英语一

考试试题

[单选题]Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as “a bodily exercise precious to health.” But ---_____some claims to the contrary, laughing probably has little influence on physical filness Laughter does _____short-term changes in the function of the heart and its blood vessels, ____ heart rate and oxygen consumption But because hard laughter is difficult to ____, a good laugh is unlikely to have _____ benefits the way, say, walking or jogging does. ____, instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does, laughter apparently accomplishes the ____, studies dating back to the 1930’s indicate that laughter.muscles, Such bodily reaction might conceivably help____the effects of psychological stress.Anyway,the act of laughing probably does produce other types of ______feedback,that improve an individual’s emotional state.______one classical theory of emotion,our feelings are partially rooted _______ physical reactions.It was argued at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry ______they are sad but they become sad when te tears begin to flow. Although sadness also _______ tears,evidence suggests that emotions can flow _____ muscular responses.In an experiment published in 1988,social psychologist Fritz Strack of the University of würzburg in Germany asked volunteers to ____ a pen either with their teeth-thereby creating an artificial smile – or with their lips, which would produce a(n) _____ expression.Those forced to exercise their enthusiastically to funny catoons than did those whose months were contracted in a frown, _______ that expressions may influence emotions rather than just the other way around ____ , the physical act of laughter could improve mood.
[单选题]Text 1 King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted “kings don’t abdicate, they dare in their sleep.” But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down.So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyle? The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy.When public opinion is particularly polarised, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above “mere” politics and “embody” a spirit of national unity. It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs’ continuing popularity polarized.And also, the Middle East excepted, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra).But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure. Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside.Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today – embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities.At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states. The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways.Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters).Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image. While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example. It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy’s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style.The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world.He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service – as non-controversial and non-political heads of state.Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies. 22.Monarchs are kept as heads of state in Europe mostly
[单选题]Many experts believe that in the new world of artificial intelligence (AI) human beings will still be needed to do the jobs that require higher-order critical, creative, and innovative thinking and the jobs that require high emotional engagement to meet the needs of other human beings. The 1 for many of us is that we do not excel at those skills because of our natural cognitive and emotional tendencies: We are confirmation-seeking thinkers and ego- affirmation-seeking defensive reasoners. We will need to overcome those tendencies 2 take our thinking, listening, relating, and collaborating skills to a much higher level. This process of 3 begins with changing our definition of what it means to "be smart. " 4 , many of us have achieved success 5 being "smarter" than other people as 6 by grades and test scores, beginning in our early days in school. AI will change that because there is no 7 any human being can outsmart, 8 , IBM's Watson, at least without augmentation, Smart machines can process, 9 , and recall information faster and better than we humans. 10 _. AI can pattern-match faster and produce a wider array of alternatives than we can. AI can even learn faster. In an age of smart machines, our old definition of what makes a person smart doesn't 11 . What is needed is a new definition of being smart, one that 12 higher levels of human thinking and emotional engagement. The new smart will be determined not by what or how you know 13 by the quality of your thinking, listening, relating, collaborating, and learning. Quantity is 14 by quality. We will spend more time training to be open-minded and learning to update our beliefs in 15 to new data. We will practice 16 after our mistakes, and we will invest more in the skills traditionally 17 with emotional intelligence. The new smart will be about trying to overcome the two big 18 0f critical thinking and team collaboration: our ego and our fears. Doing so will make it easier to perceive reality as it is, rather than as we 19 it to be. In short, we will embrace humility. That is 20 we humans will add value in a world of smart technology.
[单选题]Research on animal intelligence always makes me wonder just how smart humans are.1 the fruit-fly experiments described in Carl Zimmer's piece in the Science Times on Tuesday.Fruit flies who were taught to be smarter than the average fruit fly 2 to live shorter lives.This suggests that 3 bulbs burn longer, that there is an 4 in not being too terrifically bright. Intelligence, it 5 out, is a high-priced option.It takes more upkeep, burns more fuel and is slow 6 the starting line because it depends on learning — a gradual 7 — instead of instinct.Plenty of other species are able to learn, and one of the things they've apparently learned is when to 8. Is there an adaptive value to 9 intelligence? That's the question behind this new research.I like it.Instead of casting a wistful glance 10 at all the species we've left in the dust I.Q.-wise, it implicitly asks what the real 11 of our own intelligence might be.This is 12 the mind of every animal I've ever met. Research on animal intelligence also makes me wonder what experiments animals would 13 on humans if they had the chance.Every cat with an owner, 14, is running a small-scale study in operant conditioning.we believe that 15 animals ran the labs, they would test us to 16 the limits of our patience, our faithfulness, our memory for terrain.They would try to decide what intelligence in humans is really 17, not merely how much of it there is. 18, they would hope to study a 19 question: Are humans actually aware of the world they live in? 20 the results are inconclusive. 10选?
[单选题]Perfectionism often gets a bad rap in our culture, and it's easy to see why: Holding yourself to unrealistic or impossible standards can set you up for depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances and other health problems. But it . 1 0ut that not all forms of perfectionism are bad. All forms of perfectionism include high standards. Yet, "adaptive or healthy perfcctionism is 2 achieving things because you want to do well, 3 maladaptive or unhealthy perfectionism is often 4 by fear of failure or fear of 5 others," one expert says. A study 6 maladaptive to adaptive perfectionism found that 7 people in both camps were comparably 8 about making mistakes. maladaptive perfectionists scored highest on 9 0f self-criticism, perceived stress and depression, while adaptive perfectionists scored highest on reappraisal ( being able to change a situation's meaning to 10 it.s emotional effects). 11 aclaptive perfectionism, the "person adapts well when things do not turn out as 12 0r hoped for or adjustments need to be made," notes study lead author Kenneth Rice, professor and co-director of the Center for the Study of Stress, Trauma, and Resilience at Georgia State University. 13 , someone with maladaptive perfectionism has the same high standards or performance 14 . "combined with an extremely high level of self-criticism, difficulty adjusting when the situation needs the person to adjust, and probably a fundamental core sense of inadequacy 15 things turn out well," he adds. 16 , the "standards in and of themselves are not bad; it's the stuff people 17 to them that can make them 18 ," Rice says. Not surprisingly, research has 19 maladaptive perfectionism and contingent self-worth (which is tied to one's appearance or relationships) with an increased risk of 20 disordered eating and anxiety, among other health problems.
[单选题]Text 1 Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage. It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers.Yet a considerable number of the most significant collections of criticism published in the 20th century consisted in large part of newspaper reviews.To read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their learned contents were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies. We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in England between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of World War II, at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornament to the publications in which it appeared.In those far-off days, it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and at length about the events they covered.Theirs was a serious business, and even those reviewers who wore their learning lightly, like George Bernard Shaw and Ernest Newman, could be trusted to know what they were about.These men believed in journalism as a calling, and were proud to be published in the daily press.“So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism,” Newman wrote, “that I am tempted to define ‘journalism’ as ‘a term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are.’” Unfortunately, these critics are virtually forgotten.Neville Cardus, who wrote for the Manchester Guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in 1975, is now known solely as a writer of essays on the game of cricket.During his lifetime, though, he was also one of England’s foremost classical-music critics, a stylist so widely admired that his Autobiography (1947) became a best-seller.He was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored.Yet only one of his books is now in print, and his vast body of writings on music is unknown save to specialists. Is there any chance that Cardus’s criticism will enjoy a revival? The prospect seems remote.Journalistic tastes had changed long before his death, and postmodern readers have little use for the richly upholstered Vicwardian prose in which he specialized.Moreover, the amateur tradition in music criticism has been in headlong retreat. 24. What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two paragraphs?
[单选题]Text 3 In June, California department of forestry and fire protection determined that 12 devastating fires that struck Northern California tate last year were the result of trees coming into contact with power lines or other problems tied to the electric utility PG & E. Thanks to a policy known as inverse conclemnation, the utility could be on the hook for those damages, even if ii is not found to be negligeni. In the past, PG&-E has paid the bills when it was blamed for fires and other damages. But the company now says it cannot keep footing the bill so long as climate change continues to increase the likelihood of fires. Millions of trees have died across California after years of intense drought. creating vast quantities of fuel that allow fires to burn faster and over greater clistances-all combined with higher temperatures. It has pushed to raise electricity rates to pay for tlie clamage. Meanwhile. state officials are pushing a change in the law. Governor Jerry Brown proposed a new plan ihat would allow a court to decide whether the utility acted "reasonably" before forcing the company to pay claims. "Costly wildfires and natural disasters have the poiential to undermine the sysiem*" Brown told legislators. "leaving our energy sector in a state of weakness at a time when it shoulcl be making even greater investments in safety. " Within the U. S. , the debate over liability for climate change has taken several forms. On the fecleral level, proactive policymakers have pushed to rework the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) , which pays people to rebuild their homes after floods-even in areas where damage is likely to strike again. In effect, that program, which is more than $ 20 billion in clebt, put.s the burden of climate-change-related natural disasters in the hands of the U. S. government ancl the taxpayer. Infrastructure experts have also pushed the government to rethink its post disaster funding to require climate change preparedness measures. A group of pioneering American cities have sought to have the oil-and-gas industry pay for climate-change-relatecl clamages and disaster-prevention measures. A series of lawsuits have blamed the companies for years of polluting the planet while concealing evidence that emissions would contribute to devastaiing climate change. The authorities behind the lawsuits hope that courts will force the industry to pay up. Thus far, U. S. courts have expressed skepticism-not necessarily of the fault of oil and gas but of the ability of the judicial system to address the issue. "The problem deserves a solution on a more vast scale than can be supplied by a district judge or jury in a public nuisance case," wrote William Alsup of the U. S. District Court in Northern California. Elsewhere, a large number of litigants have also looked to the courts. Lacking other avenues for addressing the issue, people feeling the impacts of climate change are increasingly Lurning to courts to help find a global answer to a global problem. 32. In Jerry Brown's opinion, the right thing to do now is to
[单选题]It is a wise father that knows his own child, but today a man can boost his paternal (fatherly) wisdom – or at least confirm that he's the kid's dad.All he needs to do is shell our $30 for paternity testing kit (PTK) at his local drugstore – and another $120 to get the results. More than 60,000 people have purchased the PTKs since they first become available without prescriptions last years, according to Doug Fog, chief operating officer of Identigene, which makes the over-the-counter kits.More than two dozen companies sell DNA tests Directly to the public , ranging in price from a few hundred dollars to more than $2,500. Among the most popular: paternity and kinship testing , which adopted children can use to find their biological relatives and families can use to track down kids put up for adoption.DNA testing is also the latest rage among passionate genealogists—and supports businesses that offer to search for a family's geographic roots . Most tests require collecting cells by swabbing saliva in the mouth and sending it to the company for testing. All tests require a potential candidate with whom to compare DNA. But some observers are skeptical, "There is a kind of false precision being hawked by people claiming they are doing ancestry testing," says Trey Duster, a New York University sociologist.He notes that each individual has many ancestors-numbering in the hundreds just a few centuries back.Yet most ancestry testing only considers a single lineage, either the Y chromosome inherited through men in a father's line or mitochondrial DNA, which is passed down only from mothers.This DNA can reveal genetic information about only one or two ancestors, even though, for example, just three generations back people also have six other great-grandparents or, four generations back, 14 other great-great-grandparents. Critics also argue that commercial genetic testing is only as good as the reference collections to which a sample is compared.Databases used by some companies don't rely on data collected systematically but rather lump together information from different research projects.This means that a DNA database may have a lot of data from some regions and not others, so a person’s test results may differ depending on the company that processes the results.In addition, the computer programs a company uses to estimate relationships may be patented and not subject to peer review or outside evaluation. 27. PTK is used to __________.
[单选题]Research on animal intelligence always makes me wonder just how smart humans are.1 the fruit-fly experiments described in Carl Zimmer's piece in the Science Times on Tuesday.Fruit flies who were taught to be smarter than the average fruit fly 2 to live shorter lives.This suggests that 3 bulbs burn longer, that there is an 4 in not being too terrifically bright. Intelligence, it 5 out, is a high-priced option.It takes more upkeep, burns more fuel and is slow 6 the starting line because it depends on learning — a gradual 7 — instead of instinct.Plenty of other species are able to learn, and one of the things they've apparently learned is when to 8. Is there an adaptive value to 9 intelligence? That's the question behind this new research.I like it.Instead of casting a wistful glance 10 at all the species we've left in the dust I.Q.-wise, it implicitly asks what the real 11 of our own intelligence might be.This is 12 the mind of every animal I've ever met. Research on animal intelligence also makes me wonder what experiments animals would 13 on humans if they had the chance.Every cat with an owner, 14, is running a small-scale study in operant conditioning.we believe that 15 animals ran the labs, they would test us to 16 the limits of our patience, our faithfulness, our memory for terrain.They would try to decide what intelligence in humans is really 17, not merely how much of it there is. 18, they would hope to study a 19 question: Are humans actually aware of the world they live in? 20 the results are inconclusive. 1选?
[单选题]The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name.But Gregory Cochran is 1 to say it anyway.He is that 2 bird, a scientist who works independently 3 any institution.He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not 4 thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested. 5 he, however, might tremble at the 6 of what he is about to do.Together with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only 7 that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about.The group in 8 are a particular people originated from central Europe.The process is natural selection. This group generally do well in IQ test, 9 12-15 points above the 10 value of 100, and have contributed 11 to the intellectual and cultural life of the West, as the 12 of their elites, including several world-renowned scientists, 13.They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer.These facts, 14, have previously been thought unrelated.The former has been 15 to social effects, such as a strong tradition of 16 education.The latter was seen as a (an) 17 of genetic isolation.Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately 18.His argument is that the unusual history of these people has 19 them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in this 20 state of affairs. 13选?