英语二

考试试题

[单选题]Text 2 Tropical rain pounds on the roof of a cavernous warehouse near Jakarta, Indonesia's capital. Inside, youngsters in orange T-shirts haul around clothes, luggage and electrical goods for Lazada, an ecommerce finn, which has just moved in. The 12,000 square metre space is three times the size of the old one, but it already looks full. Three years ago Lazada's entire stock filled a storeroom the size of a studio flat, recalls Magnus Ekbom, its twenty-something boss in Indonesia. Internet shopping accounts for less than l% of all purchases in South-East Asia-a region twice as populous as America, where the proporlion is nearly 10%. But surging smartphone use and a broadening middle class mean the market is set to multiply: perhaps five fold by 2018,reckons Frost & Sullivan, a consulting firm. Since it launched in 2012 Lazada has laid claim to six South-East Asian countries, largely unchallenged by e-commerce giants such as Amazon of the United States, Alibaba of China and Rakuten of Japan. It may soon have to fight them for its tenitory. Lazada was created by Rocket Internet, a Berlin-based investor that helps out startups designed to dominate emerging markets. Rocket still holds a 24% stake, though Lazada has now raised more than $ 600m from inveslors including Tesco, a Bntish grocer, and Temasek, a Singaporean sover- eign-wealth fund. These deals appear to value it at about $ 1.3 billion, which could well make it South-East Asia's dearesl technology firm. Like other Rocket companies, Lazada is run by a group of young European emigranLs,plucked from finance and consuhing. It seems ready to stomach years oflosses. In the first half of 2014-Lhe only recent period for which results are available-it lost $ 50m before interest and tax, on revenues of $ 60m. Again like other Rocket comparues, its critics say it is just a copycat, in this case a mere clone of Amazon. Lazada's bosses say such charges underestimate the sophistication and ambition required to succeed in places such as Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam. Online marketing is trickier there than in America or Europe, because locals use a much wider variety of search and social-media sites. The region's diversity means constant adjustment of online portals to suit local languages and cultures. It also means batding a hotch potch of customs rules. 26. We can learn from Paragraph I that .
[单选题]Text 3 University used to be for a privileged few. In some countries it is now almost a rite of passage. Although that is excellent news, rew countries have worked out how to pay for it. In some of continental Europe, where the state often foots the bill, the result has usually been under investment. In America, where students themselves pay, many have little choice but to take on huge debts. English policymakers thought they had struck the right balance, with a mix of student fees and generous state loans. But, nearly two decades after youngsters were first required to contribute to tuition costs, the system has dwindling support at home. Jeremy Corbyn, Labour's leader, speaks as though it were designed to keep the poor from spoiling the ivory towers. He has called for an end to the "debt burden" on students, and has claimed that "fewer working-class young people are applying to university," Labour's showing at the recent election suggests many young voters agree. Mr Corbyn's argument betrays a disregard for the facts and a poor understanding of student finance. Twenty years ago English students could go to university free, with the state covering the cost. The result was many struggling institutions and strict limits on the numbers of students universities were allowed to take. Annual tuition fees allowed an expansion of higher education, from around 30% of 18-year-olds to more than 40%-and the proportion of youngsters going to university from poor parts of the country has grown from one-in-ten to three-in-ten. That is because loans for tuition are combined with gentle repayment terms. Graduates only pay back based on their income above £21,000 a year, meaning that their debts never become unmanageable. Outstanding loans are written off after 30 years. Critics argue that tuition fees aggravate inequality between generations (rich oldsters attended university free, after all), but the alternative would be greater inequality within generations-as poorer students were once again frozen out when capacity fell, and relatively wealthy graduates were subsidised from general taxation. The real problem with the English system is not fairness, but that fees have not driven up standards. Almost all universities charge the maximum, whatever the course-not because they are a "cartel", but because no university wants to suggest that it offers a cut-price, second-rate degree. Nevertheless, surveys indicate that students have seen little improvement in teaching. One answer would be to promote competition by giving students better information. The government has relaxed the rules for new institutions in the hope that they will develop new teaching methods and drive down prices. It could also encourage students to hold universities to account, with devices such as learning contracts specifying what undergraduates should expect, and by helping them switch courses if they are dissatisfied. If students think they are not getting value for money, support for a scheme that is fair and progressive will dwindle. And that could lead to the most regressive step of all: scrapping tuition fees. 34. By "fees have not driven up standards", the author means "high tuition fees ".
[单选题]Text 3 Family caregivers provide essential, often unpaid work in the U.S.: they help family members with tasks like bathing and eating, coordinating insurance coverage and managing medications. But what a caregiver looks like in America is changing. Although the typical unpaid family caregiver is a 49-year-old white woman, about 10 million Americans between ages 18 and 34, of all different backgrounds, are now the caregivers for a family member or friend, according to a new report by AARP. One out of four family caregivers in the U.S. is a millennial. And as Baby Boomers age and need more support, this young group is becoming an increasingly important part of the caregiving workforce.More than half of millennial caregivers are now people of color, according to the report, and they are more likely than any other generation to balance caregiving with employment. Nearly three quarters of millennial caregivers are employed, according to the new report, and 53% work full time. They also spend an average of 21 hours per week on caregiving, or the equivalent of a part time job. More than one in four millennials spends over 20 hours each week providing care, and roughly one in five provides care for at least 40 hours each week. "Many of these millennials are not just working and providing this care, but are trying to figure out, ihow do I balance all of this?"' says Jean Accius, an expert on long-term care services and supports at the AARP's public policy institute, which provides guides for different communities of caregivers. "At this time in their life, a typical milleruual may be thinking about going on vacation, hanging out with friends and potentially getting married, but these millennials are doing things like wound care and bathing." The report finds that Latino millennials often face increased pressure, as they work more hours each week on average and spend more time providing care than young adults of other backgrounds. Some of this has to do with the fact that Hispanuc Americans are more likely to live in multi-generational households, Accius says. Tasks like navigating govemment health systems or coordinating care between multiple providers can also be particularly challenging for families that have members whose first language is not English. Another common source of stress is the impact that caregiving responsibilities can have on a person's career. 54% of millennial caregivers say that caregiving has impacted their job in significant ways, according to the report. Yet millennials are much less likely to tell their supervisors or colleagues at work about their caregiving responsibilities, meaning they are often navigating alone. One sign of progress is that millennial men are nearly as likely to provide care as women, according to the report. "The way that millennials think about gendered work or gendered care roles is changing," says Whiting. "The U.S. is already facing a shortage of caregivers, and the increasing gender and racial diversity of millennial caregivers will be necessary to support all those who need help in the future:' she says. "We see, especially among millennials, that everybody bears some responsibility, and we need to care for each other." 33. Jean Accius hold that millennials should know
[单选题]Millions of Americans and foreigners see G.I.Joe as a mindless war toy, the symbol of American military adventurism, but that’s not how it used to be. To the men and women who 1 in World WarⅡand the people they liberated, the G.I. was the 2 man grown into hero, the poor farm kid torn away from his home, the guy who 3 all the burdens of battle, who slept in cold foxholes, who went without the 4 of food and shelter, who stuck it out and drove back the Nazi reign of murder. This was not a volunteer soldier, not someone well paid, 5 an average guy up 6 the best trained, best equipped, fiercest, most brutal enemies seen in centuries. His name isn't much. GI. is just a military abbreviation 7 .Government Issue, and it was on all of the articles 8 to soldiers. And Joe? A common name for a guy who never 9 it to the top. Joe Blow, Joe Palooka. Joe Magrac...a working class name. The United States has 10 had a president or vice-president or secretary of state Joe. G.I. Joe had a 11 career fighting German, Japanese, and Korean troops. He appears as a character. or a 12 of American personalities, in the 1945 movie The Story of G.I. Joe, based on the last days of war correspondent Emie Pyle. Some of the soldiers Pyle 13 portrayed themselves in the film. Pyle was famous for covering the 14 side of the war, writing about the dirt-snow-and-mud soldiers not how many miles were 15 or what towns were captured or liberated. His reports 16 the “Willie” cartoons of famed Stars and Stripes artist Bill Maulden. Both men 17 the dirt and exhaustion of war, the 18 of civilization that the soldiers shared with each other and the civilians: coffee, tobacco, whiskey, shelter, sleep. 19 Egypt, France, and a dozen more countries, G.I. Joe was any American soldier, 20 the most important person in their lives. 2选?
[单选题]Text 4 Many Americans regard the jury system as a concrete expression of crucial democratic values, including the principles that all citizens who meet minimal qualifications of age and literacy are equally competent to serve on juries; that jurors should be selected randomly from a representative cross section of the community; that no citizen should be denied the right to serve on a jury on account of race, religion, sex, or national origin; that defendants are entitled to trial by their peers; and that verdicts should represent the conscience of the community and not just the letter of the law. The jury is also said to be the best surviving example of direct rather than representative democracy. In a direct democracy, citizens take turns governing themselves, rather than electing representatives to govern for them. But as recently as in 1968, jury selection procedures conflicted with these democratic ideals. In some states, for example, jury duty was limited to persons of supposedly superior intelligence, education, and moral character. Although the Supreme Court of the United States had prohibited intentional racial discrimination in jury selection as early as the 1880 case of Strauder v. West Virginia, the practice of selecting socalled elite or blueribbon juries provided a convenient way around this and other antidiscrimination laws. The system also failed to regularly include women on juries until the mid20th century. Although women first served on state juries in Utah in 1898, it was not until the 1940s that a majority of states made women eligible for jury duty. Even then several states automatically exempted women from jury duty unless they personally asked to have their names included on the jury list. This practice was justified by the claim that women were needed at home, and it kept juries unrepresentative of women through the 1960s. In 1968, the Congress of the United States passed the Jury Selection and Service Act, ushering in a new era of democratic reforms for the jury. This law abolished special educational requirements for federal jurors and required them to be selected at random from a cross section of the entire community. In the landmark 1975 decision Taylor v.Louisiana, the Supreme Court extended the requirement that juries be representative of all parts of the community to the state level. The Taylor decision also declared sex discrimination in jury selection to be unconstitutional and ordered states to use the same procedures for selecting male and female jurors. 38. Even in the 1960s, women were seldom on the jury list in some states because .
[单选题]Millions of Americans and foreigners see G.I.Joe as a mindless war toy, the symbol of American military adventurism, but that’s not how it used to be. To the men and women who 1 in World WarⅡand the people they liberated, the G.I. was the 2 man grown into hero, the poor farm kid torn away from his home, the guy who 3 all the burdens of battle, who slept in cold foxholes, who went without the 4 of food and shelter, who stuck it out and drove back the Nazi reign of murder. This was not a volunteer soldier, not someone well paid, 5 an average guy up 6 the best trained, best equipped, fiercest, most brutal enemies seen in centuries. His name isn't much. GI. is just a military abbreviation 7 .Government Issue, and it was on all of the articles 8 to soldiers. And Joe? A common name for a guy who never 9 it to the top. Joe Blow, Joe Palooka. Joe Magrac...a working class name. The United States has 10 had a president or vice-president or secretary of state Joe. G.I. Joe had a 11 career fighting German, Japanese, and Korean troops. He appears as a character. or a 12 of American personalities, in the 1945 movie The Story of G.I. Joe, based on the last days of war correspondent Emie Pyle. Some of the soldiers Pyle 13 portrayed themselves in the film. Pyle was famous for covering the 14 side of the war, writing about the dirt-snow-and-mud soldiers not how many miles were 15 or what towns were captured or liberated. His reports 16 the “Willie” cartoons of famed Stars and Stripes artist Bill Maulden. Both men 17 the dirt and exhaustion of war, the 18 of civilization that the soldiers shared with each other and the civilians: coffee, tobacco, whiskey, shelter, sleep. 19 Egypt, France, and a dozen more countries, G.I. Joe was any American soldier, 20 the most important person in their lives. 16选?
[单选题]Text 4 Though often viewed as a problem for western states, the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars, says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management. In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires- nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago. In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency's other work-such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep -that affect the lives of all Americans. Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts. As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire? “It’s already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country,” he says. We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like, “Wait a minute, is this OK?”“Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?” Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say. For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive. Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change-how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires. While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the rest of the equation. “The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways," he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to "an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be. Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited.” At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity, says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado. But acknowledging fire's inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says. “We’ve disconnected ourselves from living with fire,” Balch says. “It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today.” 39. The overly simplified view Moritz mentions is a result of failing to .
[单选题]Poets, songwriters and politicians hate the idea, but for decades opinion-poll evidence has been clear: money buys happiness and the richer you are, the more likely you are to express satisfaction with your life. Until now, a survey of43 countries 1 on October 30th by the Pew Research Centre of Washington, DC, shows that people in 2 markeis are expressing almost the same level of satisfaction as people in rich countries. It is the biggest 3 to the standard view of happiness and income seen 4 . The Pew poll asks respondents to 5 , on a scale from zero to ten, how good their lives are. (Those who say between seven and ten are counted as 6 .) In 2007, 57% of respondents in rich countries put themselves in the top four tiers; in emerging markets the 7 was 33%; in poor countries only 16%-a classic 8 0f the standard view. But in 2014, 540/o of rich-country respondents counted themselves as happy, whereas in emerging markets the percentage 9 t0 51%. This was happening just at a time when emerging markets' chances of converging economically 10 the West seemed to be 11 . Rich countries did not experience 12 declines in happiness. The decreases in America and Britain were tiny ( a single percentage point) , 13 the share of h8ppy Gennans rose 13 points. A large drop in formerly joyful Spain ensured a modest overaU decline for the rich. 14 the convcrgence happened 15 huge improvements in countries such as Indonesia and Pakistan. In 12 of the 24 emerging markets, half or more people 16 their life satisfaction in the top tiers of the ladder. This is not t0 17 the link between income and satrsfaction has been snapped. Poor countries still 18 : only a quarter of the people there are in the happy tiers-half the level of the other'two groups. There is 19 a clear link between happiness and income growth. China's GDP rose at an annual average rate of 10% in 2007-2014 and its happiness level rose 26 points. 20 countries, richer people express more satisfaction than their poorer neighbours.
[单选题]Higher cognitive abilities may come with a pitfall - a susceptibility to judging people based on stereotypes. A new study from New York University l that highly intelligent people are quicker to learn stereotypes and base decisions off them. It may come down 2 someone's ability to detect and encode patterns. It's not all bad news 3 , as these high- intelligence people are likely to quickly update and 4 their ideas on stereotypes when introduced to new information. For the study, 1,257 individuals were shown a(n) 5 0f computerized male faces that were?paired?with?a?description?of?past?behavior,?either?positive?or?negative?However,?the researchers?manipulated?avatar?faces??6??people?with?noses?that?were?purposely?wider?were associated?with?negative?traits,??7?.?those?with?more?narrow?noses?were?associated?with positive?traits.???8???this,?individuals?were?asked?to?complete?a?task?in???9???they?had?to trust?an?individual?online?who?was?represented?by?an?avatar?face???10???those?the?volunteers were?shown?in?the?trait?association?task.?Individuals?wh0???11???higher?on?pattern?detection, 12???0f?higher?intelligence,?were?also?more?likely?to?associate?wider?noses?with?negative traits,?and?were???13???likely?to?trust?wide-nosed?avatars?in?the?final?task. Pattern?detection?is?an?essential?part?of?human?intelligence,?and?is?one?of?the?main features?that?helped?our?brains?evolve???14???what?they?are?today,?but?the?skill?has?its?limits. "Finding?that?higher?pattern?detection?ability???15???people?at?greater?risk?to?detect?and?apply stereotypes,?but?also?to?reverse?them,?implicates?this?ability?as?a?cognitive?mechanism???16 stereotyping,"?added?co-author?Jonathan?Freeman?in?a?statement. While stereotypes can be useful and a way to avoid danger, 17 associating police officers with safety or gunmen with danger, there are pitfalls t0 18 people based on a generally held idea. Stereotypes cause you to judge people 19 . knowing anything about them - we wouldn't want others to do that to us, 20 why not afford them the same Courtesy
[单选题]Text 1 Smartphones have by now been implicated in so many crummy outcomes-car fatalities, sleep disturbances, empathy loss, relationship problems, failure to notice a clown on a unicycle-that it almost seems easier to list the things they don't mess up than the things they do. Our society may be reaching peak criticism of digital devices. Even so. emerging research suggests that a kev Droblem remains underaDDreciated. It involves kids' development, but it's probably not what you think. More than screen-obsessed young children, we should be concerned about tuned-out parents. Yes, parents now have more face time with their children than did almost any parents in history. Despite a dramatic increase in the percentage of women in the workforce, mothers today astoundingly spend morc time caring for their children than mothers did in the 1960s. But the engagement between parent and child is increasingly Iow-quality, even ersatz. Parents are constantly present in their children's lives physically, but they are less emotionally attuned. To be clear, I'm not unsympathetic to parents in this predicament. My own adult children like to joke that they wouldn't have survived infancy ifl'd had a smartphone in my clutches 25 years ago. To argue that parents' use of screens is an underappreciated problem isn't to discount the direct risks screens pose to children: Substantial evidence suggests that many types of screen time (especially those involving fast-paced or violent imagery) are damaging to young brains. Today's preschoolers spend more than four hours a day facing a screen. And, since 1970, the average age of onset of "regular" screen use has gone from 4 years to just four months. Some of the newer interactive games kids play on phones or tablets may be more benign than watching TV or YouTube, in that they better mimic children's natural play behaviors. And, of course, many well-functioning adults survived a mind-numbing childhood spent watching a lot of cognitive garbage. (My mother-unusually for her time-prohibited Speed Racer and Gilligan's Island on the grounds of insipidness. That I somehow managed to watch every single episode of each show scores of times has never been explained.) Still, no one really disputes the tremendous opportunity costs to young children who are plugged in to a screen: Time spent on devices is time not spent actively exploring the world and relating to other human beings. 21. We can learn from the first two paragraphs that smartphones .
[单选题]Read the following text and decide whether each of the statements is true or false. Choose T if the statement is true or F it the statement is not true. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points) Copying Birds May Save Aircraft Fuel Both Boeing and Airbus have trumpeted the efficiency of their newest aircraft. The 787 and 350 respectively . Their clever designs and lightweight composites certainly make a difference . But a group of researchers at Stanford University , led by Ilan Kroo , has suggested that airlines could take a more naturalistic approach to cutting jet-fuel use and it would not require them to buy new aircraft. The answer, says Dr Kroo , lies with birds . Since 1914, scientists have known that birds flying in formation-a V-shape-expend less energy. The air flowing over a bird’s wings curls upwards behind the wingtips . a phenomenon known as upwash. Other birds flying in the upwash experience reduced drag, and spend less energy propelling themselves . Peter Lissaman, an aeronautics expert who was formerly at Caltech and the University of Southern California ,has suggested that a formation of 25 birds might enjoy a range increase of 71%. When applied to aircraft, the principles are not substantially different . Dr Kroo and his team modeled what would happen if three passenger jets departing from Los Angeles, San Francisco and I as Vegas were to assemble over Utah, assume an inverted V-formation occasionally change places so all could have a turn in the most favourable positions , and proceed to London. They found that the aircraft consumed as much as 15% less fuel (coupled with a reduction in carbon-dioxide output). Nitrogen-oxide emissions during the cruising portions of the flight fell by around a quarter. There are , of course , knots to be worked out . One consideration is safety , or at least the perception of it . Would passengers feel comfortable travelling in companion? Dr Kroo points out that the aircraft could be separated by several nautical miles , and would not be in the intimate groupings favoured by display teams like the Red Arrows , A passenger peering out of the window might not even see the other planes. Whether the separation distances involved would satisfy air-traffic-control regulations is another matter, although a working group at the International Civil Aviation Organisation has included the possibility of formation flying in a blueprint for new operational guidelines. It remains to be seen how weather conditions affect the air flows that make formation flight more efficient. In zones of increased turbulence, the planes’ wakes will decay more quickly and the effect will diminish. Dr Kroo says this is one of the areas his team will investigate further. It might also be hard for airlines to co-ordinate the departure times and destinations of passenger aircraft in a way that would allow them to gain from formation flight. Cargo aircraft, in contrast, might be easier to reschedule, as might routine military flight. As it happens, America’s armed forces are on the on case already. Earlier this year the country’s Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency announced plans to pay Boeing to investigate formation flight, though the programme has yet to begin . There are reports that some military aircraft flew in formation when they were low on fuel during the Second World War ,but Dr Lissaman says they are unsubstantiated. “My father was an RAF pilot and my cousin the skipper of a Lancaster lost over Berlin,”he adds. So he should know. 41. Findings of the Stanford University researchers will promote the sales of new Boeing and Airbus aircraft.
[单选题]While mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder are serious mental health conditions that require treatment, short spells of bad moods are a normal part of the human experience. Be it advertising or social media, people have wrongly l happiness like a commodity, an end goal, or a permanent state of mind. 2 , allowing oneself to experience disappointment, frustration, longing, and other negative moods is 3 as part of our learning process. In some cases, a bad mood can 4 0ffer some benefits A new study from Canada found high-reactive individuals (i.e. people who feel bad moods more strongly) performed better on memory tests than their 5 . "It has been suggested that some of our thinking skills may 6 benefit from being in a bad mood because a bad mood 7 us to adopt a more analytic mindset and pay closer attention to detail," said the lead author. Researchers believe there is a scientific 8 for the trope of the tortured artist or the idea that great creative works are 9 0ut of negative emotions more often than not. Take the example of music - from Fleetwood Mac's "Rumours" to Kanye West's "My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy," some of the most 10 acclaimed albums of all time were created when their respective artists were experiencing emotional turmoil. "In some cases, intense negative emotions can create powerful self-reflective thought and perseverance, 11 increased creativity," one study stated. So the next time you happen to be down in the dumps, try t0 12 it with a creative outlet 13 writing or painting. In the brain, negative moods are 14 to the presence of a threat. This results in heightened awareness, making us more 15 0f our surroundings i.e. paying more attention to social cues, body language, etc* This effect can put you in a better place to 16 intentions or actions and notice 17 someone is trying to deceive you. 18 , past research has presented some surprising findings, linking a slightly negative mood with lower 19 to stereotype other people. People in a good mood may be prone to stereotyping -which is classified 20 a form of "heuristic processing" by cognitive psychologists.
[单选题]Retrofitting houses to use less energy should be a no-brainer for homeowners. I time,money spent on ways to reduce heat loss from drauShty houses should produce a 2 return in lower fuel bills. In practice, many are cauLious. Some improvements, such as solid-wall insulation and solar panels, can take over 25 years to 3 their initial cost. Few owners are willing to wait that long: by then many are likely to have . 4 and moved on. Several governments have started finance schemes designed t0 5 this problem. Since 2008 PACE programmes have offered American homeowners loans to 6 . improvements, repaid through higher local taxes on the property, 7 it belongs to. In Brit.ain, Lhe Green Deal offers loans over a 25-year period, with repayments added to energy bills. Countnes including France and Canada have similar 8 . In theory, these schemes should boost investment in common energy-saving measures, such as extra insulation and new boilers, 9 the first owner does not have to pay all the costs in advance. But enrolment rates have 10 , according to Sean Kidney at the Climate Bonds Initiative, a thinktank. In Britain, just 1% of those assessed for the Creen Deal have signed up. In Berkeley, California, home of the first PACE scheme, the 11 rate is similarly low. Homeowners are 12 chiefly because the interest raLes on the loans look high. The Green Deal charges 7%; some PACE schemes a hefty 8%. As these rates are fixed for decades, they will 13 look unattractive when (as now) short-term interest rates are low. Many people als0 14 they will save enough on their energy biUs to cover the repayments. For instance, 15 in Britain that installing loft insulation can cut energy bills by 20% have been dented by a government study that found it 16 gas consumption by only l.7% on average. Others fear that green loans may reduce the value of their home. In America, firms that undewrite mortgages are 17 PACE loans. Green loans have not been a failure everywhere. Around 250,000 households in Germany 18 for them each year. They do s0 19 they need pay only 1% interest on them each yeu, thanks to an annual public subsidy of l.5 billion. Whether that is a(an) 20 use of taxpayers'money is another question.
[单选题]In our contemporary culture, the prospect of communicating with -- or even looking at -- a stranger is virtually unbearable.Everyone around us seems to agree by the way they fiddle with their phones, even without a 1 underground. It's a sad reality -- our desire to avoid interacting with other human beings -- because there's 2 to be gained from talking to the stranger standing by you.But you wouldn't know it, 3 into your phone.This universal armor sends the 4 : "Please don't approach me." What is it that makes us feel we need to hide 5 our screens? One answer is fear, according to Jon Wortmann, executive mental coach.We fear rejection, or that our innocent social advances will be 6 as "creepy,".We fear we'll be 7 .We fear we'll be disruptive.Strangers are inherently 8 to us, so we are more likely to feel 9 when communicating with them compared with our friends and acquaintances.To avoid this anxiety, we 10 to our phones."Phones become our security blanket," Wortmann says."They are our happy glasses that protect us from what we perceive is going to be more 11 .” But once we rip off the bandaid, tuck our smartphones in our pockets and look up, it doesn't 12 so bad.In one 2011 experiment, behavioral scientists Nicholas Epley and Juliana Schroeder asked commuters to do the unthinkable: Start a 13 .They had Chicago train commuters talk to their fellow 14 ."When Dr.Epley and Ms.Schroeder asked other people in the same train station to 15 how they would feel after talking to a stranger, the commuters thought their 16 would be more pleasant if they sat on their own," the New York Times summarizes.Though the participants didn't expect a positive experience, after they 17 with the experiment, "not a single person reported having been snubbed." 18 , these commutes were reportedly more enjoyable compared with those sans communication, which makes absolute sense, 19 human beings thrive off of social connections.It's that 20 : Talking to strangers can make you feel connected. 13选?
[单选题]Students ofmanagement theory have long l what constitutes the worst kind of book-the CEO autobiography or the management tome that promises to 2 the secrets ofbusiness 3 0ne syllable. But in "Management in 10 Words" Sir Terry Leahy, a former boss of Tesco, has performed a remarkable act of alchemy: combining two dismal forms to . 4 an excellent book-a veritable management page-turner that has interesting things to say about everything from the evolution of British society to the art of 5 huge organisations. Sir Terry is an example of a type of Briton that is becoming increasingly 6 : a working-class boy made 7 by dint of quick wits and hard work. A scholarship to a local public school and a taste for the grocery business 8 him with a ladder up: he started his career stacking shelves at Tesco and ended 9 as CEO for 14 years. When Sir Terry was 10 to the top job, Tesco was struggling in third place in Britain's supermarket hierarchy behind Sainsbury's and Marks & Spencer. Rumour had it that a tobacco company had toyed with buying the supermarket but 11 the idea believing it would be bad for the brand. Today Tesco is Britain's largest private employer and the third-largest supermarket in the world, 12 in 14 countries and offering banking and insurance 13 fruit and vegetables. Sir Terry argues that the secret has been 14 innovation. Tesco introduced loyalty cards in order to 15 information on its customers and encourage them to keep coming back. And the trove of customer information provided by the loyalty card eased Tesco's entry _16 banking and e-commerce. 17 , Sir Terry readily 18 that there is no science to management: he got the 19 for one of Tesco's most successful innovations-small stores in town centres-from visiting a wholesaler and 20 how much business it was doing selling to small shops.
[单选题]"Google is not a conventional company. We do not I to become one," wrote Larry Page and Sergey Brin, the search firm's founders, in a letter to investors ahead ofits stockmarket flotation in 2004. Since then, Google has bumished its reputation 2 0ne ofthe quirkiest companies on the planet. This year alone it has 3 eyebrows by taking a stake in a wind-energy project off the east coast ofAmerica and by testing self-driving cars, which have already _4 0ver 140,000 miles (225,OOOkm) on the country's roads. Google has been able to 5 such flights of fancy 6 its amazingly successful online-search business. This has 7 handsome returns for the firm's investors, who have seen the company 8 itselfin the space ofa mere 12 years from a tiny start-up into a behemoth with a $180 billion market capitalisation that sprawls 9 a vast headquarters in Silicon Valley known as the Googleplex. Google 10 stretches across the web like a giant spider, with a leg in everything from online search and e-mail to social networking and web-based software applications, or apps. All this has turned Google into a force to be reckoned with. 11 now the champion of the unorthodox is faced with two conventional business challenges. The first 12 placating regulators, who fret that it may be abusing its considerable 13 . On November 30th the European Union 14 a formal investigation into claims that Google has been 15 search results to give an unfair advantage to its own services-a charge the firm vigorously 16 . The other challenge facing Google is how to find new sources of growth. 17 all the experiments it has launched, the firm is still heavily dependent on search-related advertising. Ironically, investors' biggest worry is that Google will end 18 like Microsoft, which has 19 to find big new sources of 20 and profit to replace those from its two ageing ponies, the Windows operating system and the Omce suite of business software. That explains why Google's share price has stagnated.