英语一

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[单选题]Text 1 This week's decision by the GMB union to bring a legal case against firms delivering for Amazon, the rcommerce giant, throws into sharp relief how much the modern economy has been stretched to benefit a monopolistic form of tech-capitalism. On the surface, the action is about employment law: it argues that couriers working for three delivery companies are not entrepreneurs working for themselves who contract their labour to anyone willing to pay, but are in fact employees of Amazon's latent delivery and logistics network. If the trade union is right, then these couriers should be treated as staff and paid the minimum wage, as well as sick and holiday pay. Amazon has established itself as an essential part of the internet economy and its dominance - its sheer scale and breadth - has been enabled in part by privatising profit and socialising losses. The firm seems to be firmly establishing a model of cheap-labour doorstep delivery by recognising an easily divided workforce is more easily conquered. This model may also one day compete with the Royal Mail; Amazon is reportedly planning to launch its own delivery service to rival the state-owned US Postal Service. Amazon's skill is not just in technology but also in finance. Last year it generated UK sales of£9bn, a quarter more than the previous 12 months - while pre-tax profits halved to just£24m. Its effective UK profit margin is just 0. 3% . an indication perhaps of its low pricing strategy. In revolutionising e-commerce the company has delivered enormous benefits to consumers: but at what cost? Surely it is morally right that large employers are accountable for the treatment of workers down the supply chain, so long as they are economically dependent on them. Amazon might think differently. The tech giant wants privileged treatment because it thinks only corporate monopolies, with their economies of scale and ability to innovate, can promote growth. This view should be resisted. Amazon's service ensures consumers are better off, but undue focus on this neglects the interests of workers, rival entrepreneurs and voters. This is why the spirit of employment law must be honoured so Amazon shoulders the responsibility (and the cost) for contracted workers, or works out how to compel its suppliers to do so. Amazon clearly would like to control the pipes of capitalism, drawing off consumer demand for itself when it is lucrative to do so and charging others for use of its network. Amazon's website is the dominant platform for online retail sales. Whether it is cloud computing or what ebooks are published, Amazon wants business to be done in arenas where it sets the rules. This i.s bad for democracy. Commerce ought to reside in markets governed by regulations set by democratic political process not those chosen by the world's richest men. 21. According to Paragraph l, the GMB union
[单选题]Text 1 Habits are a funny thing.We reach for them mindlessly, setting our brains on auto-pilot and relaxing into the unconscious comfort of familiar routine."Not choice, but habit rules the unreflecting herd," William Wordsworth said in the 19th century.In the ever-changing 21st century, even the word "habit" carries a negative implication. So it seems paradoxical to talk about habits in the same context as creativity and innovation.But brain researchers have discovered that when we consciously develop new habits, we create parallel paths, and even entirely new brain cells, that can jump our trains of thought onto new, innovative tracks. Rather than dismissing ourselves as unchangeable creatures of habit, we can instead direct our own change by consciously developing new habits.In fact, the more new things we try—the more we step outside our comfort zone—the more inherently creative we become, both in the workplace and in our personal lives. But don't bother trying to kill off old habits; once those ruts of procedure are worn into the hippocampus, they're there to stay.Instead, the new habits we deliberately ingrain into ourselves create parallel pathways that can bypass those old roads. "The first thing needed for innovation is a fascination with wonder," says Dawna Markova, author of "The Open Mind" and an executive change consultant for Professional Thinking Partners."But we are taught instead to 'decide,' just as our president calls himself 'the Decider.' " She adds, however, that "to decide is to kill off all possibilities but one.A good innovational thinker is always exploring the many other possibilities." All of us work through problems in ways of which we're unaware, she says.Researchers in the late 1960s discovered that humans are born with the capacity to approach challenges in four primary ways: analytically, procedurally, relationally (or collaboratively) and innovatively.At the end of adolescence, however, the brain shuts down half of that capacity, preserving only those modes of thought that have seemed most valuable during the first decade or so of life. The current emphasis on standardized testing highlights analysis and procedure, meaning that few of us inherently use our innovative and collaborative modes of thought."This breaks the major rule in the American belief system — that anyone can do anything," explains M.J.Ryan, author of the 2006 book This Year I Will...and Ms.Markova's business partner."That's a lie that we have perpetuated, and it fosters commonness.Knowing what you're good at and doing even more of it creates excellence." This is where developing new habits comes in. 25. Ryan's comments suggest that the practice of standardized testing ________
[单选题]Perfectionism often gets a bad rap in our culture, and it's easy to see why: Holding yourself to unrealistic or impossible standards can set you up for depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances and other health problems. But it . 1 0ut that not all forms of perfectionism are bad. All forms of perfectionism include high standards. Yet, "adaptive or healthy perfcctionism is 2 achieving things because you want to do well, 3 maladaptive or unhealthy perfectionism is often 4 by fear of failure or fear of 5 others," one expert says. A study 6 maladaptive to adaptive perfectionism found that 7 people in both camps were comparably 8 about making mistakes. maladaptive perfectionists scored highest on 9 0f self-criticism, perceived stress and depression, while adaptive perfectionists scored highest on reappraisal ( being able to change a situation's meaning to 10 it.s emotional effects). 11 aclaptive perfectionism, the "person adapts well when things do not turn out as 12 0r hoped for or adjustments need to be made," notes study lead author Kenneth Rice, professor and co-director of the Center for the Study of Stress, Trauma, and Resilience at Georgia State University. 13 , someone with maladaptive perfectionism has the same high standards or performance 14 . "combined with an extremely high level of self-criticism, difficulty adjusting when the situation needs the person to adjust, and probably a fundamental core sense of inadequacy 15 things turn out well," he adds. 16 , the "standards in and of themselves are not bad; it's the stuff people 17 to them that can make them 18 ," Rice says. Not surprisingly, research has 19 maladaptive perfectionism and contingent self-worth (which is tied to one's appearance or relationships) with an increased risk of 20 disordered eating and anxiety, among other health problems.
[单选题]It is a wise father that knows his own child, but today a man can boost his paternal (fatherly) wisdom – or at least confirm that he's the kid's dad.All he needs to do is shell our $30 for paternity testing kit (PTK) at his local drugstore – and another $120 to get the results. More than 60,000 people have purchased the PTKs since they first become available without prescriptions last years, according to Doug Fog, chief operating officer of Identigene, which makes the over-the-counter kits.More than two dozen companies sell DNA tests Directly to the public , ranging in price from a few hundred dollars to more than $2,500. Among the most popular: paternity and kinship testing , which adopted children can use to find their biological relatives and families can use to track down kids put up for adoption.DNA testing is also the latest rage among passionate genealogists—and supports businesses that offer to search for a family's geographic roots . Most tests require collecting cells by swabbing saliva in the mouth and sending it to the company for testing. All tests require a potential candidate with whom to compare DNA. But some observers are skeptical, "There is a kind of false precision being hawked by people claiming they are doing ancestry testing," says Trey Duster, a New York University sociologist.He notes that each individual has many ancestors-numbering in the hundreds just a few centuries back.Yet most ancestry testing only considers a single lineage, either the Y chromosome inherited through men in a father's line or mitochondrial DNA, which is passed down only from mothers.This DNA can reveal genetic information about only one or two ancestors, even though, for example, just three generations back people also have six other great-grandparents or, four generations back, 14 other great-great-grandparents. Critics also argue that commercial genetic testing is only as good as the reference collections to which a sample is compared.Databases used by some companies don't rely on data collected systematically but rather lump together information from different research projects.This means that a DNA database may have a lot of data from some regions and not others, so a person’s test results may differ depending on the company that processes the results.In addition, the computer programs a company uses to estimate relationships may be patented and not subject to peer review or outside evaluation. 27. PTK is used to __________.
[单选题]Most of us have experienced the odd feeling of deja vu, often regarded as a supernatural force or a glitch in the matrix. You may perform an action and suddenly feel as though you have done it in that exact l manner some time in your life. The feeling may even be 2 by a place or by spoken words, leaving some with the feeling they could 3 0r predict what happens next. Deja vu usually strikes without 4 . But researchers from Colorado State University (CSU) have developed a technique to induce the feeling 5 using dynamic video sequences, 6 previous experiment methods. Participants were led through virtual reality scenes 7 a junkyard or a hedge garden, which shared slight spatial similarities 8 were thematically unrelated. 9 they could not "consciously remember the prior scene," one researcher said, the participants' brain picked up on it and recognized "the similarity. " The results showed deja vu "did not 10 above-chance ability to predict the next turn in a navigational path resembling a(n) 11 experienced but unrecalled path," although participants did report " 12 feelings of knowing the direction of the next turn. " Researchers 13 deja vu does not predict the future but makes people believe they can. It has been 14 as a "metamemory" phenomena, reflecting a(n) 15 awareness of unspecific memories. Follow-up experiments are now being 16 by the team to look 17 the main cause behind the feeling of prediction. The studies hope to address 18 it's the familiarity process that 19 the feeling, or hindsight bias 20 people feel convinced they knew what was going to happen after it happens
[单选题]Research on animal intelligence always makes me wonder just how smart humans are.1 the fruit-fly experiments described in Carl Zimmer's piece in the Science Times on Tuesday.Fruit flies who were taught to be smarter than the average fruit fly 2 to live shorter lives.This suggests that 3 bulbs burn longer, that there is an 4 in not being too terrifically bright. Intelligence, it 5 out, is a high-priced option.It takes more upkeep, burns more fuel and is slow 6 the starting line because it depends on learning — a gradual 7 — instead of instinct.Plenty of other species are able to learn, and one of the things they've apparently learned is when to 8. Is there an adaptive value to 9 intelligence? That's the question behind this new research.I like it.Instead of casting a wistful glance 10 at all the species we've left in the dust I.Q.-wise, it implicitly asks what the real 11 of our own intelligence might be.This is 12 the mind of every animal I've ever met. Research on animal intelligence also makes me wonder what experiments animals would 13 on humans if they had the chance.Every cat with an owner, 14, is running a small-scale study in operant conditioning.we believe that 15 animals ran the labs, they would test us to 16 the limits of our patience, our faithfulness, our memory for terrain.They would try to decide what intelligence in humans is really 17, not merely how much of it there is. 18, they would hope to study a 19 question: Are humans actually aware of the world they live in? 20 the results are inconclusive. 15选?
[单选题]Text 1   First two hours, now three hours — this is how far in advance authorities are recommending people show up to catch a domestic flight, at least at some major U.S. airports with increasingly massive security lines.   Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security protocols in return for increased safety. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804, which terrorists may have downed over the Mediterranean Sea, provides another tragic reminder of why. But demanding too much of air travelers or providing too little security in return undermines public support for the process. And it should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans' economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating.   Last year, the Transportation Security Administration(TSA) found in a secret check that undercover investigators were able to sneak weapons — both fake and real — past airport security nearly every time they trieD.Enhanced security measures since then, combined with a rise in airline travel due to the improving economy and low oil prices, have resulted in long waits at major airports such as Chicago's O'Hare International. It is not yet clear how much more effective airline security has become — but the lines are obvious.   Part of the issue is that the government did not anticipate the steep increase in airline travel, so the TSA is now rushing to get new screeners on the line. Part of the issue is that airports have only so much room for screening lanes. Another factor may be that more people are trying to overpack their carry-on bags to avoid checked-baggage fees, though the airlines strongly dispute this.   There is one step the TSA could take that would not require remodeling airports or rushing to hire: Enroll more people in the PreCheck program. PreCheck is supposed to be a win-win for travelers and the TSA.Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes. This allows the TSA to focus on travelers who are higher risk, saving time for everyone involveD.TSA wants to enroll 25 million people in PreCheck.   It has not gotten anywhere close to that, and one big reason is sticker shock: Passengers must pay $85 every five years to process their background checks. Since the beginning, this price tag has been PreCheck's fatal flaw. Upcoming reforms might bring the price to a more reasonable level. But Congress should look into doing so directly, by helping to finance PreCheck enrollment or to cut costs in other ways.   The TSA cannot continue diverting resources into underused PreCheck lanes while most of the traveling public suffers in unnecessary lines. It is long past time to make the program work. 23. The word “expedited” (Liner 4, ParA.5) is closet in meaning to____
[单选题]Perfectionism often gets a bad rap in our culture, and it's easy to see why: Holding yourself to unrealistic or impossible standards can set you up for depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances and other health problems. But it . 1 0ut that not all forms of perfectionism are bad. All forms of perfectionism include high standards. Yet, "adaptive or healthy perfcctionism is 2 achieving things because you want to do well, 3 maladaptive or unhealthy perfectionism is often 4 by fear of failure or fear of 5 others," one expert says. A study 6 maladaptive to adaptive perfectionism found that 7 people in both camps were comparably 8 about making mistakes. maladaptive perfectionists scored highest on 9 0f self-criticism, perceived stress and depression, while adaptive perfectionists scored highest on reappraisal ( being able to change a situation's meaning to 10 it.s emotional effects). 11 aclaptive perfectionism, the "person adapts well when things do not turn out as 12 0r hoped for or adjustments need to be made," notes study lead author Kenneth Rice, professor and co-director of the Center for the Study of Stress, Trauma, and Resilience at Georgia State University. 13 , someone with maladaptive perfectionism has the same high standards or performance 14 . "combined with an extremely high level of self-criticism, difficulty adjusting when the situation needs the person to adjust, and probably a fundamental core sense of inadequacy 15 things turn out well," he adds. 16 , the "standards in and of themselves are not bad; it's the stuff people 17 to them that can make them 18 ," Rice says. Not surprisingly, research has 19 maladaptive perfectionism and contingent self-worth (which is tied to one's appearance or relationships) with an increased risk of 20 disordered eating and anxiety, among other health problems.
[单选题]Most of us have experienced the odd feeling of deja vu, often regarded as a supernatural force or a glitch in the matrix. You may perform an action and suddenly feel as though you have done it in that exact l manner some time in your life. The feeling may even be 2 by a place or by spoken words, leaving some with the feeling they could 3 0r predict what happens next. Deja vu usually strikes without 4 . But researchers from Colorado State University (CSU) have developed a technique to induce the feeling 5 using dynamic video sequences, 6 previous experiment methods. Participants were led through virtual reality scenes 7 a junkyard or a hedge garden, which shared slight spatial similarities 8 were thematically unrelated. 9 they could not "consciously remember the prior scene," one researcher said, the participants' brain picked up on it and recognized "the similarity. " The results showed deja vu "did not 10 above-chance ability to predict the next turn in a navigational path resembling a(n) 11 experienced but unrecalled path," although participants did report " 12 feelings of knowing the direction of the next turn. " Researchers 13 deja vu does not predict the future but makes people believe they can. It has been 14 as a "metamemory" phenomena, reflecting a(n) 15 awareness of unspecific memories. Follow-up experiments are now being 16 by the team to look 17 the main cause behind the feeling of prediction. The studies hope to address 18 it's the familiarity process that 19 the feeling, or hindsight bias 20 people feel convinced they knew what was going to happen after it happens
[单选题]Text 3 “There is one and only one social responsibility of business,” wrote Milton Friedman,a Nobel prize-winning economist “That is, to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.” But even if you accept Fiedman’s premise and regard corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies as a waste of shareholders money,things may not be absolutely clear-cut.New research suggests that CSR may create monetary value for companies –at least when they are prosecuted for corruption. The largest firms is America and Britain together spend more than $15 billion a year on CSR , according to an estimate by EPG,a consulting firm ,This could add value to their businesses in three ways.First, consumers may take CSR spending as a “signal” that a company’s products are of high quality.Second, customers may be willing to buy a company’s products as an indirect way to donate to the good causes is helps.And third, through a more diffuse “halo effect,” whereby its good deeds earn it greater consideration from consumers and others. Previous studies on CSR have had trouble differentiating these effects because consumers can be affected by all three.A recent study attempts to separate them by looking at bribery prosecutions under America’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA).It argues that since prosecutors do not consume a company's products as part of their investigations, they could be influenced only by the halo effect. The study found that, among prosecuted firms, those with the most comprehensiveCSR programmes tendedto getmore lenient penalties.Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firms' political influence, rather than their CSR stand,that accounted for the leniency: Companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines. In all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seen to influenced by a company’s record in CSR."We estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern, such as child labour, or increasing corporate giving by about 20% results in fines that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for bribing foreign officials," says one researcher. Researchers admit that their study does not answer the question of how much businesses ought to spend on CSR.Nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect, rather than the other possible benefits, when they decide their do-gooding policies.But at least have demonstrated that whencompanies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win In all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seen to influenced by a company’s record in CSR."We estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern, such as child labour, or increasing corporate giving by about 20% results in fines that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for bribing foreign officials," says one researcher. Researchers admit that their study does not answer the question of how much businesses ought to spend on CSR.Nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect, rather than the other possible benefits, when they decide their do-gooding policies.But at least have demonstrated that whencompanies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win them a less costly punishment. 32.According to Paragraph 2, CSR helps a company .
[单选题]Text 3 Up until a few decades ago, our visions of the future were largely - though by no means uniformly - glowingly positive.Science and technology would cure all the ills of humanity, leading to lives of fulfillment and opportunity for all. Now utopia has grown unfashionable, as we have gained a deeper appreciation of the range of threats facing us, from asteroid strike to epidemic flu and to climate change.You might even be tempted to assume that humanity has little future to look forward to. But such gloominess is misplaced.The fossil record shows that many species have endured for millions of years - so why shouldn't we? Take a broader look at our species' place in the universe, and it becomes clear that we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years .Look up Homo sapiens in the "Red List" of threatened species of the International Union for the Conversation of Nature (IUCN) ,and you will read: "Listed as Least Concern as the species is very widely distributed, adaptable, currently increasing, and there are no major threats resulting in an overall population decline." So what does our deep future hold? A growing number of researchers and organisations are now thinking seriously about that question.For example, the Long Now Foundation has its flagship project a medical clock that is designed to still be marking time thousands of years hence . Perhaps willfully , it may be easier to think about such lengthy timescales than about the more immediate future.The potential evolution of today's technology, and its social consequences, is dazzlingly complicated, and it's perhaps best left to science fiction writers and futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage.That's one reason why we have launched Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future. But take a longer view and there is a surprising amount that we can say with considerable assurance.As so often, the past holds the key to the future: we have now identified enough of the long-term patterns shaping the history of the planet, and our species, to make evidence-based forecasts about the situations in which our descendants will find themselves. This long perspective makes the pessimistic view of our prospects seem more likely to be a passing fad.To be sure, the future is not all rosy.But we are now knowledgeable enough to reduce many of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to come. 33.Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 5?
[单选题]Text 2 Over the past decade, thousands of patents have been granted for what are called business methods.Amazon.com received one for its "one-click" online payment system.Merrill Lynch got legal protection for an asset allocation strategy.One inventor patented a technique for lifting a box. Now the nation's top patent court appears completely ready to scale back on business-method patents, which have been controversial ever since they were first authorized 10 years ago.In a move that has intellectual-property lawyers abuzz the U.S.court of Appeals for the federal circuit said it would use a particular case to conduct a broad review of business-method patents.In re Bilski, as the case is known , is "a very big deal", says DennisD.Crouch of the University of Missouri School of law.It "has the potential to eliminate an entire class of patents." Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face, because it was the federal circuit itself that introduced such patents with its 1998 decision in the so-called state Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets.That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by emerging internet companies trying to stake out exclusive rights to specific types of online transactions.Later, more established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might beat them to the punch.In 2005, IBM noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them.Similarly, some Wall Street investment films armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice. The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market.The Federal circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court's judges, rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to evaluate is whether it should "reconsider" its state street Bank ruling. The Federal Circuit's action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the supreme Court that has narrowed the scope of protections for patent holders.Last April, for example the justices signaled that too many patents were being upheld for "inventions" that are obvious.The judges on the Federal circuit are "reacting to the anti-patent trend at the Supreme Court", says HaroldC.Wegner, a patent attorney and professor at George Washington University Law School. 27. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case?
[单选题]Text 2 When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his explanation was surprisingly straight up.Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving “to pursue my goal of running a company.” Broadcasting his ambition was “very much my decision,” McGee says.Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman on September 29. McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on what kind of company he wanted to run.It also sent a clear message to the outside world about his aspirations.And McGee isn’t alone.In recent weeks the No.2 executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post.As boards scrutinize succession plans in response to shareholder pressure, executives who don’t get the nod also may wish to move on.A turbulent business environment also has senior managers cautious of letting vague pronouncements cloud their reputations. As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be more willing to make the jump without a net.In the third quarter, CEO turnover was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had, according to Liberum Research.As the economy picks up, opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders. The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional.For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached.Says Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey:”I can’t think of a single search I’ve done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.” Those who jumped without a job haven’t always landed in top positions quickly.Ellen Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted to be a CEO.It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based commodities exchange.Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a CEO.He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years later. Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers.The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one.“The traditional rule was it’s safer to stay where you are, but that’s been fundamentally inverted,” says one headhunter.“The people who’ve been hurt the worst are those who’ve stayed too long.” 30.Which of the following is the best title for the text?
[单选题]Any fair-minded assessment of the dangers of the deal between Britain's National Health Service (NHS) and DeepMind must start by acknowledging that both sides mean well. DeepMind is one of the leading artificial intelligence (AI) companies in the world. The potential of this work applied to healthcare is very great, but it could also lead to further concentration of power in the tech giants. It Is against that background that the information commissioner, Elizabeth Denham, has issued her damning verdict against the Royal Free hospital trust under the NHS, which handed over to DeepMind the records of l.6 million patients In 2015 0n the basis of a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients' rights and their expectations of privacy. DeepMind has almost apologized. The NHS trust has mended its ways. Further arrangements- and there may be many-between the NHS and DeepMind will be carefully scrutinised to ensure that all necessary permissions have been asked of patients and all unnecessary data has been cleaned. There are lessons about informed patient consent to learn. But privacy is not the only angle in this case and not even the most important Ms Denham chose to concentrate the blame on the NHS trust, since under existing law it -controlled" the data and DeepMind merely -processed' it But this distinction misses the point that it is processing and aggregation, not the mere possession of bits, that gives the data value. The great question is who should beneflt from the analysis of all the data that our lives now generate. Privacy law builds on the concept of damage to an individual from identifiable knowledge about them. That misses the way the surveillance economy works. The data of an individual there gains its value only when it is compared with the data of countless millions more. The use of privacy law to curb the tech giants in this instance feels slightly maladapted. This practice does not address the real worry. It is not enough to say that the algorithms DeepMind develops will benefit patients and save lives. What matters is that they will belong to a private monopoly which developed them using public resources. If software promises to save lives on the scale that dugs now can, big data may be expected to behave as a big pharm has done. We are still at the beginning of this revolution and small choices now may turn out to have gigantic consequences later. A long struggle will be needed to avoid a future of digital feudalism. Ms Denham's report is a welcome start. What is true of the agreement between the NHS and DeepMind ?
[单选题]Text 1 The European Commission's proposed tax on digital services is intended to make companies such as Google and Uber pay more. The idea is that such firms are gaming the rules at the expense of other taxpayers. The issue is real and needs to be addressed - but the answer under discussion breaks with both established international practice and plain common sense. Formal talks on the plan are due to start this week. The commission is calling for a 3 percent tax on the turnover of large digital enterprises - those with EU digital revenues over 50 million euros and total global revenues of over 750 million euros. About half the companies affected would be American, the EU estimates. The commission says it has been left with little choice. The value generated by digital companies doesn't require a physical presence, making them harder to rax. Digital businesses arrange their affairs to exploit this: They allocate income to low-tax jurisdictions and, according to officials, end up paying an effective tax of roughly 10 percent of profits, less than half of the burden carried by traditional businesses. Officials acknowledge that the right solution is a thorough overhaul of the corporate tax code, especially as it affects international firms selling digital services - and that this should be done not unilaterally but in cooperation with other countries, notably the U. S. Efforts are in fact underway, but progress has been slow, and EU officials have chosen to do something, anything, as soon as possible. Doing nothing would be better than this. For a start, the plan wouldn't raise much revenue - a meager 5 billion euros each year. And this supposedly fairer tax would bring abnormal results. For instance, companies such as Uber that don't make money will have a new cost to absorb; highly profitable firms with market power, such as Facebook, will be able to pass the tax on to their consumers. Small startups will be exempt from the new tax - unless they're acquired by larger companies. That will discourage consolidations. And the proposal as it stands may tax more activities than intended: Some financial services, for example, seem to be within its scope In its zeal to tax digital enterprises, the commission departs from many of its own stated principles. Its plan would probably require accessing individual, not just anonymized, user data. This runs counter to the EU's strict new rules on privacy, coming into force next month. Efforts to design a multinational solution need to be stepped up, not set aside. The goal should be a fair, multilateral framework that recognizes the complexity of the new digital economy while respecting the sovereignty of nations to set their own tax policy. That's an international challenge demanding an international solution. 21. According to the first two paragraphs, the EU digital tax proposal