综合B

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 第二篇Nuclear Power and Its DangerNuclear power's danger to health,safety,and even life itself can be summed up in one word:radiation.There is a certain mystery about nuclear radiation,partly because it cannot be detected by human senses. It can't be seen or heard,or touched or tasted,even though it may be all around us. There are other things like that. For example,radio waves are all around us but we can't detect them,sense them,without a radio receiver. Similarly,we can't sense radioactivity without a radiation detector. But unlike common radio waves,nuclear radiation is not harmless to human beingsand other living things.At very high levels,radiation can kill an animal or human being outright by killing masses of cells in vital organs.But even the lowest level of radiation can do serious damage.There is no level of radiation that is completely safe.If the radiation does not hit anything important,the damage may not be significant. This is the case when only a few cells are hit,and if they are killed outright,your body will replace the dead cells with healthy ones.But if the few cells are only damaged,and if they reproduce themselves,you may be in trouble.They reproduce themselves in a deformed way.Theycan grow into cancer. Sometimes this does not show up for many years.This is another reason for some of the mystery about nuclear radiation.Serious damage can be done without the victim being aware at the time that damage has occurred.A person can be irradiated and feel fine,then die of cancer five,ten,or twenty years later as a result. Or a child can be born weak or liable to serious illness as result of radiation absorbed by his grandparents.Radiation can hurt us.We must know the truth. The word"significant"in Paragraph 3 most probably means_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Margaret Sanger and Birth ControlMargaret Sanger,an American nurse,was the first to start the modern birth control movement in the United States.In 1912 she______(51)publishing information about women's reproductive(生殖的)concerns through articles and books. In 1914 Sanger was charged ______(52)violation of the Comstock Law,which federal legislation had passed in 1873 for-bidding the mailing of sexy material______(53)information about birth control and contraceptive(避孕的)devices. Though she was put in jail for these activities , Sanger______( 54 ) to publish and spread information about birth control.She and her sister Ethel Byrne opened the first of several birth control clinics in America on October 16,1916,in Brooklyn,New York.The Comstock Law was rewritten by Congress in 1 936 to______(55)birth control information and devices .Many states had laws forbidding distribution or use of contraceptive devices but the constitutionality(合宪性)of these laws was increasingly______(56).In 1965,theSupreme Court of the United States ruled that married people have the right to practice birth control without government intervention .In 1972,the court______(57)that unmarried people have the same right.Today there are more birth control options______(58),but overpopulation and unwanted pregnancies remain worldwide______(59).Having more children than one can support may lead______(60)poverty,illness,and high death rates for babies,children,and women.The problem of teenage pregnancy is______(61) worse in the United States ______(62)in almost any other developed country.Studies show that birth rates for women under 20 are higher in the United States than in 29 other______(63)countries.A detailed study suggested that the problem of teenage pregnancy in the United States may be______(64) to less sex education in schools and lower availability(可获性)of contraceptive services and supplies to young people,This study______(65)the view of people in the United States who argue that sex education or making contraceptive supplies available to school-age children promotes sexual activity. 57._________
[多选题]共用题干 Making Yourself a Good RecordIf you are an American and you think you might need to borrow money someday,the best thing to do is start early.That'S because just as many employers want to hire only people with experience,banks and other creditors are usually reluctant to lend to those________(51)a proven track record of paying back, _________(52)time,the money they have borrowed.But if you need experience just to get a start,how do you get that start in the first place?With a little help from your parents usually,while you are still financially dependent_________(53) them.It is easy to get a credit card or student loan when you are in college,because banks figure your parents will bail you out if you fail to pay.So just as students take on internships to build up their resumes,one's university time can be a goodtime to work on another important personal record:the credit _________(54).Credit reports are a_________(55)of one's personal credit history,gathered by a credit reporting agency,or CRA.Banks and companies一___________(56)hospitals,landlords and insurance companies一regularly report to the three main CRAs in the US__________(57)how their customers are doing at paying back the money they ________(58).Anyone with a"legitimate business need"has the right to order individuals'reports from the CRAs. Potential creditors usually compile the information in'the reports into a credit"score",ranking the level ofcreditworthiness.Lack of experience in borrowing in__________(59)to a bad record of doing so,can result in a low score.Even if you are not considering taking out a loan for such a large purchase as a home or car,your credit report can be important to getting through life.Landlords often ask for the reports to judge________(60 )a person can be trusted to pay the rent. Credit checks are necessary for getting a credit card,even for pur-chasing a mobile phone calling plan.People can obtain a copy of their own credit report,usually __________(61)a cost of around US $8—9.Some consumer organizations recommend doing this once a year to allow one to catch any mistakes __________(62)have slipped into the record or,even worse,to find out whether any fraud has taken place.Though the system is controlled by laws __________(63)to protect people's privacy it isn't fool-proof: sometimes people take out bad loans in others'names,________(64)their records. In a society addicted________(65)credit,that can be a disaster. _________(64)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇“Lucky" Lord Lucan一Alive or Dead? On 8th November 1974 Lord Lucan, a British aristocrat(贵族),vanished. The day before, his chil-dren's nanny(保姆)had been brutally murdered and his wife had been attacked too. To this day the British 'public are still interested in the murder case because Lucan has never been found.Now,over 30 years later, the police have reopened the case,hoping that new DNA techniques will help solve this murder mystery.People suspected that"Lucky",as he was called by friends,wanted to kill his wife he no longer lived with.They say that Lucan entered his old house and in the dark,killed the nanny by mistake.His estranged (分居的)wife heard noises, came downstairs and was also attacked, but managed to escape. Seven months after the murder,a jury concluded that Lucan had killed the nanny.What happened next is unclear,but there are several theories which fall into one of three categories:he may have killed himself,he could have escaped or he might have been killed.It appears that the night after the murder,"Lucky"borrowed a car and drove it. Lucan's friend Aspinall said in an interview that he thought Lucan had committed suicide by sinking his boat in the English Channel.Another version of events says that"Lucky"left the blood-soaked car on the coast and took a ferry to France.He was met there by someone who drove him to safety in another country.However,after a time, his rescuers became worried that they would become involved in the murder too and so Lucan was killed.A further fascinating theory was made in the book Dead Lucky by Duncan Maclaughlin,a former detective. He believes that Lucan travelled to Go'a,India,where he assumed the identity of a Mr. Barry Haplin. Lucan then lived in Goa till his death in 1996.In the end the claim turned out to be a case of mistaken identity. The man who died in 1996 was really Haplin,an ex-schoolteacher. So what is the truth about"Lucky"?DNA testing has solved many murder cases,but who knows if it can close the book on this one. It was suspected that Lucan killed the nanny because________.
[多选题]共用题干 The Storyteller1.Steven Spielberg has always had one goal;to tell as many interesting stories to as many people as possible.The son of a computer scientist and a pianist , Spielberg spent his early childhood in New Jersey and then Arizona.Some of his childhood memories became the inspiration for his filmmaking.2.Even decades later , Spielberg says he has vivid memories of his earliest years , which are the origins of some of his most successful films.He believes that E.T.is the result of the difficult years leading up to his parent ' s 1966 divorce.He commented , "It is really about a young boy who was in search of some stability in his life."Close Encounters of the Third Kind was inspired by times when the four-year-old Steven and his father would search the skies for meteors (流星).His mother remembers , " He was scared of just about everything.When trees brushed against the house , he would jump into my bed.And that ' s just the kind of scary stuff he would put in films like Pottorgeist.3.Spielberg was 11 when he first got his hands on his dad's movie camera and began shooting short flicks(电影) about flying saucers(飞碟) and World War II battles.These homemade movies gave him a way to escape his fears.From the very beginning , he had a creative imagination.With his talent for scary storytelling , he could terrify his three younger sisters.It also made it easier for him to make friendships.On Boy Scout camping trips , when night fell , young Steven became the center of attention." Steven would start telling his ghost stories , says Richard Y.Hoffman.Jr.,leader of Troop 294 , " and everyone would suddenly get quiet so that they could all hear.4 Spielberg moved to California with his father and went to high school there , but his grades were so bad that he barely graduated.Both UCLA and USC film schools rejected him,so he entered California State University at Long Beach because it was close to Hollywood.Spielberg was determined to make movies,and he managed to get an unpaid,non-credit internship(实习) in Hollywood.Soon he was given a contract and he dropped out of college.He never looked back.5.Now , many years later , Spielberg is still telling stories with as much passion as when he was a boy.Ask him where he gets his ideas , and Spielberg will shrug." The process for me is mostly intuitive , he says."There are films that I feel that I need to make.And it ' s for a variety of reasons , for personal reasons , or because I just want to have fun.Or maybe because the subject matter is cool , and I think that my kids will like it. Paragraph 3______
[多选题]共用题干 Why is the Native Language Learnt So Well?How does it happen that children learn their mother tongue so well?When we compare them with adults learning a foreign language,we often find this interesting fact. A little child without knowledge or experience often succeeds in a complete mastery(精通)of the language. A grown-up person with fully developed mental powers,in most case,may end up with a faulty and inexact command(掌握).What accounts for this differ- ence?Despite other explanations,the real answer in my opinion lies partly in the child himself,partly in the behavior of the people around him.In the first place,the time of learning the mother tongue is the most fa-vorable of all,namely,the first years of life.A child hears it spoken from morning till night and,what is more important,always in its genuine form,with the right pronunciation,right intonation,right use of words and right structure. He drinks in(吸收)all the words and expressions , which come to him in a flash, ever-bubbling(冒泡的)spring. There is no resistance : there is perfect assimilation.Then the child has,as it were,pnvate lessons all the year round,while an adult language-student has each week a limited number of hours,which he generally shares with others.The child has another advan- tage:he hears the language in all possible situations,always accompanied by the right kind of gestures and facial expressions.Here there is nothing unnatural,such as is often found in language lessons in schools, when one talks about ice and snow in June or scorching heat in January.And what a child hears is generally what immediately interests him.Again and again,when his attempts at speech are successful,his desires are understood and fulfilled.Finally,though a child's "teachers" may not have been trained in language teaching,their relations with him are always close and personal.They take great pains to make their lessons easy. The reason why children learn their mother tongue so well lies solely in their environment of learning.
[多选题]共用题干 The World's Longest BridgeRumor has it that a legendaiy six-headed monster lurks in the deep waters of the Tyrrhenian Sea between Italy arid the island of Sicily.______(46)When completed in 2010,the world's longest bridge will weigh nearly 300,000 tons-equivalent to the iceberg that sank the Titanic-and stretch 5 kilometers long."Tha.t's nearly 50 percent longer than any other bridge ever built."says structural engineer Shane Rixon._______(47)They're suspension bridges,massive structures built to span vast water channels or gorges.A suspension bridge needs just two towers to shoulder the structure's mammoth weight,thanks to hefty supporting cables slung between the towers and anchored firmly in deep pools of cement at each end of the bridge.The Messina Strait Bridge will have two 54,100-ton towers,which will support most of the bridge's load.The beefy cables of the bridge,each 1.2 meter in diameter,will hold up the longest and widest bridge deck ever built.When construction begins on the Messina Strait Bridge in 2005,the first job will be to erect two 370 meter-tail steel towers.______(48)Getting these cables up will be something.It's not just their length-totally 5.3 kilorneters-but their weight.______(49)After lowering vertical"suspender"cables from the main cables,builders will erect a 60 meter-wide 54,630-ton steel roadway,or deck-wide enough to accommodate 12 lanes of traffic.The deck's weight will pull down on the cables with a force of 70 ,500 tons.In return,the cables yank up against their firmly rooted anchors with a force of 139,000 tons-equivalent to the weight of about 100,000 cars.Those anchors are essential. _______(50) ______(47)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The IcemanOn a September day in 1991,two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy.High up on a mountain pass,they found the body of a man lying on the ice. At that height(10,499 feet,or 3,200 meters),the ice is usually peiianerIt,but 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice had melted more than usual and so the body had come to the surface.It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架)was in perfect condition , except for a wound in the head.There was still skin on the hones and the remains of some clothes.The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots.Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮)and a holder for arrows.Who was this man?How ahd when had he died?Everybody had a different answer to these questions.Some people thought that it was from this century,perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War I, since several soldiers had already been found in the area. A Swiss woman believed it might be her father,who had died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found.The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older,maybe even a thousand years old.With modern dating techniques,the scientists soon learned that the Iceman was about 5,300 years old. Born in about 3300 B.C.,he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe.At first scientists thought he was proba- bly a hunter who had died in an accident in the high mountains.More recent evidence,however,tells a different story.A new kind of X-ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. It left only a tiny hole in his skin,but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He almost certainly died from this wound,and not from the wound on the back of his head.This means that he was probably in some kind of a battle.It might have been part of a larger war,or he might have been fighting bandits.He might even have been a bandit himself.By studying his clothes and tools,scientists have already learned a great deal from the Iceman about the times he lived in.We may never know the full story of how he died,but he has given us important clues to the history of those distant times. The body of the Iceman was found in the mountains mainly because______.
[多选题]共用题干 Electronic MailDuring the past few years,scientists all over the world have suddenly found themselves pro-ductively engaged in task they once spent their lives avoiding-writing,any kind of writing,but particularly letter writing. Encouraged by electronic mail's surprisingly high speed,convenience and economy,people who never before touched the stuff are regularly,skillfully,even cheerfully tapping out a great deal of correspondence.Electronic networks,woven into the fabric of scientific communication these days,are the route to colleagues in distant countries,shared data,bulletin boards and electronic journals.Any-one with a personal computer,a modern and the software to link computers over telephone lines can sign on.An estimated five million scientists have done so with more joining every day,most of them communicating through a bundle of interconnected domestic and foreign routes known col- lectively as the Internet,or net.E-mail is starting to edge out the fax,the telephone,overnight mail,and of course,land mail.It shrinks time and distance between scientific collaborators, in part because it is conven- iently asynchronous(异步的)( Writers can type while their colleagues across time zones sleep; their message will be waiting.).If it is not yet speeding discoveries,it is certainly accelerating communication.Jeremy Bernstein,the physicist and science writer,once called E-mail the physicist's umbilical cord(脐带).Later other people , too , have been discovering its connective virtues. Physi-cists are using it;college students are using it;everybody is using it;and as a sign that it has come of age,the New Yorker has celebrated its liberating presence with a cartoon-an appreciative dog seated at a keyboard,saying happily,“On the Internet,nobody knows you're a dog.” The reasons given below about the popularity of E-mail can be found in the passage except______.
[多选题]共用题干 The Race Into SpaceAmerican millionaire Dennis Tito will always be famous.He was the first tourist in space."I spent sixty years on Earth and eight days in space and from my viewpoint,it was two separate lives,"Tito explained.He loved his time in space."Being in space and looking back at the earth is one of the most rewarding experi- ences a human being can have."This kind of experience isn't cheap.It cost$20 million.However,Tito achieved his dream,so he was happy."For me it was a life dream.It was a dream that began when I didn't have any money,"he told reporters.On 24th,April 2002,Mark Shuttleworth became the world's second space tourist.Shuttleworth is a South African businessman.At the age of twenty-eight,he also paid $20 million for the eight-day trip.Both Tito and Shuttleworth bought their tickets from a company called Space Adventures.The company has around 100 people already on their waiting list for flights into space.The spaceship to take them doesn't exist yet.Many of the customers are people who like adventure.They are the kind of people who also want to climb Mount Qomolangma.Other customers are people who love space.However,these people are worried. Because it's so expensive,only very rich people can go into space.They want space travel to be available tomore people.That day may soon be here.InterOrbital Systems(IOS)plans to send up to four tourists a week into space.The tours will depart from an island in Tonga. The company promises a package that includes forty-five days of astronaut training in Russia and California,seven days in space and a vacation in Tonga,for $2 million.However,space flight is still very dangerous.Bill Readdy is NASA's deputy assistant administrator for space flight. He says that the chances of dying are about 1 in 500.Because of this,it may take time before space tourism really takes off. You might be able to go up,but will you come down? Bill Readdy thinks space flight is very dangerous.
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and LearningMany teachers believe that the responsibilities for learning lie with the student.If a long reading assign- ment is given,instructors expect students to be__________(51)with the information in the reading even if they do not discuss it in class or__________(52)an examination.The ideal student is________(53)to be one who is motivated to learn for the sake of learning,not the one interested only in getting high ___________(54).Sometimes homework is returned with brief written____________(55)but without a grade.Even if a grade is not given,the student is___________(56)for learning the material assigned. When research is_________(57),the professor expects the student to take it actively and to complete it with minimum___________(58).It is the student's responsibility to find books,magazines,and articles in the library.Professors do not have the time to__________(59)how a university library works;they expect students to exhaust the___________(60)resources in the library.Professors will help students who need it,_________(61)prefer that their students should not be too __________(62)on them.In the United States professors have many other___________(63)besides teaching,such as administrative or research work.Therefore,the time that a professor can spend__________(64)a student outside of class is limited. if a student has problems with classroom work,the student should either__________(65)a professor during office hours or make an appointment. _________(55)
[多选题]共用题干 The Only Way Is UpThink of a modern city and the first image that come to mind is the skyline.It is full of great buildings,pointing like fingers to heaven.It is true that some cities don't permit buildings to go a-bove a certain height.But these are cities concerned with the past.The first thing any city does when it wants to tell the world that it has arrived is to build skyscrapers.When people gather together in cities,they create a demand for land.Since cities are places where money is made,that demand can be met. And the best way to make money out of city land is to put as many people as possible in a space that covers the smallest amount of ground.That means building upwards.The technology existed to do this as early as the 19th century.But the height of buildings was limited by one important factor. They had to be small enough for people on the top floors to climb stairs .People could not be expected to climb a mountain at the end of their journey to work,or home.Elisha Otis,a US inventor,was the man who brought us the lift-or elevator,as he pre- ferred to call it.However,most of the technology is very old.Lifts work using the same pulley system the Egyptians used to create the Pyramids.What Otis did was attach the system to a steam engine and develop the elevator brake,which stops the lift falling if the cords that hold it up are broken.It was this that did the most to gain public confidence in the new invention.In fact,he spent a number of years exhibiting lifts at fairgrounds,giving people the chance to try them before selling the idea to architects and builders.A lift would not be a very good theme park attraction now.Going in a lift is such an everyday thing that it would just be boring.Yet psychologists and others who study human behavior find lifts fascinating.The reason is simple.Scientists have always studied animals in zoos.The nearest they can get to that with humans is in observing them in lifts.“It breaks all the usual conventions about the bubble of personal space we carry around with us—and you just can't choose to move away”,says workplace psychologist,Gary Fitzgibbon.Be-ing trapped in this setting can create different types of tensions,he says.Some people are scared of them.Others use them as an opportunity to get close to the boss.Some stand close to the door. Others hide in the corners.Most people try and shrink into the background.But some behave in a way that makes others notice them.There are a few people who just stand in a corner taking notes.Don't worry about them.They are probably from a university. When Otis came up with the idea of a lift,______.
[多选题]共用题干 Are You a Successful Leader?1 Almost nothing we do in this world is done in isolation.At work or at play,you'll find yourself in groups,working with other people:your team at work,a meeting with colleagues,your family,a holiday with friends,a group of students working together,a day out walking in the mountains,a group of neighbours want- ing to make changes.It is now recognized that being able to work successfully with other people is one of the major keys to success,partly because we need to do it so often.2 In almost every situation where you're in a group,you will need a skilled leader. All groups need leaders and all successful groups have good leaders.Groups without leaders or with weak leaders almost always break down.Members of a leaderless group often begin to feel dissatisfied and frustrated.Time is wasted and the tasks are not achieved.There are often arguments and tensions between people as there is nobody to keep the goals clear. Some personalities dominate and others disappear. Often group members begin not to come to meetings in order to avoid more disharmony.3 Some people are natural leaders.The celebrity chef,Antonio Carluccio says,"True leaders are bornand you can spot them in kitchens."They're people who combine toughness,fairness and humour. Although a lot of people agree that there are somne natural-born leaders,most people now recognize that leadership can also be taught.Our professional and experienced staff can train almost anyone how to be a successful leader. Good leaders don't make people do things in a bossy,controlling way.You can learn how to involve everyone, encouraging the whole group to work towards a comnmon goal.4 Our training courses use activities and techniques to develop a range of qualities which are necessary to be a good leader. Self-confidence is vital and being able to overcome your own fears about being a leader. Successful leaders also need to be calm and intelligent.They need to be able to work out good strategies and make sound judgements under pressure.Lastly,and probably most importantly,good leaders need to be sensi- tive,sociable and be able to get on with a wide range of people.Good leadership is essentially the ability to influence others and good leaders allow all members of the group to contribute. Paragraph 1____________
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Internet shopping is a new way of shopping. Nowadays,you can shop for just about anything from your armchair. All you need is a computer which is linked to the Internet. Shopping on the Internet is becoming increasingly popular. In the United States,people spent over$2.5 billion on Internet shopping in 1998.This figure is expected to reach $11 billion by the year 2004.People can shop for a variety of products on the Internet. Physical products include items such as books,CDs,clothes and food.These types of products are the most common purchases through the Internet. You can also buy information products such as on-line news or magazine stories,or you can download computer software through the Internet. Services such as booking airline tickets,reserving hotels or renting cars are also available on the Internet. You can also go shopping on the Internet for entertainment services and take part in on-line games.Internet shopping offers a number of benefits for the shopper. The most important advantage is convenience.You can shop whenever you like as the on-line shops are open 24 hours a day and you don't have to queue with other shoppers at the check-out counters.Secondly,it is easy to find what you are looking for on the Internet. Even out-of-print books may be ordered on line.Finally,it is often cheaper to buy goods through the Internet,and you can tell the shop exactly what you want.The main disadvantage of Internet shopping is that you cannot actually see the products you are buying or check their quality.Also,many people enjoy shopping in the city and miss the opportunity to talk to friends.Some people are worried about paying for goods using credit cards,so Internet companies are now finding ways to make on-line payment safe.Internet shopping is sure to become more and more popular in the years ahead.It promises to change the way we buy all kinds of things一from tonight's dinner to a new car. What is the author's attitude toward the future of Internet shopping?
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Saving MoneyWhere you save your money often depends on what you are saving for. If you are saving to buy a dictionary or to go to a concert,then probably keep your money somewhere in your room.If you are saving for a big purchase like a mountain bike or a school trip,where would you save your money?One place to save money is the bank.Putting your money in a savings account will help your money earn more money. If you put your money in a piggy bank(猪形储蓄罐), one year later you'll still have the same amount of money you put in?If you put your money in a savings account,one year later,you'll have more money than you put in.Why?When you keep your money in a bank,your money earns interest.Interest is the amount of money a bank pays you to use your money.The bank uses your money(and the money of other people,too)to loan money to people and businesses.The bank will send you a statement several times a year. A bank statement tells you how much money there is in your account. It also tells you how much interest you have earned.If you leave your money in the bank,you can watch it grow!Another way you can save money is to buy a certificate of deposit or CD.If you have some money that you don't need to use for a long time,this is a good way to make your money grow. You can buy a CD at a bank.You agree not to use the money for a certain period of time.That period might be from six months to five years.You can't touch your money during that time.If you do,you must pay a penalty,or fee.Since the bank is using your money for that time period,it will pay you interest.You will earn more interest with a CD than in a savings account. Can you guess why?It's because you promise to leave your money in the bank for a certain period of time.Banks pay different rates of interest.So, you may want to compare rates in newspaper ads before buying a CD.
[多选题]共用题干 Global Warming1.Smoke is clouding our view of global warming,protecting the planet from perhaps threequarters of the greenhouse(温室)effect. That might sound like good news,but experts say that as the cover diminishes in coming decades,we are facing a dramatic increase of warming that could be two or even three times as great as official best guesses.2.This was the dramatic conclusion reached last week at a workshop in Dahlem,Berlin,where top atmospheric scientists got together,including Nobel prize winner Paul Crutzen and Swedish scientist Bert Bolin,former chairman of the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC).3. IPCC scientists have suspected for a decade that aerosols(浮质)of smoke and other partidles from burning rainforest,crop waste and fossil fuels are blocking sunlight and counteracting the warming effect of carbon dioxide(二氧化物)emissions. Until now,they reckoned that aerosols reduced greenhouse warming by perhaps a quarter,cutting increases by 0.2℃.So the 0.6℃of warming over the past century would have been 0.8℃without aerosols.4.But the Berlin workshop concluded that the real figure is even higher—aerosols may have reduced global warming by as much as three-quarters,cutting increases by 1.8℃.If so,the good news is that aerosols have prevented the world getting almost two degrees warmer than it is now. But the bad news is that the climate system is much more sensitive to greenhouse gases than previously guessed.5.As those gases are expected to continue accumulating in the atmosphere while aerosols stabilize or fall,that means"dramatic consequences for estimates of future climate change",the scientists agreed in a draft report from the workshop. Paragraph 2_______
[多选题]共用题干 Public RelationsPublic relations is a broad set of planned communications about the company, including publicity releases,designed to promote goodwill and a favorable image.Publicity then is part of public relations when it is initiated by the firm , usually in the________ (51)of press releases or press conferences.Since public relations involves communications with stockholders,financial analysts,government officials,and other noncustomer groups,it is usually________(52) outside the marketing department , perhaps as a staff department or outside consulting firm reporting to to management.This organizational placement can be a________(53) because the public relations department or consultant will likely not be in line with marketing efforts.Poor communication and no coordination can be the________ (54).Although the basic purpose of public relations is to provide positive influence_______(55) the public image,this influence generally may be less than_______(56) provided by the other components of the public image mix.Publicity may be in the form of news releases that have(57) overtones for the company initiated by the public relations department.Publicity on the other________ (58) should not be divorce from the marketing department,as it can________(59) a useful adjunct(辅助) to the regular advertising______(60) not all publicity is initiated by the firm;some can________(61) from an unfavorable press a reaction to certain actions or lack of________(62) that are controversial or even downright ill-advisedThe________(63) we wish to emphasize is that a firm is deluding(自欺) itself if it thinks its public relations function,whether within the company or an outside firm,can take________(64) of public image problems and opportunities.Many of these have to do with the way the________(65) does business,such as its product quality,the servicing and handling of complaints , etc. _________52
[多选题]共用题干 Are You a Successful Leader?1 Almost nothing we do in this world is done in isolation.At work or at play,you'll find yourself in groups,working with other people:your team at work,a meeting with colleagues,your family,a holiday with friends,a group of students working together,a day out walking in the mountains,a group of neighbours want- ing to make changes.It is now recognized that being able to work successfully with other people is one of the major keys to success,partly because we need to do it so often.2 In almost every situation where you're in a group,you will need a skilled leader. All groups need leaders and all successful groups have good leaders.Groups without leaders or with weak leaders almost always break down.Members of a leaderless group often begin to feel dissatisfied and frustrated.Time is wasted and the tasks are not achieved.There are often arguments and tensions between people as there is nobody to keep the goals clear. Some personalities dominate and others disappear. Often group members begin not to come to meetings in order to avoid more disharmony.3 Some people are natural leaders.The celebrity chef,Antonio Carluccio says,"True leaders are bornand you can spot them in kitchens."They're people who combine toughness,fairness and humour. Although a lot of people agree that there are somne natural-born leaders,most people now recognize that leadership can also be taught.Our professional and experienced staff can train almost anyone how to be a successful leader. Good leaders don't make people do things in a bossy,controlling way.You can learn how to involve everyone, encouraging the whole group to work towards a comnmon goal.4 Our training courses use activities and techniques to develop a range of qualities which are necessary to be a good leader. Self-confidence is vital and being able to overcome your own fears about being a leader. Successful leaders also need to be calm and intelligent.They need to be able to work out good strategies and make sound judgements under pressure.Lastly,and probably most importantly,good leaders need to be sensi- tive,sociable and be able to get on with a wide range of people.Good leadership is essentially the ability to influence others and good leaders allow all members of the group to contribute. Good leaders always avoid_________.
[多选题]共用题干 Smartphone Customers up for GrabAbout 10 years ago I met an advertising executive in New York who explained the difficulty of advertising a new brand of deodorant(除臭剂)to consumers."Most people never change their deodorant,"I remember him saying."They pick one brand when they are young,and stick with it for a long,long time.If it works,why switch?"The same theory can be applied_______(46)Once they have picked a type of phone,whether it's Apple iOS,Google Android or something else,it's difficult,and often expensive,to switch? Consumers become comfortable with the interface and design of the phone and the apps they have purchased on that platform._______(47)That is why the race to pull in smartphone buyers is going to be especially severe over the next 18 to 24 months._______(48)there are still hundreds of millions of mobile phone owners around the world who have yet to move from a standard mobile or feature phone to its smarter,more intelligent big brother:the smartphone.Yet the change is happening at a much quicker pace than technology analysts and companies originally theorized.A report issued this week by Nielsen,the market research firm,found that among Americans_______(49)55 percent opted for a smartphone.This is up from 34 percent a year ago.At this point,who will lead that market is not up for debate.Android has been growing at a pace no one could have imagined,even Google.The company said this week that it now activates more than 500,000 Android devices each day.Mr. llamas said Apple,which changed the smartphone game in 2007 when it introduced the iPhone,potentially has a ceiling with consumers as its mobile phone is often more expensive than those of its competitors.Although millions of customers flock to Apple products for their beauty,simplicity and powerful brand,many can't afford a new iPhone.This could change_______(50)as some analysts expect. "Right now the iPhone only comes in one flavor;it's not like other Apple products like the iPod where there are several different sizes,shapes and prices,"Mr. Llamas said. ________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 Flying Into HistoryWhen you turn on the television or read a magazine , celebrities(名人)are everywhere. Although fameand the media play such major roles in our lives today,it has not always been that way._________(46) Many historians agree that Charles Lindbergh was one of the first major celebrities or superstars.Lindbergh was born in Detroit,Michigan,in 1902,but he grew up in Little Falls,Minnesota. As a childhe was very interested in how things worked,so when he reached college,he pursued a degree in engineer- ing. At the age of 20,however,the allure(诱惑)of flying captured Lindbergh's imagination.________(47)Soon after, Lindbergh bought his own plane and traveled across the nation performing aerial stunts(空中 特技).In 1924,Lindbergh became more serious about flying. He joined the United States military and graduated firstin his pilot class.__________ (48)During the same time ,a wealthy hotel owner named Raymond Orteig was offering a generous award tothe first pilot who could fly nonstop from New York City to Paris,France.The Orteig Prize was worth $25 ,000一 a large amount even by today's standards.Lindbergh knew he had the skills to complete the flight,but not just any plane was capable of flyingthat far for that long.___________(49) On May 20,1927,Charles Lindbergh took off from Roosevelt Field in New York City and arrived thenext day at an airstrip(简易机场)outside Paris. Named in honor of the sponsor, the Spirit of St. Louis carried Lindbergh across the Atlantic Ocean and into the record books.He became a national hero and a huge celebrity. When he returned to the United States, Lindbergh rode in a ticker-tape(热烈的)parade held to cele- brate his accomplishment.__________(50)A very popular dance was even named for Charles Lindbergh一 the Lindy Hop.Today,the Spirit of St.Louis is kept at the Smithsonian institute's National Air and Space Museum in Washington,D.C. __________(48)
[多选题]共用题干 The Case of the Disappearing FingerprintsOne useful anti-cancer drug can effectively erase the whorls and other characteristic marks that give peopletheir distinctive fingerprints(指纹).Losing them could become troublesome. A case________( 51) onlinein a letter by Annals of Oncology(肿瘤学)indicates how big a ________ (52) of losing fingerprints is.Eng-Huat Tan,a Singapore-based medical doctor describes a 62-year-old man who has used capecit- abine to_________ (53 ) his nasopharyngeal cancer(鼻咽癌).After three years on the__________ (54), the patient decided to visit U.S. relatives last December. But he was stopped by U. S. customs officials __________(55)4 hours after entering the country when those officials couldn't get fingerprints from the man.There were no__________(56)swirly marks appearing from his index finger."U.S.customs has been fingerprinting incoming foreign visitors for years,"Tan says."Unfortunately,for the Singaporean traveler,one potential__________(57)effect of his drug treatment is a smoothing of thetissue on the finger pads,____________(58),no fingerprints.""It is uncertain when fingerprint_________(59)will begin to take place in patients who are taking capecitabine,"Tan points out.So he___________(60)any physicians who prescribe the drug to provide their patients with a doctor's____________(61)pointing out that their medicine may cause fingerprints todisappear.Eventually,the Singapore traveler made it into the United States.I guess the name on his passport didn't raise any red flags. But he's also now got the doctor's explanatory note一and won't leave home__________(62)it.By the way , maybe the Food and Drug Administration(美国食品药物管理局),__________( 63) approved use of the drug 1 1 years ago,should consider updating its list of side effects___________(64)with this medicine. The current list does note that patients may experience vomiting(呕吐),stomach pain and some other side effects.But no where__________(65)it mention the potential danger for loss of finger- prints. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 The Dangers of Secondhand SmokeMost people know that cigarette smoking is harmful to their health.Scientific research shows that it causes many kinds of diseases.In fact,many people who smoke get lung cancer. However,Edward Gilson has lung cancer,and he has never smoked cigarettes.He lives with his wife Evelyn,who has smoked about a pack of cigarettes a day throughout their marriage.________(46)No one knows for sure why Mr. Gilson has lung cancer. Nevertheless,doctors believe that secondhand smoke may cause lung cancer in people who do not smoke because nonsmokers often breathe in the smoke from other people's cigarettes.________(47)The US Environmental Protection Agency reports that about 53,000 people die in the United States each year as a result of exposure to secondhand smoke.The smoke that comes from a lit cigarette contains many different poisonous chemicals.In the past, scientists did not think that these chemicals could harm a nonsmoker's health._________(48)They discovered that even nonsmokers had unhealthy amounts of these toxic chemicals in their bodies.As a matter of fact,almost all of us breathe tobacco smoke at times,whether we realize it or not. For example,we can not avoid secondhand smoke in restaurants,hotels and other public places.Even though many public places have nonsmoking areas,smoke flows in from the areas where smoking is permitted.It is even harder for children to avoid secondhand smoke._________(49)Research shows that chil- dren who are exposed to secondhand smoke are sick more often than children who live in homes where no one smokes and that the children of smokers are more than twice as likely to develop lung cancer when they are adults as are children of nonsmokers.The risk is even higher for children who live in homes where both parents smoke.People are becoming very aware of the dangers of secondhand smoke._________(50) __________(49)
[多选题]共用题干 HitchhikingWhen I was in my teens(十几岁)and 20s,hitchhiking was a main form of long-distance transport.The kindness or curiosity of strangers_______(51)me all over Europe,North America,Asia and southern Africa. Some of the lift-givers became friends,many provided hospitality_______(52)the road.Not only did you find out much more about a country than_______(53)traveling by train or plane,but also there was that element of excitement about where you would finish up that night. Hitchhiking featured importantly in Western culture.It has books and songs about it. So what has happened to_______(54)?A few years ago,I asked the same question about hitchhiking in a column on a newspaper._______(55)of people from all over the world responded with their views on the state of hitchhiking."If there is a hitchhiker's_______(56)it must be Iran,"came one reply.Rural Ireland was recommended as a friendly place for hitchhiking,_______(57)was Quebec,Canada."If you don't mind being berated(严厉指责)for not speaking French."But while hitchhiking was clearly still alive and well in many parts of the world,the_______( 58 ) feeling was that throughout much of the west it was doomed(消亡).With so much news about crime in the media,people assumed that anyone on the open road without the money for even a bus ticket must present a danger. But do we_______(59)to be so wary both to hitchhike and to give a lift?In Poland in the 1960s,_______(60)a Polish woman who e-mailed me,"the authorities introduced the Hitchhiker's Booklet. The booklet contained coupons for drivers,so each time a driver _______(61)somebody,he or she received a coupon.At the end of the season,_______(62) who had picked up the most hikers were rewarded with various prizes.Everybody was hitchhiking then."Surely this is a good idea for society.Hitchhiking would increase respect by breaking down _______(63)between strangers. It would help fight_______(64)warming by cutting down on fuel consumption as hitchhikers would be using existing fuels.It would also improve educational standards by delivering instant_______(65)in geography,history,politics and sociology. _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 Margaret Sanger and Birth ControlMargaret Sanger,an American nurse,was the first to start the modern birth control movement in the United States.In 1912 she______(51)publishing information about women's reproductive(生殖的)concerns through articles and books. In 1914 Sanger was charged ______(52)violation of the Comstock Law,which federal legislation had passed in 1873 for-bidding the mailing of sexy material______(53)information about birth control and contraceptive(避孕的)devices. Though she was put in jail for these activities , Sanger______( 54 ) to publish and spread information about birth control.She and her sister Ethel Byrne opened the first of several birth control clinics in America on October 16,1916,in Brooklyn,New York.The Comstock Law was rewritten by Congress in 1 936 to______(55)birth control information and devices .Many states had laws forbidding distribution or use of contraceptive devices but the constitutionality(合宪性)of these laws was increasingly______(56).In 1965,theSupreme Court of the United States ruled that married people have the right to practice birth control without government intervention .In 1972,the court______(57)that unmarried people have the same right.Today there are more birth control options______(58),but overpopulation and unwanted pregnancies remain worldwide______(59).Having more children than one can support may lead______(60)poverty,illness,and high death rates for babies,children,and women.The problem of teenage pregnancy is______(61) worse in the United States ______(62)in almost any other developed country.Studies show that birth rates for women under 20 are higher in the United States than in 29 other______(63)countries.A detailed study suggested that the problem of teenage pregnancy in the United States may be______(64) to less sex education in schools and lower availability(可获性)of contraceptive services and supplies to young people,This study______(65)the view of people in the United States who argue that sex education or making contraceptive supplies available to school-age children promotes sexual activity. 62._________
[多选题]共用题干 Making Yourself a Good RecordIf you are an American and you think you might need to borrow money someday,the best thing to do is start early.That'S because just as many employers want to hire only people with experience,banks and other creditors are usually reluctant to lend to those________(51)a proven track record of paying back, _________(52)time,the money they have borrowed.But if you need experience just to get a start,how do you get that start in the first place?With a little help from your parents usually,while you are still financially dependent_________(53) them.It is easy to get a credit card or student loan when you are in college,because banks figure your parents will bail you out if you fail to pay.So just as students take on internships to build up their resumes,one's university time can be a goodtime to work on another important personal record:the credit _________(54).Credit reports are a_________(55)of one's personal credit history,gathered by a credit reporting agency,or CRA.Banks and companies一___________(56)hospitals,landlords and insurance companies一regularly report to the three main CRAs in the US__________(57)how their customers are doing at paying back the money they ________(58).Anyone with a"legitimate business need"has the right to order individuals'reports from the CRAs. Potential creditors usually compile the information in'the reports into a credit"score",ranking the level ofcreditworthiness.Lack of experience in borrowing in__________(59)to a bad record of doing so,can result in a low score.Even if you are not considering taking out a loan for such a large purchase as a home or car,your credit report can be important to getting through life.Landlords often ask for the reports to judge________(60 )a person can be trusted to pay the rent. Credit checks are necessary for getting a credit card,even for pur-chasing a mobile phone calling plan.People can obtain a copy of their own credit report,usually __________(61)a cost of around US $8—9.Some consumer organizations recommend doing this once a year to allow one to catch any mistakes __________(62)have slipped into the record or,even worse,to find out whether any fraud has taken place.Though the system is controlled by laws __________(63)to protect people's privacy it isn't fool-proof: sometimes people take out bad loans in others'names,________(64)their records. In a society addicted________(65)credit,that can be a disaster. _________(60)
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇The Worker' s Role in ManagementTraditionally , it has been the workers 'role to work and management's role to manage.Managers have planned and directed the firm' s operations with little thought of consulting the labor force.Managers have rarely felt compelled (被迫的) to obtain the workers ' opinions or to explain their decisions to their employees.At most , companies have provided " suggestion boxes " in which workers could place ideas for improving procedures.In recent years , however , many management specialists have been arguing that workers are more than sellers of labor-they have a vital stake in the company and may be able to make significant contributions to its management.Furthermore , major company decisions profoundly affect workers and their dependents.This is particularly true of plant closings , which may put thousands on the unemployment lines.Should workers , then , play a stronger role in management?Workers should have a role in management.At the very least , the labor force should be informed of major policy decisions ( A common complaint among rank-and-file workers is the lack of information about company policies and actions).Between 1980 and 1985 about five million workers were the victims of plant closings and permanent layoffs(失业) often with no warning.At least 90 days ' notice ought to be given in such instances so that workers have time to adjust.Management should consult workers before closing a plant , because the workers might be able to suggest ways of improving productivity and reducing costs and might be willing to make concessions that will help keep the plant operating.It should become a general practice to include workers in some managerial decision making.There ought to be representatives of the workers on the firm ' s board of directors or other major policymaking groups.If rank-and-file workers are given a voice in the planning and management of the work flow , they will help to make improvements , their morale will rise , and their productivity will increase.As a further incentive , they must be given a share in the company's profits.This can be done through employee stockownership plans,bonuses , or rewards for efficiency and productivity.Finally , when a plant can no longer operate at a profit,the workers should be given the opportunity to purchase the plant and run it themselves.
[多选题]共用题干 Sport or Spectacle?Muhammad Aui is probably the most famous sports figure on earth:he is recognized on every continent and by all generations. The__________(51)of his illness as Parkinson's disease after his retirement fuelled the debate about the dangers of boxing and criticism__________(52)the sport. That,plus his outspoken opposition___________(53)women's boxing,made people wonder how he would react when one of his daugh- ters decided to____________(54)up the sport.His presence at Laila's first professional fight,however,seemed to broadcast a father's support.Of course Muhammad Aui wanted to___________(55)his daughter fight.The ring announcer introduced him as the"the greatest"and as he sat down at the ringside the crowd chanted.Twenty-one-year-old Laila's debut fight(首次亮相)was a huge success and there was as much publicity for the___________(56)as her father's fights once attracted Laila's opponent was much weaker than she was and__________(57)the fight lasted just 31 seconds.Since then, Laila has won most of her fights by knoc-king out her opponent"She knows ______ (58)she's doing,"said one referee about her."She knowsabout moving well.You can see some of her dad's moves."Laila Ali would rather not_________ (59)herself to her father. She prefers to make. __________(60). Her father supports her decision to enter the sport but he has not spared her the details of what can happen. Laila__________(61)that her father wants her to understand the worst possible scenario to see_________(62) she still wants to go forward with it.She knows she's going to get hit hard at times,that she may get a broken nose or a swollen(肿胀的)face , but at least she is prepared for it.Laila's decision to start boxing despite her father's__________(63)with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease has of course sparked a mixture of praise and__________(64).But Laila is a determined individual and it is her famous last name that has made her a magnet for worldwide media attention.Of course,the ___________(65)on the boxing scene of a woman with her family history attracts even more questions about whether women's boxing is sport or spectacle. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Lawrence CurryWhen I tell people my name,they always ask me if I'm related to Lawrence Curry,the novelist,and when I say,yes,he was my great-uncle,they always want to know what he was like. "We've read all his books,"they say,"but please tell us what he was really like."When I described him,as I knew him,they go disappointed.It seems that they find it difficult to accept such a great figure could have had such an ordinary character.My great-uncle was tall,with a long thin body.When he walked,he moved stiffly,with his arms clamped against his sides,looking like nothing so much as a pair of scissors.When I knewhim,his hair was quite white,though it was supposed to have been yellow when he was young. His eyes were blue and deep set and had an anxious look as if he found the world a puzzling place.This expression of anxiety,which arose from nothing more than short-sight一he refused to wear glasses一 inspire the protective instincts of his lady admirers,much to the irritation of my great-aunt who thought all women were fools,except herself.Great-uncle Curry was naturally lazy. He spent a great deal of his time in the village pub playing darts.He was also a compulsive reader from the local telephone directory to great-aunt's shoppinglists.For a man whose book showed such a deep perception of the complexities of human behavior, his conversation was surprisingly trivial.He delighted in discussing English weather,the price of beer,his grandchildren's most amusing words.He loved gossip,but he was kind.I never heard him make a malicious remark,but the wisdom of his writing never appeared in his conversation.As a child,we much preferred the company of his cousin,Stanly,who was a successful shop-owner who always brought us bags of sugar and broken biscuits.Taking it all in all,I have to admit my famous great-uncle was rather a bore. Why do people get disappointed after I gave the description of my great-uncle?
[多选题]共用题干 A Heroic WomanThe whole of the United States cheered its latest hero,Ashley Smith,with the Federal Bureau of Investigation saying it was planning to give a big reward to her for having a brave heart and wise mind._______(46)She was moving into her apartment in Atlanta,Georgia early on the morning of March 12,when a man followed her to her door and put a gun to her side."I started walking to my door,and I felt really,really afraid,"she said in a TV interview last week.The man was Brian Nichols ,33. He was suspected of killing three people at an Atlanta courthouse(法院)on March 11 and later of killing a federal agent._______(47)Nichols tied Smith up with tape,but released her after she repeatedly begged him not to take her life."I told him if he hurt me,my little girl wouldn't have a mummy,"she said.In order to calm the man down,she read to him from The Purpose-Driven Lfe,a best-selling religious book.He asked her to repeat a paragraph"about what you thought your purpose in life was一what talents were you given."_______(48)"I basically just talked to him and tried to gain his trust,"Smith said.Smith said she asked Nichols why he chose her."He said he thought I was an angel sent from God,and we were Christian sister and brother,"she said."And that he was lost,and that God led him to me to tell him that he had hurt a lot of people."_______(49)She said Nichols was surprised when she made him breakfast and that the two of them watched television coverage(报道)of the police hunt for him."I cannot believe that's me,"Nichols told the woman.Then,Nichols asked Smith what she thought he should do.She said,"I think you should turn yourself in.If you don't, lots more people are going to get hurt."Eventually,he let her go._______(50)A$60,000 reward had been posted for Nichols' capture. Authorities said they did not yet know if Smith would be eligible(有资格的)for that money. ______(48)
[多选题]共用题干 Moderate Earthquake Strikes EnglandA moderate earthquake struck parts of southeast England on 28 April 2007,toppling chim- neys from houses and rousing residents from their beds .Several thousand people were left without power in Kent County. One woman suffered minor head and neck injuries.“It felt as if the whole house was being slid across like a fun-fair ride,”said the woman.The British Geological Survey said the 4 .3-magnitude quake struck at 8:19 a.m. and was centered under the English Channel,about 8 .5 miles south of Dover and near the entrance to the Channel Tunnel.Witnesses said cracks appeared in walls and chimneys collapsed across the county .Residents said the tremor had lasted for about 10 to 15 seconds.“I was lying in bed and it felt as if someone had just got up from bed next to me.”said Hen-drick van Eck,27,of Canterbury about 60 miles southeast of London.“I then heard the sound of cracking,and it was getting heavier and heavier. It felt as if someone was at the end of my bed hopping up and down.”There are thousands of moderate quakes on this scale around the world each year,but they are rare in Britain. The April 28 quake was the strongest in Britain since 2002 when a 4.8-magni-tude quake struck the central England city of Birmingham.The country's strongest earthquake took place in the North Sea in 1931,measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale.British Geological Survey scientist Roger Musson said the quake took place on 28 April in an area that had seen several of the biggest earthquakes ever to strike Britain,including one in 1580 that caused damage in London and was felt in France.Musson predicted that it was only a matter of time before another earthquake struck this part of England.However,people should not be scared too much by this prediction,Musson said,as the modern earthquake warning system of Britain should be able to detect a forthcoming quake and announce it several hours be-fore it takes place .This would allow time for people to evacuate and reduce damage to the mini-mum. The biggest earthquake took place in Britain______.
[多选题]共用题干 Local Newspapers in Britain1. Britain has a large circulation(发行量)of the national newspapers. The Daily Mirror and The Daily Express both sell about 4 million copies each day.On average,every family will buy one newspaper in the morning,and take two or three on Sundays.2. Local newspapers are just as popular as the national ones in Britain.Local papers have a weekly circulation of 1 3 million.Nearly every town and country area has its own paper,and almost every local paper is financially holding its own.Many local newspapers are earning good profits.3. Local newspapers have their special characteristics.They mainly satisfy interest in local events-births,weddings,deaths,council meetings,and sports.Editors often rely on a small staff of people who know the district well.Clubs and churches in the neighborhood regularly supply these papers with much local news.Local news does not get out of date as quickly as national news .If there is no room for it in this week's edition,a news item can be held over until the following week.4. The editor of a local newspaper never forgets that the success of any newspaper depends on advertising.For this reason,he is keen to keep the good will of local businessmen.If the newspaper sells well with carefully chosen news items to attract local readers,the businessmen will be grateful to the paper for the opportunity of keeping their products in the public eye.5. Local newspapers seldom comment on problems of national importance,and editors rarely take sides on political questions.But they can often provide service to the community in expressing public feeling on local issues.A newspaper can sometimes persuade the council to take action to improve transport,provide better shopping facilities,and preserve local monuments and places of interest. Paragraph 4______
[多选题]共用题干 American DreamsThere is a common response to America among foreign writers:the US is a land of extremes where the best of things are just as easily found as the worst. This is a cliche(陈词滥调).In the land of black and white,people should not be too surprised to find some of the biggest gaps between the rich and the poor in the world.But the American Dream offers a way out to everyone._______(46)No class system or government stands in the way.Sadly,this old argument is no longer true.Over the past few decades there has been a fundamental shift in the structure of the American economy.The gap between the rich and the poor has widened and widened._______( 47)Over the past 25 years the median US family income has gone up 18 per cent. For the top 1 per cent,however,it has gone up 200 per cent. Twenty-five years ago the top fifth of Americans had an average income 6.7 times that of the bottom fifth._______(48)Inequalities have grown worse in different regions.In California,incomes for lower class families have fallen by 4 per cent since 1969._______(49)This has led to an economy hugely in favor of a small group of very rich Americans.The wealthiest 1 per cent of households now control athird of the national wealth. There are now 37 million Americans living in poverty.At 12.7 per cent of the population,it is the highest per centage in the developed world.Yet the tax burden on America's rich is falling,not growing._______(50)There was an economic theory holding that the rich spending more would benefit everyone as a whole.But clearly that theory has not worked in reality. __________(47)
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Cell Phones: Hang Up or Keep Talking?Millions of people are using cell phones today,In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one.In many countries,cell phones are very popular with Young people.They find that the phones aremore than a means of communication一having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected.The explosions around the world in mobile phone use make some health professionals worried.Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones.In England,there has been a serious debate about this issue.Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas.They say that there is no proof that mobile phones are bad for your health.On the other hand,why do some medical studies show changes in the brain cells of some people who use mobile phones?Signs of change in the tissues of the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning (扫描)equipment. In one case , a traveling salesman had to retire at a young age because of serious memory loss.He couldn't remember even simple tasks.He would often forget the name of his own son.This man used to talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day,every day of his working week,for a couple of years.His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use,but his employer's doctor didn't agree.What is it that makes mobile phones potentially harmful?The answer is radiation.High-tech machines can detect very small amounts of radiation from mobile phones.Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation,but they say the amount is too small to worry about.As the discussion about their safety continues,it appears that it's best to use mobile phones less often. Use your regular phone if you want to talk for a long time.Use your mnobile phone only when you really need it.Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient,especially in emergencies.In the future,mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health.So for now,it's wise not to use your mobile phone too often. The word"detected"in Paragraph 3 could be best replaced by_________.
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Nuclear Power and Its DangerNuclear power's danger to health,safety,and even life itself can be summed up in one word:radia-tion.Nuclear radiation has a certain mystery about it,partly because it canhot be detected by human senses. It can't be seen or heard,or touched,or tasted,even though it may be all around us.There are other things like that.For example,radio waves are all around us but we can't detect them,sense them,without a radio receiver. Similarly,we can't sense radioactivity without a radiation detector. But unlike common radio waves,nuclear radiation is not harmless to human beings and other living things.At very high levels,radiation can kill an animal or human being outright by killing masses of cells in vital organs.But even the lowest level of radiation can do serious damage.There is no level of radiation that is completely safe.If the radiation does not hit anything important,the damage may not be significant. This is the case when only a few cells are hit,and if they are killed outright.Your body will replace the dead cells with healthy ones.But if the few cells are only damaged,and if they reproduce themselves,you may be in trouble.They reproduce themselves in a deformed way. They can grow into cancer. Sometimes this does not show up for many years.This is another reason for some of the mystery about nuclear radiation.Serious damage can be donewithout the victim being aware at the time that damage has occurred.A person can be irradiated and feel fine,then die of cancer five,ten,or twenty years later as a result.Or a child can be born weak or liable to serious illness as result of radiation absorbed by its grandparents.Radiation can hurt us.We must know the truth. Radiation can hurt us in the way that it can__________.
[多选题]共用题干 How to Get Along Well With Your Boss1 Before you argue with your boss,check with the boss's secretary to determine his mood.If he ate nails for breakfast,it is not a good idea to ask him for something. Even without the boss's secretary,there are keys to timing don't approach the boss when he's on deadline,don't go in right before lunch,when he is apt to be distracted and rushed,don't go in just before or after he has taken a vacation.2 Ifyou're mad,that will only make your boss mad.Calm down first.And don't let a particular concern open the floodgates for all your accumulated frustration.The boss will feel that you think negatively about the company and it is hopeless trying to change your mind.Then maybe he will dismiss you.3 Terrible disputes can result when neither the employer nor the employee knows what is the problem the other wants to discuss.Sometimes the fight will go away when the issues are made clear. The employee has to get his point across clearly in order to make the boss understand it.4 Your boss has enough on his mind without your adding more.If you can't put forward an immediate solution,at least suggest how to approach the problem.People who frequently present problems without solu- tions to their bosses may soon find they can't get past the secretary.5 To deal effectively with a boss,it's important to consider his goals and pressures.If you can put yourself in the position of being a partner to the boss,then he will be naturally more inclined to work with you to achieve your goals. Paragraph 2_________
[多选题]共用题干 Global Warming1.Smoke is clouding our view of global warming,protecting the planet from perhaps threequarters of the greenhouse(温室)effect. That might sound like good news,but experts say that as the cover diminishes in coming decades,we are facing a dramatic increase of warming that could be two or even three times as great as official best guesses.2.This was the dramatic conclusion reached last week at a workshop in Dahlem,Berlin,where top atmospheric scientists got together,including Nobel prize winner Paul Crutzen and Swedish scientist Bert Bolin,former chairman of the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC).3. IPCC scientists have suspected for a decade that aerosols(浮质)of smoke and other partidles from burning rainforest,crop waste and fossil fuels are blocking sunlight and counteracting the warming effect of carbon dioxide(二氧化物)emissions. Until now,they reckoned that aerosols reduced greenhouse warming by perhaps a quarter,cutting increases by 0.2℃.So the 0.6℃of warming over the past century would have been 0.8℃without aerosols.4.But the Berlin workshop concluded that the real figure is even higher—aerosols may have reduced global warming by as much as three-quarters,cutting increases by 1.8℃.If so,the good news is that aerosols have prevented the world getting almost two degrees warmer than it is now. But the bad news is that the climate system is much more sensitive to greenhouse gases than previously guessed.5.As those gases are expected to continue accumulating in the atmosphere while aerosols stabilize or fall,that means"dramatic consequences for estimates of future climate change",the scientists agreed in a draft report from the workshop. Paragraph 3_______
[多选题]共用题干 AgingThroughout history man has had to accept the fact that all living things must die,but people now live longer than they used to.Yet all living things still show the________(51)of aging,which will eventually________(52)death.Aging is not a disease,but as a person passes maturity,the cells of the body and the________ (53) do not function as well as they did in childhood and adolescence(青春期).The body provides less________(54)against disease and is more likely________(55)have accident.A number of related causes may________(56)aging. Some cells of the body have a fairly long life,but they are not reborn when they die.As a person ages,________(57)of brain cells and muscle cells decreases.The other cells are replaced by new cells.In an aging person the________(58) cells and muscle cells may not be as viable(能生存的)or as capable________ ( 59 ) growth as those of a young person.Another________(60)in aging may be changes within the cells themselves.Some of the protein chemicals in cells are known________(61)with age and became less elastic.This is why the skin of old people wrinkles and________(62).This is also the reason old people________(63)in height. There may not be other more important chemical changes in the cells.Some complex cell chemicals, such as DNA and RNA,store and________(64)information that the cells need.Aging may affect this________(65)and change the information-carry molecules so that they do not transmit the information as well. _________(54)
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇XerographyFor a long time Chester Carison carried around his the invention,the little black box,over which he had worked and struggled for years.He presented it to the directors of twenty-one large American corporations,such as"General Electric,International Business Machines(IBM),Lockheed,and RCA."Nobody wanted it.Nobody wanted to invest a penny in it.It must be painful for those directors to think of Chester Carlson now. For the little black box is the heart of the multi-billion-dollar Xerox Corporation. Carlson is the inventor of "xerography(静电复印术)"(from two Greek words meaning "dry writing"),the dry-printing process used in thousands and thousands of offices,businesses,industries,universities,shops,and government agencies around the world.Thanks to Carlson,it now takes minutes to copy a document which,twenty years ago,would have kept a secretary busy for a whole day.And for a few pennies anyone can have a copy of anything from cooking recipes to Greek poetry.More than thirty billion such copies are made each year.When Chester Carlson went to work in a patent office in 1930,the copying methods were slow, dirty,and expensive.In his job,Carlson had to make many copies of patents for inventions.One night,after working late and painfully,he decided that somebody had better find an easier way to do it. He went to work in the kitchen of his apartment with measuring cups and cooking pots.By 1937, having developed a simple form of xerography,he applied for his first patent on the process.Then began Carlson's famous unsuccessful search for investors.Only in 1944,did the Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus agreed to lent$3,000 to Carlson for research on his invention.According to the agreement,Carlson was to receive 25%of all profits.This part of the agreement later brought millions of dollars to Carlson,who borrowed money from his family to repay his debt.Even with Battle's help,it took another year to find a company willing to buy Carlson's process. In 1945,Dr. Dessauser,director of the Haloind company,decided to adopt and market the process, which was then named"Xerox".Three years later,the Haloind company changed name to the Xerox company,which now is the 39th largest company in the United States,with sales of over four billion dollars a year. Why did Chester Carlson carry around his little black box for a long time?
[多选题]共用题干 Why is the Native Language Learnt So Well?How does it happen that children learn their mother tongue so well?When we compare them with adults learning a foreign language,we often find this interesting fact. A little child without knowledge or experience often succeeds in a complete mastery(精通)of the language. A grown-up person with fully developed mental powers,in most case,may end up with a faulty and inexact command(掌握).What accounts for this differ- ence?Despite other explanations,the real answer in my opinion lies partly in the child himself,partly in the behavior of the people around him.In the first place,the time of learning the mother tongue is the most fa-vorable of all,namely,the first years of life.A child hears it spoken from morning till night and,what is more important,always in its genuine form,with the right pronunciation,right intonation,right use of words and right structure. He drinks in(吸收)all the words and expressions , which come to him in a flash, ever-bubbling(冒泡的)spring. There is no resistance : there is perfect assimilation.Then the child has,as it were,pnvate lessons all the year round,while an adult language-student has each week a limited number of hours,which he generally shares with others.The child has another advan- tage:he hears the language in all possible situations,always accompanied by the right kind of gestures and facial expressions.Here there is nothing unnatural,such as is often found in language lessons in schools, when one talks about ice and snow in June or scorching heat in January.And what a child hears is generally what immediately interests him.Again and again,when his attempts at speech are successful,his desires are understood and fulfilled.Finally,though a child's "teachers" may not have been trained in language teaching,their relations with him are always close and personal.They take great pains to make their lessons easy.
[多选题]共用题干 Ants as a Barometer of Ecological ChangeAt picnics,ants are pests.But they have their uses.In industries such as mining,farming and forestry , they can help gauge(测定)the health of the environment by just crawling around and being antsy(坐立不安).It has been recognized for decades that ants—which are highly sensitive to ecological change—can provide a near-perfect barometer(气压计)of the state of an ecosystem. Only certain species,for instance,will continue to thrive at a forest site that has been cleared of trees. ______(46)And still others will move in and take up residence.By looking at which species populate a deforested area,scientists can determine how“stressed”the land is.______(47)Ants are used simply because they are so common and comprise(构成)so many species.Where mine sites are being restored,for example,some ant species will recolonize(重新移居到.……)the stripped land more quickly than others.______ (48 ) Australian mining compa- ny Capricorn Coal Management has been successfully using ant surveys for years to determine the rate of recovery of land that it is replanting near its German Creek mine in Queensland.Ant surveys also have been used with mine-site recovery projects in Africa and Brazil,where warm climates encourage dense and diverse ant populations.“We found it worked extremely well there,”says Jonathan Major,a professor of environmental biology.Yet the surveys are perfectly suited to climates throughout Asia,he says,because ants are so common throughout the region.As Major puts it:“That's the great thing about ants.”Ant surveys are so highly regarded as ecological indicators(指示器)that governments world-wide accept their results when assessing(评估)the environmental impact of mining and tree har- vesting.______(49).Why not?Because many companies can't afford the expense or the laboratory time needed to sift(详审)results for a comprehensive survey. The cost stems,also, from the scarcity(缺乏)of ant specialists.______(50) ______(46)
[多选题]共用题干 Working MothersCarefully conducted researches that have followed the children of working mothers have not been able to show any long-term problems,compared with children whose mothers stayed at home. My personal______(51)is that mothers should be allowed to work if they wish .Whether we like it or not,there are a______(52)of mothers who just have to work.There are those who have invested such a big part of their lives in establishing a career that they cannot ______(53)to see it lost.Then there are many who must work out of pure economic______ (54).Many mothers are not______(55)out to be full-time parents.After a few months at home with a much loved infant,they feel trapped and isolated.There are a number of options when it______(56)to choosing childcare.These range from child minders and nannies through to Granny or the kind lady______(57)the street.In reality,______(58),mnany parents don't have any choice;they have to accept anything they can get. Be prepared!Nomatter______(59)good the childcare may be,some children are go-ing to protest wildly if they are left.This is a______(60)normal stage of child development. Babies separate well in the first six months,but soon after that they start to get a crush on Mum and close family______(61).Make sure that in the first week you allow______(62)time to help your child settle in.All children are different. Some are independent,while others are more______(63)to their mothers.Remember that if you want to______(64)the best for your children,it's not the quantity of time you spend with them,it's the______(65)that matters. 64._________
[多选题]共用题干 Making Yourself a Good RecordIf you are an American and you think you might need to borrow money someday,the best thing to do is start early.That'S because just as many employers want to hire only people with experience,banks and other creditors are usually reluctant to lend to those________(51)a proven track record of paying back, _________(52)time,the money they have borrowed.But if you need experience just to get a start,how do you get that start in the first place?With a little help from your parents usually,while you are still financially dependent_________(53) them.It is easy to get a credit card or student loan when you are in college,because banks figure your parents will bail you out if you fail to pay.So just as students take on internships to build up their resumes,one's university time can be a goodtime to work on another important personal record:the credit _________(54).Credit reports are a_________(55)of one's personal credit history,gathered by a credit reporting agency,or CRA.Banks and companies一___________(56)hospitals,landlords and insurance companies一regularly report to the three main CRAs in the US__________(57)how their customers are doing at paying back the money they ________(58).Anyone with a"legitimate business need"has the right to order individuals'reports from the CRAs. Potential creditors usually compile the information in'the reports into a credit"score",ranking the level ofcreditworthiness.Lack of experience in borrowing in__________(59)to a bad record of doing so,can result in a low score.Even if you are not considering taking out a loan for such a large purchase as a home or car,your credit report can be important to getting through life.Landlords often ask for the reports to judge________(60 )a person can be trusted to pay the rent. Credit checks are necessary for getting a credit card,even for pur-chasing a mobile phone calling plan.People can obtain a copy of their own credit report,usually __________(61)a cost of around US $8—9.Some consumer organizations recommend doing this once a year to allow one to catch any mistakes __________(62)have slipped into the record or,even worse,to find out whether any fraud has taken place.Though the system is controlled by laws __________(63)to protect people's privacy it isn't fool-proof: sometimes people take out bad loans in others'names,________(64)their records. In a society addicted________(65)credit,that can be a disaster. _________(61)
[多选题]共用题干 HitchhikingWhen I was in my teens(十几岁)and 20s,hitchhiking was a main form of long-distance transport.The kindness or curiosity of strangers_______(51)me all over Europe,North America,Asia and southern Africa. Some of the lift-givers became friends,many provided hospitality_______(52)the road.Not only did you find out much more about a country than_______(53)traveling by train or plane,but also there was that element of excitement about where you would finish up that night. Hitchhiking featured importantly in Western culture.It has books and songs about it. So what has happened to_______(54)?A few years ago,I asked the same question about hitchhiking in a column on a newspaper._______(55)of people from all over the world responded with their views on the state of hitchhiking."If there is a hitchhiker's_______(56)it must be Iran,"came one reply.Rural Ireland was recommended as a friendly place for hitchhiking,_______(57)was Quebec,Canada."If you don't mind being berated(严厉指责)for not speaking French."But while hitchhiking was clearly still alive and well in many parts of the world,the_______( 58 ) feeling was that throughout much of the west it was doomed(消亡).With so much news about crime in the media,people assumed that anyone on the open road without the money for even a bus ticket must present a danger. But do we_______(59)to be so wary both to hitchhike and to give a lift?In Poland in the 1960s,_______(60)a Polish woman who e-mailed me,"the authorities introduced the Hitchhiker's Booklet. The booklet contained coupons for drivers,so each time a driver _______(61)somebody,he or she received a coupon.At the end of the season,_______(62) who had picked up the most hikers were rewarded with various prizes.Everybody was hitchhiking then."Surely this is a good idea for society.Hitchhiking would increase respect by breaking down _______(63)between strangers. It would help fight_______(64)warming by cutting down on fuel consumption as hitchhikers would be using existing fuels.It would also improve educational standards by delivering instant_______(65)in geography,history,politics and sociology. _________(58)
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching and LearningMany teachers believe that the responsibilities for learning lie with the student.If a long reading assign- ment is given,instructors expect students to be__________(51)with the information in the reading even if they do not discuss it in class or__________(52)an examination.The ideal student is________(53)to be one who is motivated to learn for the sake of learning,not the one interested only in getting high ___________(54).Sometimes homework is returned with brief written____________(55)but without a grade.Even if a grade is not given,the student is___________(56)for learning the material assigned. When research is_________(57),the professor expects the student to take it actively and to complete it with minimum___________(58).It is the student's responsibility to find books,magazines,and articles in the library.Professors do not have the time to__________(59)how a university library works;they expect students to exhaust the___________(60)resources in the library.Professors will help students who need it,_________(61)prefer that their students should not be too __________(62)on them.In the United States professors have many other___________(63)besides teaching,such as administrative or research work.Therefore,the time that a professor can spend__________(64)a student outside of class is limited. if a student has problems with classroom work,the student should either__________(65)a professor during office hours or make an appointment. _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 Moderate Earthquake Strikes EnglandA moderate earthquake struck parts of southeast England on 28 April 2007,toppling chim- neys from houses and rousing residents from their beds .Several thousand people were left without power in Kent County. One woman suffered minor head and neck injuries.“It felt as if the whole house was being slid across like a fun-fair ride,”said the woman.The British Geological Survey said the 4 .3-magnitude quake struck at 8:19 a.m. and was centered under the English Channel,about 8 .5 miles south of Dover and near the entrance to the Channel Tunnel.Witnesses said cracks appeared in walls and chimneys collapsed across the county .Residents said the tremor had lasted for about 10 to 15 seconds.“I was lying in bed and it felt as if someone had just got up from bed next to me.”said Hen-drick van Eck,27,of Canterbury about 60 miles southeast of London.“I then heard the sound of cracking,and it was getting heavier and heavier. It felt as if someone was at the end of my bed hopping up and down.”There are thousands of moderate quakes on this scale around the world each year,but they are rare in Britain. The April 28 quake was the strongest in Britain since 2002 when a 4.8-magni-tude quake struck the central England city of Birmingham.The country's strongest earthquake took place in the North Sea in 1931,measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale.British Geological Survey scientist Roger Musson said the quake took place on 28 April in an area that had seen several of the biggest earthquakes ever to strike Britain,including one in 1580 that caused damage in London and was felt in France.Musson predicted that it was only a matter of time before another earthquake struck this part of England.However,people should not be scared too much by this prediction,Musson said,as the modern earthquake warning system of Britain should be able to detect a forthcoming quake and announce it several hours be-fore it takes place .This would allow time for people to evacuate and reduce damage to the mini-mum. The following statements are true Except______.
[多选题]共用题干 Nuclear Power and Its DangerNuclear power's danger to health,safety,and even life itself can be summed up in one word:radiation. Nuclear radiation has a certain mystery about it,partly because it cannot be detected by human senses.It can't be seen or heard,or touched,or tasted,even though it may be all around us.There are other things like that.For example,radio waves are all around us but we can't detect them,sense them,without a radio receiver.Similarly,we can't sense radioactivity without a radiation detector.But unlike common radio waves,nuclear radiation is not harmless to human beings and other living things.At very high levels,radiation can kill an animal or human being outright by killing masses of cells in vital organs.But even the lowest level of radiation can do serious damage.There is no level of radiation that is completely safe.If the radiation does not hit anything important,the damage may not be significant.This is the case when only a few cells are hit,and if they are killed outright.Your body will replace the dead cells with healthy ones.But if the few cells are only damaged,and if they reproduce themselves,you may be in trouble.They reproduce themselves in a deformed way.They can grow into cancer.Sometimes this does not show up for many years.This is another reason for some of the mystery about nuclear radiation.Serious damage can be done without the victim being aware at the time that damage has occurred.A person can be irradiated and feel fine,then die of cancer five,ten,or twenty years later as a result.Or a child can be born weak or liable to serious illness as a result of radiation absorbed by its grandparents.Radiation can hurt us.We must know the truth. Radiation can cause serious consequences even at the lowest level______.
[多选题]共用题干 Teaching Is“One of the Least Popular Jobs in the UK”1. The UK government has just published a report on the future of secondary-school teaching (pupils aged 11~16),and the conclusion of the report is that many secondary schools now face great difficulties in finding people who want to be teachers.Since the 1980s,the number of grad-uates who say they would“seriously consider” teaching as a career has fallen sharply,from 64% in 1982 to just 17%today. The report suggests that urgent action needs to be taken in order to encourage more intelligent young graduates into teaching.2. The main drawback of secondary teaching,according to the report,is the low salary.Earnings in teaching are much lower than in many other jobs,and this means that fewer and fewer young people decide to be teachers .Joanne Manners,24,is a good example.“I graduated in maths last year,and I was thinking of doing a teacher training course to become a maths teacher -but when I looked into the details, it became clear that teaching isn't a very lucrative(赚钱的)job these days. I saw I could earn twice as much if I worked in marketing or advertising,and so I decided not to become a teacher.”3. It's not just about the money,however. The survey concluded that another reason why people don't want to be teachers is that some teenagers behave very badly in school. A lot of schools have problems with discipline,and it seems clear that children do not have the same respect for teachers as in the past. Here's the view of Dave Hallam,an accountant from London:“I think parents are to blame. They should have stricter rules with their children at home and also teach their children to have more respect for teachers.”4. “I love teaching;it's my passion.I've been a secondary-school teacher of Spanish for ten years now,and although it's a very demanding job,it's very satisfying. When I see my students passing their Spanish exams,or singing along to Spanish pop songs ,it makes me feel so proud.” Says Brian Jones,who works in a secondary school in London.So what does he think the govern-ment should do to encourage more people to become teachers?”“My view is that the government should reduce the burden of work on teachers. I find that I always have too much work to do.”5. The report is clear that the problem of teacher shortage is a very serious one.It says that the government should raise teachers' pay significantly,to catch up with workers in other professions. It also suggests that the government could launch a nationwide publicity campaign,with some ad-vertisements on TV and in the newspapers,to show the positive sides of teaching to young people. Another solution could be set a maximum number of hours per week that teachers can work,in or-der to reduce stress on teachers.“Hopefully,”the report concludes,“these solutions can im- prove the poor image of secondary teaching,and increase the number of young people who want to become teachers in the future. The government should reduce the workload on teachers to ease______.
[多选题]共用题干 Working MothersCarefully conducted researches that have followed the children of working mothers have not been able to show any long-term problems,compared with children whose mothers stayed at home.My personal ______(51)is that mothers should be allowed to work if they wish.Whether we like it or not,there are a______(52)of mothers who just have to work.There are those who have invested such a big part of their lives in establishing a career that they cannot______(53)to see it lost.Then there are many who must work out of pure economic______(54).Many mothers are not_______(55)out to be full-time parents.After a few months at home with a much loved infant,they feel trapped and isolated. There are a number of options when it______(56)to choosing childcare.These range from child minders and nannies through to Granny or the kind lady______(57)the street.______(58), however,many parents don't have any choice;they have to accept anything they can get.Be prepared!No ______(59)how good the childcare may be,some children are going to protest wildly if they are left. This is a_______(60)normal stage of child development.Babies separate well in the first six months, but soon after that they start to get a crush on Mum and close family______(61).Make sure that in the first week you allow______(62)time to help your child settle in.All children are different.Some are independent,while others are more______(63)to their mothers. Remember that if you want to_______(64)the best for your children,it's not the quantity of time you spend with them,it's the______(65)that matters. 62._________
[多选题]共用题干 Schooling and EducationIt is commonly believed in the United States that school is where people go to get an educa-tion.Nevertheless,it has been said that today children interrupt their education to go to school. The distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is important. Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than schooling. Education knows no bounds. It can take place anywhere,whether in the shower or in the job,whether in a kitchen or on a tractor. It in-cludes both the formal learning that takes place in schools and the whole universe of informal learning. The agents of education can range from a revered grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio,from a child to a distinguished scientist.Whereas schooling has a certain predictability,education quite often produces surprises. A chance conversation with a stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other reli- gions.People are engaged in education from infancy on.Education,then,is a very broad,inclusive term .It is a lifelong process,a process that starts long before the start of school,and one that should be an integral part of one's entire life.Schooling,on the other hand,is a specific,formal-ized process,whose general pattern varies little from one setting to the next.Throughout a country,children arrive at school at approximately the same time,take as-signed seats,are taught by an adult,use similar textbooks,do homework,take exams,and so on .The slices of reality that are to be learned,whether they are the alphabet or an understanding of the workings of government,have usually been limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught.For example,high school students know that they are not likely to find out in their classes the truth about political problems in their communities or what the newest filmmakers are experi- menting with .There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of schooling. Through out the country,children arrive at school at different time.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇From Ponzi to MadoffThe year was 1920. The country was the United States of America. The man's name was Charles Ponzi. Ponzi told people to stop depositing money in a savings account.Instead,they should give it to him to save for them.Pouzi promised to pay them more than the bank.For example,a savings account might pay you $5 a year for every $100 you deposit.Ponzi,however,would pay you $40 a year for every $100 you gave him to hold.Many people thought this was a good plan.They began to give their money to Ponzi.How could Ponzi make so much money for people?This is what he did with the money people gave him: He used some of that money to pay other people who gave him money.However,he also kept a lot of the money for himself. Soon he had $250 million.This was a kind of theft,and it was against the law.The people who gave him their money didri't think anything was wrong.Ponzi paid them every month,just like a bank.Ponzi continued this way of working for two years.Then one day,he didn't have enough money to pay all the people.They discovered his crime,and he went to prison for fraud.Ninety years later,people began to hear about a businessman in New York named Bernard Madoff. People said he gave good advice about money.They said when they gave him their money,he paid them a lot more than the bank.Madoff helped hospitals,schools,and individuals earn money.Over a period of 40 years,people gave him $170 billion.However,no one investigated what he did with the money.The people who gave Madoff their money also didn'tthink anything was wrong because he paid them everymonth.One day,Madoff didn't have enough money to pay all the people he needed to pay.That's when people discovered how Madoff worked:He was taking money from some people to pay other people,just the way Charles Ponzi did.However,this time,instead of losing millions of dollars,people lost billions.Madoff was accused of fraud,and the United States government officials arrested him.He didn'thave to go on trial because he said he was guilty.In 2009,a judge sentenced him to 150 years in prison.Bernard Madoff's crime was even bigger than Ponzi's.It was the biggest fraud in history.The lesson of this story is clear:When something seems too good to be true,it probably is! Why didn't Madoff have to go on trial?
[多选题]共用题干 The Fat Problem That Men FaceIt is a pleasure to see men of a certain age worrying about their weight.Listening to them is not such a pleasure.Because the men are new at the game,they don't hesitate to discuss the fat problem incessantly.However,women of the same age do not discuss the fat problem,especially not in mixed company.They prefer to face the problem with quiet dignity.Discussing the problem might only draw attention to some stray body part that may be successfully tucked away under an article of clothing.The age at which a man begins to explore the fat problem can vary.The actual problem can manifest itself in the early 30's,but broad-range discussion usually starts later.There are early nonverbal symptoms. I've watched the rugged journalist who shares my apartment sneak by with a Diet Coke.His shirts are no longer neatly tucked in to display a trim waist.Recently he has begun to verbalize his anxiety.He tells me, with a sheepish grin,that he is taking his suits to Chinatown to have them"tailored".Still older men have lost their dignity and rattle on unabashedly.Often wives and children play important roles in their fat-inspection rituals.Take my oldest brother,a former college football player,as an example.His daughter says that several tinies a day he will stand at attention and call out,"Fat,medium or thin?" She knows the correct answer:medium.Thin would be an obvious stretch,and fat may not get her that new video.According to his wife,he stands in front of the mirror in the morning(before the day's meals take their toll),puts his hands behind his head and lurches into a side bend,then clutches the roll that has developed arid says,"Am I getting fatter?" His wife is expected to answer,"You look like you may have lost a few pounds."And then there are the ex-husbands a pitiful group.They are extremely vocal.When I go to the movies with one,he confides that he is suffering from great hunger because he is dieting.He hasn't eaten since the pancakes and sausages he wolfed down that morning.He pauses in his monologue while he buys his popcorn.After the movie,we sprint to a restaurant,where he again pauses to devour a basket of bread.Before he orders his chaste salad and soup,he grows plaintive.Do I think he's fat? The ex-husbands are pitiful because they have got no wives to sympathize with their fat problem.
[多选题]共用题干 Adult Education1.Voluntary learning in organized courses by mature men and women is called adult education. Such education is offered to make people able to enlarge and interpret their experience as adults. Adults may want to study something which they missed in earlier schooling,get new skills or job training,find out about new technological developments,seek better self-understanding,or develop new talents and skills.2.This kind of education may be in the form of self-study with proper guidance through the use of libraries,correspondence courses,or broadcasting. It may also be acquired collectively in schools and colleges,study groups,workshops,clubs and professional associations.3.Modern adult education for large numbers of people started in the 18th and 19th centuries with the rise of the Industrial Revolution.Great economic and social changes were taking place: people were moving from rural areas to cities;new types of work were being created in an expanding factory system.These and other factors produced a need for further education and re-education of adults.4.The earliest programs of organized adult education arose in Great Britain in the 1790s,with the founding of an adult school in Nottingham and a mechanics' institution in Glasgow. Benjamin Franklin and some friends found the earliest adult education institution in the U.S.in Philadelphia in 1727.5.People recognize that continued learning is necessary for most forms of employment today. For example,parts of the adult population in many countries find it necessary to take part in retraining programs at work or even to learn completely new jobs.Adult education programs are springing up constantly to meet these and other needs.
[多选题]共用题干 The Ideal HusbandScience now might be able to explain women'S fascination with Brad Pitt'S face and George Clooney's eyes. Women seem to__________(51)potential mate by how masculine their features are,new research shows. Men with square jaws and well-defined brow ridges(轮廓清晰的眉骨)are seen as good short-term partners,_______(52)those with more feminine traits such as a rounder face and fuller lips are per- ceived as better long-term mates.In the study by Daniel Kruger at the US's University of Michigan,854 subjects viewed a series of ___________( 53 ) head shots that had been digitally changed to exaggerate or minimize masculine traits(男性 特征).They then_________(54)questions about how they expected the men in the photos to behave.Most participants said that those with more masculine features were__________(55)to be risky,com- petitive,and more apt to fight,challenge bosses,cheat on spouses and put less effort into parenting. Those with more feminine___________(56)were seen as good parents and husbands,hard workers and emotionally supportive mates.But,despite all the negative characteristics,when asked who they would choose for a short-term rela- tionship,women selected the more masculine_________(57)men.Brad and George,both chiseled jaws and well-defined brows,then would be good fora_________(58)romance,not for something longer.The study was published in the Deqember issue of the US journal Personal Relationships.Kruger said that from an evolutiona叮perspective,this_________(59)sense.The key 15 testosterone(睾丸激素),the hormone(荷尔蒙)responsible________(60)the development of masculine facial features and other sexual characteristics.It has been found to affect the body's ability to fight disease:men with high levels of the hormone are typically_______(61)and healthy traits women want to pass on to their children.However,increased testosterone has also been linked to________(62)and violence in relationships. 50,these men_______(63)produce high quality offspring,but they don't always make great parents or faithful mates,Kruger says.The scientific community(学术界)have__________(64)skepticism toward physiognomy(观相术), which links facial characteristics to certain behavioral traits.But Krugera卿es that the research 15 a valua- ble tool for understanding mating strategies.And,of course,for explaining why Tony Leung and Takeshi Kanesshiro have millions of female_________(65).It might have to do with their genes.Or something to do with ours. _________(65)
[多选题]共用题干 Working MothersCarefully conducted researches that have followed the children of working mothers have not been able to show any long-term problems,compared with children whose mothers stayed at home.My personal ______(51)is that mothers should be allowed to work if they wish.Whether we like it or not,there are a______(52)of mothers who just have to work.There are those who have invested such a big part of their lives in establishing a career that they cannot______(53)to see it lost.Then there are many who must work out of pure economic______(54).Many mothers are not_______(55)out to be full-time parents.After a few months at home with a much loved infant,they feel trapped and isolated. There are a number of options when it______(56)to choosing childcare.These range from child minders and nannies through to Granny or the kind lady______(57)the street.______(58), however,many parents don't have any choice;they have to accept anything they can get.Be prepared!No ______(59)how good the childcare may be,some children are going to protest wildly if they are left. This is a_______(60)normal stage of child development.Babies separate well in the first six months, but soon after that they start to get a crush on Mum and close family______(61).Make sure that in the first week you allow______(62)time to help your child settle in.All children are different.Some are independent,while others are more______(63)to their mothers. Remember that if you want to_______(64)the best for your children,it's not the quantity of time you spend with them,it's the______(65)that matters. 64._________
[多选题]共用题干 The Ideal HusbandScience now might be able to explain women'S fascination with Brad Pitt'S face and George Clooney's eyes. Women seem to__________(51)potential mate by how masculine their features are,new research shows. Men with square jaws and well-defined brow ridges(轮廓清晰的眉骨)are seen as good short-term partners,_______(52)those with more feminine traits such as a rounder face and fuller lips are per- ceived as better long-term mates.In the study by Daniel Kruger at the US's University of Michigan,854 subjects viewed a series of ___________( 53 ) head shots that had been digitally changed to exaggerate or minimize masculine traits(男性 特征).They then_________(54)questions about how they expected the men in the photos to behave.Most participants said that those with more masculine features were__________(55)to be risky,com- petitive,and more apt to fight,challenge bosses,cheat on spouses and put less effort into parenting. Those with more feminine___________(56)were seen as good parents and husbands,hard workers and emotionally supportive mates.But,despite all the negative characteristics,when asked who they would choose for a short-term rela- tionship,women selected the more masculine_________(57)men.Brad and George,both chiseled jaws and well-defined brows,then would be good fora_________(58)romance,not for something longer.The study was published in the Deqember issue of the US journal Personal Relationships.Kruger said that from an evolutiona叮perspective,this_________(59)sense.The key 15 testosterone(睾丸激素),the hormone(荷尔蒙)responsible________(60)the development of masculine facial features and other sexual characteristics.It has been found to affect the body's ability to fight disease:men with high levels of the hormone are typically_______(61)and healthy traits women want to pass on to their children.However,increased testosterone has also been linked to________(62)and violence in relationships. 50,these men_______(63)produce high quality offspring,but they don't always make great parents or faithful mates,Kruger says.The scientific community(学术界)have__________(64)skepticism toward physiognomy(观相术), which links facial characteristics to certain behavioral traits.But Krugera卿es that the research 15 a valua- ble tool for understanding mating strategies.And,of course,for explaining why Tony Leung and Takeshi Kanesshiro have millions of female_________(65).It might have to do with their genes.Or something to do with ours. _________(63)
[多选题]共用题干 Spacing in Animals1. Any observant person has noticed that a wild animal will allow a man or other potential enemy to approach only up to a given distance before it flees.“Flight distance”is the terms used for this interspecies spacing.As a general rule,there is a positive relationship between the size of an ani-mal and its flight distance-the larger the animal,the greater the distance it must keep between itself and the enemy.An antelope will flee when the enemy is as much as five hundred yards a-way .The wall lizard's flight distance,on the other hand,is about six feet. Flight is the basic means of survival for mobile creatures.2. Critical distance apparently is present wherever and whenever there is a flight reaction.“Criti-cal distance”includes the narrow zone separating flight distance from attack distance.A lion in a zoo will flee from an approaching man until it meets a barrier that it cannot overcome.If the man continues the approach,he soon penetrates the lion's critical distance,at which point the cornered lion reverses direction and begins slowly to stalk the man.3. Social animals need to stay in touch with each other. Loss of contact with the group can be fa-tal for a variety of reasons including exposure to enemies.Social distance is not simply the dis-tance at which an animal will lose contact with his group-that is,the distance at which it can no longer see,hear,or smell the group-it is rather a psychological distance,one at which the ani- mal apparently begins to feel anxious when he exceeds its limits.We can think of it as a hidden band that contains the group.4. Social distance varies from species to species. It is quite short-apparently only a few yards- among some animals,and quite long among others.5. Social distance is not always rigidly fixed but is determined in part by the situation.When the young of apes and humans are mobile but not yet under control of the mother's voice,social dis-tance may be the length of her reach .This is readily observed among the baboons in a zoo .When the baby approaches a certain point,the mother reaches out to seize the end of its tail and pull it back to her. When added control is needed because of danger,social distance shrinks.To show this in man,one has only to watch a family with a number of small children holding hands as they cross a busy street. Paragraph 3______
[多选题]共用题干 Sending E-mails to ProfessorsOne student skipped class and then sent the professor an e-mail_______(51)for copies of her teaching notes.Another_______(52)that she was late for a Monday class because she was recovering from drinking too much at a wild weekend party.At colleges and universities in the US , e-mail has made professors more approachable(平易近人).But many say it has made them too accessible,_______(53)boundaries that traditionally kept students at a healthy distance.These days,professors say,students seem to view them as available_(54)the clock, sending a steady stream of informal e-mails." The tone that they take in e-mails is pretty astounding(令人吃惊的)," said Michael Kessler, an assistant dean at Georgetown University."They'll_______(55)you to help:‘I need to know this.’""There's a fine_______(56)between meeting their needs and at the same time maintaining a level of legitimacy(正统性)as an_______(57)who is in charge."Christopher Dede,a professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education,said_______ (58) show that students no longer defer to(听从)their professors,perhaps because they realize that professors'_______(59)could rapidly become outdated."The deference was driven by the_______(60)that professors were all-knowing sources of deep knowledge,"Dede said,and that notion has_______(61).For junior faculty members,e-mails bring new tension into their work,some say,as they struggle with how to_______(62).Their job prospects,they realize,may rest in part on student evaluations of their accessibility.College students say e-mail makes_______(63)easier to ask questions and helps them learn.But they seem unaware that what they write in e-mails could have negative effects_______(64)them,said Alexandra Lahav,and associate professor of Law at the University of Connecticut.She recalled an e-mail message from a student saying that he planned to miss class so he could play with his son.Professor Lahav did not respond."Such e-mails can have consequences,"she said."Students don't understand that_______ (65)they say in e-mail can make them seem unprofessional,and could result in a bad impression." _________(62)

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