[单选题]Text 2 Americans of a "certain age" abound at the upper levels of American governance. President Trump is the most obvious example. Just over half of US senators wrll be 65 0r older by the end of this year. On the Supreme Court, five of rtine justices are over 65. These "senior citizens" make crucial decisions for the majority of Americans younger than them. Just eight decades ago, when the Social Security system began, 65 was codified as the start of "old age". Now many people of that age may feel in the prime of life. Measured by years alone, Americans are on average getting older. A popular notion is that a war is brewing between generations - young working Americans resenting that they must pay more into SociaJ Security and Medicare to support an expanding group of older Americans. There's truth in that sentiment. I,ast year, there were 25 people over 65 for every 100 people between 18 and 64. And the worker-to-retiree ratio is projected to be even worse by 2030. But that idea is being challenged. To begin with, programs like Social Security and Medicare can be adjusted, as ihey have in the past. while certain trends, such as Americans delaying full retirement, could alter the projections. A pair of new government reports show that funding for Medicare will run out in 2026. The Social Security trust fund will dry up by 2034. Despite these warnings, modest fixes are available, including making small changes in the age of eligibility that recognize lengthening life spans. Even that step may not be needed. By one estimate, increasing the Social Security payroll tax by 2. 88 percentage points could eliminate the expected revenue shortfall for another three-quarters of a century. But actuarial tables, however useful for government planning, shouldn't impose artificial limits on what older Americans do. Aging isn't what it used to be. Today, 75-year-olds on average will live just as many additional years as the average 65-year-old did in 1952. Categorizing by age can be just as harmful as by gender or race. Labeling people by an age category is a receiit phenomenon. The idea of being "middle aged" wasn't popularized until after World War I. Marketing continues to classify Americans by calendar years, walling off the beneficial effects of older and younger people rubbing shoulders. Companies are beginning to consider age diversity to be as important as racial and gender diversity. Some observers suggest businesses try the "shoe test": Look under desks. If everyone's wearing the same kind of shoes - whether wingtips or slipper - the business would benefit from more diversity. Today, suggests one expert, Americans have an opportunity to make a "fresh map of life itself", throwing off outworn ideas about aging. Policies that encourage older Americans to expand the possibilities of their "senior years" will help change limited perceptions and benefit all of society. 29. By suggesting "shoe test", observers advise companies to
[单选题]The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name.But Gregory Cochran is 1 to say it anyway.He is that 2 bird, a scientist who works independently 3 any institution.He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not 4 thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested. 5 he, however, might tremble at the 6 of what he is about to do.Together with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only 7 that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about.The group in 8 are a particular people originated from central Europe.The process is natural selection. This group generally do well in IQ test, 9 12-15 points above the 10 value of 100, and have contributed 11 to the intellectual and cultural life of the West, as the 12 of their elites, including several world-renowned scientists, 13.They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer.These facts, 14, have previously been thought unrelated.The former has been 15 to social effects, such as a strong tradition of 16 education.The latter was seen as a (an) 17 of genetic isolation.Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately 18.His argument is that the unusual history of these people has 19 them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in this 20 state of affairs. 2选?
[单选题]Text 3 In the idealized version of how science is done, facts about the world are waiting to be observed and collected by objective researchers who use the scientific method to carry out their work.But in the everyday practice of science, discovery frequently follows an ambiguous and complicated route.We aim to be objective, but we cannot escape the context of our unique life experience.Prior knowledge and interest influence what we experience, what we think our experiences mean, and the subsequent actions we take.Opportunities for misinterpretation, error, and self-deception abound. Consequently, discovery claims should be thought of as protoscience.Similar to newly staked mining claims, they are full of potential.But it takes collective scrutiny and acceptance to transform a discovery claim into a mature discovery.This is the credibility process, through which the individual researcher’s me, here, now becomes the community’s anyone, anywhere, anytime.Objective knowledge is the goal, not the starting point. Once a discovery claim becomes public, the discoverer receives intellectual credit.But, unlike with mining claims, the community takes control of what happens next.Within the complex social structure of the scientific community, researchers make discoveries; editors and reviewers act as gatekeepers by controlling the publication process; other scientists use the new finding to suit their own purposes; and finally, the public (including other scientists) receives the new discovery and possibly accompanying technology.As a discovery claim works it through the community, the interaction and confrontation between shared and competing beliefs about the science and the technology involved transforms an individual’s discovery claim into the community’s credible discovery. Two paradoxes exist throughout this credibility process.First, scientific work tends to focus on some aspect of prevailing Knowledge that is viewed as incomplete or incorrect.Little reward accompanies duplication and confirmation of what is already known and believed.The goal is new-search, not re-search.Not surprisingly, newly published discovery claims and credible discoveries that appear to be important and convincing will always be open to challenge and potential modification or refutation by future researchers.Second, novelty itself frequently provokes disbelief.Nobel Laureate and physiologist Albert Azent-Gyorgyi once described discovery as “seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought.” But thinking what nobody else has thought and telling others what they have missed may not change their views.Sometimes years are required for truly novel discovery claims to be accepted and appreciated. In the end, credibility “happens” to a discovery claim – a process that corresponds to what philosopher Annette Baier has described as the commons of the mind.“We reason together, challenge, revise, and complete each other’s reasoning and each other’s conceptions of reason.” 31.According to the first paragraph, the process of discovery is characterized by its
[单选题]Any fair-minded assessment of the dangers of the deal between Britain's National Health Service (NHS) and DeepMind must start by acknowledging that both sides mean well. DeepMind is one of the leading artificial intelligence (AI) companies in the world. The potential of this work applied to healthcare is very great, but it could also lead to further concentration of power in the tech giants. It Is against that background that the information commissioner, Elizabeth Denham, has issued her damning verdict against the Royal Free hospital trust under the NHS, which handed over to DeepMind the records of l.6 million patients In 2015 3n the basis of a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients' rights and their expectations of privacy. DeepMind has almost apologized. The NHS trust has mended its ways. Further arrangements- and there may be many-between the NHS and DeepMind will be carefully scrutinised to ensure that all necessary permissions have been asked of patients and all unnecessary data has been cleaned. There are lessons about informed patient consent to learn. But privacy is not the only angle in this case and not even the most important Ms Denham chose to concentrate the blame on the NHS trust, since under existing law it -controlled" the data and DeepMind merely -processed' it But this distinction misses the point that it is processing and aggregation, not the mere possession of bits, that gives the data value. The great question is who should beneflt from the analysis of all the data that our lives now generate. Privacy law builds on the concept of damage to an individual from identifiable knowledge about them. That misses the way the surveillance economy works. The data of an individual there gains its value only when it is compared with the data of countless millions more. The use of privacy law to curb the tech giants in this instance feels slightly maladapted. This practice does not address the real worry. It is not enough to say that the algorithms DeepMind develops will benefit patients and save lives. What matters is that they will belong to a private monopoly which developed them using public resources. If software promises to save lives on the scale that dugs now can, big data may be expected to behave as a big pharm has done. We are still at the beginning of this revolution and small choices now may turn out to have gigantic consequences later. A long struggle will be needed to avoid a future of digital feudalism. Ms Denham's report is a welcome start. According to the last paragraph, the real worry arising from this dea
[单选题]Text l Priests, teachers and parents have for generations advised their wards io think twice before speaking, to count to ten when angry and to get a good night's sleep before making big decisions. Social networks care little for seconcl thoughts. Services such as Facebook and Twitter are built to maximise "virality", making it irresistible to share, like and retweet things. They are getting better at it: fully half of the 40 most-retweeted tweets clate from January last year. Starting this month, however, users of WhatsApp, a messaging service owned by Facebook, will find it harder to spread content. They will no longer be able to forward messages to more than 20 0thers in one go, down from more than 100. The goal is not to prevent people from sharing information-only to get users to think about what they are passing on. It Js an idea other platforms should consider copying. Skeptics point out that WhatsApp can afford to hinder the spread of information on its platform because it does not rely on the sale of adverrisements to make money. Slowing down sharing would be more damaging to social networks such as Facebook and Twitter, which make money by keeping users on their sites and showing them ads. Their shareholders would surely refuse anything that lessens engagement. Sure enough, Facebook's shares fell by 23% in after-hours trading, partly because Mark Zuckerberg, its boss, said that its priority would be to get users to interact more with each other, not to promote viral content. Yet the short-term pain caused by a decline in virality may be in the long-term interests of the social networks. Fake news and concerns about cligital addiction, among other things, have already damaged the reputations of tech platforms. Moves to slow sharing could lielp see off harsh action by regulators and lawmakers. They could also improve its service. Instagram, a photo-sharing social network also owned by Facebook, shows that you can be successful without resorting to virality. It offers no sharing options and does not allow links but boasts more than a billion monthly users. It has remained relatively free of misinformation. Facebook does not break out Instagram's revenues, but it is thought to make money. The need to constrain virality is becoming ever more urgent. About half the world uses the internet today. The next 3.8bn users to go online will be poorer and less familiar with media. The examples of deceptions, misinformation and violence in India suggest that the capacity to manipulate people online is even greater when they first gain access to cligital communications. Small changes can have big effects: social networks have become expert at making their services compulsive by adjusting shades of blue and the size of buttons. They have the knowledge and the tools to maximise the sharing of information. That gives them the power to limit its virality, too. 23. Skeptics hold that slowing down sharing would
[单选题]Text 3 Governments are keen on higher eclucation, seeing it as a means to boost social mobility and economic growth. Almost all subsidise tuition-in America, to the tune of $ 200bn a year. But they tend to overestimate the benefits and ignore the costs of expanding university education. Often, public money just feeds the arms race for qualifications. As more young people seek degrees, the returns both to them and to governments are lower. Employers demand degrees for jobs that never required them in the past and have not become more demanding since. Spending on universities is usually justified by the "graduate premium" - the increase in earnings that graduates enjoy over non-graduates. These individual gains, the thinking goes, add up to an economic boost for society as a whole. But the graduate premium is a flawed unit of reckoning. Part of the usefulness of a degree is that it gives a graduate jobseeker an advantage at the expense of non-graduates. It is also a signal to employers of general qualities that someone already has in order to get into a university. Some professions require qualifications. But a degree is not always the best measure of the skills and knowledge needed for a job. With degrees so common, recruiters are using them as a crude way to screen applicants. Non-graduates are thus increasingly locked out of decent work. In any case, the premium counts only the winners and not the losers. Across the rich world, a third of university entrants never graduate. It is the weakest students who are drawn in as higher education expands ancl who are most likely LO drop out. They pay fees and sacrifice earnings to study, but see little boost iii thcir future incomes. When dropouts are includecl, the expected financial return to starting a degree for the weakest studcnts dwindles to almost nothing. Governments need to offer the young a wider range of options after school. They should start by rethinking their own hiring practices. Most insist on degrees for public-sector jobs that used to be done by non-graduates. Instead they should seek other ways for non-graduates to prove they have the right skills and to get more on-the-job training. School-Ieavers should be given a wider variety o:[ ways to gain vocational skills and to demonstrate their employability in the private sector. lf school qualifications were made more rigorous, recruiters would be more likely to trust them as signals of ability. and less insistent on degrees. "Micro-credentials" - short, work-focused courses approved by big employers in fast-growing fields, such as IT - show promise. Such measures would be more efficient at developing the skills that boost productivity and should save public money. To promote social mobility, governments should direct funds to early-school education and to helping students who would benefit from university but cannot afford it. Young people, both rich and poor, are ill-served by the academic arms race, in which each must study longer because that is what all the rest are doing. It is time to disarm. 34. The author suggests that governments should
[单选题]Text 4 The most thoroughly studied intellectuals in the history of the New World are the ministers and political leaders of seventeenth-century New England.According to the standard history of American philosophy, nowhere else in colonial America was "So much importance attached to intellectual pursuits." According to many books and articles, New England's leaders established the basic themes and preoccupations of an unfolding, dominant Puritan tradition in American intellectual life. To take this approach to the New Englanders normally means to start with the Puritans' theological innovations and their distinctive ideas about the church-important subjects that we may not neglect.But in keeping with our examination of southern intellectual life, we may consider the original Puritans as carriers of European culture, adjusting to New World circumstances.The New England colonies were the scenes of important episodes in the pursuit of widely understood ideals of civility and virtuosity. The early settlers of Massachusetts Bay included men of impressive education and influence in England.Besides the ninety or so learned ministers who came to Massachusetts church in the decade after 1629,There were political leaders like John Winthrop, an educated gentleman, lawyer, and official of the Crown before he journeyed to Boston.There men wrote and published extensively, reaching both New World and Old World audiences, and giving New England an atmosphere of intellectual earnestness. We should not forget , however, that most New Englanders were less well educated.While few craftsmen or farmers, let alone dependents and servants, left literary compositions to be analyzed, it is obvious that their views were less fully intellectualized.Their thinking often had a traditional superstitions quality.A tailor named John Dane, who emigrated in the late 1630s, left an account of his reasons for leaving England that is filled with signs.Sexual confusion, economic frustrations , and religious hope—all came together in a decisive moment when he opened the Bible, told his father the first line he saw would settle his fate, and read the magical words: "come out from among them, touch no unclean thing , and I will be your God and you shall be my people." One wonders what Dane thought of the careful sermons explaining the Bible that he heard in puritan churches. Meanwhile, many settles had slighter religious commitments than Dane's, as one clergyman learned in confronting folk along the coast who mocked that they had not come to the New world for religion ."Our main end was to catch fish." 36. The author notes that in the seventeenth-century New England___________.
[单选题]Perfectionism often gets a bad rap in our culture, and it's easy to see why: Holding yourself to unrealistic or impossible standards can set you up for depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances and other health problems. But it . 1 0ut that not all forms of perfectionism are bad. All forms of perfectionism include high standards. Yet, "adaptive or healthy perfcctionism is 2 achieving things because you want to do well, 3 maladaptive or unhealthy perfectionism is often 4 by fear of failure or fear of 5 others," one expert says. A study 6 maladaptive to adaptive perfectionism found that 7 people in both camps were comparably 8 about making mistakes. maladaptive perfectionists scored highest on 9 0f self-criticism, perceived stress and depression, while adaptive perfectionists scored highest on reappraisal ( being able to change a situation's meaning to 10 it.s emotional effects). 11 aclaptive perfectionism, the "person adapts well when things do not turn out as 12 0r hoped for or adjustments need to be made," notes study lead author Kenneth Rice, professor and co-director of the Center for the Study of Stress, Trauma, and Resilience at Georgia State University. 13 , someone with maladaptive perfectionism has the same high standards or performance 14 . "combined with an extremely high level of self-criticism, difficulty adjusting when the situation needs the person to adjust, and probably a fundamental core sense of inadequacy 15 things turn out well," he adds. 16 , the "standards in and of themselves are not bad; it's the stuff people 17 to them that can make them 18 ," Rice says. Not surprisingly, research has 19 maladaptive perfectionism and contingent self-worth (which is tied to one's appearance or relationships) with an increased risk of 20 disordered eating and anxiety, among other health problems.
[单选题]Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as “a bodily exercise precious to health.” But ---_____some claims to the contrary, laughing probably has little influence on physical filness Laughter does _____short-term changes in the function of the heart and its blood vessels, ____ heart rate and oxygen consumption But because hard laughter is difficult to ____, a good laugh is unlikely to have _____ benefits the way, say, walking or jogging does. ____, instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does, laughter apparently accomplishes the ____, studies dating back to the 1930’s indicate that laughter.muscles, Such bodily reaction might conceivably help____the effects of psychological stress.Anyway,the act of laughing probably does produce other types of ______feedback,that improve an individual’s emotional state.______one classical theory of emotion,our feelings are partially rooted _______ physical reactions.It was argued at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry ______they are sad but they become sad when te tears begin to flow. Although sadness also _______ tears,evidence suggests that emotions can flow _____ muscular responses.In an experiment published in 1988,social psychologist Fritz Strack of the University of würzburg in Germany asked volunteers to ____ a pen either with their teeth-thereby creating an artificial smile – or with their lips, which would produce a(n) _____ expression.Those forced to exercise their enthusiastically to funny catoons than did those whose months were contracted in a frown, _______ that expressions may influence emotions rather than just the other way around ____ , the physical act of laughter could improve mood.
[单选题]It is a wise father that knows his own child, but today a man can boost his paternal (fatherly) wisdom – or at least confirm that he's the kid's dad.All he needs to do is shell our $30 for paternity testing kit (PTK) at his local drugstore – and another $120 to get the results. More than 60,000 people have purchased the PTKs since they first become available without prescriptions last years, according to Doug Fog, chief operating officer of Identigene, which makes the over-the-counter kits.More than two dozen companies sell DNA tests Directly to the public , ranging in price from a few hundred dollars to more than $2,500. Among the most popular: paternity and kinship testing , which adopted children can use to find their biological relatives and families can use to track down kids put up for adoption.DNA testing is also the latest rage among passionate genealogists—and supports businesses that offer to search for a family's geographic roots . Most tests require collecting cells by swabbing saliva in the mouth and sending it to the company for testing. All tests require a potential candidate with whom to compare DNA. But some observers are skeptical, "There is a kind of false precision being hawked by people claiming they are doing ancestry testing," says Trey Duster, a New York University sociologist.He notes that each individual has many ancestors-numbering in the hundreds just a few centuries back.Yet most ancestry testing only considers a single lineage, either the Y chromosome inherited through men in a father's line or mitochondrial DNA, which is passed down only from mothers.This DNA can reveal genetic information about only one or two ancestors, even though, for example, just three generations back people also have six other great-grandparents or, four generations back, 14 other great-great-grandparents. Critics also argue that commercial genetic testing is only as good as the reference collections to which a sample is compared.Databases used by some companies don't rely on data collected systematically but rather lump together information from different research projects.This means that a DNA database may have a lot of data from some regions and not others, so a person’s test results may differ depending on the company that processes the results.In addition, the computer programs a company uses to estimate relationships may be patented and not subject to peer review or outside evaluation. 28. Skeptical observers believe that ancestry testing fails to__________
[单选题]Text 3 This?year?marks?exactly?two?countries?since?the?publication?of?Frankenstein;?or,?The Modern?Prometheus,?by?Mary?Shelley.?Even?before?the?invention?of?the?electric?light bulb,?the?author?produced?a?remarkable?work?of?speculative?fiction?that?would foreshadow?many?ethical?questions?to?be?raised?by?technologies?yet?to?come. Today?the?rapid?growth?of?artificial?intelligence?(AI)?raises?fundamental questions:”What?is?intelligence,?identify,?or consciousness??What?makes?humans?humans?” What?is?being?called?artificial?general?intelligence,?machines?that?would?imitate the?way?humans?think,?continues?to?evade scientists.?Yet?humans?remain?fascinated?by the?idea?of?robots?that?would?look,?move,?and?respond?like?humans,?similar?to?those recently?depicted?on?popular?sci-fi?TV?series?such?as?“Westworld”?and?“Humans”. Just?how?people?think?is?still?far?too?complex?to?be?understood,?let?alone reproduced,?says?David?Eagleman,?a?Stanford?University?neuroscientist.?“We?are?just in?a?situation?where?there?are?no?good?theories?explaining?what?consciousnesss actually?is?and?how?you?could?ever?build?a?machine?to?get?there.” But?that?doesn’t?mean?crucial?ethical?issues?involving?AI?aren’t?at?hand.?The coming?use?of?autonomous?vehicles,?for?example,?poses?thorny?ethical?questions. Human?drivers?sometimes?must?make?split-second?decisions.?Their?reactions?may?be?a complex?combination?of?instant?reflexes,?input?from?past?driving?experiences,?and what?their?eyes?and?ears?tell?them?in?that?moment.?AI?“vision”?today?is?not?nearly?as sophisticated?as?that?of?humans.?And?to?anticipate?every?imaginable?driving?situation is?a?difficult?programming?problem. Whenever?decisions?are?based?on?masses?of?data,?“you?quickly?get?into?a?lot?of ethical?questions,”?notes?Tan?Kiat?How,?chief?executive?of?a?Singapore-based?agency that?is?helping?the?government?develop?a?voluntary?code?for?the?ethical?use?of?AI. Along?with?Singapore,?other?governments?and?mega-corporations?are?beginning?to establish?their?own?guidelines.?Britain?is?setting?up?a?data?ethics?center.?India?released its?AI?ethics?strategy?this?spring. On?June?7?Google?pledged?not?to?“design?or?deploy?AI”?that?would?cause?“overall harm,”?or?to?develop?AI-directed?weapons?or?use?AI?for?surveillance?that?would violate?international?norms.?It?also?pledged?not?to?deploy?AI?whose?use?would?violate international?laws?or?human?rights. While?the?statement?is?vague,?it?represents?one?starting?point.?So?does?the?idea that?decisions?made?by?AI?systems?should?be?explainable,?transparent,?and?fair. To?put?it?another?way:?How?can?we?make?sure?that?the?thinking?of?intelligent machines?reflects?humanity’s?highest?values??Only?then?will?they?be?useful?servants and?not?Frankenstein’s?out-of-control?monster. 32.?In?David?Eagleman’s?opinion,?our?current?knowledge?of?consciousness