考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 Public RelationsPublic relations is a broad set of planned communications about the company, including publicity releases,designed to promote goodwill and a favorable image.Publicity then is part of public relations when it is initiated by the firm , usually in the________ (51)of press releases or press conferences.Since public relations involves communications with stockholders,financial analysts,government officials,and other noncustomer groups,it is usually________(52) outside the marketing department , perhaps as a staff department or outside consulting firm reporting to to management.This organizational placement can be a________(53) because the public relations department or consultant will likely not be in line with marketing efforts.Poor communication and no coordination can be the________ (54).Although the basic purpose of public relations is to provide positive influence_______(55) the public image,this influence generally may be less than_______(56) provided by the other components of the public image mix.Publicity may be in the form of news releases that have(57) overtones for the company initiated by the public relations department.Publicity on the other________ (58) should not be divorce from the marketing department,as it can________(59) a useful adjunct(辅助) to the regular advertising______(60) not all publicity is initiated by the firm;some can________(61) from an unfavorable press a reaction to certain actions or lack of________(62) that are controversial or even downright ill-advisedThe________(63) we wish to emphasize is that a firm is deluding(自欺) itself if it thinks its public relations function,whether within the company or an outside firm,can take________(64) of public image problems and opportunities.Many of these have to do with the way the________(65) does business,such as its product quality,the servicing and handling of complaints , etc. _________63
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇“Lucky" Lord Lucan一Alive or Dead? On 8th November 1974 Lord Lucan, a British aristocrat(贵族),vanished. The day before, his chil-dren's nanny(保姆)had been brutally murdered and his wife had been attacked too. To this day the British 'public are still interested in the murder case because Lucan has never been found.Now,over 30 years later, the police have reopened the case,hoping that new DNA techniques will help solve this murder mystery.People suspected that"Lucky",as he was called by friends,wanted to kill his wife he no longer lived with.They say that Lucan entered his old house and in the dark,killed the nanny by mistake.His estranged (分居的)wife heard noises, came downstairs and was also attacked, but managed to escape. Seven months after the murder,a jury concluded that Lucan had killed the nanny.What happened next is unclear,but there are several theories which fall into one of three categories:he may have killed himself,he could have escaped or he might have been killed.It appears that the night after the murder,"Lucky"borrowed a car and drove it. Lucan's friend Aspinall said in an interview that he thought Lucan had committed suicide by sinking his boat in the English Channel.Another version of events says that"Lucky"left the blood-soaked car on the coast and took a ferry to France.He was met there by someone who drove him to safety in another country.However,after a time, his rescuers became worried that they would become involved in the murder too and so Lucan was killed.A further fascinating theory was made in the book Dead Lucky by Duncan Maclaughlin,a former detective. He believes that Lucan travelled to Go'a,India,where he assumed the identity of a Mr. Barry Haplin. Lucan then lived in Goa till his death in 1996.In the end the claim turned out to be a case of mistaken identity. The man who died in 1996 was really Haplin,an ex-schoolteacher. So what is the truth about"Lucky"?DNA testing has solved many murder cases,but who knows if it can close the book on this one. Aspinall thought Lucan killed himself__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Rising Tuition in the USEvery spring,US university administrators gather to discuss the next academic year's budget.They consider faculty salaries,utility costs for dormitories,new building needs and repairs to old ones .They run the numbers and conclude-it seems,inevitably-that,yet again,the cost of tuition must go up.According to the US's College Board,the price of attending a four-year private university in the US rose 81 percent between 1993 and 2004.______(46)In 2005 and 2006,the numbers continued to rise.According to university officials,college cost increases are simply the result of balancing uni-versity checkbooks.“Tuition increases at Cedarville University are determined by our revenue needs for each year.”said the university's president,Dr. Bill Brown.“Student tuition pays for 78 percent of the university's operating costs.”Brown's school is a private university that enrolls about 3,100 undergrads and is consistently recognized by annual college ranking guides like US News and World Report's and The Princeton Review's.______(47)Tuition at private universities is set by administration officials and then sent for approval to the school's board of trustees (董事).______( 48 ) This board oversees(监管)all of a state's public institutions.John Durham,assistant secretary to the board of trustees at East Carolina University(ECU), explains that state law says that public institutions must make their services available whenever possible to the people of the state for free.Durham said that North Carolina residents only pay 22 percent of the cost of their education.______(49)State residents attending ECU pay about US $10,000 for tuition,room and board before financial aid.Amid the news about continued increases in college costs,however,there is some good news. Tuition increases have been accompanied by roughly equal increases in financial aid at almost ev-ery university.To receive financial aid,US students complete a formal application with the federal government. The federal government then decides whether an applicant is eligible(有资格的)for grants or loans______(50) ______(49)
[多选题]共用题干 The Most Wonderful IslandsThe Palm Islands are the largest artificial islands in the world and are under construction in Dubai,in the United Arab Emirates.They are being developed as tourist,leisure,and residential resorts,and will increase the coastline of the country by 120 kilometers.After four years of planning and careful consideration of the environmental issues,construction started in 2001.Dutch engineers with experience of reclaiming land from the sea were employed in the building of the first two islands.The site for all three islands is an area of the sea where the water is not very deep.Sand is taken from the seabed and sprayed into the construction site.Although the shallow water facilitates this process,the islands are still very exposed to the currents and tidal movements of the sea.Rocks are used to hold the sand in place resulting in a large crescent(月状的)structure.This acts as a breakwater and protects the islands from the sea.The first two islands are in the shape of date palm trees and consist of a trunk and 17 fronds,or leaves, coming off the trunk.The first island,named Palm Jumeirah,has three five-star hotels in the trunk,and luxury homes in the leaves.It is astonishing that when these homes went on sale in 2004,they were all sold within three days.The second palm,Jebel Ali,was started in 2002 and is designed to be an entertainment centre.Six marinas(小游艇船坞)are planned,with a water theme park,and homes built on stilts(桩柱)in the water.The Palm Deira is planned to be the largest of the three islands,with a length of 14km and a width of 8.5km,an area larger than the city of Paris.It will consist of residential properties,marinas,shopping malls,sports facilities and clubs.These will be open to both residents and tourists.More artificial islands,the World Islands , are now being constructed near the Palm Jumeirah.They consist of 300 private islands grouped into the shape of the continents of the world and will be used for estates , private homes , community islands , and resorts.Unquestionably , these artificial islands are one of the wonders of the modern world.They will also maintain Dubai' s status as one of the leading tourist destinations in the region. The water theme park in Jebel Ali will attract more tourists.
[多选题]共用题干 AgingThroughout history man has had to accept the fact that all living things must die,but people now live longer than they used to.Yet all living things still show the________(51)of aging,which will eventually________(52)death.Aging is not a disease,but as a person passes maturity,the cells of the body and the________ (53) do not function as well as they did in childhood and adolescence(青春期).The body provides less________(54)against disease and is more likely________(55)have accident.A number of related causes may________(56)aging. Some cells of the body have a fairly long life,but they are not reborn when they die.As a person ages,________(57)of brain cells and muscle cells decreases.The other cells are replaced by new cells.In an aging person the________(58) cells and muscle cells may not be as viable(能生存的)or as capable________ ( 59 ) growth as those of a young person.Another________(60)in aging may be changes within the cells themselves.Some of the protein chemicals in cells are known________(61)with age and became less elastic.This is why the skin of old people wrinkles and________(62).This is also the reason old people________(63)in height. There may not be other more important chemical changes in the cells.Some complex cell chemicals, such as DNA and RNA,store and________(64)information that the cells need.Aging may affect this________(65)and change the information-carry molecules so that they do not transmit the information as well. _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 Superstition1.Most of today's superstitious beliefs can be traced back to those of primitive people who had no understanding of the laws of nature.They are surrounded by mysteries一lightening,rain,birth and death,to mention only a few. The apparent miracle of a flower growing from a tiny seed or an egg becoming a bird surely proved there were unseen spirits around.But since life in those times was hard and full of danger,primitive man decided there were more bad spirits than good ones.His problem was to figure out how to keep the evil spirits happy and satisfied and would not harm him. Thus out of ignorance and fear came superstition.2.Ancient people also had great faith in magic.They believe that a wish made while looking at or touching something connected with good fortune would come true.For example,the rabbit's foot became a good luck charm because of the high regard in which rabbits were held by primitive people.These people were very impressed by how swiftly rabbits ran with their strong feet. Thus their legs came to be looked upon as a powerful charm against evil forces.3.Counter-magic is a highly regarded form. It is to say or do something that was the opposite of what was really wanted.This was supposed to change bad luck to good luck.Even today some people carry an umbrella in the hope that this will keep the rain from falling. This works very well if the day happens to be dry.4.Every country or section of world has its own beliefs and superstitious customs.In primitive parts of Africa the witch doctor is common.In some parts of Europe,and in many other places,people fear the evil that they believe is directed towards them by the eyes of certain people.Many charms and signs are used to ward off the effect of the evil eyes.Most countries also have their favorite"little people"or fairies.They are sometimes naughty,kind,and sometimes helpful.They can be blamed for all misfortunes or anything that goes wrong.5.There are few people even today who are completely free of superstitious beliefs.In spite of facts and common sense,old tales have continued to influence people's thoughts and actions.On the other hand,if having a lucky charm in your pocket adds a feeling of confidence,keep it there.But realize that it has no power outside of what your thinking gives it.Much of the old folk beliefs have the charm of fairy tales.Have fun with them and enjoy them,but don't take them seriously. A lot of charms are used to_______.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Lawrence CurryWhen I tell people my name,they always ask me if I'm related to Lawrence Curry,the novelist,and when I say,yes,he was my great-uncle,they always want to know what he was like. "We've read all his books,"they say,"but please tell us what he was really like."When I described him,as I knew him,they go disappointed.It seems that they find it difficult to accept such a great figure could have had such an ordinary character.My great-uncle was tall,with a long thin body.When he walked,he moved stiffly,with his arms clamped against his sides,looking like nothing so much as a pair of scissors.When I knewhim,his hair was quite white,though it was supposed to have been yellow when he was young. His eyes were blue and deep set and had an anxious look as if he found the world a puzzling place.This expression of anxiety,which arose from nothing more than short-sight一he refused to wear glasses一 inspire the protective instincts of his lady admirers,much to the irritation of my great-aunt who thought all women were fools,except herself.Great-uncle Curry was naturally lazy. He spent a great deal of his time in the village pub playing darts.He was also a compulsive reader from the local telephone directory to great-aunt's shoppinglists.For a man whose book showed such a deep perception of the complexities of human behavior, his conversation was surprisingly trivial.He delighted in discussing English weather,the price of beer,his grandchildren's most amusing words.He loved gossip,but he was kind.I never heard him make a malicious remark,but the wisdom of his writing never appeared in his conversation.As a child,we much preferred the company of his cousin,Stanly,who was a successful shop-owner who always brought us bags of sugar and broken biscuits.Taking it all in all,I have to admit my famous great-uncle was rather a bore. My great-uncle's anxious look made his lady admirers_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Car Crime1.A million motorists leave their cars filled up with petrol and with the keys in the ignition every day.The cars are sitting in petrol stations while drivers pay for their fuel.The Automobile Association(AA)has discovered that cars are left unattended for an average three minutes andsometimes longer as drivers buy drinks,sweets,cigarettes and other consumer items.With payment of credit cards becoming more and more common,it is not unusual for a driver to be out of his car for as long as six minutes,providing the car theft with a golden opportunity.2.For more than ten years there has been a big rise in car crime than in most other types of crimes.An average of more than two cars a minute are broken into or stolen in the UK.Car crime accounts for almost a third of all reported offenses with no signs that the trend is slowing down.3.Although there are highly professional criminals involved in car theft,almost 90 percent of car theft is committed by the opportunists.Amateur thieves are aided by our own carelessness.The AA recommends locking up whenever you leave the car and for however short a period.A partially open sunroof or window is a further come-on to thieves.4.There are many other traps to avoid.The AA has found little awareness among drivers about safe parking. Most motorists questioned made no efforts to avoid parking in quiet spots—just the places thieves love.The AA advises drivers to park in places with people around一thieves don't like audiences. Paragraph 4_______
[多选题]共用题干 Are You a Successful Leader?1 Almost nothing we do in this world is done in isolation.At work or at play,you'll find yourself in groups,working with other people:your team at work,a meeting with colleagues,your family,a holiday with friends,a group of students working together,a day out walking in the mountains,a group of neighbours want- ing to make changes.It is now recognized that being able to work successfully with other people is one of the major keys to success,partly because we need to do it so often.2 In almost every situation where you're in a group,you will need a skilled leader. All groups need leaders and all successful groups have good leaders.Groups without leaders or with weak leaders almost always break down.Members of a leaderless group often begin to feel dissatisfied and frustrated.Time is wasted and the tasks are not achieved.There are often arguments and tensions between people as there is nobody to keep the goals clear. Some personalities dominate and others disappear. Often group members begin not to come to meetings in order to avoid more disharmony.3 Some people are natural leaders.The celebrity chef,Antonio Carluccio says,"True leaders are bornand you can spot them in kitchens."They're people who combine toughness,fairness and humour. Although a lot of people agree that there are somne natural-born leaders,most people now recognize that leadership can also be taught.Our professional and experienced staff can train almost anyone how to be a successful leader. Good leaders don't make people do things in a bossy,controlling way.You can learn how to involve everyone, encouraging the whole group to work towards a comnmon goal.4 Our training courses use activities and techniques to develop a range of qualities which are necessary to be a good leader. Self-confidence is vital and being able to overcome your own fears about being a leader. Successful leaders also need to be calm and intelligent.They need to be able to work out good strategies and make sound judgements under pressure.Lastly,and probably most importantly,good leaders need to be sensi- tive,sociable and be able to get on with a wide range of people.Good leadership is essentially the ability to influence others and good leaders allow all members of the group to contribute. Paragraph 2 ___________
[多选题]共用题干 Local Newspapers in Britain1. Britain has a large circulation(发行量)of the national newspapers. The Daily Mirror and The Daily Express both sell about 4 million copies each day.On average,every family will buy one newspaper in the morning,and take two or three on Sundays.2. Local newspapers are just as popular as the national ones in Britain.Local papers have a weekly circulation of 1 3 million.Nearly every town and country area has its own paper,and almost every local paper is financially holding its own.Many local newspapers are earning good profits.3. Local newspapers have their special characteristics.They mainly satisfy interest in local events-births,weddings,deaths,council meetings,and sports.Editors often rely on a small staff of people who know the district well.Clubs and churches in the neighborhood regularly supply these papers with much local news.Local news does not get out of date as quickly as national news .If there is no room for it in this week's edition,a news item can be held over until the following week.4. The editor of a local newspaper never forgets that the success of any newspaper depends on advertising.For this reason,he is keen to keep the good will of local businessmen.If the newspaper sells well with carefully chosen news items to attract local readers,the businessmen will be grateful to the paper for the opportunity of keeping their products in the public eye.5. Local newspapers seldom comment on problems of national importance,and editors rarely take sides on political questions.But they can often provide service to the community in expressing public feeling on local issues.A newspaper can sometimes persuade the council to take action to improve transport,provide better shopping facilities,and preserve local monuments and places of interest. Many local newspapers in Britain are making______.
[多选题]共用题干 Brotherly LoveAdidas and Puma have been two of the biggest names in sports shoe manufacturing for over half a century.Since 1928 they have supplied shoes for Olympic athletes,World Cup-winning football heroes,Muhammad Ali,hip hop stars and rock musicians famous all over the world.But the story of these two companies begins in one house in the town of Herzogenaurach,Germany.Adolph and Rudolph Dassler were the sons of a shoemaker. They loved sports but complained that they could never find comfortable shoes to play in.Rudolph always said,"You cannot play sports wearing shoes that you'd walk around town with."So they started making their own.In 1920 Adolph made the first pair of athletic shoes with spikes(钉),produced on the Dasslers'kitchen table.On 1 st July 1924 they formed a shoe company,Dassler Brothers Ltd and they worked together for many years.The company became successful and it provided the shoes for Germany's athletes at the 1928 and 1932 Olympic Games.But in 1948 the brothers argued.No one knows exactly what happened,but family members have sug- gested that the argument was about money or women.The result was that Adolph left the company.His nick- name was Adi,and using this and the first three letters of the family name,Dassler,he founded Adidas.Rudolph relocated across the River Aurach and founded his own company,too.At first he wanted to call it Ruda,but eventually he called it Puma,after the wild cat.The famous Puma logo of the jumping cat has hardly changed since.After the big split of 1948 Adolph and Rudolph never spoke to each other again and their companieshave now been in competition for over sixty years.Both companies were for many years the market leaders, though Adidas has always been more successful than Puma. A hip hop group,Run DMC,has even written a song called"My Adidas"and in 2005 Adidas bought Reebok,another big sports shoe company.The terrible family argument should really be forgotten,but ever since it happened,over sixty years ago ,the town has been split into two.Even now,some Adidas employees and Puma employees don't talk toeach other. Nike makes more shoes than Adidas.
[多选题]共用题干 Knowing Your Real Personality from Sleeping PositionsEveryone has got two personalities—the one that is shown to the world and the other that is secret and real.You don't show your secret personality when you're awake because you can control yourself,but when you're asleep,your sleeping position shows the real you.In a normal night,of course,you often change your sleeping positions.The important position that best shows your se-cret personality is the one that you go to sleep.If you go to sleep on your back,you're a very open person.You nbrmally trust people and you are easily influenced by new ideas.You don't like to make people unhappy,so you never ex-press your real feelings.You're quite shy and you aren't very confident.If you sleep on your stomach,you are a person who likes to keep secrets.You worry a lot and you're always easily becoming sad.You never want to change your ideas,but you are satisfied with your life the way it is.You usually live for today not for tomorrow.If you sleep on curled up,you are probably a very nervous person.You have a low opinion of yourself and often protect yourself from being hurt,so you are very defensive.You're shy and you don't usually like meeting people.You like to be on your own.If you sleep on your side,you have usually got a well-balanced personality.You know your strengths and weaknesses.You're usually careful.You have a confident personality.You sometimes feel worried,but you don't often get unhappy .You always say what you think,even if it makes people angry. What does the passage tell us?
[多选题]共用题干 HitchhikingWhen I was in my teens(十几岁)and 20s,hitchhiking was a main form of long-distance transport.The kindness or curiosity of strangers_______(51)me all over Europe,North America,Asia and southern Africa. Some of the lift-givers became friends,many provided hospitality_______(52)the road.Not only did you find out much more about a country than_______(53)traveling by train or plane,but also there was that element of excitement about where you would finish up that night. Hitchhiking featured importantly in Western culture.It has books and songs about it. So what has happened to_______(54)?A few years ago,I asked the same question about hitchhiking in a column on a newspaper._______(55)of people from all over the world responded with their views on the state of hitchhiking."If there is a hitchhiker's_______(56)it must be Iran,"came one reply.Rural Ireland was recommended as a friendly place for hitchhiking,_______(57)was Quebec,Canada."If you don't mind being berated(严厉指责)for not speaking French."But while hitchhiking was clearly still alive and well in many parts of the world,the_______( 58 ) feeling was that throughout much of the west it was doomed(消亡).With so much news about crime in the media,people assumed that anyone on the open road without the money for even a bus ticket must present a danger. But do we_______(59)to be so wary both to hitchhike and to give a lift?In Poland in the 1960s,_______(60)a Polish woman who e-mailed me,"the authorities introduced the Hitchhiker's Booklet. The booklet contained coupons for drivers,so each time a driver _______(61)somebody,he or she received a coupon.At the end of the season,_______(62) who had picked up the most hikers were rewarded with various prizes.Everybody was hitchhiking then."Surely this is a good idea for society.Hitchhiking would increase respect by breaking down _______(63)between strangers. It would help fight_______(64)warming by cutting down on fuel consumption as hitchhikers would be using existing fuels.It would also improve educational standards by delivering instant_______(65)in geography,history,politics and sociology. _________(57)
[多选题]共用题干 Flying Into HistoryWhen you turn on the television or read a magazine , celebrities(名人)are everywhere. Although fameand the media play such major roles in our lives today,it has not always been that way._________(46) Many historians agree that Charles Lindbergh was one of the first major celebrities or superstars.Lindbergh was born in Detroit,Michigan,in 1902,but he grew up in Little Falls,Minnesota. As a childhe was very interested in how things worked,so when he reached college,he pursued a degree in engineer- ing. At the age of 20,however,the allure(诱惑)of flying captured Lindbergh's imagination.________(47)Soon after, Lindbergh bought his own plane and traveled across the nation performing aerial stunts(空中 特技).In 1924,Lindbergh became more serious about flying. He joined the United States military and graduated firstin his pilot class.__________ (48)During the same time ,a wealthy hotel owner named Raymond Orteig was offering a generous award tothe first pilot who could fly nonstop from New York City to Paris,France.The Orteig Prize was worth $25 ,000一 a large amount even by today's standards.Lindbergh knew he had the skills to complete the flight,but not just any plane was capable of flyingthat far for that long.___________(49) On May 20,1927,Charles Lindbergh took off from Roosevelt Field in New York City and arrived thenext day at an airstrip(简易机场)outside Paris. Named in honor of the sponsor, the Spirit of St. Louis carried Lindbergh across the Atlantic Ocean and into the record books.He became a national hero and a huge celebrity. When he returned to the United States, Lindbergh rode in a ticker-tape(热烈的)parade held to cele- brate his accomplishment.__________(50)A very popular dance was even named for Charles Lindbergh一 the Lindy Hop.Today,the Spirit of St.Louis is kept at the Smithsonian institute's National Air and Space Museum in Washington,D.C. __________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 A Trainee WaiterI was to be a trainee waiter(实习侍应生)at the restaurant. There are 50 waiters. Trainee waiters and waiters work as a team. The waiter is the front man,taking orders,chatting to the customers;the trainee,rather less glamorously,runs to the kitchen to bring up the orders and assist in serving them at the table.Although the trainee will actually do more physical work,they share the tips equally.All in all this is fair,as it must be pointed out that the senior waiter is actually responsible for keeping a running account of the bills and if he makes a mistake,or undercharges,the fine will be taken from his earnings.I reported for work at 1 1 a. m. That may sound like a relaxed time to start the day,but the hours,I was soon to learn,are hell.The last client at lunchtime may not leave until 4 p.m.,or later,and the evening shift starts at 6 p.m. What can you do in the 2 hours,especially if you don't happen to live in central London?I used to live a bit far,so once or twice,I didn't get home until 5 p.m.The trainee takes orders from the table down to the kitchen.He places the order for hot food under the nose of the chef who is shouting out orders to the cooks,while orders for cold dishes and salad go to a separate counter,and desserts are from yet another area. The kitchen is two flights of stairs away from the restaurant. The trainee then comes up to see if any more orders have been taken while the previous one is being prepared.At the same time,dishes have to be cleared or put on the table, glasses refilled,and somehow there always seems to be a new table with six or eight new orders to be filled.Hell,I rather imagine,is like the kitchen of that restraint. Yelling chefs,endless banging of pots,men with red shinning faces,and trays with loads heavy enough to break your wrists.And running. Always running. Up and down,down and up.And since everyone is running,and always with loaded trays,you need to go to the gym to keep physically strong. However,the problem is still about time.I'm totally exhausted after work,and all I want at that time is to go to bed immediately and sleep for more than 8 hours continuously.I tried to budget my time wisely,but my plan always ended with failure.Now,I become more rational.Instead of going to gym,and being worried for wasting my membership fee if I happen to have no time to go to the gym for a whole week,I walk home every day from work.It is cheap,and,what is more important,flexible.My home is only two blocks away from the restaurant,which makes it possible. Thank Goodness,the security of that district is always good, so I'm not running any risk of being robbed on my way home at night. The last client at dinnertime usually do not leave until 4
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇US to Start$3.2 Billion Child Health Study in JanuaryA stu街that will cost $3.2 billion and last more than two decades to track the health of 100,000 US children from before birth to age 21 will be launched in January,US health officials said on Friday.Officials from the US government's National Institutes of Health said they hope the study,to be conducted at 105 locations throughout the United States,can help identify early-life influences that affect later development,with the goal of learning new ways to treat or prevent illness.The study will examine hereditary(遗传的)and environmental factors such as exposure to certamn chemicals that affect health.Researchers will collect genetic and biological samples from people in the study as well as samples from the homes of the women and their babies including air,water,dust and materials used to construct their residences,the NIH said.Officials said more than $200 million has been spent already and the study is projected to cost $3.2 billion."We anticipate that in the long term(从长远说来),what we learn from the study will result in a significant savings in the nation's health care costs,"Dr. Duane Alexander,who heads the NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development,told reporters.The study will begin in January when the University of North Carolina and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York start signing up pregnant women whose babies will then be followed to age 21.Some of the early findings will be about factors behind preterm birth(早产),which has become more common in recent years,according to Dr. Peter Scheidt of the NIH,who heads the study.The people taking part will be from rural,urban and suburban areas,from all income and educational levels and from all racial groups,the NIH said. It is expected that through the study the nation's health care costs_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Rising Tuition in the USEvery spring,US university administrators gather to discuss the next academic year's budget.They consider faculty salaries,utility costs for dormitories,new building needs and repairs to old ones .They run the numbers and conclude-it seems,inevitably-that,yet again,the cost of tuition must go up.According to the US's College Board,the price of attending a four-year private university in the US rose 81 percent between 1993 and 2004.______(46)In 2005 and 2006,the numbers continued to rise.According to university officials,college cost increases are simply the result of balancing uni-versity checkbooks.“Tuition increases at Cedarville University are determined by our revenue needs for each year.”said the university's president,Dr. Bill Brown.“Student tuition pays for 78 percent of the university's operating costs.”Brown's school is a private university that enrolls about 3,100 undergrads and is consistently recognized by annual college ranking guides like US News and World Report's and The Princeton Review's.______(47)Tuition at private universities is set by administration officials and then sent for approval to the school's board of trustees (董事).______( 48 ) This board oversees(监管)all of a state's public institutions.John Durham,assistant secretary to the board of trustees at East Carolina University(ECU), explains that state law says that public institutions must make their services available whenever possible to the people of the state for free.Durham said that North Carolina residents only pay 22 percent of the cost of their education.______(49)State residents attending ECU pay about US $10,000 for tuition,room and board before financial aid.Amid the news about continued increases in college costs,however,there is some good news. Tuition increases have been accompanied by roughly equal increases in financial aid at almost ev-ery university.To receive financial aid,US students complete a formal application with the federal government. The federal government then decides whether an applicant is eligible(有资格的)for grants or loans______(50) ______(46)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Unidentified Flying ObjectUnidentified flying Object(UFO)is any object or light,reportedly sighted in the sky,that cannot be immediately explained by the observer. Sightings of unusual aerial phenomena date back to ancient times,but UFOs(sometimes called flying saucers)became widely discussed only after the first widely publicized U.S.sighting in 1947.Many thousands of such observations have since been reported worldwide.At least 90 percent of UFO sightings can be identified as conventional objects,although time consuming investigations are often necessary for such identification.The objects most often be mistaken for UFOs are bright planets and stars,aircraft,birds,balloons,kites,aerial flares,peculiar clouds, meteors(流星),and satellites. The remaining sightings most likely can be attributed to other mistaken sightings or to inaccurate reporting, tricks, or delusions(妄想),although to disprove all claims made about UFOs is impossible.From 1947 to 1969 the US air force investigated UFOs as a possible threat to national security. A total of 12,618 reports was received,of which 701 reports,or 5.6 percent,were listed as unexplained.The air force concluded that"no UFO reported,investigated,and evaluated by the Air Force has ever given any indication of threat to our national security."Since 1969 no agency of the US government has had any active program of UFO investigation.Some persons, however, believe that UFOs are extraterrestrial(地球外的)spacecraft, even though no scientifically valid evidence supports that belief. The possibility of extraterrestrial civilizations is not the stumbling block(障碍物);most scientists grant that intelligent life may well exist elsewhere in the universe.A fully convincing UFO photograph of a craft like object has yet to be taken, however, and the scientific method requires that highly speculative(推测性的)explanations should not be adopted unless all of the more ordinary explanations can be ruled out.UFO enthusiasts persist,however,and some persons even claim to have been captured and taken aboard UFOs.No one has produced scientifically acceptable proof of these claims.Behavioral scientist Car Sagan of Cornel University has proposed that"certain psychological needs are met by belief in superior beings from other worlds." According to the passage,which of the following statements is NOT true about the UFO investigation by the US Air Force?
[多选题]共用题干 Public RelationsPublic relations is a broad set of planned communications about the company, including publicity releases,designed to promote goodwill and a favorable image.Publicity then is part of public relations when it is initiated by the firm , usually in the________ (51)of press releases or press conferences.Since public relations involves communications with stockholders,financial analysts,government officials,and other noncustomer groups,it is usually________(52) outside the marketing department , perhaps as a staff department or outside consulting firm reporting to to management.This organizational placement can be a________(53) because the public relations department or consultant will likely not be in line with marketing efforts.Poor communication and no coordination can be the________ (54).Although the basic purpose of public relations is to provide positive influence_______(55) the public image,this influence generally may be less than_______(56) provided by the other components of the public image mix.Publicity may be in the form of news releases that have(57) overtones for the company initiated by the public relations department.Publicity on the other________ (58) should not be divorce from the marketing department,as it can________(59) a useful adjunct(辅助) to the regular advertising______(60) not all publicity is initiated by the firm;some can________(61) from an unfavorable press a reaction to certain actions or lack of________(62) that are controversial or even downright ill-advisedThe________(63) we wish to emphasize is that a firm is deluding(自欺) itself if it thinks its public relations function,whether within the company or an outside firm,can take________(64) of public image problems and opportunities.Many of these have to do with the way the________(65) does business,such as its product quality,the servicing and handling of complaints , etc. _________58
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The Worker' s Role in ManagementTraditionally , it has been the workers 'role to work and management's role to manage.Managers have planned and directed the firm' s operations with little thought of consulting the labor force.Managers have rarely felt compelled (被迫的) to obtain the workers ' opinions or to explain their decisions to their employees.At most , companies have provided " suggestion boxes " in which workers could place ideas for improving procedures.In recent years , however , many management specialists have been arguing that workers are more than sellers of labor-they have a vital stake in the company and may be able to make significant contributions to its management.Furthermore , major company decisions profoundly affect workers and their dependents.This is particularly true of plant closings , which may put thousands on the unemployment lines.Should workers , then , play a stronger role in management?Workers should have a role in management.At the very least , the labor force should be informed of major policy decisions ( A common complaint among rank-and-file workers is the lack of information about company policies and actions).Between 1980 and 1985 about five million workers were the victims of plant closings and permanent layoffs(失业) often with no warning.At least 90 days ' notice ought to be given in such instances so that workers have time to adjust.Management should consult workers before closing a plant , because the workers might be able to suggest ways of improving productivity and reducing costs and might be willing to make concessions that will help keep the plant operating.It should become a general practice to include workers in some managerial decision making.There ought to be representatives of the workers on the firm ' s board of directors or other major policymaking groups.If rank-and-file workers are given a voice in the planning and management of the work flow , they will help to make improvements , their morale will rise , and their productivity will increase.As a further incentive , they must be given a share in the company's profits.This can be done through employee stockownership plans,bonuses , or rewards for efficiency and productivity.Finally , when a plant can no longer operate at a profit,the workers should be given the opportunity to purchase the plant and run it themselves. The word" rank-and-file" in Paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Waste Not,Want Not1 Bob and Clara Darlington,who own and run a farm in the North of England,have always looked fornew ways of making money out of the produce they grow.Their success began when they established a shop on their farm so that people could come and buy fresh vegetables directly from them.2 The business was an immediate success,and soon scored top marks in a competition set up by the Farm Retail Association to find the best farm shop in the country.The Association's inspectors found the Darlingtons' shop offered excellent service and value for money as well as quality fruit and vegetables.3 Clara Darlington is a trained chef and,in addition to a range of home-grown foods and other local produce,she began offering a variety of prepared meals which she had made herself in the farmhouse kitchen.A small cafe alongside the farm shop was soon added,with everything that visitors could taste on the menu also being for sale in the shop.4 Clara admits that starting the business was expensive,and she has worked very hard,but maintains that if the product is good,the public will recognize this and buy it."I aim to offer the highest quality to our cus- tomers,whether they come in for a loaf of bread,or take a whole dinner-party menu.I take it as a compliment (恭维)if people take home one of my dishes to serve to their family and friends and get away with pretending they made it themselves."5 The couple realized that they had a surplus of misshapen or damaged vegetables grown on the farm which were unsuitable for selling in the shop.Clara,not wishing to see themn get thrown away,decided to turn them into soup.6 The soup met with the immediate approval of customers to the shop and Clara now produces ten different varieties.She spent much of the summer traveling up and down to London by rail,doing presenta-tions of the soups.As a result,they are now served in first-class railway restaurant cars belonging to three companies as well as being stocked by a number of high-class London stores. Bob and Clara Darlington established a shop to________.
[多选题]共用题干 Flying Into HistoryWhen you turn on the television or read a magazine , celebrities(名人)are everywhere. Although fameand the media play such major roles in our lives today,it has not always been that way._________(46) Many historians agree that Charles Lindbergh was one of the first major celebrities or superstars.Lindbergh was born in Detroit,Michigan,in 1902,but he grew up in Little Falls,Minnesota. As a childhe was very interested in how things worked,so when he reached college,he pursued a degree in engineer- ing. At the age of 20,however,the allure(诱惑)of flying captured Lindbergh's imagination.________(47)Soon after, Lindbergh bought his own plane and traveled across the nation performing aerial stunts(空中 特技).In 1924,Lindbergh became more serious about flying. He joined the United States military and graduated firstin his pilot class.__________ (48)During the same time ,a wealthy hotel owner named Raymond Orteig was offering a generous award tothe first pilot who could fly nonstop from New York City to Paris,France.The Orteig Prize was worth $25 ,000一 a large amount even by today's standards.Lindbergh knew he had the skills to complete the flight,but not just any plane was capable of flyingthat far for that long.___________(49) On May 20,1927,Charles Lindbergh took off from Roosevelt Field in New York City and arrived thenext day at an airstrip(简易机场)outside Paris. Named in honor of the sponsor, the Spirit of St. Louis carried Lindbergh across the Atlantic Ocean and into the record books.He became a national hero and a huge celebrity. When he returned to the United States, Lindbergh rode in a ticker-tape(热烈的)parade held to cele- brate his accomplishment.__________(50)A very popular dance was even named for Charles Lindbergh一 the Lindy Hop.Today,the Spirit of St.Louis is kept at the Smithsonian institute's National Air and Space Museum in Washington,D.C. __________(50)
[多选题]共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech- nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would run out of food were wrong.We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there- fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen for many years,and continues to drop.2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business,they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient.And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super- markets get bigger,the prices get lower.3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro- ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000 global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food com- panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people big- ger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120z portion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to change the trend. Paragraph 3_________
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching Is“One of the Least Popular Jobs in the UK”1. The UK government has just published a report on the future of secondary-school teaching (pupils aged 11~16),and the conclusion of the report is that many secondary schools now face great difficulties in finding people who want to be teachers.Since the 1980s,the number of grad-uates who say they would“seriously consider” teaching as a career has fallen sharply,from 64% in 1982 to just 17%today. The report suggests that urgent action needs to be taken in order to encourage more intelligent young graduates into teaching.2. The main drawback of secondary teaching,according to the report,is the low salary.Earnings in teaching are much lower than in many other jobs,and this means that fewer and fewer young people decide to be teachers .Joanne Manners,24,is a good example.“I graduated in maths last year,and I was thinking of doing a teacher training course to become a maths teacher -but when I looked into the details, it became clear that teaching isn't a very lucrative(赚钱的)job these days. I saw I could earn twice as much if I worked in marketing or advertising,and so I decided not to become a teacher.”3. It's not just about the money,however. The survey concluded that another reason why people don't want to be teachers is that some teenagers behave very badly in school. A lot of schools have problems with discipline,and it seems clear that children do not have the same respect for teachers as in the past. Here's the view of Dave Hallam,an accountant from London:“I think parents are to blame. They should have stricter rules with their children at home and also teach their children to have more respect for teachers.”4. “I love teaching;it's my passion.I've been a secondary-school teacher of Spanish for ten years now,and although it's a very demanding job,it's very satisfying. When I see my students passing their Spanish exams,or singing along to Spanish pop songs ,it makes me feel so proud.” Says Brian Jones,who works in a secondary school in London.So what does he think the govern-ment should do to encourage more people to become teachers?”“My view is that the government should reduce the burden of work on teachers. I find that I always have too much work to do.”5. The report is clear that the problem of teacher shortage is a very serious one.It says that the government should raise teachers' pay significantly,to catch up with workers in other professions. It also suggests that the government could launch a nationwide publicity campaign,with some ad-vertisements on TV and in the newspapers,to show the positive sides of teaching to young people. Another solution could be set a maximum number of hours per week that teachers can work,in or-der to reduce stress on teachers.“Hopefully,”the report concludes,“these solutions can im- prove the poor image of secondary teaching,and increase the number of young people who want to become teachers in the future. Paragraph 1______
[多选题]共用题干 Careers for WomenIt is only seventy years since British women got the right to vote.Some people think this is the main reason why women are so under-represented in politics,trade unions and big businesses.Others feel it is simply because that they are much too busy doing other things.The old saying"a woman's place is in the home"may seem out of date to most people,but the old,fixed image of a woman as a supporting wife and caring mother is certainly still usual一one only has to watch a few television ads.In 1975 the law did not allow women to be paid less than men doing the same work.Certainly it is usually the case nowadays that women doing the same jobs as men get the same money for doing it. But generally women do not do the same jobs:they do different ones that offer lower salaries.In the United States,there are two million women entering the workforce every year. The new workers include all ages and backgrounds:teenagers,college students,young housewives,and older women who have lost their husbands.Altogether,more than half of the eighty-four million women inthe United States are now employed or seeking employment.Most of them are still holding tightly to the womanly jobs such as nursing,teaching,catering and office work jobs that can be seen as an extension of the mothering role.Although the areas women work in are almost all those of"service",a growing number of pioneers are venturing into other fields. They run business;they manage farms;they become astronauts, carpenters,lawyers,truck or taxi-drivers,coal miners,or politicians.They join the army or the navy.So far no woman has become president of the country;but that might happen,as indeed it has happened in other countries.Apart from looking after people during the day at work,women often have to take care of a family at home too,which may mean they have less energy to compete in the race for professional development. In almost every field,top positions are more likely to be filled by men. While most teachers are women,for example,most head masters are not.School cooks are women,head cooks are men and even cleaners tend to be watched over and directed by male caretakers. The heads of schools are more likely to be men.
[多选题]共用题干 Washoe Learned American Sign LanguageAn animal that influenced scientific thought has died. A chimpanzee named Washoe and born in Africa died of natural causes late last month at the age of 42 at a research center in the A-merican state of Washington.Washoe, had become known in the scientific community and around the world for her ability to use American Sign Language.She was said to be the first non-human to learn a human language .Her skills also led to debate about primates and their ability to under-stand language.Research scientists Allen and Beatrix Gardner began teaching Washoe sign language in 1966.In 1969,the Gardeners described Washoe's progress in a scientific report. The people who experimented with Washoe said she grew to understand about 250 words. For example,Washoe made signs to communicate when it was time to eat. She could request foods like apples and ba-nanas .She also asked questions like,“Who is coming to play?”Once the news about Washoe spread,many language scientists began studies of their own into this nev and exciting area of research .The whole direction of primate research changed.However,critics argued Washoe only learned to repeat sign language movements from watc-hing her teachers.They said she had never developed true language skills.Even now,there are some researchers who suggest that primates learn sign language only by memory,and perform the signs only for prizes. Yet Washoe's keepers disagree.Roger Fouts is a former student of the Gar-deners. He took Washoe to a research center in Ellensburg,Washington. There,Washoe taught sign language to three younger chimpanzees,which are still alive.Scientists like private researcher Jane Goodall believe Washoe provided new information a-bout the mental workings of chimpanzees. Today,there are not as many scientists studying lan-guage skills with chimps. Part of the reason is that this kind of research takes a very long time.Debate continues about chimps' understanding of human communication. Yet,one thing is sure-Washoe changed popular ideas about the possibilities of animal intelligence. The second paragraph mainly discusses______.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Lawrence CurryWhen I tell people my name,they always ask me if I'm related to Lawrence Curry,the novelist,and when I say,yes,he was my great-uncle,they always want to know what he was like. "We've read all his books,"they say,"but please tell us what he was really like."When I described him,as I knew him,they go disappointed.It seems that they find it difficult to accept such a great figure could have had such an ordinary character.My great-uncle was tall,with a long thin body.When he walked,he moved stiffly,with his arms clamped against his sides,looking like nothing so much as a pair of scissors.When I knewhim,his hair was quite white,though it was supposed to have been yellow when he was young. His eyes were blue and deep set and had an anxious look as if he found the world a puzzling place.This expression of anxiety,which arose from nothing more than short-sight一he refused to wear glasses一 inspire the protective instincts of his lady admirers,much to the irritation of my great-aunt who thought all women were fools,except herself.Great-uncle Curry was naturally lazy. He spent a great deal of his time in the village pub playing darts.He was also a compulsive reader from the local telephone directory to great-aunt's shoppinglists.For a man whose book showed such a deep perception of the complexities of human behavior, his conversation was surprisingly trivial.He delighted in discussing English weather,the price of beer,his grandchildren's most amusing words.He loved gossip,but he was kind.I never heard him make a malicious remark,but the wisdom of his writing never appeared in his conversation.As a child,we much preferred the company of his cousin,Stanly,who was a successful shop-owner who always brought us bags of sugar and broken biscuits.Taking it all in all,I have to admit my famous great-uncle was rather a bore. Which statement is NOT true,according to the third and fourth paragraph?
[多选题]共用题干 Waste Not,Want Not1 Bob and Clara Darlington,who own and run a farm in the North of England,have always looked fornew ways of making money out of the produce they grow.Their success began when they established a shop on their farm so that people could come and buy fresh vegetables directly from them.2 The business was an immediate success,and soon scored top marks in a competition set up by the Farm Retail Association to find the best farm shop in the country.The Association's inspectors found the Darlingtons' shop offered excellent service and value for money as well as quality fruit and vegetables.3 Clara Darlington is a trained chef and,in addition to a range of home-grown foods and other local produce,she began offering a variety of prepared meals which she had made herself in the farmhouse kitchen.A small cafe alongside the farm shop was soon added,with everything that visitors could taste on the menu also being for sale in the shop.4 Clara admits that starting the business was expensive,and she has worked very hard,but maintains that if the product is good,the public will recognize this and buy it."I aim to offer the highest quality to our cus- tomers,whether they come in for a loaf of bread,or take a whole dinner-party menu.I take it as a compliment (恭维)if people take home one of my dishes to serve to their family and friends and get away with pretending they made it themselves."5 The couple realized that they had a surplus of misshapen or damaged vegetables grown on the farm which were unsuitable for selling in the shop.Clara,not wishing to see themn get thrown away,decided to turn them into soup.6 The soup met with the immediate approval of customers to the shop and Clara now produces ten different varieties.She spent much of the summer traveling up and down to London by rail,doing presenta-tions of the soups.As a result,they are now served in first-class railway restaurant cars belonging to three companies as well as being stocked by a number of high-class London stores. Instead of throwing the damaged vegetables away,the couple___________.
[多选题]共用题干 Finding a JobAt sixteen Ron Mackie might have stayed at school,but the future called to him excitedly.“Get out of the classroom into a job,”it said,and Ron obeyed.His father,supporting the dcci-sion,found a place for him in a supermarket.“You're lucky,Ron,”he said.“For every boy with a job these days,there's a dozen without.” So Ron joined the working world at twenty pounds a week.For a year he spent his days filling shelves with tins of food.By the end of that time he was looking back on his school days as a time of great variety and satisfaction.He searched for an in-terest in his work,with little success.One fine day instead of going to work Ron got a lift on a lorry going south.With nine pounds in his pocket,a full heart and a great longing for the sea,he set out to make a better way for him-self. That evening,in Bournemouth,he had a sandwich and a drink in a cafe run by an elderly man and his wife.Before he had finished the sandwich,the woman had taken him on for the rest of the summer,at twenty pounds a week,a room upstairs and three meals a day.The ease and speed of it rather took Ron's breath away.At quiet times Ron had to check the old man's arithme- tic in the records of the business.At the end of the season,he stayed on the coast. He was again surprised how straightforward it was for a boy of seventeen to make a living.He worked in shops mostly,but once he took a job in a hotel for three weeks.Late in October he was taken on by the sick manager of a shoe shop. Ron soon found himself in charge there;he was the only one who could keep the books. Ron was able to take over the shoe shop because______.
[多选题]共用题干 Things to Know about the UK1. From Buckingham Palace to Oxford, the UK is loaded with wonderful icons(标志)of past eras. But it has also modernized with confidence. It's now better known for vibrant(充满活力的) cities with great nightlife and attraction.Fashions,fine dining,clubbing,shopping一the UK is among the world's best.2.Most people have strong preconceptions about the British.But if you're one of these people, you'd be wise to abandon those ideas.Visit a nightclub in one of the big cities,a football match,or a good local pub and you might more readily describe the English people as humorous and hospitable.It's certainly true that no other country in the world has more bird-watchers,sports supporters, pet owners and gardeners than the UK.3. Getting around England is pretty easy. Budget(廉价的)airlines like EasyJet and Ryanair fly domestically. Trains can deliver you very efficiently from one major city to another. Long distance express buses are called coaches.Coaches and buses run on the same route,but coaches are more expensive(though quicker)than buses.London's famous black cabs are excellent but expensive. Minicabs are cheaper competitors, with freelance(个体的)drivers. But usually you need to give a call first. London's underground is called the Tube.It's very convenient and can get you to almost any part of the city.4.The UK is not famous for its food.But you still need to know some of the traditional English foods.The most famous must be fish and chips.The fish and chips are deep fried in flour. English breakfast is something you need to try. They are fried bacon,sausages,fried eggs,black pudding, fried tomatoes,fried bread and baked beans,with toast and a pot of tea. Other things like Shepherd's pie and Yorkshire pudding are also well-known as a part of English food culture.5.Pubbing and clubbing are the main forms of English nightlife,especially for the young. Pubbing means going to a pub with friends,having drinks,and chatting. Clubbing is different from pubbing and includes going to a pub,or a place of music,or a bar,or any other places to gather with friends.Clubbing can be found everywhere.Usually there is some kind of dress code for clubbing, such as no jeans,no sportswear,or smart clubwear,while pubbing is much more casual. Paragraph 2_______
[多选题]共用题干 The Tough Grass that Sweetens Our LivesSugar cane was once a wild grass that grew in New Guinea and was used by local people for roofing their houses and fencing their gardens. Gradually a different variety evolved which contained sucrose(蔗糖)and was chewed on for its sweet taste.Over time,sugar cane became a highly valuable commercial plant,grown throughout the world.___________(46)Sugar became a vital ingredient in all kinds of things, from confectionery(糖果点心)to medicine, and,as the demand for sugar grew,the industry became larger and more profitable._________(47)Many crops withered(枯萎)and died,despite growers'attempts to save them,and there were fears that the healthof the plant would continue to deteriorate.In the 1960s,scientists working in Barbados looked for ways to make the commercial species stronger and more able to resist disease.They experimented with breeding programmes,mixing genes from the wild species of sugar cane,which tends to be tougher,with genes from the more delicate,commercial type. _________(48)This sugar cane is not yet ready to be sold commercially,but when this happens,it is expected to be incredibly profitable for the industry.___________(49)Brazil,which produces one quarter of the world's sugar,has coordinated an interna- tional project under Professor Paulo Arrudo of the Universidade Estaudual de Campinas in Sao Paulo.Teams of experts have worked with him to discover more about which parts of the genetic structure of the plant are important for the production of sugar and its overall health.Despite all the research,however,we still do not fully understand how the genes function in sugar cane.__________(50)This gene is particularly exciting because it makes the plant resistant to rust,a dis- ease which probably originated in India,but is now capable of infecting sugar cane across the world.Scien- tists believe they will eventually be able to grow a plant which cannot be destroyed by rust. __________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 Communication with Customers OnlineUntil the late 1940s,when television began finding its way into American homes,companies relied mainly on print and radio to promote their products and services. The advent(出现)of television brought about a revolution in promoting products and services.Between 1949 and 1951, advertising on television grew 960 percent.Today the Internet is once again transforming promotion .By going online,companies can communicate instantly and directly with prospective customers .Promotion on the World Wide Web includes advertising,sponsorships and sales promotions like contests and coupons.In 1996,World Wide Web advertising revenues reached $300 mulion.Effective online marketers do not merely transfer hard-copy ads(平面广告)to cyberspace.Successful sites blend promotional and non-promotional information,indirectly delivering the advertising messages.To encourage visits to their sites and to create and cultivate customers' loyalty,companies change information frequently and provide many opportunities for interaction.One of the best online promotion web sites is the Ragu Web site.Here visitors can find thirty-six pasta recipes,take Italian lessons,and view an Italian film festival,but they will find no traditional ads.So subtle is the mix of product and promotion that visitors hardly know an advertising message has been delivered:SEGA of America,maker of computer games and hardware,uses itsWeb site for a variety of different promotions,such as introducing new game characters to the publie and supplying Web surfers the opportunity to download games.SEGA's home page averages250,000 visits a day.To heighten interest in the site,SEGA bought an advertising banner onNetscape,thereby increasing site visits by 15 percent. Online participants in Quaker Oats' Gatorade promotion received a free Tshirt in exchange for answering a few questions.Quaker Oats reports that the online promotion created product loyalty and helped the company know its customers better.Now,to target specific Internet users,an increasing number of companies are using“push”technology which automatically delivers customized(按客户要求创造的)news and other information to Users' computers when they log onto the Internet.Although organizations like NielsenMedia Research are developing technologies to enhance audience measurement and tracking,it remains difficult to assess how many times the same person looks at an ad and who that person is.Although online promotions can be glamorous and sophisticated,they are not perfect.For a welldesigned marketing mix,industry experts advise companies to use the Internet as a supplement to other advertising media. According to experts' opinion,online promotion should be replaced by new ways.
[多选题]共用题干 Protection of WildlifeDemands for stronger protection for wildlife in Britain some hide the fact that similar are felt ill the rest Europe.Studies by the Council of Europe,of which 21 countries are members,have shown that 1 percent of reptile species and 24 percent of butterflies are in danger of dying out.European concern for wildlife was outlined by Dr. Peter Baum,an expert in the environment and nature resources division of the council,when he spoke at a conference arranged by the ad- ministrators of a British national park.The park is one of the few areas in Europe to hold the council's diploma for nature reserves of the highest quality,and Dr. Peter Baum had come to present it to the park once again.He was afraid that public opinion was turning against national parks,and that those set up in the 1960s and 1970s could not be set up today.But Dr. Baum clearly remained a strong supporter of the view that natural environments needed to be allowed to survive in a peace in their own right.No area could be expected to survive both as a true nature reserve and as tourist attraction,he went on .The short view that reserves had to serve immediate human demands for outdoor recrea- tion should be replaced by full acceptance of their importance as places to preserve nature for the future.“We forget that they are the guarantee of life systems,on which any built-up area ultimately depends,”Dr. Baum went on,“We could manage without most industrial products,but we could not manage without nature.However,our natural environment areas,which are the original parts of our countryside,have shrunk to become mere islands in a spoiled and highly polluted land mass.” Although we all depend on the resources of nature for our survival,______.
[多选题]共用题干 Creating a World without SmokingSmoking will be banned in all pubs,clubs and workplaces from next year after historic votes in the Commons last night. After last-minute appeals from health campaigners,MPs opted for a blanket prohibition which will start in summer 2007,ending months of argument over whether smokers should be barred in pubs and restaurants only.They voted to ban smoking in all pubs and clubs by 384 to 184,a surprisingly large majority of 200.Smoking will still be allowed in home and in places considered to be homes,such as prisons, care homes and hotels.Smokers lighting up in banned areas will face a fixed penalty notice of£50 and spot fines of £200 will be introduced for failing to display no-smoking signs,with the possible penalty,if the issue goes to court,increasing to£1,000.Carpline Flint,the Public Health Minister,also announced that the fine for failing to stop peopie smoking in banned areas would be increased to£2,500一more than ten times the£200 originally proposed.The Bill also allows the Government to increase the age for buying cigarettes.Ministers will consult on raising it from 16 to 18.The Bill now goes to the Lords but will be through by the summer recess.Even a plan to allow smoking to continue in private clubs was thrown out as MPs on all sides were given permission to vote with their conscience rather than on a party line.Patricia Hewitt,the Health Secretary,said the Health Bill would ban smoking in"virtually every enclosed public place and workplace"in England and save thousands of lives a year. Smoke-free workplaces and public places"will become the norm".She said:"An additional 600,000 people will give up smoking as a result of this law and millions more will be protected from second-hand smoke."Peter Hollins,Director-general of the British Heart Foundation,said:"The vote is a landmark victory for the public health of this country and will save the lives of many people." A ban on smoking in all pubs,clubs and workplaces will begin in summer 2007.
[多选题]共用题干 Travel Across AfricaFor six hours we shot through the barren(荒芜的)landscape of the Karoo desert in South Africa. Just rocks and sand and baking sun.Knowing our journey was ending,Daniel and I just wanted to remember all we had seen and done.He used a camera. I used words.I had already finished three notebooks and was into the fourth,a beautiful leather notebook I'd bought in a market in Mozambique.Southern Africa was full of stories and visions.We were almost drunk in sensations.The roaring of the water at Victoria Falls,the impossible silence of the Okavango Delta in Botswana.And then the other things:dogs in the streets,whole families in Soweto living in one room,a kilometre from clean water.As we drove towards the setting sun,a quietness fell over us.The road was empty-we hadn't seen another car for hours.And as I drove,something caught my eye,something moving close enough to touch them,to smell their hot breath.I didn't know how long they had been there next to us.I shouted to Dan:"Look!"But he was in a deep sleep,his camera lying useless by his feet.They raced the car for a few seconds,then disappeared far behind us,a memory of heroic forms in the red landscape. When Daniel woke up an hour later I told him what had happened."Wild horses?"he said."Why didn't you wake me up,Sophia?""I tried.But they were gone after a few seconds.""Are you sure you didn't dream it?""You were the one who was sleeping!""Typical,"he said."The best photos are the ones we never take."We checked into a dusty hotel and slept the sleep of the dead. Daniel took photos of the Nile River.
[多选题]共用题干 Careers for WomenIt is only seventy years since British women got the right to vote.Some people think this is the main reason why women are so under-represented in politics,trade unions and big businesses.Others feel it is simply because that they are much too busy doing other things.The old saying"a woman's place is in the home"may seem out of date to most people,but the old,fixed image of a woman as a supporting wife and caring mother is certainly still usual一one only has to watch a few television ads.In 1975 the law did not allow women to be paid less than men doing the same work.Certainly it is usually the case nowadays that women doing the same jobs as men get the same money for doing it. But generally women do not do the same jobs:they do different ones that offer lower salaries.In the United States,there are two million women entering the workforce every year. The new workers include all ages and backgrounds:teenagers,college students,young housewives,and older women who have lost their husbands.Altogether,more than half of the eighty-four million women inthe United States are now employed or seeking employment.Most of them are still holding tightly to the womanly jobs such as nursing,teaching,catering and office work jobs that can be seen as an extension of the mothering role.Although the areas women work in are almost all those of"service",a growing number of pioneers are venturing into other fields. They run business;they manage farms;they become astronauts, carpenters,lawyers,truck or taxi-drivers,coal miners,or politicians.They join the army or the navy.So far no woman has become president of the country;but that might happen,as indeed it has happened in other countries.Apart from looking after people during the day at work,women often have to take care of a family at home too,which may mean they have less energy to compete in the race for professional development. In almost every field,top positions are more likely to be filled by men. While most teachers are women,for example,most head masters are not.School cooks are women,head cooks are men and even cleaners tend to be watched over and directed by male caretakers. Women are naturally less competitive than men in work since they are not as energetic as men.
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and LearningMany teachers believe that the responsibilities for learning lie with the student.If a long reading assign- ment is given,instructors expect students to be__________(51)with the information in the reading even if they do not discuss it in class or__________(52)an examination.The ideal student is________(53)to be one who is motivated to learn for the sake of learning,not the one interested only in getting high ___________(54).Sometimes homework is returned with brief written____________(55)but without a grade.Even if a grade is not given,the student is___________(56)for learning the material assigned. When research is_________(57),the professor expects the student to take it actively and to complete it with minimum___________(58).It is the student's responsibility to find books,magazines,and articles in the library.Professors do not have the time to__________(59)how a university library works;they expect students to exhaust the___________(60)resources in the library.Professors will help students who need it,_________(61)prefer that their students should not be too __________(62)on them.In the United States professors have many other___________(63)besides teaching,such as administrative or research work.Therefore,the time that a professor can spend__________(64)a student outside of class is limited. if a student has problems with classroom work,the student should either__________(65)a professor during office hours or make an appointment. _________(64)
[多选题]共用题干 Creating a World without SmokingSmoking will be banned in all pubs,clubs and workplaces from next year after historic votes in the Commons last night. After last-minute appeals from health campaigners,MPs opted for a blanket prohibition which will start in summer 2007,ending months of argument over whether smokers should be barred in pubs and restaurants only.They voted to ban smoking in all pubs and clubs by 384 to 184,a surprisingly large majority of 200.Smoking will still be allowed in home and in places considered to be homes,such as prisons, care homes and hotels.Smokers lighting up in banned areas will face a fixed penalty notice of£50 and spot fines of £200 will be introduced for failing to display no-smoking signs,with the possible penalty,if the issue goes to court,increasing to£1,000.Carpline Flint,the Public Health Minister,also announced that the fine for failing to stop peopie smoking in banned areas would be increased to£2,500一more than ten times the£200 originally proposed.The Bill also allows the Government to increase the age for buying cigarettes.Ministers will consult on raising it from 16 to 18.The Bill now goes to the Lords but will be through by the summer recess.Even a plan to allow smoking to continue in private clubs was thrown out as MPs on all sides were given permission to vote with their conscience rather than on a party line.Patricia Hewitt,the Health Secretary,said the Health Bill would ban smoking in"virtually every enclosed public place and workplace"in England and save thousands of lives a year. Smoke-free workplaces and public places"will become the norm".She said:"An additional 600,000 people will give up smoking as a result of this law and millions more will be protected from second-hand smoke."Peter Hollins,Director-general of the British Heart Foundation,said:"The vote is a landmark victory for the public health of this country and will save the lives of many people." One can nevertheless smoke at home.
[多选题]共用题干 American Wedding“I do.”To Americans,those two words carry great meaning.They can even change your life,especially if you say them at your own wedding.Making wedding vows is like signing a con-tract. Now Americans don't really think marriage is a business deal.But marriage is a serious business.It all begins with engagement.Traditionally,a young man asks the father of his sweetheart for permission to marry her. If the father agrees,the man later proposes to her. Often he tries to surprise her by“popping the question”in a romantic way.Sometimes the couple just decides to-gether that the time is right to get married. The man usually gives his francée(未婚妻)a dia- mond ring as a symbol of their engagement. They may be engaged for weeks,months or even years .As the big day approaches,their friends will provide many useful gifts.Today many cou- pies also receive advice during engagement.This prepares them for the challenges of married life.At last it is time for the wedding.Although most weddings follow traditions,there's still room for individualism(个人主义).For example,the usual place for a wedding is a church. But some people get married outdoors in a scenic spot.A few even have the ceremony while sky-diving or riding on horseback!The couple may invite hundreds of people or just a few close friends.They choose their own style of colors,decorations and music during the ceremony.But some things rarely change.The bride usually wears a beautiful,long white wedding dress.She traditionally wears“something old,something new,something borrowed and something blue.”The groom wears a formal suit.As the ceremony begins,the groom and his attendants stands with the minister,facing the audience.Music signals the entrance of the bride's attendants followed by the beautiful bride. Nervously, the young couple repeats their vows.Traditionally,they promise to love each other “for better,for worse,for richer,for poorer,in sickness and in health.”But sometimes the cou-pie composes their own vows.They give each other a gold ring to symbolize their marriage corn-mitment.Finally the minister announces the big moment:“I now pronounce you man and wife. You may kiss your bride!”At the wedding reception,the bride and groom greet their guests.Then they cut the wedding cake and feed each other a bite. Later the bride throws her bouquet of flowers(花束)to a group of single girls.Tradition says that the one who catches the flower will be the next to marry.After the reception,many couples take a honeymoon,a one-to-two-week vacation trip,to celebrate their new mamage. The bride must take something red during the wedding ceremony.
[多选题]共用题干 Local Newspapers in Britain1. Britain has a large circulation(发行量)of the national newspapers. The Daily Mirror and The Daily Express both sell about 4 million copies each day.On average,every family will buy one newspaper in the morning,and take two or three on Sundays.2. Local newspapers are just as popular as the national ones in Britain.Local papers have a weekly circulation of 1 3 million.Nearly every town and country area has its own paper,and almost every local paper is financially holding its own.Many local newspapers are earning good profits.3. Local newspapers have their special characteristics.They mainly satisfy interest in local events-births,weddings,deaths,council meetings,and sports.Editors often rely on a small staff of people who know the district well.Clubs and churches in the neighborhood regularly supply these papers with much local news.Local news does not get out of date as quickly as national news .If there is no room for it in this week's edition,a news item can be held over until the following week.4. The editor of a local newspaper never forgets that the success of any newspaper depends on advertising.For this reason,he is keen to keep the good will of local businessmen.If the newspaper sells well with carefully chosen news items to attract local readers,the businessmen will be grateful to the paper for the opportunity of keeping their products in the public eye.5. Local newspapers seldom comment on problems of national importance,and editors rarely take sides on political questions.But they can often provide service to the community in expressing public feeling on local issues.A newspaper can sometimes persuade the council to take action to improve transport,provide better shopping facilities,and preserve local monuments and places of interest. Local newspapers are well received because they carry articles that please______.
[多选题]共用题干 How Lawyers Are TrainedThe lawyer is a person with a very special knowledge of the law一both the civil and criminal. Because of this knowledge the lawyer can help people plan their affairs in accordance with law. In other words,_______(46).He prepared agreements and contracts by which one person makes sure that another person will carry out his promises.He gives advice to people on domestic and family relationships and business problems._______(47),although the cases the public usually hears or reads about are those that come to court.The lawyer presents or defends in court claimed violations of rights,or disputes arising out of differences as to what has happened or what is legal and just.The lawyer is not only an advocate of the rights of his client but also an legal practioner sworn to uphold the Constitution and the law.Most lawyers today are generally college-trained men who have completed a course in a law school.Each state has its own rules about training and admission.In law school,students learn how to analyze and present problems for decision.They study the constitution,treaties,court decision,as well as prior ruling and precedents._______(48).In some states,instead of going to a law school,a person may experience a long period of training in a law office_______(49).This method was more popular many years ago when educational facilities were few and the body of law was small.After a person has completed formal law一school training,he must take an examination,which is known as the bar examination,to enable the state to check whether he has learnt the fundamentals of the law. Besides,the applicant must show he is of good character._______(50).The applicant is interviewed,and after his character is approved,he is then licensed to practice law. ________(50)
[多选题]共用题干 Flying Into HistoryWhen you turn on the television or read a magazine , celebrities(名人)are everywhere. Although fameand the media play such major roles in our lives today,it has not always been that way._________(46) Many historians agree that Charles Lindbergh was one of the first major celebrities or superstars.Lindbergh was born in Detroit,Michigan,in 1902,but he grew up in Little Falls,Minnesota. As a childhe was very interested in how things worked,so when he reached college,he pursued a degree in engineer- ing. At the age of 20,however,the allure(诱惑)of flying captured Lindbergh's imagination.________(47)Soon after, Lindbergh bought his own plane and traveled across the nation performing aerial stunts(空中 特技).In 1924,Lindbergh became more serious about flying. He joined the United States military and graduated firstin his pilot class.__________ (48)During the same time ,a wealthy hotel owner named Raymond Orteig was offering a generous award tothe first pilot who could fly nonstop from New York City to Paris,France.The Orteig Prize was worth $25 ,000一 a large amount even by today's standards.Lindbergh knew he had the skills to complete the flight,but not just any plane was capable of flyingthat far for that long.___________(49) On May 20,1927,Charles Lindbergh took off from Roosevelt Field in New York City and arrived thenext day at an airstrip(简易机场)outside Paris. Named in honor of the sponsor, the Spirit of St. Louis carried Lindbergh across the Atlantic Ocean and into the record books.He became a national hero and a huge celebrity. When he returned to the United States, Lindbergh rode in a ticker-tape(热烈的)parade held to cele- brate his accomplishment.__________(50)A very popular dance was even named for Charles Lindbergh一 the Lindy Hop.Today,the Spirit of St.Louis is kept at the Smithsonian institute's National Air and Space Museum in Washington,D.C. __________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Unidentified Flying ObjectUnidentified flying Object(UFO)is any object or light,reportedly sighted in the sky,that cannot be immediately explained by the observer. Sightings of unusual aerial phenomena date back to ancient times,but UFOs(sometimes called flying saucers)became widely discussed only after the first widely publicized U.S.sighting in 1947.Many thousands of such observations have since been reported worldwide.At least 90 percent of UFO sightings can be identified as conventional objects,although time consuming investigations are often necessary for such identification.The objects most often be mistaken for UFOs are bright planets and stars,aircraft,birds,balloons,kites,aerial flares,peculiar clouds, meteors(流星),and satellites. The remaining sightings most likely can be attributed to other mistaken sightings or to inaccurate reporting, tricks, or delusions(妄想),although to disprove all claims made about UFOs is impossible.From 1947 to 1969 the US air force investigated UFOs as a possible threat to national security. A total of 12,618 reports was received,of which 701 reports,or 5.6 percent,were listed as unexplained.The air force concluded that"no UFO reported,investigated,and evaluated by the Air Force has ever given any indication of threat to our national security."Since 1969 no agency of the US government has had any active program of UFO investigation.Some persons, however, believe that UFOs are extraterrestrial(地球外的)spacecraft, even though no scientifically valid evidence supports that belief. The possibility of extraterrestrial civilizations is not the stumbling block(障碍物);most scientists grant that intelligent life may well exist elsewhere in the universe.A fully convincing UFO photograph of a craft like object has yet to be taken, however, and the scientific method requires that highly speculative(推测性的)explanations should not be adopted unless all of the more ordinary explanations can be ruled out.UFO enthusiasts persist,however,and some persons even claim to have been captured and taken aboard UFOs.No one has produced scientifically acceptable proof of these claims.Behavioral scientist Car Sagan of Cornel University has proposed that"certain psychological needs are met by belief in superior beings from other worlds." What is the significance of the UFO sighting in 1947 according to the passage?
[多选题]共用题干 Traffic Jams一No End in Sight1 Traffic congestion(拥堵)affects people throughout the world. Traffic jams cause smog in dozens of cities across both the developed and developing world. In the U. S.,commuters(通勤人员)spend an average of a full working week each year sitting in traffic jams,according to the Texas Transportation Institute.Whilealternative ways of getting around are available,most people still choose their cars because they are looking for convenience,comfort and privacy.2 The most promising technique for reducing city traffic is called congestion pricing,whereby cities charge a toll to enter certain parts of town at certain times of day.In theory,if the toll is high enough,some drivers will cancel their trips or go by bus or train.And in practice it seems to work:Singapore,London and Stockholm have reduced traffic and pollution in city centres thanks to congestion pricing.3 Another way to reduce rush-hour traffic is for employers to implement flexitime,which lets employees travel to and from work at off-peak traffic times to avoid the rush hour. Those who have to travel during busy times can do their part by sharing cars.Employers can also allow more staff to telecommute(work from home)so as to keep more cars off the road altogether.4 Some urban planners still believe that the best way to ease traffic congestion is to build more roads, especially roads that can take drivers around or over crowded city streets.But such techniques do not really keep cars off the road;they only accommodate more of them.5 Other,more forward-thinking,planners know that more and more drivers and cars are taking to the roads every day,and they are unwilling to encourage more private automobiles when public transport is so much better both for people and the environment.For this reason,the American government has decided to spend some$7 billion on helping to increase capacity on public-transport systems and upgrade them with more efficient technologies.But environmentalists complain that such funding is tiny compared with the $50 billion being spent on roads and bridges. Paragraph 3_______
[多选题]共用题干 Spacing in Animals1. Any observant person has noticed that a wild animal will allow a man or other potential enemy to approach only up to a given distance before it flees.“Flight distance”is the terms used for this interspecies spacing.As a general rule,there is a positive relationship between the size of an ani-mal and its flight distance-the larger the animal,the greater the distance it must keep between itself and the enemy.An antelope will flee when the enemy is as much as five hundred yards a-way .The wall lizard's flight distance,on the other hand,is about six feet. Flight is the basic means of survival for mobile creatures.2. Critical distance apparently is present wherever and whenever there is a flight reaction.“Criti-cal distance”includes the narrow zone separating flight distance from attack distance.A lion in a zoo will flee from an approaching man until it meets a barrier that it cannot overcome.If the man continues the approach,he soon penetrates the lion's critical distance,at which point the cornered lion reverses direction and begins slowly to stalk the man.3. Social animals need to stay in touch with each other. Loss of contact with the group can be fa-tal for a variety of reasons including exposure to enemies.Social distance is not simply the dis-tance at which an animal will lose contact with his group-that is,the distance at which it can no longer see,hear,or smell the group-it is rather a psychological distance,one at which the ani- mal apparently begins to feel anxious when he exceeds its limits.We can think of it as a hidden band that contains the group.4. Social distance varies from species to species. It is quite short-apparently only a few yards- among some animals,and quite long among others.5. Social distance is not always rigidly fixed but is determined in part by the situation.When the young of apes and humans are mobile but not yet under control of the mother's voice,social dis-tance may be the length of her reach .This is readily observed among the baboons in a zoo .When the baby approaches a certain point,the mother reaches out to seize the end of its tail and pull it back to her. When added control is needed because of danger,social distance shrinks.To show this in man,one has only to watch a family with a number of small children holding hands as they cross a busy street. Paragraph 1______
[多选题]共用题干 Spacing in Animals1. Any observant person has noticed that a wild animal will allow a man or other potential enemy to approach only up to a given distance before it flees.“Flight distance”is the terms used for this interspecies spacing.As a general rule,there is a positive relationship between the size of an ani-mal and its flight distance-the larger the animal,the greater the distance it must keep between itself and the enemy.An antelope will flee when the enemy is as much as five hundred yards a-way .The wall lizard's flight distance,on the other hand,is about six feet. Flight is the basic means of survival for mobile creatures.2. Critical distance apparently is present wherever and whenever there is a flight reaction.“Criti-cal distance”includes the narrow zone separating flight distance from attack distance.A lion in a zoo will flee from an approaching man until it meets a barrier that it cannot overcome.If the man continues the approach,he soon penetrates the lion's critical distance,at which point the cornered lion reverses direction and begins slowly to stalk the man.3. Social animals need to stay in touch with each other. Loss of contact with the group can be fa-tal for a variety of reasons including exposure to enemies.Social distance is not simply the dis-tance at which an animal will lose contact with his group-that is,the distance at which it can no longer see,hear,or smell the group-it is rather a psychological distance,one at which the ani- mal apparently begins to feel anxious when he exceeds its limits.We can think of it as a hidden band that contains the group.4. Social distance varies from species to species. It is quite short-apparently only a few yards- among some animals,and quite long among others.5. Social distance is not always rigidly fixed but is determined in part by the situation.When the young of apes and humans are mobile but not yet under control of the mother's voice,social dis-tance may be the length of her reach .This is readily observed among the baboons in a zoo .When the baby approaches a certain point,the mother reaches out to seize the end of its tail and pull it back to her. When added control is needed because of danger,social distance shrinks.To show this in man,one has only to watch a family with a number of small children holding hands as they cross a busy street. According to the passage,social distance refers______.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Lawrence CurryWhen I tell people my name,they always ask me if I'm related to Lawrence Curry,the novelist,and when I say,yes,he was my great-uncle,they always want to know what he was like. "We've read all his books,"they say,"but please tell us what he was really like."When I described him,as I knew him,they go disappointed.It seems that they find it difficult to accept such a great figure could have had such an ordinary character.My great-uncle was tall,with a long thin body.When he walked,he moved stiffly,with his arms clamped against his sides,looking like nothing so much as a pair of scissors.When I knewhim,his hair was quite white,though it was supposed to have been yellow when he was young. His eyes were blue and deep set and had an anxious look as if he found the world a puzzling place.This expression of anxiety,which arose from nothing more than short-sight一he refused to wear glasses一 inspire the protective instincts of his lady admirers,much to the irritation of my great-aunt who thought all women were fools,except herself.Great-uncle Curry was naturally lazy. He spent a great deal of his time in the village pub playing darts.He was also a compulsive reader from the local telephone directory to great-aunt's shoppinglists.For a man whose book showed such a deep perception of the complexities of human behavior, his conversation was surprisingly trivial.He delighted in discussing English weather,the price of beer,his grandchildren's most amusing words.He loved gossip,but he was kind.I never heard him make a malicious remark,but the wisdom of his writing never appeared in his conversation.As a child,we much preferred the company of his cousin,Stanly,who was a successful shop-owner who always brought us bags of sugar and broken biscuits.Taking it all in all,I have to admit my famous great-uncle was rather a bore. Lawrence Curry's cousin was much preferred by kids for_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Schooling and EducationIt is commonly believed in the United States that school is where people go to get an education. Nevertheless,it has been said that today children interrupt their education to go to school.The distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is important.Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than schooling. Education knows no bounds. It can take place anywhere,whether in the shower or in the job,whether in a kitchen or on a tractor. It includes both the formal learning that takes place in schools and the whole universe of informal learning. The agents of education can range from a revered grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio,from a child to a distinguished scientist.Whereas schooling has a certain predictability,education quite often produces surprises.Achance conversation with a stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other religions.People are engaged in education from infancy on.Education,then,is a very broad,inclusive term.It is a lifelong process,a process that starts long before the start of school,and one that should be an integral part of one's entire life.Schooling,on the other hand,is a specific,formalized process,whose general pattern varies little from one setting to the next.Throughout a country,children arrive at school at approximately the same time,take assigned seats,are taught by an adult,use similar textbooks,do homework,take exams,and so on.The slices of reality that are to be learned,whether they are the alphabet or an understanding of the workings of government,have usually been limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught. For example,high school students know that they are not likely to find out in their classes the truth about political problems in their communities or what the newest filmmakers are experimenting with. There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of schooling. Schooling can be predictable,while education may bring surprises.
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇US to Start$3.2 Billion Child Health Study in JanuaryA stu街that will cost $3.2 billion and last more than two decades to track the health of 100,000 US children from before birth to age 21 will be launched in January,US health officials said on Friday.Officials from the US government's National Institutes of Health said they hope the study,to be conducted at 105 locations throughout the United States,can help identify early-life influences that affect later development,with the goal of learning new ways to treat or prevent illness.The study will examine hereditary(遗传的)and environmental factors such as exposure to certamn chemicals that affect health.Researchers will collect genetic and biological samples from people in the study as well as samples from the homes of the women and their babies including air,water,dust and materials used to construct their residences,the NIH said.Officials said more than $200 million has been spent already and the study is projected to cost $3.2 billion."We anticipate that in the long term(从长远说来),what we learn from the study will result in a significant savings in the nation's health care costs,"Dr. Duane Alexander,who heads the NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development,told reporters.The study will begin in January when the University of North Carolina and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York start signing up pregnant women whose babies will then be followed to age 21.Some of the early findings will be about factors behind preterm birth(早产),which has become more common in recent years,according to Dr. Peter Scheidt of the NIH,who heads the study.The people taking part will be from rural,urban and suburban areas,from all income and educational levels and from all racial groups,the NIH said. The aim of the study is to find new ways to_______.
[多选题]共用题干 The Storyteller1.Steven Spielberg has always had one goal;to tell as many interesting stories to as many people as possible.The son of a computer scientist and a pianist , Spielberg spent his early childhood in New Jersey and then Arizona.Some of his childhood memories became the inspiration for his filmmaking.2.Even decades later , Spielberg says he has vivid memories of his earliest years , which are the origins of some of his most successful films.He believes that E.T.is the result of the difficult years leading up to his parent ' s 1966 divorce.He commented , "It is really about a young boy who was in search of some stability in his life."Close Encounters of the Third Kind was inspired by times when the four-year-old Steven and his father would search the skies for meteors (流星).His mother remembers , " He was scared of just about everything.When trees brushed against the house , he would jump into my bed.And that ' s just the kind of scary stuff he would put in films like Pottorgeist.3.Spielberg was 11 when he first got his hands on his dad's movie camera and began shooting short flicks(电影) about flying saucers(飞碟) and World War II battles.These homemade movies gave him a way to escape his fears.From the very beginning , he had a creative imagination.With his talent for scary storytelling , he could terrify his three younger sisters.It also made it easier for him to make friendships.On Boy Scout camping trips , when night fell , young Steven became the center of attention." Steven would start telling his ghost stories , says Richard Y.Hoffman.Jr.,leader of Troop 294 , " and everyone would suddenly get quiet so that they could all hear.4 Spielberg moved to California with his father and went to high school there , but his grades were so bad that he barely graduated.Both UCLA and USC film schools rejected him,so he entered California State University at Long Beach because it was close to Hollywood.Spielberg was determined to make movies,and he managed to get an unpaid,non-credit internship(实习) in Hollywood.Soon he was given a contract and he dropped out of college.He never looked back.5.Now , many years later , Spielberg is still telling stories with as much passion as when he was a boy.Ask him where he gets his ideas , and Spielberg will shrug." The process for me is mostly intuitive , he says."There are films that I feel that I need to make.And it ' s for a variety of reasons , for personal reasons , or because I just want to have fun.Or maybe because the subject matter is cool , and I think that my kids will like it. Spielberg says he makes movies for______.
[多选题]共用题干 HitchhikingWhen I was in my teens(十几岁)and 20s,hitchhiking was a main form of long-distance transport.The kindness or curiosity of strangers_______(51)me all over Europe,North America,Asia and southern Africa. Some of the lift-givers became friends,many provided hospitality_______(52)the road.Not only did you find out much more about a country than_______(53)traveling by train or plane,but also there was that element of excitement about where you would finish up that night. Hitchhiking featured importantly in Western culture.It has books and songs about it. So what has happened to_______(54)?A few years ago,I asked the same question about hitchhiking in a column on a newspaper._______(55)of people from all over the world responded with their views on the state of hitchhiking."If there is a hitchhiker's_______(56)it must be Iran,"came one reply.Rural Ireland was recommended as a friendly place for hitchhiking,_______(57)was Quebec,Canada."If you don't mind being berated(严厉指责)for not speaking French."But while hitchhiking was clearly still alive and well in many parts of the world,the_______( 58 ) feeling was that throughout much of the west it was doomed(消亡).With so much news about crime in the media,people assumed that anyone on the open road without the money for even a bus ticket must present a danger. But do we_______(59)to be so wary both to hitchhike and to give a lift?In Poland in the 1960s,_______(60)a Polish woman who e-mailed me,"the authorities introduced the Hitchhiker's Booklet. The booklet contained coupons for drivers,so each time a driver _______(61)somebody,he or she received a coupon.At the end of the season,_______(62) who had picked up the most hikers were rewarded with various prizes.Everybody was hitchhiking then."Surely this is a good idea for society.Hitchhiking would increase respect by breaking down _______(63)between strangers. It would help fight_______(64)warming by cutting down on fuel consumption as hitchhikers would be using existing fuels.It would also improve educational standards by delivering instant_______(65)in geography,history,politics and sociology. _________(56)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Internet shopping is a new way of shopping. Nowadays,you can shop for just about anything from your armchair. All you need is a computer which is linked to the Internet. Shopping on the Internet is becoming increasingly popular. In the United States,people spent over$2.5 billion on Internet shopping in 1998.This figure is expected to reach $11 billion by the year 2004.People can shop for a variety of products on the Internet. Physical products include items such as books,CDs,clothes and food.These types of products are the most common purchases through the Internet. You can also buy information products such as on-line news or magazine stories,or you can download computer software through the Internet. Services such as booking airline tickets,reserving hotels or renting cars are also available on the Internet. You can also go shopping on the Internet for entertainment services and take part in on-line games.Internet shopping offers a number of benefits for the shopper. The most important advantage is convenience.You can shop whenever you like as the on-line shops are open 24 hours a day and you don't have to queue with other shoppers at the check-out counters.Secondly,it is easy to find what you are looking for on the Internet. Even out-of-print books may be ordered on line.Finally,it is often cheaper to buy goods through the Internet,and you can tell the shop exactly what you want.The main disadvantage of Internet shopping is that you cannot actually see the products you are buying or check their quality.Also,many people enjoy shopping in the city and miss the opportunity to talk to friends.Some people are worried about paying for goods using credit cards,so Internet companies are now finding ways to make on-line payment safe.Internet shopping is sure to become more and more popular in the years ahead.It promises to change the way we buy all kinds of things一from tonight's dinner to a new car. What is the author's attitude toward the future of Internet shopping?
[多选题]共用题干 Washoe Learned American Sign LanguageAn animal that influenced scientific thought has died. A chimpanzee named Washoe and born in Africa died of natural causes late last month at the age of 42 at a research center in the A-merican state of Washington.Washoe, had become known in the scientific community and around the world for her ability to use American Sign Language.She was said to be the first non-human to learn a human language .Her skills also led to debate about primates and their ability to under-stand language.Research scientists Allen and Beatrix Gardner began teaching Washoe sign language in 1966.In 1969,the Gardeners described Washoe's progress in a scientific report. The people who experimented with Washoe said she grew to understand about 250 words. For example,Washoe made signs to communicate when it was time to eat. She could request foods like apples and ba-nanas .She also asked questions like,“Who is coming to play?”Once the news about Washoe spread,many language scientists began studies of their own into this nev and exciting area of research .The whole direction of primate research changed.However,critics argued Washoe only learned to repeat sign language movements from watc-hing her teachers.They said she had never developed true language skills.Even now,there are some researchers who suggest that primates learn sign language only by memory,and perform the signs only for prizes. Yet Washoe's keepers disagree.Roger Fouts is a former student of the Gar-deners. He took Washoe to a research center in Ellensburg,Washington. There,Washoe taught sign language to three younger chimpanzees,which are still alive.Scientists like private researcher Jane Goodall believe Washoe provided new information a-bout the mental workings of chimpanzees. Today,there are not as many scientists studying lan-guage skills with chimps. Part of the reason is that this kind of research takes a very long time.Debate continues about chimps' understanding of human communication. Yet,one thing is sure-Washoe changed popular ideas about the possibilities of animal intelligence. According to the passage,which of the following is true?
[多选题]共用题干 The Storyteller1.Steven Spielberg has always had one goal;to tell as many interesting stories to as many people as possible.The son of a computer scientist and a pianist , Spielberg spent his early childhood in New Jersey and then Arizona.Some of his childhood memories became the inspiration for his filmmaking.2.Even decades later , Spielberg says he has vivid memories of his earliest years , which are the origins of some of his most successful films.He believes that E.T.is the result of the difficult years leading up to his parent ' s 1966 divorce.He commented , "It is really about a young boy who was in search of some stability in his life."Close Encounters of the Third Kind was inspired by times when the four-year-old Steven and his father would search the skies for meteors (流星).His mother remembers , " He was scared of just about everything.When trees brushed against the house , he would jump into my bed.And that ' s just the kind of scary stuff he would put in films like Pottorgeist.3.Spielberg was 11 when he first got his hands on his dad's movie camera and began shooting short flicks(电影) about flying saucers(飞碟) and World War II battles.These homemade movies gave him a way to escape his fears.From the very beginning , he had a creative imagination.With his talent for scary storytelling , he could terrify his three younger sisters.It also made it easier for him to make friendships.On Boy Scout camping trips , when night fell , young Steven became the center of attention." Steven would start telling his ghost stories , says Richard Y.Hoffman.Jr.,leader of Troop 294 , " and everyone would suddenly get quiet so that they could all hear.4 Spielberg moved to California with his father and went to high school there , but his grades were so bad that he barely graduated.Both UCLA and USC film schools rejected him,so he entered California State University at Long Beach because it was close to Hollywood.Spielberg was determined to make movies,and he managed to get an unpaid,non-credit internship(实习) in Hollywood.Soon he was given a contract and he dropped out of college.He never looked back.5.Now , many years later , Spielberg is still telling stories with as much passion as when he was a boy.Ask him where he gets his ideas , and Spielberg will shrug." The process for me is mostly intuitive , he says."There are films that I feel that I need to make.And it ' s for a variety of reasons , for personal reasons , or because I just want to have fun.Or maybe because the subject matter is cool , and I think that my kids will like it. Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 Living History at Jamestown SettlementA woman in Native American clothes is sitting in the sun,sewing a dress from skin. Inside a building,a colonist is making a wooden chair,using very simple tools.And all around,tourists are taking pictures with their digital(数码的)cameras. This is Jamestown settlement today.Jamestown,Virginia,was one of the first place in the world where people form Europe,A-merican,and Africa came together in 1608 .Today,it is a living history museum,where children and adults come to experience history.In a living history museum,actors wear clothes and adults form the past and demonstrate many of the activities of daily life back then.The actors also talk to the visitors and explain everything they do.At a living history museum,there are always many things to touch,hear,and smell. Visitors at Jamestown settlement can walk through copies of the three small sailing ships that carried colo-mists to Virginia and even lie down in a colonist's bed!The colonists stayed on the crowed,dan-gerous ships for more than four months.When they got to Virginia,they built an area of houses with a high wall around it. In today's fort(堡垒),you can see houses, a church, and even a gar-den with foods that the colonists ate .Women in long dresses work inside their homes,and visitors can help them with their sewing and cooking.There is also an Indian Village at Jamestown settlement,and it looks very different from the fort. It shows how the Indians lived in long houses and grew corn and other crops in large fields. Actors there make pottery(陶器)and teach visitors how to play Indian games. You can even help them make an India boat from a tree!Today,the living history museum of Jamestown is very popular,especially with children and families.People come here to have fun,but also to learn. Many school classes visit to experience old ways of getting things done. A living history museum is the best way to understand how people lived in the past. Children and families enjoy play Indian games.
[多选题]共用题干 Voice Your Opinion一Change is Needed in Youth SportsEverywhere you look, you see kids bouncing a basketball or waving a tennis racquet(网球拍).And these kids are getting younger and younger. In some countries,children can compete on basketball,base- ball,and volleyball teams starting at age nine.__________(46)And swimming and gymnastics classes begin at age four,to prepare children for competition.It's true that a few of these kids will develop into highly skilled athletes and may even become membersof the national Olympic teams.__________(47)This emphasis on competition in sports is having serious negative effects.Children who get involved in competitive sports at a young age often grow tired of their sport.Many parents pressure their kids to choose one sport and devote all their time to it.__________(48)But 66 per-cent of the young athletes wanted to play more than one sport一for fun.Another problem is the pressure imposed by over-competitive parents and coaches.Children are notnaturally competitive.In fact,a recent study by Paulo David found that most children don't even understand the idea of competition until they are seven years old._________(49)The third,and biggest,problem for young athletes is the lack of time to do their homework,have fun, be with friends一in short,time to be kids.When they are forced to spend every afternoon at sports practice, they often start to hate their chosen sport.A researcher found that 70 percent of kids who take part in competitive sports before the age of twelve quit before they turn eighteen.________(50)Excessive com-petitive sports take away all the enjoyment.Need to remember the purpose of youth sports一to give kids a chance to have developing,strong, healthy bodies. _________(46)