英语二

考试试题

[单选题]The decline in American manufacturing is a common refrain, particularly from Donald Trump. "We don't make anything anymore," he told Fox News, while defending his own made-in-Mexico clothing line. Without question, manufacturing has taken a significant hit during recent decades, and further trade deals raise questions about whether new shocks could hit manufacturing. But there is also a different way to look at the data.Across the country, factory owners are now grappling with a new challenge: instead of having too many workers, they may end up with too few. Despite trade competition and outsourcing, American manufacturing still needs to replace tens of thousands of retiring boomers every years. Millennials may not be that interested in taking their place, other industries are recruiting them with similar or better pay. For factory owners, it all adds up to stiff competition for workers-and upward pressure on wages. "They're harder to find and they have job offers," says Jay Dunwell, president of Wolverine Coil Spring, a family-owned firm, "They may be coming [into the workforce], but they've been plucked by other industries that are also doing an well as manufacturing," Mr. Dunwell has begun bringing high school juniors to the factory so they can get exposed to its culture. At RoMan Manufacturing, a maker of electrical transformers and welding equipment that his father cofounded in 1980, Robert Roth keep a close eye on the age of his nearly 200 workers, five are retiring this year. Mr. Roth has three community-college students enrolled in a work-placement program, with a starting wage of $13 an hour that rises to $17 after two years. At a worktable inside the transformer plant, young Jason Stenquist looks flustered by the copper coils he's trying to assemble and the arrival of two visitors. It's his first week on the job. Asked about his choice of career, he says at high school he considered medical school before switching to electrical engineering. "I love working with tools. I love creating." he says. But to win over these young workers, manufacturers have to clear another major hurdle: parents, who lived through the worst US economic downturn since the Great Depression, telling them to avoid the factory. Millennials "remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession," says Birgit Klohs, chief executive of The Right Place, a business development agency for western Michigan. These concerns aren't misplaced: Employment in manufacturing has fallen from 17 million in 1970 to 12 million in 2013. When the recovery began, worker shortages first appeared in the high-skilled trades. Now shortages are appearing at the mid-skill levels. "The gap is between the jobs that take to skills and those that require a lot of skill," says Rob Spohr, a business professor at Montcalm Community College. "There're enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don't need to have much skill. It's that gap in between, and that's where the problem is." Julie Parks of Grand Rapids Community points to another key to luring Millennials into manufacturing: a work/life balance. While their parents were content to work long hours, young people value flexibility. "Overtime is not attractive to this generation. They really want to live their lives," she says. 42。 Jason Stenquist
[单选题]Students ofmanagement theory have long l what constitutes the worst kind of book-the CEO autobiography or the management tome that promises to 2 the secrets ofbusiness 3 0ne syllable. But in "Management in 10 Words" Sir Terry Leahy, a former boss of Tesco, has performed a remarkable act of alchemy: combining two dismal forms to . 4 an excellent book-a veritable management page-turner that has interesting things to say about everything from the evolution of British society to the art of 5 huge organisations. Sir Terry is an example of a type of Briton that is becoming increasingly 6 : a working-class boy made 7 by dint of quick wits and hard work. A scholarship to a local public school and a taste for the grocery business 8 him with a ladder up: he started his career stacking shelves at Tesco and ended 9 as CEO for 14 years. When Sir Terry was 10 to the top job, Tesco was struggling in third place in Britain's supermarket hierarchy behind Sainsbury's and Marks & Spencer. Rumour had it that a tobacco company had toyed with buying the supermarket but 11 the idea believing it would be bad for the brand. Today Tesco is Britain's largest private employer and the third-largest supermarket in the world, 12 in 14 countries and offering banking and insurance 13 fruit and vegetables. Sir Terry argues that the secret has been 14 innovation. Tesco introduced loyalty cards in order to 15 information on its customers and encourage them to keep coming back. And the trove of customer information provided by the loyalty card eased Tesco's entry _16 banking and e-commerce. 17 , Sir Terry readily 18 that there is no science to management: he got the 19 for one of Tesco's most successful innovations-small stores in town centres-from visiting a wholesaler and 20 how much business it was doing selling to small shops.
[单选题]Poets, songwriters and politicians hate the idea, but for decades opinion-poll evidence has been clear: money buys happiness and the richer you are, the more likely you are to express satisfaction with your life. Until now, a survey of43 countries 1 on October 30th by the Pew Research Centre of Washington, DC, shows that people in 2 markeis are expressing almost the same level of satisfaction as people in rich countries. It is the biggest 3 to the standard view of happiness and income seen 4 . The Pew poll asks respondents to 5 , on a scale from zero to ten, how good their lives are. (Those who say between seven and ten are counted as 6 .) In 2007, 57% of respondents in rich countries put themselves in the top four tiers; in emerging markets the 7 was 33%; in poor countries only 16%-a classic 8 0f the standard view. But in 2014, 540/o of rich-country respondents counted themselves as happy, whereas in emerging markets the percentage 9 t0 51%. This was happening just at a time when emerging markets' chances of converging economically 10 the West seemed to be 11 . Rich countries did not experience 12 declines in happiness. The decreases in America and Britain were tiny ( a single percentage point) , 13 the share of h8ppy Gennans rose 13 points. A large drop in formerly joyful Spain ensured a modest overaU decline for the rich. 14 the convcrgence happened 15 huge improvements in countries such as Indonesia and Pakistan. In 12 of the 24 emerging markets, half or more people 16 their life satisfaction in the top tiers of the ladder. This is not t0 17 the link between income and satrsfaction has been snapped. Poor countries still 18 : only a quarter of the people there are in the happy tiers-half the level of the other'two groups. There is 19 a clear link between happiness and income growth. China's GDP rose at an annual average rate of 10% in 2007-2014 and its happiness level rose 26 points. 20 countries, richer people express more satisfaction than their poorer neighbours.
[单选题] Shortly after The Economist went to press, about 25,000 people were expected to tum up at the London An Fair. Your correspondent visited just before, as 128 white booths were being filled with modern paintings and sculptures. Dealers clutched mobile phones to their ears or gathered in small groups. They seemed nervous-as well ihey mighl be. "I can eam a year's living in one fair," said one harried dealer while slringing up a set of lights. Before 1999 London had just one regular contemporary art fair, remembers Will Ramsay,boss of the expanding Affordable Art Fair. This year around 20 will be held in Britain, mostly in the cap-ital. Roughly 90 will iake place worldwide. The success of larger events such as Fneze,which star ted in London, has stimulated the growth of smaller fairs specialising in craft work ,ceramics and other things. Artl4, which started last year, specialises in less weU-known intemational galleries, showing art from Sub-Sahuan Africa, South Korea and Hong Kong. One explanation for the boom is the overall gromth of the modem-art market. Four-rifths of all art sold at auction worldwide last year was from the 20th or 21st century, according to Artprice, a database. In November an auction in New York of modern and contemporary art made $ 691m, easily breaking the previous record. As older art becomes harder to buy-much of it is locked up in museums-demand for recent works js rising. London's art market in particular has been boosted by an influx of rich immigrants from Russia, China and the Middle East. " When I sttuled 23 years ago I had not a single non-Westem foreign buyer,"says Kenny Schachter, an art dealer. "It's a different world now. " And London's new rich buy art differenLly. They often spend little time in the capital and do not know it well. Traipsing around individual galleries is inconvenient, particularly as galleries have moved out of central London. The mall-like set-up of a fair is much more suiLable. Commercial galleries used to rely on regular visits from rich Briions seeking to fumish their stately homes. Many were family friends. The new art buyers have no such loyalty. People now visit galleries mainly to go to evenLs and to be seen, says Alan Cristea, a gallery owner on Cork street in Mayfair. Fairs, and the parties thaL spring up around them, are much better places to be spotted. Some galleries are feeling squeezed. Bernard Jacobson runs a gallery opposite Mr Criste
[单选题]Text 4 Eva Ullmann took her master's degree in 2002 0n the part that humour has to play in psychotherapy, and became hooked on the subject. In 2005 she founded the German Insiitute for Humour in Leipzig. It is dedicated to " the combination of seriousness and humour". She offers lectures, seminars and personal coaching to managers, from small firms tO such corporate giants as Deutsche Bank and Telekom. Her latest project is to help train medical studenis and doctors. There is nothing peculiarly German about humour training. It was John Morreall, an American, who showed that humour is a market segment in the ever-expanding American genre of self-help. In the past two decades, humour has gone global. An Intemational Humour Congress was held in Amsterdam in 2000. And yet Cermans know that the rest of the world considers them to be at a particular disadvantage. The issue is not comedy. of which Germany has plenty. The late Vicco von Biilow, alias Loriot, delighied the elite wiLh his mockery of German senousness and stiffness. Rhenish, Swabian and other regional flavours thrive-Gerhard Polt, a bad-tempered Bavarian, now 72, is a Shakespeare among Lhem. There is lowbrow talent ioo, including OLto Waalkes, a Frisian buffoon. Most of this, however, is as foreigners always suspected: more embanassing Lhan funny. Germans can often be observed laughing, loudly. And they try hard. "They cannot produce good humour, but they can consume it," says James Parsons, an English man teaching business English in Leipzig. He once rented a theatre and got students, including Mrs Ullmann, to act out Monty Python skits, which they did wiLh enthusiasm. The trouble, he says,is that whereas the English wait deadpan for the penny to drop, Germans invariably explain their punchline. At a deeper level, the problem has nothing to do with jokes. What is missing is the series of irony, overstatement and understatement in workaday conversations. Immigrants in Germany share soul-crushing stories of atlempting a non-literal turn of phrase, to evoke a hoffified expression in their Gennan friends and a detailed explanaiion of the literal meaning, followed by a retreat into awkward politeness. Irony is not on the curriculum in Mrs Ullmann's classes. Instead she focuses mostly on the bas-ics of humorous spontaneiLy and surprise. Demand is strong, she says. It is a typical German answer to a shortcoming: work harder at it. 38. German comedy is mentioned to show that Germans
[单选题]Many experts believe that in the new world of artificial intelligence (AI) human beings will still be needed to do the jobs that require higher-order critical, creative, and innovative thinking and the jobs that require high emotional engagement to meet the needs of other human beings. The 1 for many of us is that we do not excel at those skills because of our natural cognitive and emotional tendencies: We are confirmation-seeking thinkers and ego-affirmation-seeking defensive reasoners. We will need to overcome those tendencies 2 take our thinking, listening, relating, and collaborating skills to a much higher level. This process of _3 begins with changing our definition of what it means to "be smart. " 4 . many of us have achieved success 5 being "smarter" than other people as 6 by grades and test scores, beginning in our early days in school. AI will change that because there is no 7 any human being can outsmart, 8 ., lBM's Watson, at least without augmentation. Smart machines can process, 9 , and recall information faster and better than we humans. 10 , AI can pattern-match faster and produce a wider array of alternatives than we can. AI can even learn fasrer. In an age of smart machines, our old definition of what makes a person smart doesn't 11 . What is needed is a new definition of being smart, one that 12 higher levels of human thinking and emotional engagement. The new smart will be determined not by what or how you know 13 by the quality of your thinking, listening, relating, collaborating, and learning. Quantity is 14 by quality. We will spend more time training to be open-minded and learning to update our beliefs in 15 to new data. We will practice 16 after our mistakes, and we will invest more in the skills traditionally 17 with emotional intelligence. The new smart will be about trying to overcome the two big 18 0f critical thinking and team collaboration: our ego and our fears. Doing so will make it easier to perceive reality as it is, rather than as we 19 it to be. In short, we will embrace humility. That is 20 we humans will add value in a world of smart technology,
[单选题]Any sufficiently advanced technology, noLed Arthur C. Clarke, a British science-fiction writer,is indistinguishable from magic. The fast-emerging technology of voice computing proves his 1 . Using it is just like casting a spell: say a few words inLo the air, and a nearby device can 2 your wish. The Amazon Echo, a voice-driven cylindrical computer that sits on a table top and answers to the name Alexa, can 3 music tracks and radio stations, tell jokes, answer trivia questions and control smart 4 ; even before Christmas it was already resident in about 4qo of American house holds. Voice assistants are 5 in smartphones, too: Apple's Siri 6 0ver2 billion commands a week, and 20% of Google 7 0n Android powered handsets in America are input by voice. Dictating e-mails and text messages now works 8 enough to be useful. Why type when you can talk? This is a huge shift. Simple 9 it may seem, voice has the power to transform computing, by providing a natural means of interaction. Windows, icons and menus, and then touchscreens, were welcomed as more 10 ways to deal with computers than entering complex keyboard 11 . But being able to talk to computers . 12 the need for the abstraction of a "user interface" at aLI. 13 mobile phones were more than exisLing phones without wires, and cars were more than carriages without horses, so computers without screens and keyboards have the 14 to be more useful and powerful than people can imagine today. Voice will not wholly 15 other forms of input and output. SomeLimes it will remain more 16 to converse with a machine by Lyping rather than talking. But voice is destined to 17 a growing share of people's interactions with the technology around them, from washing machines that tell you how much of the cycle they have left to virtual assisLants in corporate call-centres. 18 , to reach its full potential, the technology requires 19 . breakthroughs-and a resolution of the 20 questions it raises around the trade-off between convenience and privacy.
[单选题]Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Because humans have an inherent need to 1 uncertainty, according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is so strong that people will 2 to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will 3 . In a series of four experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the Wisconsin School of Business tested Student’s willingness to 4 themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one 5 , each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist? Half of the pens would 6 an electric shock when clicked. Twenty-seven students were told with pens were electrified, another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified. 7 left alone in the room. The students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew what would 8 subsequent experiments reproduced, this effect with other stimuli 9 the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects. The drive to 10 is deeply rooted in humans. Much the same as the basic drives for 11 or shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago Curiosity is often considered a good instinct—it can 12 New Scientific advances, for instance—but sometimes such 13 can backfire, the insight that curiosity can drive you to do 14 things is a profound one. Unhealthy curiosity is possible to 15 , however. in a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one’s curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor. Thinking about long-term 20 is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity. Hsee says. “in other words, don’t read online comments” 5选?
[单选题]Text 4 When the government talks about infrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned. Why is that? To some extent the housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to shove for attention among multibillionpound infrastructure project, so it is inevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged. Nevertheless, the affordable housing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simply not building enough new homes. The comprehensive spending review offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need. There are some indications that it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt. Evidence shows that 60, 000 extra new homes could be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDP by 0.6%. Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new developments from revenues. But it is not just down to the government. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we must face up to the fact that the existing £4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015,is unlikely to be extended beyond then. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large part of the coalition's spending plans if returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to era of largescale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate. While the government’s commitment to long-term funding may have changed, the very pressing need for more affordable housing is real and is not going away. 39. It can be inferred that a stable rental environment would .
[单选题]Given the advantages of electronic money, you might think that we would move quickly to the cashless society in which all payments are made electronically. 1 a true cashless society is probably not around the corner. Indeed, predictions have been 2 for two decades but have not yet come to fruition. For example, Business Week predicted in 1975 that electronic means of payment would soon "revolutionize the very 3 of money itself," only to 4itself several years later. Why has the movement to a cashless society been so 5 in coming? Although electronic means of payment may be more efficient than a payments system based on paper, several factors work 6 the disappearance of the paper system. First, it is very 7 to set up the computer, card reader, and telecornmunications networks necessary to make electronic money the 8 form of payment Second, paper checks have the advantage that they 9 receipts, something that many consumers are unwilling to 10 . Third, the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of "float" - it takes several days 11 a check is cashed and funds are 12 from the issuer's account, which means that the writer of the check can cam interest on the funds in the meantime. 13 electronic payments arc immediate, they eliminate the float for the consumer. Fourth, electronic means of payment may 14 security and privacy concerns. We often hear media reports that an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information 15 there. The fact that this is not an 16 occurrence means that dishonest persons might be able to access bank accounts in electronic payments systems and 17 from someone else's accounts. The 18 of this type of fraud is no easy task, and a new field of computer science is developing to 19 security issues. A further concern is that the use of electronic means of payment leaves an electronic 20 that contains a large amount of personal data. There are concerns that government, employers, and marketers might be able to access these data, thereby violating our privacy. 18选?
[单选题]Text 3 American?farmers?have?been?complaining?of?labor?shortages?for several?years.?The?complaints?are?unlikely?to?stop?without?an?overhaul?of immigration?rules?for?farm?workers. Congress?has?obstructed?efforts?to?create?a?more?straightforward visa?for?agricultural?workers?that?would?let?foreign?workers?stay?longer?in the?U.S.?and?change?jobs?within?the?industry.?If?this?doesn’t?change, American?businesses,?communities,?and?consumers?will?be?the?losers. Perhaps?half?of?U.S.?farm?laborers?are?undocumented?immigrants.?As fewer?such?workers?enter?the?country,?the?characteristics?of?the agricultural?workforce?are?changing.?Today’s?farm?laborers,?while?still predominantly?born?in?Mexico,?are?more?likely?to?be?settled?rather?than migrating?and?more?likely?to?be?married?than?single.?They’re?also?aging. At?the?start?of?this?century,?about?one-third?of?crop?workers?were?over the?age?of?35.?Now?more?than?half?are.?And?picking?crops?is?hard?on older?bodies.?One?oft-debated?cure?for?this?labor?shortage?remains?as implausible?as?it’s?been?all?along:?Native?U.S.?workers?won’t?be?returning to?the?farm. Mechanization?isn’t?the?answer,?either—not?yer,?at?least.?Production of?corn,?cotton,?rice,?soybeans,?and?wheat?has?been?largely?mechanized,but?many?high-value,?labor-intensive?corps,?such?as?strawberries,?need labor.?Even?dairy?farms,?where?robots?do?a?small?share?of?milking,?have?a long?way?to?go?before?they’re?automated. As?a?result,?farms?have?grown?increasingly?reliant?on?temporary guest?workers?using?the?H-2A?visa?to?fill?the?gaps?in?the?workforce. Starting?around?2012,?requests?for?the?visas?rose?sharply;?from?2011?to 2016?the?number?of?visas?issued?more?than?doubled. The?H-2A?visa?has?no?numerical?cap,?unlike?the?H-2B?visa?for nonagricultural?work,?which?is?limited?to?66,000?a?year.?Even?so, employers?complain?they?aren’t?given?all?the?workers?they?need.?The process?is?cumbersome,?expensive,?and?unreliable.?One?survey?found that?bureaucratic?delays?led?the?average?H-2A?worker?to?arrive?on?the?job 22?days?late.?The?shortage?is?compounded?by?federal?immigration?raids,which?remove?some?workers?and?drive?others?underground. In?a?2012?survey,?71?percent?of?tree-fruit?growers?and?almost?80 percent?of?raisin?and?berry?growers?said?they?were?short?of?labor.?Some western?farmers?have?responded?by?moving?operations?to?Mexico.?From 1998?to?2000,?14.5?percent?of?the?fruit?Americans?consumed?was imported.?Little?more?than?a?decade?later,?the?share?of?imports?was?25.8 percent. In?effect,?the?U.S.?can?import?food?or?it?can?import?the?workers?who pick?it. 35.?Which?of?the?following?could?be?the?best?title?for?this?text?
[单选题]Text 1 What would you do with $590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84yearold widow who recently emerged from her small, tinroofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her newfound fortune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton. These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly. What was once exciting and new becomes oldhat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms. Dumn and Mr. Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time—as stories or memories—particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others. This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most “happiness bang for your buck.” It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it). Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald's restricts the availability of its popular McRib—a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession. Readers of Happy Money are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent. 23. McRib is mentioned in Paragraph 3 to show that _.
[单选题]When Andrew Chadwick-Jones, a management consultant with Oliver Wyman in London,went to pitch to a private-equity firm late last year, he l . the usual: about 20 minutes and a brisk attitude. He was surprised to find the private-equity people 2 explaining their strategy, 3 introductions to senior staff and being more open and friendly. 4 money and deals are scarce, they've got to be nicer to all the people they 5 with, in case they might help bring business in future, he says. Rudeness is out, and civility is the new 6 in an uncertain world. On Wall Street, says a banker, it's now all about charm and openness and taking time with people. Cocky young things StTaight 7 the best business schools have stopped skipping interview appointments, recruiters say, and there is much less 8 people's shoulders at drinks parties, reporis one veteran. Many people, fearful for theirjobs, are trying to burnish their contacts at other firms. The change in tone also 9 an upheaval in the balance of 10 between companies. 11 the crisis, says Michel Pretie, head of investment banking at Societe Generale in Paris, he would go and see a senior chief executive with a mergers-and-acquisitions 12 , get in for a short 13 and, on the way out, walk past a line of all his competitors. Now, he says, "You're ushered 14 , you get an hour with the CEO and he walks you to your car." During this crisis, when there is so much uncertainty about who will end 15 having power, the best 16 is to be civil to everyone, says Adam Galinsky of the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestem University. People have more time to be衔endly when business is 17 . Some 18 the new cordiality reflects a 19 that everyone is in the same boat: when some firms have to fire good performers as well as bad, no one is safe. 20 ifpeople at different firms are being nicer to each other, things may not be getting any nicer inside companies.
[单选题]Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have 1_ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually _2 _. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. 3 among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an _4 of good health. Of even greater 5 is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined 6_ body mass index, or BMI. BMI 7 body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, 8 ,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese. While such numerical standards seem 9 , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, 10 others with a low BMI may be in poor 11 .For example, many collegiate and professional football players 12 as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a 13 BMI. Today we have a(an) _14 _ to label obesity as a disgrace.The overweight are sometimes_15_in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes _16_ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power,and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17_very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools. Negative attitudes toward obesity, _18_in health concerns, have stimulated a number of anti-obesity _19_.My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facilities. Many employers have instituted weight loss and fitness initiatives. Michelle Obama launched a high-visibility campaign _20_ childhood obesity, even claiming that it represents our greatest national security threat. 2选?
[单选题]Text 2 In a former leather factory just off Euston Road in London, a hopeful firm is starting up. BenevolentAI's main room is large and open-plan. In it, scientists and coders sit busily on benches, plyinS their various trades. I\e firm's star, though, has a private, temperature.controlled office.Thal star is a powerful computer that runs the software which sits at the heart of BenevolentAl's business. This software is an artificial-intelligence system. AI, as it is known for short, comes in several forms. But BenevolentAI's version of it is a form of machine learning that can draw inferences about wh8t it has leamed. In particular, it can process natural language and formulate new ideas from what it reads. Its job is to sift through vast chemical libraries, medical databases and conventionally presented scientific papers, looking for potential drug molecules. Nor is BenevolentAI a one-off. More and more people and firms believe that AI is well placed to help unpick biology and advance human health. Indeed, as Chris Bishop of Microsoft Research, in Cambridge, England, observes, one way of thinking aboui living organisms is to recognize that they are, in essence. complex systems which process informalion using a combination of hardware and software. That thought has consequences. Whether it is the new Chan Zuckerberg Initiative ( CZI) , from the founder of Facebook and his wife, or the biological subsidiaries being set up by firms such as Alphabet ( Google's parent company) , IBM and Microsofi, the new Big Idea in Silicon Valley is that in the worlds of biology and disease there are problems its software engineers can solve. The discovery of new drugs is an early test of the belief that AI has much to offer biology and medicine. Pharmaceutical companies are finding il increasingly difficult lo make headway in their search for novel products. The conventional approach is to screen larf;e numbers of molecules for signs of relative biological effect, and then weed out the useless partin a series of more and more expensive tests and trials, in the hope of coming up with a golden nugget at the end. This way of doing things is, however, declining in productivity and rising in cost. 27. According to Paragraph 2, BenevolentAI's version of Al can .
[单选题]Many experts believe that in the new world of artificial intelligence (AI) human beings will still be needed to do the jobs that require higher-order critical, creative, and innovative thinking and the jobs that require high emotional engagement to meet the needs of other human beings. The 1 for many of us is that we do not excel at those skills because of our natural cognitive and emotional tendencies: We are confirmation-seeking thinkers and ego-affirmation-seeking defensive reasoners. We will need to overcome those tendencies 2 take our thinking, listening, relating, and collaborating skills to a much higher level. This process of _3 begins with changing our definition of what it means to "be smart. " 4 . many of us have achieved success 5 being "smarter" than other people as 6 by grades and test scores, beginning in our early days in school. AI will change that because there is no 7 any human being can outsmart, 8 ., lBM's Watson, at least without augmentation. Smart machines can process, 9 , and recall information faster and better than we humans. 10 , AI can pattern-match faster and produce a wider array of alternatives than we can. AI can even learn fasrer. In an age of smart machines, our old definition of what makes a person smart doesn't 11 . What is needed is a new definition of being smart, one that 12 higher levels of human thinking and emotional engagement. The new smart will be determined not by what or how you know 13 by the quality of your thinking, listening, relating, collaborating, and learning. Quantity is 14 by quality. We will spend more time training to be open-minded and learning to update our beliefs in 15 to new data. We will practice 16 after our mistakes, and we will invest more in the skills traditionally 17 with emotional intelligence. The new smart will be about trying to overcome the two big 18 0f critical thinking and team collaboration: our ego and our fears. Doing so will make it easier to perceive reality as it is, rather than as we 19 it to be. In short, we will embrace humility. That is 20 we humans will add value in a world of smart technology,
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