. Flowers are not intended by nature to live very long.Their biological purpose is simply to at-tract birds or insects,such as bees,for pollination(授粉).After that,they quickly dry up and die. The process by which flowers consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide(二氧化碳), called respiration(呼吸),generates the energy the flower needs to give the flower its shape and color. The making of seeds also depends on this energy.While all living things respire,flowers have a high level of respiration.A result of all this respiration is heat,and for flowers the level of heat relative to the mass of the flower is very high.Respiration also brings about the eventual death of the flower. Thus the greater the level of respiration,the sooner the flower dies.4. How,then,to control the rate at which flowers die?By controlling respiration.How is respi-ration controlled?By controlling temperature .We know that respiration produces heat,but the re-verse(相反的过程)is also true. Thus by maintaining low temperatures , respiration is reduced and the cut flower will age more slowly.5. Another vital factor in keeping cut flowers is the quality of the water in which they are placed. Flowers find it difficult to“drink”water that is dirty or otherwise polluted.Even when water looks and smells clean,it almost certainly contains harmful substances that can endanger the flowers. To rid the water of these unwanted substances, household chlorine bleach(漂白剂)can be used in small quantities.It is recommended that 15 drops of chlorine bleach(at 4%solution)be add-ed to each litre of water. The water and solution should also be replaced each day. Respiration plays a key role________.
[多选题]共用题干 The Fat Problem That Men FaceIt is a pleasure to see men of a certain age worrying about their weight.Listening to them is not such a pleasure.Because the men are new at the game,they don't hesitate to discuss the fat problem incessantly. However,women of the same age do not discuss the fat problem,especially not in mixed company.They prefer to face the problem with quiet dignity.Discussing the problem might only draw attention to some stray body part that may be successfully tucked away under an article of clothing.The age at which a man begins to explore the fat problem can vary.The actual problem can manifest itself in the early 30's,but broad-range discussion usually starts later.There are early nonverbal symptoms. I've watched the rugged journalist who shares my apartment sneak by with a Diet Coke.His shirts are no longer neatly tucked in to display a trim waist.Recently he has begun to verbalize his anxiety.He tells me, with a sheepish grin,that he is taking his suits to Chinatown to have them"tailored".Still older men have lost their dignity and rattle on unabashedly.Often wives and children play important roles in their fat-inspection rituals.Take my oldest brother,a former college football player,as an example.His daughter says that several times a day he will stand at attention and call out,"Fat,medium or thin?" She knows the correct answer:medium.Thin would be an obvious stretch,and fat may not get her that new video.According to his wife,he stands in front of the mirror in the morning(before the day's meals take their toll),puts his hands be- hind his head and lurches into a side bend,then clutches the roll that has developed and says,"Am I getting fat- ter?"His wife is expected to answer,"You look like you may have lost a few pounds."And then there are the ex-husbands a pitiful group.They are extremely vocal.When I go to the movies with one,he confides that he is suffering from great hunger because he is dieting.He hasn't eaten since the pancakes and sausages he wolfed down that morning.He pauses in his monologue while he buys his popcorn. After the movie,we sprint to a restaurant,where he again pauses to devour a basket of bread.Before he orders his chaste salad and soup,he grows plaintive.Do I think he's fat? The journalist used to drink Diet Coke and tuck his shirts in order to keep trim.
[多选题]共用题干 Obesity(肥胖)Causes Global WarmingThe list of ills attributable to obesity keeps growing:Last week,obese people were accused of causing global warming.This.____(51)comes from Sheldon Jacobson of the University,of Illinois,Us,and a doctoral student, Laura McLay.Their study_______(52)how much extra gasoline is needed to haul fat Americans around.The answer,they say,is a billion gallons of gas per year.It_______(53)an extra 11 million tons of carbon dioxide.There have been______(54)for taxes on junk food in recent years.US economist Martin Schmidt suggests a tax on fast food__.____(55)to people's cars."We tax cigarettes partly because of their health cost,"Schmidt said."Similarly,leading a lazy lifestyle will end______(56)costing taxpayers more."US political scientist Eric Oliver said his first instinct was to laugh at these gas and fast food arguments? But such__________(57)are getting attention.At the US Obesity Society's annual meeting,one person__________(58)obesity、with car accident deaths,and another correlated obesity with suicides.No one asked whether there was really a cause-and-effect relationship,"The funny thing was that everyone took it.______(59),"Oliver said.In a 1960s study,children were_________(60)drawings of children with disabilities and without them,and a drawing of an obese child.They were asked______(61)they would want for a friend?The obese Child was picked last.Three researchers recently repeated the study_______(62)college students.Once again,__.___(63) no one,not even obese people,liked the obese person.But,researchers say,getting__________(64)is not like quitting smoking.People struggle to stop smoking,and,in the end,many succeed.Obesity is different。Science has shown that they have limited personal control over their weight.Genes also________(65)a part? _________52
[多选题]共用题干 Have You Filled up the Form?Of all things in the world,I most dislike filling up forms;in fact,I have a________(51)horror of it. Applying for a driving license,________(52)for an evening course,booking a holiday abroad一everything nowadays seem to involve________(53)information about one's personal life and habits that has little or nothing to do with the matter________(54)hand.When applying for a job,it may be________(55)some obscure interest to a________(56)employer to learn that I collect stamp or had measles as a child,but why should he conceivably want to know that my father was a tobacconist who died in 1988?The authorities who________(57)one to fill up forms,frequently demand answers to questions that one would hesitate to put________(58)one's intimate friends.The worst of it is that, when________(59)with such questions,my mind goes blank.Have I ever suffered from a serious illness?My mother always assured me I was"delicate".Do I suffer from any personal defects? Well,I wear contact lenses and my upper teeth are not my own,but perhaps the word"defects"________(60)to my character. Am I supposed to________(61)that I like gambling,and find it difficult to get up in the morning?Both of them are true.Of all,I think job applications are the worst,education,previous experience,post held,give________(62)…Terrified by the awful warning about giving false________(63)which appear atthe bottom of the form,I struggle to remember what exams I passed and how long I worked for what firms.________(64)hard I try,there always seems to be a year or two for which I cannot satisfactorily account and which I am certain,if left________(65),will give the impression that I was in prison or engaged in some occupation too dubious to mention. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 Toads are Arthritic and in PainArthritis(关节炎)is an illness that can cause pain and swelling in your bones. Toads(蟾蜍),a bigproblem in the north of Australia,are suffering from painful arthritis in their legs and backbone,a new study has shown. The toads that jump the fastest are more likely to be larger and to have longer legs._________(46)The large yellow toads,native to South and Central America,were introduced into the north-eastern Aus-tralian state of Queensland in 1935 in an attempt to stop beetles and other insects from destroying sugarcane crops.'Now up to 200 million of the poisonous toads exist in the country,and they are rapidly spreading through the state of Northern Territory at a rate of up to 60 km a year. The toads can now be found across more than one million square kilometres._________(47)A Venezuelan poison virus was tried in the 1990s but had to be abandoned after it was found to also kill native frog species.The toads have severely affected ecosystems in Australia.Animals,and sometimes pets,that eat the toads die immediately from their poison,and the toads themselves eat anything they can fit inside their mouth. _________(48)A co-author of the new study,Rick Shine,a professor at the University of Sydney,says that little alien- tion has been given to the problems that toads face.Rick and his colleagues studied nearly 500 toads from Queensland and the Northern Territory and found that those in the latter state were very different.They were active,sprinting down roads and breeding quickly.According to the results of the study,the fastest toads travel nearly one kilometre a night._________(49) But speed and strength come at a price一arthritis of the legs and backbone due to constant pressure placed on them.In laboratory tests,the researchers found that after about 15 minutes of hopping,arthritic toads wouldtravel less distance with each hop(跳跃)._________( 50 ) These toads are so programmed to move, apparently,that even when in pain the toads travelled as fast and as far as the healthy ones,continuing their constant march across the landscape. _________(48)

相关课程