英语二

考试试题

[单选题]It should not be a surprise. Loneliness and social isolation are on the rise, 1 many to call it an epidemic. In recent decades the number of people with zero 2 has tripled, and most adults do not 3 a local community group. 4 , more than one-third ofAmericans over the age of45 report feeling lonely, with 5 especially high among those under 25 and over 65 years old. "We live in the most technologically 6 age in the history of civilization," writes former U.S. Surgeon General Vivek H. Murthy, " 7 rates ofloneliness have doubled since the 1980s." While this 8 trend has grown, so has understanding ofits impact. By now the evidence is abundant and 9 : social connection significantly affects health. When you believe that you have people in your life who l0 you, and you interact with them 11 , you are better off. For instance, you may be less likely to catch a cold, have a stroke or heart disease, slip into early cognitive decline and 12 depression. You may even be more likely to overcome socioeconomic disadvantages, recover quickly from illness and live longer. A study at Harvard University that followed hundreds of people for 75 years 13 the quality of people's relationships as the single clearest predictor of their physical health, longevity and quality oflife. But the threat ofloneliness is still largely 14 from common health discourse, medical training and practice, and public awareness. lt's time to establish a dedicated 15 to further study, develop initiatives around, and promote social health-how well a person forms and 16 relationships, receives and reciprocates support and feels connected to others. In the same way that mental health has risen up in prominence, 17 more and better research, treatment and advocacy, so too should social health. Indeed, researchers recently evaluated social connection using widely accepted public health criteria, including size, severity and urgency. They then 18 it to well-established public health priorities that receive considerable resources across public and private sectors, such as nutrition. 19 not receiving similar resources, they concluded, social connection matches and in some cases 20 0ther priorities in impact.
[单选题]In the 20th century the planet's population'doubled twice. It will not double even once in the 1 century , because birth rates in much of the world have 2 steeply. But the number of people over 65 is set to 3 within just 25 years. This shift in the structure of the population is not as momentous as the 4 that came before. But it is more than enough to reshape the world economy. 5 the UN's population 6 , the standard source for demographic estimates, there are around 600m people aged 65 0r older 7 today. That is in itself remarkable; the author Fred Pearce claims it is 8 that half of all the humans who have ever been over 65 are alive today. But 9 a share of the total population, at 8%, it is not that 10 to what it was a few decades ago. By 2035, 11 , more than l. 1 billion people-13% of the population-will be above the age of 65. This is a 12 result of the dropping birth rates that are slowing overall population growth; they mean there are 13 fewer younS people around. The "old-age dependency ratio"-the ratio of old people to those of working age-will 14 even faster. In 2010 the world had 16 people aged 65 and over for every 100 aduILs between the ages of 25 and 64, 15 the same raLio it had in 1980. By 2035 the UN 16 that number to have risen to 26. In rich countries it will be much higher. Japan will have 69 0ld people for every 100 0f working age by 2035, Germany 66. 17 America, which has a relaLively high 18 rate, will see its old-age dependency rate rise by more than 70%, t0 44. Developing counLries, 19 today's ratio is much lower, will not see absolute levels rise that high; 20 the proportional growth will be higher. Over the same time period the old-age dependency rate in China will more than double from 15 t0 36. Latin America wiU see a shift from 14 to 27.
[单选题]Given the advantages of electronic money, you might think that we would move quickly to the cashless society in which all payments are made electronically. 1 a true cashless society is probably not around the corner. Indeed, predictions have been 2 for two decades but have not yet come to fruition. For example, Business Week predicted in 1975 that electronic means of payment would soon "revolutionize the very 3 of money itself," only to 4itself several years later. Why has the movement to a cashless society been so 5 in coming? Although electronic means of payment may be more efficient than a payments system based on paper, several factors work 6 the disappearance of the paper system. First, it is very 7 to set up the computer, card reader, and telecornmunications networks necessary to make electronic money the 8 form of payment Second, paper checks have the advantage that they 9 receipts, something that many consumers are unwilling to 10 . Third, the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of "float" - it takes several days 11 a check is cashed and funds are 12 from the issuer's account, which means that the writer of the check can cam interest on the funds in the meantime. 13 electronic payments arc immediate, they eliminate the float for the consumer. Fourth, electronic means of payment may 14 security and privacy concerns. We often hear media reports that an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information 15 there. The fact that this is not an 16 occurrence means that dishonest persons might be able to access bank accounts in electronic payments systems and 17 from someone else's accounts. The 18 of this type of fraud is no easy task, and a new field of computer science is developing to 19 security issues. A further concern is that the use of electronic means of payment leaves an electronic 20 that contains a large amount of personal data. There are concerns that government, employers, and marketers might be able to access these data, thereby violating our privacy. 16选?
[单选题]The Internet affords anonymity to its users, a blessing to privacy and freedom of speech.But that very anonymity is also behind the explosion of cyber-crime that has 1 across the Web. Can privacy be preserved 2 bringing safety and security to a world that seems increasingly 3 ? Last month, Howard Schmidt, the nation’s cyber-czar, offered the federal government a 4 to make the Web a safer place-a “voluntary trusted identity” system that would be the high-tech 5 of a physical key, a fingerprint and a photo ID card, all rolled 6 one.The system might use a smart identity card, or a digital credential 7 to a specific computer .and would authenticate users at a range of online services. The idea is to 8 a federation of private online identity systems.User could 9 which system to join, and only registered users whose identities have been authenticated could navigate those systems.The approach contrasts with one that would require an Internet driver’s license 10 by the government. Google and Microsoft are among companies that already have these “single sign-on” systems that make it possible for users to 11 just once but use many different services. 12 .the approach would create a “walled garden” n cyberspace, with safe “neighborhoods” and bright “streetlights” to establish a sense of a 13 community. Mr.Schmidt described it as a “voluntary ecosystem” in which “individuals and organizations can complete online transactions with 14 ,trusting the identities of each other and the identities of the infrastructure 15 which the transaction runs”. Still, the administration’s plan has 16 privacy rights activists.Some applaud the approach; others are concerned.It seems clear that such a scheme is an initiative push toward what would 17 be a compulsory Internet “drive’s license” mentality. The plan has also been greeted with 18 by some computer security experts, who worry that the “voluntary ecosystem” envisioned by Mr.Schmidt would still leave much of the Internet 19 .They argue that all Internet users should be 20 to register and identify themselves, in the same way that drivers must be licensed to drive on public roads. 2选?
[单选题]The hugely popular blog the Skint Foodie chronicles how Tony balances his love of good food with living on benefits. After bills, Tony has £60 a week to spend, £40 of which goes on food, but 10 years ago he was earning £130,000 a year working in corporate communications and eating at London's best restaurants at least twice a week. Then his marriage failed, his career burned out and his drinking became serious. “The community mental health team saved my life. And I felt like that again, to a certain degree, when people responded to the blog so well. It gave me the validation and confidence that I'd lost. But it's still a daybyday thing.” Now he's living in a council flat and fielding offers from literary agents. He's feeling positive, but he'll carry on blogging—not about eating as cheaply as you can—“there are so many people in a much worse state, with barely any money to spend on food”—but eating well on a budget. Here's his advice for economical foodies. 41. _ Impulsive spending isn't an option, so plan your week's menu in advance, making shopping lists for your ingredients in their exact quantities. I have an Excel template for a week of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Stop laughing: it's not just cost effective but helps you balance your diet. It's also a good idea to shop daily instead of weekly, because, being human, you'll sometimes change your mind about what you fancy. 42. _ This is where supermarkets and their anonymity come in handy. With them, there's not the same embarrassment as when buying one carrot in a little greengrocer. And if you plan properly, you'll know that you only need, say, 350g of shin of beef and six rashers of bacon, not whatever weight is prepacked in the supermarket chiller. 43. _ You may proudly claim to only have frozen peas in the freezer—that's not good enough. Mine is filled with leftovers, bread, stock, meat and fish. Planning ahead should eliminate wastage, but if you have surplus vegetables you'll do a vegetable soup, and all fruits threatening to “go off” will be cooked or juiced. 44. _ Everyone says this, but it really is a top tip for frugal eaters. Shop at butchers, delis and fishsellers regularly, even for small things, and be super friendly. Soon you'll feel comfortable asking if they've any knuckles of ham for soups and stews, or beef bones, chicken carcasses and fish heads for stock which, more often than not, they'll let you have for free. 45. _ You won't be eating out a lot, but save your pennies and once every few months treat yourself to a set lunch at a good restaurant—£1.75 a week for three months gives you £21—more than enough for a threecourse lunch at Michelinstarred Arbutus. It's £16.95 there—or £12.99 for a large pizza from Domino's: I know which I'd rather eat.
[单选题]Students ofmanagement theory have long l what constitutes the worst kind of book-the CEO autobiography or the management tome that promises to 2 the secrets ofbusiness 3 0ne syllable. But in "Management in 10 Words" Sir Terry Leahy, a former boss of Tesco, has performed a remarkable act of alchemy: combining two dismal forms to . 4 an excellent book-a veritable management page-turner that has interesting things to say about everything from the evolution of British society to the art of 5 huge organisations. Sir Terry is an example of a type of Briton that is becoming increasingly 6 : a working-class boy made 7 by dint of quick wits and hard work. A scholarship to a local public school and a taste for the grocery business 8 him with a ladder up: he started his career stacking shelves at Tesco and ended 9 as CEO for 14 years. When Sir Terry was 10 to the top job, Tesco was struggling in third place in Britain's supermarket hierarchy behind Sainsbury's and Marks & Spencer. Rumour had it that a tobacco company had toyed with buying the supermarket but 11 the idea believing it would be bad for the brand. Today Tesco is Britain's largest private employer and the third-largest supermarket in the world, 12 in 14 countries and offering banking and insurance 13 fruit and vegetables. Sir Terry argues that the secret has been 14 innovation. Tesco introduced loyalty cards in order to 15 information on its customers and encourage them to keep coming back. And the trove of customer information provided by the loyalty card eased Tesco's entry _16 banking and e-commerce. 17 , Sir Terry readily 18 that there is no science to management: he got the 19 for one of Tesco's most successful innovations-small stores in town centres-from visiting a wholesaler and 20 how much business it was doing selling to small shops.
[单选题]Text 4 In recent weeks media outlets in the U.S. have been fretting over what would ordinarily be considered good news-the roaring American economy, which has brought low unemployment and, in some places, a labour shortage. Owners and managers have complained about their problems in finding people to fill low-wage positions. "Nobody wants to do manual labour any more:' as one trade association grandee told The Baltimore Sun, and so the manual labour simply goes undone. Company bosses talk about the things they have done to fix the situation: the ads they've published; the guest-worker visas for which they've applied; how they are going into schools to encourage kids to learn construction skills or to drive trucks. But nothing seems to work. Blame for the labour shortage is sprayed all over the US map: opioids are said to be the problem. And welfare, and inadequate parking spaces, and a fallinp: birthrate. and mass incarceration. and-above all-the Trump administration's immigration policies. But no one really knows for sure. The textbook solution to the labour shortage problem-paying workers more-rarely merits more than a line or two, if it's mentioned at all. So unwilling are business leaders to talk about or consider this obvious answer that Neel Kashkari, the president of the Minneapolis Federal Reserve Bank, scolded them last year: "If you're not raising wages, then it just sounds like whining." If you study the Bureau of Labor Statistics' numbers on wages for nonsupervisory workers over the past few decades, you will notice that wage growth has been strangely slow to pick up. Hot economies usually drive wages up pretty promptly; this recovery has been running since 2009 and it has barely moved the needle. How could such a thing happen in this modern and enlightened age? Well, for starters, think of all that whining we're hearing from the US's management, who will apparently blame anyone and do anything to avoid paying workers more. Every labour-management innovation seems to have been designed with this amazing goal in mind. Every great bipartisan political initiative, from free trade to welfare reform, points the same way. 37. What can we learn from Paragraph 2?
[单选题]Weighing yourself regularly is a wonderful way to stay aware of any significant?weight?fluctuations.?1?,?when?done?too?often,?this?habit?can sometimes?hurt?more?than?it?2?. As?for?me,?weighing?myself?every?day?caused?me?to?shift?my?focus from?being?generally?healthy?and?physically?active?to?focusing?3?on?the scale.?That?was?had?to?my?overall?fitness?goats.?I?had?gained?weight?in?the form?of?muscle?mass,?but?thinking?only?of?4?the?number?on?the?scale,?I altered?my?training?program.?That?conflicted?with?how?I?needed?to?train to?5?my?goals. I?also?found?that?weighing?myself?daily?did?not?provide?an?accurate?6 of?the?hard?work?and?progress?I?was?making?in?the?gym.?It?takes?about three?weeks?to?a?month?to?notice?any?significant?changes?in?your?weight 7?altering?your?training?program.?The?most?8?changes?will?be?observed?in skill?level,?strength?and?inches?lost. For?these?9?,?I?stopped?weighing?myself?every?day?and?switched?to?a bimonthly?weighing?schedule?10?.?Since?weight?loss?is?not?my?goal,?it?is less?important?for?me?to?11?my?weight?each?week.?Weighing?every?other week?allows?me?to?observe?and?12?any?significant?weight?changes.?That tells?me?whether?I?need?to?13?my?training?program. I?use?my?bimonthly?weigh-in?14?to?get?information?about?my nutrition?as?well.?If?my?training?intensity?remains?the?same,?but?I’m constantly?15?and?dropping?weight,?this?is?a?16?that?I?need?to?increase?my daily?caloric?intake. The?17?to?stop?weighing?myself?every?day?has?done?wonders?for?my overall?health,?fitness?and?well-being.?I’m?experiencing?increased?zeal?for working?out?since?I?no?longer?carry?the?burden?of?a?18?morning?weigh-in. I’ve?also?experienced?greater?success?in?achieving?my?specific?fitness goals,?19?I’m?training?according?to?those?goals,?not?the?numbers?on?a scale. Rather?than?20?over?the?scale,?turn?your?focus?to?how?you?look,?feel how?your?clothes?fit?and?your?overall?energy?level.
[单选题]Text 2 Internet service providers have realized that they are sitting on a treasure chest of data about your online activities that they could be selling to advertisers. Recognizing the privacy threat, the Federal Communications Commission adopted rules that would have stopped them from doing so without your consent, but Congress recently shot down the regulation. This is a big deal. Privacy doesn't merely benefit individuals; it fundamentally shapes how society functions. It is crucial for marginalized communities and for social movements. Privacy enables these groups to network, organize, and develop their ideas before challenging the status quo. But when people know they're being tracked and monitored, they change their behavior. This chilling effect hurts our intellectual freedoms and our capacity for social progress. The data that tracks our behavior feeds into machine-learning algorithms that make judgments about us. When used for advertising, they can reproduce our own prejudiced behavior. Marketers can use machine learning to figure out your unique features-do you resDond better to words or to pictures? Do you make impulsive shopping decisions? -to target you with exactly the advertisement that will best persuade you. When consequential decisions about employment or loans are made using this kind of data, the result can feel absurd and incomprehensible, because these systems aren't programmed to explain their decisions. There aren't yet effective ways for humans to hold algorithms accountable for how they categorize us. The good news is how effective technology can be in preventing tracking. We found that ad blockers and other browser-privacy tools can decrease tracking by 80 percent or more. More complex tools can be even more effective. In other worcls, the more technically savvy among us can enjoy dramatically better privacy and digital freedoms. But this has resulted in a technological "arms race," which is worrying by itself, but also because such technical skill correlates with historically advantaged groups. Meanwhile, publishers are caught in the ad- blocking crossfire, endangering the free press. One bright spot is that online privacy research has had a tremendous effect. It has helped regulators curb the worst of the offenses, forced companies to roll back invasions because of public-relations pressure, spurred the development of privacy tools, and developed a healthy public debate about online tracking. The fight for privacy is now closely linked to the fight for digital civil liberties and democratic values, and it is a movement that includes activists, artists, journalists, researchers, and everyday users of technology. There's tremendous power in your hands to take charge of your own privacy as well as foster these societal values. 30. Online privacy research has had a tremendous effect by____.
[单选题]Wanen Buffett, who will host Berkshire Hathaway's annual shareholders' meeting on May 3rd, is an icon of American capitalism. At 83, he also epitomhes a sLriking demographic l : for highly skilled people to go on working well int0 2 was once thought to be old age. Across the rich world,well-educated people 3 work longer than the less-skilled. Some 65% of American men aged 62-74 with a professional deUee are in the 4 , compared with 3290 0f men with only a high-school certificate. In the European Union Lhe pattern is similar. This 5 is part of a deepening divide between the well-educated 6 and the unskiUed poor that is slicing 7 all age groups. Rapid innovation has raised the incomes of the highly skilled while 8 those of the unskilled. Those 8t the cop are working longer hours each year than those at the bottom. 9 the well-qualified are extending their working lives, compared with those ofless-educated people. The 10 , for indrviduals and society,are profound. The world is on the 11 rise in the number of old people, and they will live longer than ever before. 12 the next 20 years the global population of those aged 65 or more will almost double, from 600m to 1.1 billion. The 13 of the 20th century,when greater longevity translated into more years in retirement 14 more years at work, has persuaded many observers that this shift will 15 slower economic growth and "secular stagnation", while the 16 ranks of pensioners will bust government budgets. But the notion of a sharp division between the working young and the 17 0ld misses a new trend, the 18 gap between the skilled and the unskilled. Employment rates are falling among younger unskiUed people, 19 0lder skilled folk are working longer. The divide is most extreme in America, where well-educated baby-boomers are 20 retirement while many less-skilled youn- ger people have dropped out of the workforce.
[单选题]Text 3 Disruption may bc the buzzword in boardrooms, but the most striking feature of business today is not the overturning of the established order. It is the stabilisation of a group of superstar companies at the heart of the global economy. Some are emerging-market champions, like Samsung, which have seized the opportunities provided by globalisation. The elite of the elite are high-tech wizards-Google, Apple, Facebook and the rest-that have conjured up corporate empires from bits and bytes. The superstars are admirable in many ways. They churn out products that improve consumers' lives, from smarter smartphones to sharper televisions. They provide Americans and Europeans with an estimated $280 billion-worth of "free" services-such as search or directions-a year. But they have two big faults. They are squashing competition, and they are using the darker arts of management to stay ahead. Neither is easy to solve. But failing to do so risks a backlash which will be bad for everyone. Bulking up is a global trend. The annual number of mergers and acquisitions is more than twice what it was in the 1990s. But concentration is at its most worrying in America. The share of GDP generated by America's 100 biggest companies rose from about 33% in 1994 t0 46% in 2013. In the home of the entrepreneur, the number of startups js lower than it has been at any time since the 1970s. More firms are dying than being bom. Founders dream of selling their firms to one of the giants rather than of building their own titans. The weight of the superstars also reflects their excellence at less productive activities. About 30% of global foreign direct investment (FDl) flows through tax havens, big companies routinely use "transfer pricing" to pretend that profits generated in one part of the world are in fact made in another. None of this helps the image of big business. Paying tax seems to be unavoidable for individuals but optional for firms. Rules are unbending for citizens, and up for negotiation when it comes to companies. Nor do profits translate into jobs as once they did. In 1990 the top three carmakers in Detroit had a market capitalisation of $36 billion and l.2 million employees. In 2014 the top three firms in Silicon Valley, with a market capitalisation ofover $l trillion, had only 137,000 employees. So, by all means celebrate the astonishing achievements of today's superstar companies. But also watch them. The world needs a healthy dose of competition to keep today's giants on their toes and to give those in their shadow a chance to grow. 31. According to Paragraph l, today's business world is
[单选题]Text 4 Visiting Oxford Street, a rwd fiUing wilh tatty shop, and overcrowded with people, is plainly a trial. Less plainly, levels of nitrogen dioxide ( NO2) , a noxious gas, have been found to be around three times higher there Lhan the legal limit. In 2013 the annual mean concentration of N02 0n the street was one of the highest levels found anywhere in Europe. British air is far cleaner than it was a few decades ago. Fewer people use coal-burning stoves; old industrial plants have been decommissioned. But since 2009 levels of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, coarse or fine particles that are linked to lung cancer and asthma, have fallen more slowly. The exact iiumber of deaths caused by dirty air is unknown. But in 2010 a govemment advisory group estimated that removing man-made fine particulate matter from the atmosphere woulcl in crease life expeclancy for ihose born in 2008 by an average of six months. Much of the slowdown is the result of fumes from diesel cars, which were championed by successive governments because they use less fuel and thus produce less carbon dioxide than petrol cars. In 2001 0nly 14% 0f all cars ran on diesel; by 2013 the proportion had increased t0 35%.( Greener " hybrid" and elecLric cars have increased nine fold since 2006, but account for just 0. 5% of the entire fleet. ) Second-hand cars are particularly noxious, but even newer ones have not been as clean as hoped. Many cars that let out few pollutants in tests procluced more on the roads. Government's hesitation has not helped. Part of the problem is that several departmenLs are responsible for air pollution. This means nobody has taken a lead on it, complains Joan Walley, a Labour MP who chairs an environmental committee that has released a series of damning reports. And few politicians are keen to fire drivers. However, some improvements have been made. In 2008 a "low-enussion zone" was created in London, which targets large vans and coaches. A smaller "uhra low-enussion zone" has been proposed for 2020, which would charge all vehicles that are not of a certain standard 12. 50 pounds a day. European Comnussion fines for breaching limits may encourage cities to do more. But oLher countries are more ambitious: 60 such zones exist in Germany, targeting private cars as well as vans. In December Anne Hidalgo, the mayor of Paris, announced that she wanted to ban diesel cars by 2020. 39. Govemments try to reduce air pollution by
[单选题]Text 4 The revelations we publish about how Facebook's data was used by Cambridge Analytica to subvert the openness of democracy are only the latest examples of a global phenomenon. YouTube can not only profit from disturbing content but in unintended ways rewards its creation. The algorithms that guide viewers to new choices aim always to intensify the experience, and to keep the viewer excited. Recent research found that the nearly 9,000 YouTube videos explaining away American school shootings as the results of conspiracies using actors to play the part of victims had been watched, in total, more than 4bn times. Four billion page views is an awful lot of potential advertising revenue; it is also, in an embarrassingly literal sense, traffic in human misery and exploitation. None of these problems is new, and all of them will grow worse and more pressing in the coming years, as the technology advances. Yet the real difficulty is not the slickness of the technology but the willingness of the audience to be deceived and its desire to have its prejudices gratified. Many of the most destructive videos on YouTube consist of one man roaring into a camera without any visual aids at all. Twitter uses no fancy technology yet lies spread across that network six times as fast as true stories. Although Twitter and YouTube pose undoubted difficulties for democracies, it is Facebook that has borne the brunt of recent criticism, in part because its global ambitions have led it to expand into countries where it is essentially the only gateway to the wider internet, The company's ambitions to become the carrier of all content (and thus able to sell advertising against everything online) have led it inexorably into the position of being the universal publisher. The difficulties of this position cannot be resolved by the facile idea of the "community values" to which Facebook appeals - and, anyway, that only begs the question: "Which community?" Mark Zuckerberg talks about a "global community" but such a thing does not exist and may never do so. Communities have different values and different interests, which sometimes appear existentially opposed. Almost all will define themselves, at least in part, against other communities. The task of reconciling the resulting conflicts is political, cultural and even religious; it is not technological at all. For a private American advertising company to set itself up as the arbiter of all the world's political and cultural conflicts is an entirely vain ambition. Into the vacuum left by Facebook's waffle, nation states are stepping. Many are keen to use surveillance capitalism for direct political ends. They must be resisted. The standards by which the internet is controlled need to be open and subject to the workings of impartial judiciaries. But the task cannot and will not be left to the advertising companies that at present control most of the content - and whose own judgments are themselves almost wholly opaque and arbitrary. 39. The word "facile(Line l, Para. 4)" is closest in meaning to .
[单选题]Text 3 At first glance the patriarchy appears to be thriving. More than 90% of presidents and prime ministers are male, as are nearly all big corporate bosses. Men dominate finance, technology, films, sports, music and even stand-up comedy. In much of the world they still enjoy social and legal privileges simply because they have a Y chromosome. So it might seem odd to worry about the plight of men. Yet there is plenty of cause for concern. Men cluster at the bottom as well as the top. They are far more likely than women to be jailed, estranged from their children, or to kill themselves. They eam fewer university degrees than women. Boys in the developed world are 50% more likely to flunk basic maths, reading and science entirely. What can be done? Part of the solution lies in a change in cultural attitudes. Over the past generation, middte-class men have leamed that they need to help with child care, and have changed their behaviour. Working-class men need to catch up. Women have learned that they can be SUfgeons and physicists without losing their femininity. Men need to understand that traditional manual jobs arc not coming back, and that they can be nurses or hairdressers without losing their masculinity. Policymakers also need to lend a hand, because foolish laws are making the problem worse. America reduces the supply of marriageable men by locking up millions of young males for non-violent offences and then making it hard for them to find work when they get out (in Georgia, for example, felons are barred from feeding pigs, fighting fires or working in funeral homes). A number of rich countries discourage poor people from marrying or cohabiting by cutting their benefits ifthey do. More generally, schools need to become more boy-friendly. They should recognise that boys like to rush around more than girls do: it's better to give them lots of organised sports and energy-eating games than to dose them with Ritalin or tell them off for fidgeting. They need to provide more male role models: employing more male teachers in primary schools will both supply boys with a male to whom they can relate and demonstrate that men can be teachers as well as firefighters. The growing equality of the sexes is one of the biggest achievements of the post-war era: people have greater opportunities than ever before to achieve their ambitions regardless of their gender. But some men have failed to cope with this new world. It is time to give them a hand. 35. The best title of this text may be
[单选题]Five ways to make conversation with anyone Conversations are links, which means when you have a conversation with a new person a link gets formed and every conversation you have after that moment will strengthen the link. You meet new people every day: the grocery worker, the cab driver, new people at work or the security guard at the door. Simply starting a conversation with them will form a link. Here are five simple ways that you can make the first move and start a conversation with strangers. 41.____________ Suppose you are in a room with someone you don’t know and something within you says “I want to talk with this person”—this is something the mostly happens with all of us. You wanted to say something—the first word—but it just won’t come out. It feels like it is stuck somewhere, I know the feeling and here is my advice just get it out. Just think: that is the worst that could happen? They won’t talk with you? Well, they are not talking with you now! I truly believe that once you get that first word out everything else will just flow. So keep it simple: “Hi”, “Hey” or “Hello”—do the best you can to gather all of the enthusiasm and energy you can, put on a big smile and say “Hi”。 42.____________ It’s a problem all of us face: you have limited time with the person that you want to talk with and you want to make this talk memorable. Honestly, if we got stuck in the rut of “hi”, “hello”, “how are you?” and “what’s going on?” you will fail to give the initial jolt to the conversation that’s can make it so memorable. So don’t be afraid to ask more personal questions. Trust me, you’ll be surprised to see how much people are willing to share if you just ask. 43.____________ When you meet a person for the first time, make an effort to find the things which you and that person have in common so that you can build the conversation from that point. When you start conversation from there and then move outwards, you’ll find all of a sudden that the conversation becomes a lot easier. 44.____________ Imagine you are pouring your heart out to someone and they are just busy on their phone, and if you ask for their attention you get the response “I can multitask”. So when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication wholeheartedly. Make eye contact, you can feel the conversation. 45.____________ You all came into a conversation where you first met the person, but after some time you may have met again and have forgotten their name. Isn’t that awkward! So remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places they have been to the place they want to go, the things they like, the thing the hate—whatever you talk about. When you remember such thing you can automatically become investor in their wellbeing. So the feel a responsibility to you to keep that relationship going. That’s it. Five amazing ways that you can make conversation with almost anyone. Every person is a really good book to read, or to have a conversation with! 45选?
[单选题]Poets, songwriters and politicians hate the idea, but for decades opinion-poll evidence has been clear: money buys happiness and the richer you are, the more likely you are to express satisfaction with your life. Until now, a survey of43 countries 1 on October 30th by the Pew Research Centre of Washington, DC, shows that people in 2 markeis are expressing almost the same level of satisfaction as people in rich countries. It is the biggest 3 to the standard view of happiness and income seen 4 . The Pew poll asks respondents to 5 , on a scale from zero to ten, how good their lives are. (Those who say between seven and ten are counted as 6 .) In 2007, 57% of respondents in rich countries put themselves in the top four tiers; in emerging markets the 7 was 33%; in poor countries only 16%-a classic 8 0f the standard view. But in 2014, 540/o of rich-country respondents counted themselves as happy, whereas in emerging markets the percentage 9 t0 51%. This was happening just at a time when emerging markets' chances of converging economically 10 the West seemed to be 11 . Rich countries did not experience 12 declines in happiness. The decreases in America and Britain were tiny ( a single percentage point) , 13 the share of h8ppy Gennans rose 13 points. A large drop in formerly joyful Spain ensured a modest overaU decline for the rich. 14 the convcrgence happened 15 huge improvements in countries such as Indonesia and Pakistan. In 12 of the 24 emerging markets, half or more people 16 their life satisfaction in the top tiers of the ladder. This is not t0 17 the link between income and satrsfaction has been snapped. Poor countries still 18 : only a quarter of the people there are in the happy tiers-half the level of the other'two groups. There is 19 a clear link between happiness and income growth. China's GDP rose at an annual average rate of 10% in 2007-2014 and its happiness level rose 26 points. 20 countries, richer people express more satisfaction than their poorer neighbours.