英语一

考试试题

[单选题]Perfectionism often gets a bad rap in our culture, and it's easy to see why: Holding yourself to unrealistic or impossible standards can set you up for depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances and other health problems. But it . 1 0ut that not all forms of perfectionism are bad. All forms of perfectionism include high standards. Yet, "adaptive or healthy perfcctionism is 2 achieving things because you want to do well, 3 maladaptive or unhealthy perfectionism is often 4 by fear of failure or fear of 5 others," one expert says. A study 6 maladaptive to adaptive perfectionism found that 7 people in both camps were comparably 8 about making mistakes. maladaptive perfectionists scored highest on 9 0f self-criticism, perceived stress and depression, while adaptive perfectionists scored highest on reappraisal ( being able to change a situation's meaning to 10 it.s emotional effects). 11 aclaptive perfectionism, the "person adapts well when things do not turn out as 12 0r hoped for or adjustments need to be made," notes study lead author Kenneth Rice, professor and co-director of the Center for the Study of Stress, Trauma, and Resilience at Georgia State University. 13 , someone with maladaptive perfectionism has the same high standards or performance 14 . "combined with an extremely high level of self-criticism, difficulty adjusting when the situation needs the person to adjust, and probably a fundamental core sense of inadequacy 15 things turn out well," he adds. 16 , the "standards in and of themselves are not bad; it's the stuff people 17 to them that can make them 18 ," Rice says. Not surprisingly, research has 19 maladaptive perfectionism and contingent self-worth (which is tied to one's appearance or relationships) with an increased risk of 20 disordered eating and anxiety, among other health problems.
[填空题]One basic weakness in a conservation system based wholly on economic motives is that most members of the land community have no economic value.Yet these creatures are members of the biotic community and, if its stability depends on its integrity, they are entitled to continuance. When one of these noneconomic categories is threatened and, if we happen to love it .We invert excuses to give it economic importance.At the beginning of century songbirds were supposed to be disappearing.(46) Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up if birds failed to control them.the evidence had to be economic in order to be valid. It is painful to read these round about accounts today.We have no land ethic yet, (47) but we have at least drawn near the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us. A parallel situation exists in respect of predatory mammals and fish-eating birds.(48) Time was when biologists somewhat over worded the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, or that they prey only on "worthless" species. Some species of tree have been read out of the party by economics-minded foresters because they grow too slowly, or have too low a sale vale to pay as timber crops.(49) In Europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced, the non-commercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community, to be preserved as such, within reason. To sum up: a system of conservation based solely on economic self-interest is hopelessly lopsided.(50) It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning.It assumes, falsely, I think, that the economic parts of the biotic clock will function without the uneconomic parts.
[单选题]Text 2 It used to be so straightforward.A team of researchers working together in the laboratory would submit the results of their research to a journal.A journal editor would then remove the authors’ names and affiliations from the paper and send it to their peers for review.Depending on the comments received, the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline it.Copyright rested with the journal publisher, and researchers seeking knowledge of the results would have to subscribe to the journal. No longer.The Internet – and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government-funded research by restricting access to it – is making access to scientific results a reality.The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has just issued a report describing the far-reaching consequences of this.The report, by John Houghton of Victoria University in Australia and Graham Vickery of the OECD, makes heavy reading for publishers who have, so far, made handsome profits.But it goes further than that.It signals a change in what has, until now, been a key element of scientific endeavor. The value of knowledge and the return on the public investment in research depends, in part, upon wide distribution and ready access.It is big business.In America, the core scientific publishing market is estimated at between $7 billion and $11 billion.The International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers says that there are more than 2,000 publishers worldwide specializing in these subjects.They publish more than 1.2 million articles each year in some 16,000 journals. This is now changing.According to the OECD report, some 75% of scholarly journals are now online.Entirely new business models are emerging; three main ones were identified by the report’s authors.There is the so-called big deal, where institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of online journal titles through site-licensing agreements.There is open-access publishing, typically supported by asking the author (or his employer) to pay for the paper to be published.Finally, there are open-access archives, where organizations such as universities or international laboratories support institutional repositories.Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delayed open-access, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it.All this could change the traditional form of the peer-review process, at least for the publication of papers. 27. Which of the following is true of the OECD report?
[单选题]As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice that their memory and mental clarity are not what they used to be.We suddenly can’t remember ___1___ we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance’s name, or the name of an old band we used to love.As the brain ___2___, we refer to these occurrences as “senior moments.” ___3___ seemingly innocent, this loss of mental focus can potentially have a (n) ___4___ impact on our professional, social, and personal ___5___. Neuroscientists, experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there’s actually a lot that can be done.It ___6___ out that the brain needs exercise in much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental ___7___ can significantly improve our basic cognitive ___8___.Thinking is essentially a ___9___ of making connections in the brain.To a certain extent, our ability to ___10___ in making the connections that drive intelligence is inherited.___11___, because these connections are made through effort and practice, scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate ___12___ mental effort. Now, a new Web-based company has taken it a step ___13___ and developed the first “brain training program” designed to actually help people improve and regain their mental ___14___. The Web-based program ___15___ you to systematically improve your memory and attention skills.The program keeps ___16___ of your progress and provides detailed feedback ___17___ your performance and improvement.Most importantly, it ___18___modifies and enhances the games you play to ___19___ on the strengths you are developing—much like a(n) ___20___exercise routine requires you to increase resistance and vary your muscle use.
[单选题]Text 2 We're bringing health care to "where people live and work. " So declared Larry Merlo, CEO of CVS Health, an American retail-pharmacy giant,announcing a $ 69 billion deal to buy Aetna, a heatth insurer. One rationale for the deal-assuming the regulators wave it through-is for the merged firm to develop personalised health care that people can easily get access to. There is another, more defensive, impetus behind the deal-the prospect of Amazon going into prescription medicine. The American pharmaceutical market is an alluring one for the online giant. It is large, worth $ 450 billion in 2016. And it is widely regarded as inefficient, leaving customers without good information about products they are buying. Compared with books, toys and other bulky items, the drugs market would appear to be a nirvana for Amazon. Prescription medicines weigh almost nothing, take up little space and can cost hundreds or thousands of dollars per pill. But three barriers block the road to this idyll. First, the sale and distribution of drugs is heavily regulated. Amazon would not be able to dump prescription drugs into the same fulfilment channels as its other products. It must acquire pharmaceutical licences for any state where it wishes to operate. Amazon would also need approval from the Food and Drug Administration at a federal level. Operating in a controlled industry would be a departure for a free-wheeling tech firm. Second, most drugs are paid for by insurers, not by consumers. The pharmacy-benefits managers (PBMs), a sort of middlemen that buy drugs for insurers and companies, perform the complex task of matching purchases with patients' insurers, so that drugs are paid for. That is a source of the sort of opacity that Amazon would seek to remove. But the rcommerce firm would still need to handle issues of payment in the background, without keeping asking consumers for insurance details. Third, although drugs do come in small packages, their shipping and handling often require special attention. Many drugs must be kept cold throughout the supply chain. Others are dangerous, and must be kept in locked cages. Yet these drugs are often also the most expensive. If Amazon cherry-picks drugs that fit well into its existing network, it will miss out on a large slice of the market. Customers could find it confusing to be able to get some prescriptions through Amazon's store but not others. Amazon could find itself a partner, however. In July the boss of Express Scripts, a PBM, said it could use Amazon as an "efficient provider in networks". Or Amazon could buy what it needs. It might buy Rite Aid, a big pharmacy chain, giving it licences, a "cold-chain" infrastructure and Rite Aid's small PBM in one swoop. A prospect like that goes a long way to explaining the marriage of CVS and Aetna. 26. What prompted CVS to buy Aetna?
[单选题]In 1924 America's National Research Council sent two engineers to supervise a series of industrial experiments at a large telephone-parts factory called the Hawthorne Plant near Chicago.It hoped they would learn how stop-floor lighting 1 workers' productivity.Instead, the studies ended 2 giving their name to the "Hawthorne effect", the extremely influential idea that the very 3 to being experimented upon changed subjects' behavior. The idea arose because of the 4 behavior of the women in the Hawthorne plant.According to 5 of the experiments, their hourly output rose when lighting was increased, but also when it was dimmed.It did not 6 what was done in the experiment; 7 something was changed, productivity rose.A(n) 8 that they were being experimented upon seemed to be 9 to alter workers' behavior 10 itself. After several decades, the same data were 11 to econometric the analysis.Hawthorne experiments has another surprise store 12the descriptions on record, no systematic 13 was found that levels of productivity were related to changes in lighting. It turns out that peculiar way of conducting the experiments may be have let to 14 interpretation of what happed.15, lighting was always changed on a Sunday.When work started again on Monday, output 16 rose compared with the previous Saturday and 17 to rise for the next couple of days.18, a comparison with data for weeks when there was no experimentation showed that output always went up on Monday, workers 19 to be diligent for the first few days of the week in any case, before 20 a plateau and then slackening off.This suggests that the alleged "Hawthorne effect" is hard to pin down. 17选?
[单选题]By 1830 the former Spanish and Portuguese colonies had become independent nations.The roughly 20 million 1 of these nations looked 2 to the future.Born in the crisis of the old regime and Iberian Colonialism, many of the leaders of independence 3 the ideals of representative government, careers 4 to talent, freedom of commerce and trade, the 5 to private property, and a belief in the individual as the basis of society.6 there was a belief that the new nations should be sovereign and independent states, large enough to be economically viable and integrated by a 7 set of laws. On the issue of 8 of religion and the position of the church, 9, there was less agreement 10 the leadership.Roman Catholicism had been the state religion and the only one 11 by the Spanish crown.12 most leaders sought to maintain Catholicism 13 the official religion of the new states, some sought to end the 14 of other faiths.The defense of the Church became a rallying 15 for the conservative forces. The ideals of the early leaders of independence were often egalitarian, valuing equality of everything.Bolivar had received aid from Haiti and had 16 in return to abolish slavery in the areas he liberated.By 1854 slavery had been abolished everywhere except Spain’s 17 colonies.Early promises to end Indian tribute and taxes on people of mixed origin came much 18 because the new nations still needed the revenue such policies 19.Egalitarian sentiments were often tempered by fears that the mass of the population was 20 self-rule and democracy. 17选?
[单选题]Text l Priests, teachers and parents have for generations advised their wards io think twice before speaking, to count to ten when angry and to get a good night's sleep before making big decisions. Social networks care little for seconcl thoughts. Services such as Facebook and Twitter are built to maximise "virality", making it irresistible to share, like and retweet things. They are getting better at it: fully half of the 40 most-retweeted tweets clate from January last year. Starting this month, however, users of WhatsApp, a messaging service owned by Facebook, will find it harder to spread content. They will no longer be able to forward messages to more than 20 0thers in one go, down from more than 100. The goal is not to prevent people from sharing information-only to get users to think about what they are passing on. It Js an idea other platforms should consider copying. Skeptics point out that WhatsApp can afford to hinder the spread of information on its platform because it does not rely on the sale of adverrisements to make money. Slowing down sharing would be more damaging to social networks such as Facebook and Twitter, which make money by keeping users on their sites and showing them ads. Their shareholders would surely refuse anything that lessens engagement. Sure enough, Facebook's shares fell by 23% in after-hours trading, partly because Mark Zuckerberg, its boss, said that its priority would be to get users to interact more with each other, not to promote viral content. Yet the short-term pain caused by a decline in virality may be in the long-term interests of the social networks. Fake news and concerns about cligital addiction, among other things, have already damaged the reputations of tech platforms. Moves to slow sharing could lielp see off harsh action by regulators and lawmakers. They could also improve its service. Instagram, a photo-sharing social network also owned by Facebook, shows that you can be successful without resorting to virality. It offers no sharing options and does not allow links but boasts more than a billion monthly users. It has remained relatively free of misinformation. Facebook does not break out Instagram's revenues, but it is thought to make money. The need to constrain virality is becoming ever more urgent. About half the world uses the internet today. The next 3.8bn users to go online will be poorer and less familiar with media. The examples of deceptions, misinformation and violence in India suggest that the capacity to manipulate people online is even greater when they first gain access to cligital communications. Small changes can have big effects: social networks have become expert at making their services compulsive by adjusting shades of blue and the size of buttons. They have the knowledge and the tools to maximise the sharing of information. That gives them the power to limit its virality, too. 22. WhatsApp's new move is intended to
[单选题]Text 1 In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada, Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scold her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her.Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant’s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to department stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment. This top-down conception of the fashion business couldn’t be more out of date or at odds with feverish world described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline’s three-year indictment of “fast fashion”.In the last decades or so, advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely.Quckier turnrounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent releases, and more profit.Those labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposal—— meant to last only a wash or two, although they don’t advertise that——and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks.By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking all industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace. The victims of this revolution, of course, are not limited to designers.For H&M to offer a 5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2300-plus stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage, overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amount of harmful chemicals. Overdressed is the fashion world’s answer to consumer activist bestsellers like Michael Pollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma.Mass-produced clothing, like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is non-durable, and wasteful,” Cline argues, Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year——about 64 items per person——and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste. Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named SKB, who, since 2008 has make all of her own clothes——and beautifully.But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example, can’t be knocked off. Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment——including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection Line——Cline believes lasting-change can only be effected by the customer.She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy.Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford to it. 23.The word “indictment” (Line 3, Para.2) is closest in meaning to
[单选题]Text 1 In order to “change lives for the better” and reduce “dependency” George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the “upfront work search” scheme.Only if the jobless arrive at the jobcentre with a CV, register for online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligible for benefit and then they should report weekly rather than fortnightly.What could be more reasonable? More apparent reasonableness followed.There will now be a seven-day wait for the jobseeker’s allowance.“Those first few days should be spent looking for work, not looking to sign on.” he claimed.“We’re doing these things because we know they help people stay off benefits and help those on benefits get into work faster.” Help? Really? On first hearing, this was the socially concerned chancellor, trying to change lives for the better, complete with “reforms” to an obviously indulgent system that demands too little effort from the newly unemployed to find work, and subsidises laziness.What motivated him, we were to understand, was his zeal for “fundamental fairness”— protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimants received their benefits. Losing a job is hurting: you don’t skip down to the jobcentre with a song in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from the generous state.It is financially terrifying, psychologically embarrassing and you know that support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get.You are now not wanted; you support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get.You are now not wanted; you are now excluded from the work environment that offers purpose and structure in your life.Worse, the crucial income to feed yourself and your family and pay the bills has disappeared.Ask anyone newly unemployed what they want and the answer is always: a job. But in Osborneland, your first instinct is to fall into dependency — permanent dependency if you can get it — supported by a state only too ready to indulge your falsehood.It is as though 20 years of ever-tougher reforms of the job search and benefit administration system never happened.The principle of British welfare is no longer that you can insure yourself against the risk of unemployment and receive unconditional payments if the disaster happens.Even the very phrase “jobseeker’s allowance” — invented in 1996 — is about redefining the unemployed as a “jobseeker” who had no mandatory right to a benefit he or she has earned through making national insurance contributions.Instead, the claimant receives a time-limited “allowance,” conditional on actively seeking a job; no entitlement and no insurance, at £71.70 a week, one of the least generous in the EU. 24.According to Paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one feel