[问答题]If there is one person to blame for economists' habit of commenting on everyhing, it is Gary Becker, who died on May 3rd. Not content with studying the world's economies, he was the first prominent economist to apply economic tools to all aspects of life. He revealed that people are often purposeful and rational in their decisions, whether they are changing jobs, taking drugs or divorcing their spouses. This insight, and the work that followed from it, eamed him a Nobel prize in 1992. No less an eminence than Milton Friedman declared in 2001 that Mr Becker was "the grealest social scientist who has lived and worked in the last half-century". At the heart of Mr Becker's work was the view that "individuals maximise welfare as they conceive it. " Welfare need not mean income; it could derive from the pleasure of selflessness.
[单选题]Retrofitting houses to use less energy should be a no-brainer for homeowners. I time,money spent on ways to reduce heat loss from drauShty houses should produce a 2 return in lower fuel bills. In practice, many are cauLious. Some improvements, such as solid-wall insulation and solar panels, can take over 25 years to 3 their initial cost. Few owners are willing to wait that long: by then many are likely to have . 4 and moved on. Several governments have started finance schemes designed t0 5 this problem. Since 2008 PACE programmes have offered American homeowners loans to 6 . improvements, repaid through higher local taxes on the property, 7 it belongs to. In Brit.ain, Lhe Green Deal offers loans over a 25-year period, with repayments added to energy bills. Countnes including France and Canada have similar 8 . In theory, these schemes should boost investment in common energy-saving measures, such as extra insulation and new boilers, 9 the first owner does not have to pay all the costs in advance. But enrolment rates have 10 , according to Sean Kidney at the Climate Bonds Initiative, a thinktank. In Britain, just 1% of those assessed for the Creen Deal have signed up. In Berkeley, California, home of the first PACE scheme, the 11 rate is similarly low. Homeowners are 12 chiefly because the interest raLes on the loans look high. The Green Deal charges 7%; some PACE schemes a hefty 8%. As these rates are fixed for decades, they will 13 look unattractive when (as now) short-term interest rates are low. Many people als0 14 they will save enough on their energy biUs to cover the repayments. For instance, 15 in Britain that installing loft insulation can cut energy bills by 20% have been dented by a government study that found it 16 gas consumption by only l.7% on average. Others fear that green loans may reduce the value of their home. In America, firms that undewrite mortgages are 17 PACE loans. Green loans have not been a failure everywhere. Around 250,000 households in Germany 18 for them each year. They do s0 19 they need pay only 1% interest on them each yeu, thanks to an annual public subsidy of l.5 billion. Whether that is a(an) 20 use of taxpayers'money is another question.
[单选题]Students ofmanagement theory have long l what constitutes the worst kind of book-the CEO autobiography or the management tome that promises to 2 the secrets ofbusiness 3 0ne syllable. But in "Management in 10 Words" Sir Terry Leahy, a former boss of Tesco, has performed a remarkable act of alchemy: combining two dismal forms to . 4 an excellent book-a veritable management page-turner that has interesting things to say about everything from the evolution of British society to the art of 5 huge organisations. Sir Terry is an example of a type of Briton that is becoming increasingly 6 : a working-class boy made 7 by dint of quick wits and hard work. A scholarship to a local public school and a taste for the grocery business 8 him with a ladder up: he started his career stacking shelves at Tesco and ended 9 as CEO for 14 years. When Sir Terry was 10 to the top job, Tesco was struggling in third place in Britain's supermarket hierarchy behind Sainsbury's and Marks & Spencer. Rumour had it that a tobacco company had toyed with buying the supermarket but 11 the idea believing it would be bad for the brand. Today Tesco is Britain's largest private employer and the third-largest supermarket in the world, 12 in 14 countries and offering banking and insurance 13 fruit and vegetables. Sir Terry argues that the secret has been 14 innovation. Tesco introduced loyalty cards in order to 15 information on its customers and encourage them to keep coming back. And the trove of customer information provided by the loyalty card eased Tesco's entry _16 banking and e-commerce. 17 , Sir Terry readily 18 that there is no science to management: he got the 19 for one of Tesco's most successful innovations-small stores in town centres-from visiting a wholesaler and 20 how much business it was doing selling to small shops.
[单选题]It should not be a surprise. Loneliness and social isolation are on the rise, 1 many to call it an epidemic. In recent decades the number of people with zero 2 has tripled, and most adults do not 3 a local community group. 4 , more than one-third ofAmericans over the age of45 report feeling lonely, with 5 especially high among those under 25 and over 65 years old. "We live in the most technologically 6 age in the history of civilization," writes former U.S. Surgeon General Vivek H. Murthy, " 7 rates ofloneliness have doubled since the 1980s." While this 8 trend has grown, so has understanding ofits impact. By now the evidence is abundant and 9 : social connection significantly affects health. When you believe that you have people in your life who l0 you, and you interact with them 11 , you are better off. For instance, you may be less likely to catch a cold, have a stroke or heart disease, slip into early cognitive decline and 12 depression. You may even be more likely to overcome socioeconomic disadvantages, recover quickly from illness and live longer. A study at Harvard University that followed hundreds of people for 75 years 13 the quality of people's relationships as the single clearest predictor of their physical health, longevity and quality oflife. But the threat ofloneliness is still largely 14 from common health discourse, medical training and practice, and public awareness. lt's time to establish a dedicated 15 to further study, develop initiatives around, and promote social health-how well a person forms and 16 relationships, receives and reciprocates support and feels connected to others. In the same way that mental health has risen up in prominence, 17 more and better research, treatment and advocacy, so too should social health. Indeed, researchers recently evaluated social connection using widely accepted public health criteria, including size, severity and urgency. They then 18 it to well-established public health priorities that receive considerable resources across public and private sectors, such as nutrition. 19 not receiving similar resources, they concluded, social connection matches and in some cases 20 0ther priorities in impact.
[单选题]Text 1 Denmark is once again distinguishing itself in the race against food waste-this time, with a supermarket hawking items once destined for the trash bin. Those items might include treats for a holiday that happened last week, a ripped box of comflakes, plain white rice mislabeled as basmati, or anything nearing its expiration date. In other words, perfectly edible items that are nonetheless considered unfit for salc by the retailers and manufacturers who donate them. WeFood is not the first grocer in Europe to sell surplus food. But unlike so-called "social supermarkets"-stores which serve almosL exclusively low-income people-WeFood's offerings are very intentionally aimed at the general public. High-income families will also choose WeFood for its environmental-friendly conception. The store's goods are priced 30 t0 50 percent lower than those in regular supermarkets, according to WeFood. The store has already been a huge success, attracting large numbers of customers. People have lined up before the store's opening every moming since its launch on Monday. But is this food safe to eat? Safety is always the first concern coming up to your mind. Well, the "sell by" date you see on many products actually refers to its freshness-not whether or not it's going to do you any harm. In many cases, food that's beyond this date won't be as fresh as it once was but is still perfectly edible. The food might have not yet gone bad when the "sell by" date expires. Of course you should still be careful to avoid eating food that's gone off, but you might find you don't have to throw away as much as you think you do. Denmark throws away about 700,000 tons of food every year, according to several estimates. In fact, food waste is a major problem for the whole world. Some 795 million people are undemourished globally, according to the World Food Program. Yet about a third of all food produced in the world-some l.3 billion tons-is wasted each year, according to the United Nations. The cost of global food wastage is about $1 trillion a year. All of the store's proceeds will go to DanChurchAid's work in developing nations like South Sudan and Bangladesh. 25. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title of the text?
[单选题]Intelligence makes for better leaders - from undergraduates to executives to presidents - according to multiple studies. It certainly l that handling a market shift or legislative logjam requires high cognitive abilities. But new research on leadership suggests that, at a certain point, having a higher io can be viewed as 2 . 3 previous research has shown that groups with smarter leaders perform better by 4 measures, some studies have 5 that followers might subjectively view leaders with extremely high intellect as less effective. Decades ago Dean Simonton, a psychologist at the University of California, Davis, proposed that brilliant leaders' words may simply go 6 people's heads, their solutions could be more complicated t0 7 and followers might find it harder to relate to them. Now Simonton and two colleagues have finally 8 that idea. The researchers 9 379 male and female business leaders in 30 countries, 10 fields that included banking, retail and technology. The managers took IQ tests, an imperfect but robust 11 0f performance in many areas, and each was rated on leadership style and effectiveness by an average of eight co-workers. 10 12 correlated with ratings of leader effectiveness, strategy formation, vision and several other characteristics - up to a point. The ratings peaked at an io of around 120, which is higher than roughly 80 percent of office workers. Beyond that, the ratings 13 . The researchers suggest the "ideal" io could be higher or lower in various fields, depending on 14 technical versus social skills are more valued in a(n) 15 work culture. "It's an interesting and thoughtful paper," says Paul Sackett, a psychology professor at the University of Minnesota, who was not involved in the research. "To me, the right interpretation of the work would be that it 16 a need to understand what high-IQ leaders do that 17 to lower perceptions by followers. The wrong interpretation would be, ;Don't 18 high-io leaders. , " The study's lead author, John Antonakis, a psychologist at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, suggests leaders should use their intelligence t0 19 creative metaphors that will persuade and inspire others. "I think the only way a smart person can signal their intelligence 20 and still connect with the people," Antonakis says, "is to speak in charming ways. "
[单选题]The government is under renewed pressure to implement a "radical rethink" of apprenticeships after a near 27% fall in the number taking up trainee posts in the last quarter of 2017. The number starting apprenticeships dropped t0 114,000 between August and October, down from 155,700 in the same period in 2016. That followed a 59% drop in the prevrous three months after the introduction of the apprenticeship levy in April last year. Critics say employers are being deterred from creating apprenticeship posts because of the increased costs and complexity of the new scheme. Businesses with a payroll of more than ￡3m are charged 0. s% of their payroll towards the apprenticeship levy. A fifth of training must be carried out away from the workplace and employers with 50 0r more staff must contribute 10% of the cost. Seamus Nevin, head of policy research at the Institute of Directors (IoD) , said the government risked failing to meet its target of 3 million people starting apprenticeships by 2020. "Clearly the new system has failed to take off," he said. "The levy can be difficult to navigate and many employers still struggle to comprehend how the system is meant to work. " Fhe IoD said more than one in 10 0f its mostly smaller company members paying the levy now viewed it as an extra tax and could no longer afford to offer any apprenticeships. The government is no longer fully funding apprenticeships, particularly for young people. The cuts have been heavily criticised. Mark Dawe of the Association of Employment and Learning Providers said: "For a government committed to improving social mobility, ministers have to be really concerned about the continued drop in starts for both young people and at lower levels. " Verity Davidge, head of education and skills policy at EEF, the manufacturers' organisation, said: "Today's figures should act as a wake-up call to government which has failed to act on industry's growing concerns around the apprenticeship levy. This worrying trend is not just hampering employers' ability to get the skills their business needs, it is taking away invaluable opportunities for the next generation to undertake training and secure a future job. It is clear the apprenticeship levy and wider reforms aren't working and need a radical rethink. " Neil Carberry,managing director of people policy at the CBI, said it wanted the levy to evolve into a "flexible skills levy" that would fund a broader array of training courses. "Today's drop in apprenticeship starts remains alarming and proves again that the apprenticeship levy isn't yet working for businesses, apprentices and the economy. A fresh approach is needed to make skills reforms work," he said. Anne Milton, the minister for apprenticeships and skills, said: "The last year has been a period of significant change. It will take time for employers to adjust. But we must not lose sight of why we introduced our reforms in the first place - to put quality at the heart of this programme, and put control in the hands of employers. " Workers' rights groups have suggested that the number of apprenticeship starts is falling because the levy is weeding out the use of low-quality apprenticeships. They believe employers were offering minimal training as a way to source cheap labour, because the minimum wage for apprentices is below the national minimum wage. The Unite union has raised concerns about the lowesi grade of apprenticeships and whether they are beneficial.
[单选题]I couldn't stop crying. Months oflate evenings and demanding travel had l my professional exterior. I tried to 2 my quarterly numbers while my colleagues squirmed (局促不安 ) in their seats, offered me a box oftissues, or just 3 . My boss 4 ended the meeting. My colleagues quickly 5 the room.l was left 6 in the conference room, crumpled tissues in hand. For women, crying in a professional 7 is often seen as the kiss of death: "Stop crying! Someone will see you." "Quick, run to the ladies' room!" These are just two 8 0f similar wamings I've heard throughout my career. But it's not just me. Female friends and colleagues have told me they too have been told to 9 the waterworks. It's a familiar 10 for women who cry at work: Escape to bathroom. Grab toilet paper. Wipe eyes. Blow nose. Take deep breath and sashay back into the conference rooms, banquet halls, auditoriums and hallways. Act as ifwe really did just have to use the 11 . If, however, we can't make a pre-tears escape, we're likely to 12 0ur tails between our legs: "I'm so sorry." "Don't worry, that will never happen again." "You're right, that was so unprofessional." Most of the women I spoke with about this 13 explain that to cry in front of colleagues, especially male peers or bosses, 14 as one ofthe most humiliating professional experiences. But times and corporate culture are both changing. Could crying have a less negative feeling ifleaders 15 it as natural? 16 gender, leaders need to be trained on how t0 17 crying as another form of emotional expression. The 18 from the top needs to be that no one will lose credibility or be seen as less competent if they cry. Rather, they will be viewed as being 19 while helping to create an even more 20 workplace culture.
[单选题]When Andrew Chadwick-Jones, a management consultant with Oliver Wyman in London,went to pitch to a private-equity firm late last year, he l . the usual: about 20 minutes and a brisk attitude. He was surprised to find the private-equity people 2 explaining their strategy, 3 introductions to senior staff and being more open and friendly. 4 money and deals are scarce, they've got to be nicer to all the people they 5 with, in case they might help bring business in future, he says. Rudeness is out, and civility is the new 6 in an uncertain world. On Wall Street, says a banker, it's now all about charm and openness and taking time with people. Cocky young things StTaight 7 the best business schools have stopped skipping interview appointments, recruiters say, and there is much less 8 people's shoulders at drinks parties, reporis one veteran. Many people, fearful for theirjobs, are trying to burnish their contacts at other firms. The change in tone also 9 an upheaval in the balance of 10 between companies. 11 the crisis, says Michel Pretie, head of investment banking at Societe Generale in Paris, he would go and see a senior chief executive with a mergers-and-acquisitions 12 , get in for a short 13 and, on the way out, walk past a line of all his competitors. Now, he says, "You're ushered 14 , you get an hour with the CEO and he walks you to your car." During this crisis, when there is so much uncertainty about who will end 15 having power, the best 16 is to be civil to everyone, says Adam Galinsky of the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestem University. People have more time to be衔endly when business is 17 . Some 18 the new cordiality reflects a 19 that everyone is in the same boat: when some firms have to fire good performers as well as bad, no one is safe. 20 ifpeople at different firms are being nicer to each other, things may not be getting any nicer inside companies.
[单选题]Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have 1_ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually _2 _. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. 3 among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an _4 of good health. Of even greater 5 is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined 6_ body mass index, or BMI. BMI 7 body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, 8 ,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese. While such numerical standards seem 9 , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, 10 others with a low BMI may be in poor 11 .For example, many collegiate and professional football players 12 as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a 13 BMI. Today we have a(an) _14 _ to label obesity as a disgrace.The overweight are sometimes_15_in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes _16_ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power,and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17_very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools. Negative attitudes toward obesity, _18_in health concerns, have stimulated a number of anti-obesity _19_.My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facilities. Many employers have instituted weight loss and fitness initiatives. Michelle Obama launched a high-visibility campaign _20_ childhood obesity, even claiming that it represents our greatest national security threat. 17选？
[单选题]Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have 1_ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually _2 _. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. 3 among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an _4 of good health. Of even greater 5 is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined 6_ body mass index, or BMI. BMI 7 body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, 8 ,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese. While such numerical standards seem 9 , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, 10 others with a low BMI may be in poor 11 .For example, many collegiate and professional football players 12 as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a 13 BMI. Today we have a(an) _14 _ to label obesity as a disgrace.The overweight are sometimes_15_in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes _16_ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power,and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17_very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools. Negative attitudes toward obesity, _18_in health concerns, have stimulated a number of anti-obesity _19_.My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facilities. Many employers have instituted weight loss and fitness initiatives. Michelle Obama launched a high-visibility campaign _20_ childhood obesity, even claiming that it represents our greatest national security threat. 16选？
[问答题]American workers have had no news tbis good for years. In June employers 8dded 288,000 jobs, bringing the total for the year t0 1.4 million, the best six-month stretch since 2006. Unemployment has sunk t0 6. 1%, the lowest rate in almost six years. It could hiL levels long regarded as " full employment" within a year. Help-wanted signs are exploding, with vacancies up by 20qo since January. Such a prosperous labour market is usually the token of a booming economy. NoL now. In the first quarter gross domestic product feU by 2.9% at an annual rate, Lhe worst showing since the recession. This was a result in part of bad weather. Yet the second quarter will only be strong enough to make up the ground lost in the first. Economists had thought 2014 would be the best year since the recession; with growth in the first half of around zero, it is shaping up to be the worst.
[单选题]Text 1 What would you do with $590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84yearold widow who recently emerged from her small, tinroofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her newfound fortune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton. These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly. What was once exciting and new becomes oldhat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms. Dumn and Mr. Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time—as stories or memories—particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others. This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most “happiness bang for your buck.” It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it). Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald's restricts the availability of its popular McRib—a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession. Readers of Happy Money are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent. 25. This text mainly discusses how to _.
[单选题]Weighing yourself regularly is a wonderful way to stay aware of any significant?weight?fluctuations.?1?,?when?done?too?often,?this?habit?can sometimes?hurt?more?than?it?2?. As?for?me,?weighing?myself?every?day?caused?me?to?shift?my?focus from?being?generally?healthy?and?physically?active?to?focusing?3?on?the scale.?That?was?had?to?my?overall?fitness?goats.?I?had?gained?weight?in?the form?of?muscle?mass,?but?thinking?only?of?4?the?number?on?the?scale,?I altered?my?training?program.?That?conflicted?with?how?I?needed?to?train to?5?my?goals. I?also?found?that?weighing?myself?daily?did?not?provide?an?accurate?6 of?the?hard?work?and?progress?I?was?making?in?the?gym.?It?takes?about three?weeks?to?a?month?to?notice?any?significant?changes?in?your?weight 7?altering?your?training?program.?The?most?8?changes?will?be?observed?in skill?level,?strength?and?inches?lost. For?these?9?,?I?stopped?weighing?myself?every?day?and?switched?to?a bimonthly?weighing?schedule?10?.?Since?weight?loss?is?not?my?goal,?it?is less?important?for?me?to?11?my?weight?each?week.?Weighing?every?other week?allows?me?to?observe?and?12?any?significant?weight?changes.?That tells?me?whether?I?need?to?13?my?training?program. I?use?my?bimonthly?weigh-in?14?to?get?information?about?my nutrition?as?well.?If?my?training?intensity?remains?the?same,?but?I’m constantly?15?and?dropping?weight,?this?is?a?16?that?I?need?to?increase?my daily?caloric?intake. The?17?to?stop?weighing?myself?every?day?has?done?wonders?for?my overall?health,?fitness?and?well-being.?I’m?experiencing?increased?zeal?for working?out?since?I?no?longer?carry?the?burden?of?a?18?morning?weigh-in. I’ve?also?experienced?greater?success?in?achieving?my?specific?fitness goals,?19?I’m?training?according?to?those?goals,?not?the?numbers?on?a scale. Rather?than?20?over?the?scale,?turn?your?focus?to?how?you?look,?feel how?your?clothes?fit?and?your?overall?energy?level.
[单选题]Text 3 Today, widespread social pressure to immediately go to college in conjunction with increasingly high expectations in a fast-moving world often causes students to completely overlook the possibility of taking a gap year. After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn't it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn't feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn’t academic. But while this may be true, it’s not a good enough reason to condemn gap years. There's always a constant fear of falling behind everyone else on the socially perpetuated “race to the finish line,” whether that be toward graduate school, medical school or lucrative career. But despite common misconceptions, a gap year does not hinder the success of academic pursuits－in fact, it probably enhances it. Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not. Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes－all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders. If you're not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choices. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once. This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor understanding of themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes. It’s not necessarily a bad thing, but depending on the school, it can be costly to make up credits after switching too late in the game. At Boston College, for example, you would have to complete an extra year were you to switch to the nursing school from another department. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on. 33. The word “acclimation”（Line 8, Para. 3） is closest in meaning to _.
[单选题]The government has been forced into a humiliating overhaul of employment tribunal fees after the supreme court ruled they were inconsistent with access to justice. The highest UK court came clown in favour of the trade union Unison, which argued that fees of up to $ 1,200 were preventing workers - especially those on lower incomes - from getting justice. Unison's general secretary, Dave Prentis, said it was a major victory for employees. "Unprincipled employers no longer have the upper hand," he said. The general secretary of the Trades Union Congress, Frances O'Grady, said: "This is a massive win for working people. Too many low-paid workers couldn't afford to uphold their rights at work, even when they have faced harassment or have been sacked unfairly. Tribunal fees have been a bonanza for bad bosses, giving them free rein to mistreat staff. Any fees paid so far should be refunded as soon as possible. " Prof Nicole Busby, the acting head of the law school at the University of Strathclyde, said it was "a very good day for access to justice". Business leaders expressed concern about the court ruling. Seamus Nevin, head of employment and Skills Policy at the Institute of Directors, said the judgement "opens the door to a rise in unreasonable or malicious claims". He said: "Since fees were introduced, the government has imposed crude and potentially misleading gender pay reporting requirements, and an immigration skills charge that incentivises recruitment based on place of birth. Both of these could lead to an increase in unjustified claims. " Mike Spicer, director of Research at the British Chambers of Commerce, said the ruling would leave "employers concerned about a return to the past, when despite winning the majority of cases, companies would often settle to avoid a costly and lengthy process even when their case was strong". Gillian Guy, the chief executive of Citizens Advice, said: "Employment tribunal fees have been a huge barrier to justice, but they are not the only challenge people face. What your rights are, and how to go about getting compensation without resorting to an employment tribunal remains a very complicated picture, which is why we're calling on the government to create a single fair work authority to make it easier for people to get the rights they're entitled to by clamping down on unlawful business practice. " Shoaib Khan. a human rights lawyer, said: "The government has wasted precious public funcls on implementing this unlawful, discriminatory regime, and all fees it has received will have to be refunded, at further public cost. A large amount will also have been spent defending this case all the way to the supreme court. If this cruel scheme was meant to be an additional source of revenue for the government, then ir has proved to be counterproductive in every way. " Tim Forer, a partner in the employment law team at the national law firm Blake Morgan, said estimates of how much the government owed ranged from 27m t0 31m. He said the praciicalities of how the government planned to refund people "remain to be seen,and it is nor clear how much it witl cost".