理工类

考试试题

[多选题]共用题干 First Image-recognition Software1. Dartmouth researchers and their colleagues have created an artificial intelligence software that uses photos to locate documents on the Internet with far greater accuracy than ever before.2. The new system,which was tested on photos and is now being applied to videos,shows for the first time that a machine learning algorithm(运算法则)for image recognition and retrieval is ac-curate and efficient enough to improve large-scale document searches online.The system uses pix- el(像素)data in images and potentially video—rather than just text-to locate documents. It learns to recognize the pixels associated with a search phrase by studying the results from text-based image search engines. The knowledge gleaned(收集)from those results can then be ap-plied to other photos without tags or captions(图片说明),making for more accurate document search results.3 .“Over the last 30 years,”says Associate Professor Lorenzo Torresani,a co-author of the stud-“the Web has evolved from a small collection of mostly text documents to a modern,massive, fast-growing multimedia data set,where nearly every page includes multiple pictures or videos. When a person looks at a Web page, he immediately gets the gist(主旨)of it by looking at the pictures in it.Yet,surprisingly,all existing popular search engines,such as Google or Bing, strip away the information contained in the photos and use exclusively the text of Web pages to perform the document retrieval. Our study is the first to show that modern machine vision systems are accurate and efficient enough to make effective use of the information contained in image pix-els to improve document search.”The researchers designed and tested a machine vision system—a type of artificial intelligence that allows computers to learn without being explicitly programmed—that extracts semantic(语义的)information from the pixels of photos in Web pages. This information is used to enrich the description of the HTML page used by search engines for document retrieval.The researchers tested their approach using more than 600 search queries(查询)on a database of 50 million Web pa-ges.They selected the text-retrieval search engine with the best performance and modified it to make use of the additional semantic information extracted by their method from the pictures of the Web pages .They found that this produced a 30 percent improvement in precision over the original search engine purely based on text. Paragraph 1______
[多选题]共用题干 Learn about Light1 .Ancient civilizations were amazed by the existence of light for thousands of years. The Greek philosophers believed that light was made up of countless,tiny particles that enter the human eye and create what we call vision. However,Empedocles and a Dutch scientist named Christian Huygens believed that light was like a wave. According to them,light spread out and travelled like a straight line. This theory was accepted during the 19th century.2 .In 1905,Albert Einstein published a research paper in which he explained what is re-ferred to as the photoelectric effect. This theory explains that particles make up light.The particles Einstein was referring to are weightless bundles(束)of electromagnetic(电磁)energy called photons(光子).Today,scientists agree that light has a dual(二重)nature一it is part particle and part wave. It is a form of energy that allows us to see things around us.3 .Things that give off light are known as sources of light. During the day,the primary source of light is the sun. Other sources of light include stars,flames,flashlights,street lamps and glowing gases in glass tube.4 .When we draw the way light travels we always use straight lines. This is because nor-mally light rays travel in a straight line. However,there are some instances that can change the path and even the nature of light. They are reflection,absorption,interference(干扰), etc.5 .Physicists have attempted to measure the speed of light since the early times. In 1849, Hippolyte Fizeau conducted an experiment by directing a beam of light to a mirror located kilometers away and placed a rotating cogwheel(旋转齿轮)between the beam and the mirror. From the rate of rotation of the wheel,number of wheel's teeth and distance of the mirror,he was able to calculate that the speed of light is 313 million meters per second. In a vacuum(真空),however,the speed of light is 299,792,458 meters per second. This is about a million times faster than the speed of an airplane. Stars,flames,flashlights are some examples of______.
[多选题]共用题干 Cloning(克隆):Future Perlect?1 A clone is an exact copy of a plant or animal produced from any one cell.Since Scottish scientists reported that they had managed to clone a sheep named Dolly in 1997,research into cloning has grown rapidly.In May 1998,scientists in Massachusetts managed to create two identical calves(牛犊)using cloning technology. A mouse has also been cloned successfully.But the debate over cloning humans really started when Chicago physicist Richard Seed made a surprising announcement:"We will have managed to clone a human being within the next two years."he told the world.2 Seed's announcement provoked a lot of media attention,most of it negative,In Europe, nineteen nations have already signed an agreement banning human cloning and in the U.S. the President announced:"We will be introducing a law to ban all human cloning and many states in the U. S. will have passed anti-cloning laws by the end of the year."3 Many researchers are not so negative about cloning.They are worried that laws banning human cloning will threaten important research.In March,The New England Journal of Medicine called any plan to ban research on cloning humans seriously mistaken.Many researchers also believe that in spite of attempts to ban it,human cloning will have become routine by 2010 because it is impossible to stop the progress of science.4 Is there reason to fear that cloning will lead to a nightmare world?The public has been bombarded(轰炸)with newspaper articles, television shows and films, as well as cartoons.Such information is often misleading,and makes people wonder what on earth the scientists will be doing next.5 Within the next five to ten years scientists will probably have found a way of cloning humans.It could be that pretty soon we will be able to choose the person that we want our child to look like,But how would it feel to be a clone among hundreds,the anti-cloners ask. Pretty cool, answer the pro-cloners(赞成克隆的人). Paragraph 4________
[多选题]共用题干 The iPad1 The iPad is a tablet computer(平板电脑)designed and developed by Apple. It is particularly mar- keted as a platform for audio and visual media such as books , periodicals(期刊), movies , music , and games, as well as web content. At about 1.5 pounds(680 grams),its size and weight are between those of most con- temporary smartphones and laptop computers.Apple released the iPad in April 2010,and sold 3 million of the devices in 80 days.2 The iPad runs the same operating system as iPod Touch and iPhone.It can run its own applications as well as ones developed for iPhone.Without modification,it will only run programs approved by Apple and distributed via its online store.3 Like iPhone and iPod Touch,the iPad is controlled by a multitouch display一a break from most pre- vious tablet computers , which uses a pressure-triggered stylus(触控笔).The iPad uses a Wi-Fi data connec-tion to browse(浏览)the Internet , load and stream media, and install software. Some models also have a 3 G wireless data connection which can connect to GSM 3 G data networks.The device is managed and synchro- nized(同步)by iTunes on a personal computer via USB cable.4 An iPad has different features and applications one can use to execute different and interesting things.There are lots of iPad applications that the owner can use to enhance the way they communicate.Some of these are how to use social networking sites and other online options.One of the most common uses is for e-mail services.iPad applications like Markdown Mail allow the adoption of specific and particular options. They enable the owner to personalize their email accounts.5 While the iPad is mostly used by consumers it also has been taken up by business users.Some com- panies are adopting iPads in their business offices by distributing or making available iPads to employees. Examples of uses in the workplace include lawyers responding to clients,medical professionals accessing health records during patient exams,and managers approving employee requests.A survey by Frost&Sulli-van shows that iPad usage in workplaces is linked to the goals of increased employee productivity,reduced paperwork,and increased revenue. Paragraph 2______________
[多选题]共用题干 So Many"Earths"The Milky Way(银河)contains billions of Earth-sized planets that could support life.That's the finding of a new study.It draws on data that came from NASA's top planet-hunting telescope.A mechanical failure recently put that Kepler space telescope out of service.Kepler had played a big role in creating a census of planets orbiting some 170,000 stars.Its data have been helping astronomers predict how common planets are in our galaxy.The telescope focused on hunting planets that might have conditions similar to those on Earth.The authors of a study,published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,conclude that between 14 and 30 out of every 100 stars,with a mass and temperature similar to the Sun,may host a planet that could support life as we know it.Such a planet would have a diameter at least as large as Earth's,but no more than twice that big.The planet also would have to orbit in a star's habitable zone.That's where the surface temperature would allow any water to exist as a liquid.The new estimate of how many planets might fit these conditions comes from studying more than 42,000 stars and identifying suitable worlds orbiting them.The scientists used those numbers to extrapolate(推算) to the rest of the stars that the telescope could not see.The estimate is rough,the authors admit.If applied to the solar system,it would define as habitable a zone starting as close to the Sun as Venus and running to as far away as Mars.Neither planet is Earthlike (although either might have been in the distant past).Using tighter limits,the researchers estimate that between 4 and 8 out of every 100 sunlike stars could host an Earth-sized world.These are ones that would take 200 to 400 days to complete a yearly orbit.Four out of every 100 sunlike stars doesn't sound like a big number.It would mean,however,that the Milky Way could host more than a billion Earth-sized planets with a chance for life. The new finding is based on a thorough study of 170,000 stars in the Milky Way.
[多选题]共用题干 The iPad1 The iPad is a tablet computer(平板电脑)designed and developed by Apple. It is particularly mar- keted as a platform for audio and visual media such as books , periodicals(期刊), movies , music , and games, as well as web content. At about 1.5 pounds(680 grams),its size and weight are between those of most con- temporary smartphones and laptop computers.Apple released the iPad in April 2010,and sold 3 million of the devices in 80 days.2 The iPad runs the same operating system as iPod Touch and iPhone.It can run its own applications as well as ones developed for iPhone.Without modification,it will only run programs approved by Apple and distributed via its online store.3 Like iPhone and iPod Touch,the iPad is controlled by a multitouch display一a break from most pre- vious tablet computers , which uses a pressure-triggered stylus(触控笔).The iPad uses a Wi-Fi data connec-tion to browse(浏览)the Internet , load and stream media, and install software. Some models also have a 3 G wireless data connection which can connect to GSM 3 G data networks.The device is managed and synchro- nized(同步)by iTunes on a personal computer via USB cable.4 An iPad has different features and applications one can use to execute different and interesting things.There are lots of iPad applications that the owner can use to enhance the way they communicate.Some of these are how to use social networking sites and other online options.One of the most common uses is for e-mail services.iPad applications like Markdown Mail allow the adoption of specific and particular options. They enable the owner to personalize their email accounts.5 While the iPad is mostly used by consumers it also has been taken up by business users.Some com- panies are adopting iPads in their business offices by distributing or making available iPads to employees. Examples of uses in the workplace include lawyers responding to clients,medical professionals accessing health records during patient exams,and managers approving employee requests.A survey by Frost&Sulli-van shows that iPad usage in workplaces is linked to the goals of increased employee productivity,reduced paperwork,and increased revenue. Paragraph 4 ______________
[多选题]共用题干 Climate Change:The Long Reach1.Earth is warming.Sea levels are rising.There's more carbon in the air,and Arctic ice is melting faster than at any time in recorded history.Scientists who study the environment to better gauge(评估) Earth's future climate now argue that these changes may not reverse for a very long time.2.People burn fossil fuels like coal and oil for energy.That burning releases carbon dioxide,a colorless gas.In the air,this gas traps heat at Earth's surface.And the more carbon dioxide released,the more the planet warms.If current consumption of fossil fuels doesn't slow,the long-term climate impacts could last thousands of years-and be more severe than scientists had been expecting.Climatologist Richard Zeebe of the University of Hawaii at Manoa offers this conclusion in a new paper.3.Most climate-change studies look at what's going to happen in the next century or so.During that time , changes in the planet's environment could nudge(推动)global warming even higher.For example, snow and ice reflect sunlight back into space.But as these melt,sunlight can now reach-and warm-the exposed ground.This extra heat raises the air temperature even more,causing even more snow to melt.This type of rapid exaggeration of impacts is called a"fast feedback".4.Zeebe says it's important to look at fast feedbacks.However,he adds,they're limited.From a climate change perspective,"This century is the most important time for the next few generations,"he told Science News."But the world is not ending in 2100."For this new study,Zeebe now focuses on"slow feedbacks".While fast feedback events unfold over decades or centuries,slow feedbacks can take thousands of years.Melting of continental ice sheets and the migration of plant life-as they relocate to more comfortable areas-are two examples of slow feedbacks.5.Zeebe gathered information from previously published studies investigating how such processes played out over thousands of years during past dramatic changes in climate.Then he came up with a forecast for the future that accounts for both slow and fast feedback processes.Climate forecasts that use only fast feedbacks predict a 4.5 degree Celsius(8.1 degree Fahrenheit)change by the year 3000.But slow feedbacks added another 1.5℃-for a 6℃ total increase,Zeebe reports.He also found that slow feedback events will cause global warming to persist for thousands of years after people run out of fossil fuels to burn. After fossil fuels are used up,global warming will continue for______.
[多选题]共用题干 Smoking can Increase Depressive Symptoms in TeensWhile some teenagers may use cigarettes to "self-medicate"(自我治疗)against the blues(忧郁),sci- entists at the University of Toronto and the University of Montreal have found that smoking may actually ______________(51)depressive symptoms in some teens."This observational study is one of the few to examine the perceived ______________(52)benefits of smoking among teens,"says lead researcher Michael Chaiton,a research associate at the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit of the University of Toronto."_______________(53)cigarettes may appear to have self-medicating effects or to improve mood,in the long_______________(54)we found that teens who started to smoke reported higher depressive symptoms."As part of the study,some 662 high school teenagers completed up to 20 questionnaires about their useof cigarettes to ______________(55)mood.Secondary schools were selected to provide a mix of French andEnglish participants,urban and rural schools,and schools ______________(56)in high,moderate and low so-cioeconomic neighbourhoods.Participants were divided into three______________ (57):never smokers;smokers who did not use ciga-rettes to self-medicate,improve mood or physical______________ (58);smokers who used cigarettes to self-medicate.Depressive symptoms were measured using a scale that asked how often participants felt too tiredto do things;had______________ (59)going to sleep or staying asleep;felt unhappy,sad,or depressed;felt hopeless about the future;felt anxious or tense;and worried too much about things." Smokers who used cigarettes as mood______________( 60 ) had higher risks of elevated(提升)depres-sive symptoms______________ (61)teens who had never smoked,"says co-researcher Jennifer O'Loughlin,aprofessor at the University of Montreal Department of Social and Preventive Medicine."Our study found that teen smokers who reported emotional benefits from smoking are_______________(62)higher risk of developing depressive symptoms."The______________ (63)between depression and'smoking exists______________(64)among teens that usecigarettes to feel better."It's ______________(65)to emphasize that depressive symptom scores were higher among teenagers who reported emotional benefits from smoking after they began to smoke,"says Dr. Chaiton. _________(58)
[多选题]共用题干 Why Buy Shade-Grown Coffee?When people argue about whether coffee is good for health,they're usually thinking of the health of the coffee drinker. Is it good for your heart?Does it increase blood pressure?Does it help you concentrate?However,coffee affects the health of the human population in other ways, too.Traditionally,coffee bushes were planted under the canopy(树冠)of taller indigenous(土生土长的)trees. However, more and more farmers in Latin America are deforesting the land to grow full-sun coffees.At first,this increases production because more coffee bushes can be plan- ted if there aren't any trees.With increased production come increased profits.Unfortunately,deforesting for coffee production immediately decreases local wildlife habitat Native birds nest and hide from predators(捕食者)in the tall trees and migrating birds rest there.Furthermore,in the long term,the full-sun method also damages the ecosystem because more chemical fertilizers and pesticides are needed to grow the coffee.The fertilizers and pesti- cides kill insects that eat coffee plant,but then the birds eat the poisoned insects and also die. The chemicals kill or sicken other animals as well,and can even enter the water that people will eventually drink.Fortunately,farmers in Central and South America are beginning to grow more coffee bushes in the shade.We can support these farmers by buying coffee with such labels as“shade grown” and“bird friendly.”Sure,these varieties might cost a little more.But we're paying for the health of the birds,the land,ourselves,and the planet. I think it's worth it. What is the main idea of this passage?
[多选题]共用题干 Smoking can Increase Depressive Symptoms in TeensWhile some teenagers may use cigarettes to "self-medicate"(自我治疗)against the blues(忧郁),sci- entists at the University of Toronto and the University of Montreal have found that smoking may actually ______________(51)depressive symptoms in some teens."This observational study is one of the few to examine the perceived ______________(52)benefits of smoking among teens,"says lead researcher Michael Chaiton,a research associate at the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit of the University of Toronto."_______________(53)cigarettes may appear to have self-medicating effects or to improve mood,in the long_______________(54)we found that teens who started to smoke reported higher depressive symptoms."As part of the study,some 662 high school teenagers completed up to 20 questionnaires about their useof cigarettes to ______________(55)mood.Secondary schools were selected to provide a mix of French andEnglish participants,urban and rural schools,and schools ______________(56)in high,moderate and low so-cioeconomic neighbourhoods.Participants were divided into three______________ (57):never smokers;smokers who did not use ciga-rettes to self-medicate,improve mood or physical______________ (58);smokers who used cigarettes to self-medicate.Depressive symptoms were measured using a scale that asked how often participants felt too tiredto do things;had______________ (59)going to sleep or staying asleep;felt unhappy,sad,or depressed;felt hopeless about the future;felt anxious or tense;and worried too much about things." Smokers who used cigarettes as mood______________( 60 ) had higher risks of elevated(提升)depres-sive symptoms______________ (61)teens who had never smoked,"says co-researcher Jennifer O'Loughlin,aprofessor at the University of Montreal Department of Social and Preventive Medicine."Our study found that teen smokers who reported emotional benefits from smoking are_______________(62)higher risk of developing depressive symptoms."The______________ (63)between depression and'smoking exists______________(64)among teens that usecigarettes to feel better."It's ______________(65)to emphasize that depressive symptom scores were higher among teenagers who reported emotional benefits from smoking after they began to smoke,"says Dr. Chaiton. _________(51)
[多选题]共用题干 Chimpanzees1 Chimpanzees(黑猩猩)will soon be extinct(灭绝).If the present rate of hunting and habitat(栖息地)destruction continues, then within 20 years, there will be no chimpanzees living in the wild. But this is more than an environmental or moral tragedy(悲剧).Chimpan-zee extinction may also have profound implications(含意)for the survival of their distant relatives一human beings.2 In 1975 the biologist Marie-Claire King and Allan Wilson discovered that the human and chimpanzee genomes(基因组)match by over 98%. Compare this to the mouse, used as model for human disease in lab tests,which shares only 60% of its DNA with us.In fact, chimpanzees are far more similar to humans than they are to any other species of monkey. As well as resembling us genetically,chimps are highly intelligent and able to use tools.These facts alone should be enough to make protection of chimps an urgent priority(优先).But there is another,more selfish reason to preserve the chimp.3 The chimpanzees' trump card(王牌)comes in the field of medical research. Chimpan-zees are so similar to humans that veterinarians(兽医)often refer to human medical text-books when treating them. Yet chimpanzees do show differences in several key areas.In parti-cular,chimps are much more resistant to a number of major diseases.It is this ability that is so interesting.4 For example,chimps seem to show a much higher resistance than humans to HIV,the virus that causes AIDS. Indeed,their use as experimental animals in AIDS research has de-clined because they are so resistant.5 By sequencing the chimp genome and pinpointing(找到)the place where the chimpan-zee DNA sequence differs from that of humans,scientists hope to be able to discover which part of the genetic code gives chimps their increased resistance to some diseases. This,they hope,will allow them to develop new and more effective treatments for the human forms of these diseases. Such treatments could include the production of new drugs or even the altera-tion(改变)of the human genetic sequence. The recently completed human genome sequen-cing project has shown that such an effort is now well within our reach. Chimpanzee extinction may affect______.
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The Mir Space StationThe Russian Mir Space Station,which came down in 2001 at last after 15 years of pioneering the concept of long-term human space flight,is remembered for its accomplishments in the human space flight history.It can be credited with many firsts in space.During Mir's lifetime,Russia spent about US $4.2 billion to build and maintain the station.The Soviet Union launched Mir,which was designed to last from three to five years,on February 20, 1986,and housed 104 astronauts over 12 years and seven months,most of whom were not Russian.In fact, it became the first international space station by playing host to 162 people from 1 1 countries.From 1995 through 1998,seven astronauts from the United States took turns living on Mir for up to six months each.They were among the 37 Americans who visited the station during nine stopovers by space shuttles.The more than 400 million the United States provided Russian for the visits not only kept Mir operating,but also gave the Americans and their partners in the international station project valuable experience in long-term flight and multinational operations.A debate continues over Mir's contributions to science.During its existence,Mir was the laboratory for 23,000 experiments and carried scientific equipment,estimated to be worth $80 million,from many nations.Experiments on Mir are credited with a range of findings,from the first solid measurement of the ration of heavy helium(氦)atoms in space to how to grow wheat in space.But for those favouring human space exploration,Mir showed that people could live and work in space long enough for a trip to Mars.The longest single stay in space is the 437.7 days that Russian astronaut Valery Polyakov spent on Mir from 1994 to 1995.And Sergie Avdeyev accumulated 747.6 days in space in three trips to the space station.The longest American stay was that of Shannon Lucid,who spent 188 days aboard Mir in 1996.Despite the many firsts Mir accomplished,1997 was a bad year out of 15 for Mir.In 1997,an oxygen generator caught fire.Later,the main computer system broke down,causing the station to drift several times and there were power failures.Most of these problems were repaired,with American help and suppliers,but Mir's reputation as a space station was ruined.Mir's setbacks are nothing,though,when we compare them with its accomplishments.Mir was a tremendous success,which will be remembered as a milestone in space exploration and the space station that showed long-term human habitation in space was possible.But it's time to move on to the next generation.The International Space Station being built will be better,but it owes a great debt to Mir. We can learn from the passage that the Mir Space Station______.
[多选题]共用题干 First Image-recognition Software1. Dartmouth researchers and their colleagues have created an artificial intelligence software that uses photos to locate documents on the Internet with far greater accuracy than ever before.2. The new system,which was tested on photos and is now being applied to videos,shows for the first time that a machine learning algorithm(运算法则)for image recognition and retrieval is ac-curate and efficient enough to improve large-scale document searches online.The system uses pix- el(像素)data in images and potentially video—rather than just text-to locate documents. It learns to recognize the pixels associated with a search phrase by studying the results from text-based image search engines. The knowledge gleaned(收集)from those results can then be ap-plied to other photos without tags or captions(图片说明),making for more accurate document search results.3 .“Over the last 30 years,”says Associate Professor Lorenzo Torresani,a co-author of the stud-“the Web has evolved from a small collection of mostly text documents to a modern,massive, fast-growing multimedia data set,where nearly every page includes multiple pictures or videos. When a person looks at a Web page, he immediately gets the gist(主旨)of it by looking at the pictures in it.Yet,surprisingly,all existing popular search engines,such as Google or Bing, strip away the information contained in the photos and use exclusively the text of Web pages to perform the document retrieval. Our study is the first to show that modern machine vision systems are accurate and efficient enough to make effective use of the information contained in image pix-els to improve document search.”The researchers designed and tested a machine vision system—a type of artificial intelligence that allows computers to learn without being explicitly programmed—that extracts semantic(语义的)information from the pixels of photos in Web pages. This information is used to enrich the description of the HTML page used by search engines for document retrieval.The researchers tested their approach using more than 600 search queries(查询)on a database of 50 million Web pa-ges.They selected the text-retrieval search engine with the best performance and modified it to make use of the additional semantic information extracted by their method from the pictures of the Web pages .They found that this produced a 30 percent improvement in precision over the original search engine purely based on text. Paragraph 3______
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Eye-tracker Lets You Drag and Drop Files with a GlanceBored of using a mouse?Soon you'11 be able to change stuff on your computer screen-and then move it directly onto your smartphone or tablet(平板电脑)-with nothing more than a glance.A system called EyeDrop uses a head-mounted eye tracker that simultaneously records your field of view so it knows where you are looking on the screen.Gazing at an object-a photo,say-and then pressing a key,selects that object.It can then be moved from the screen to a tablet or smartphone just by glancing at the second device,as long as the two are connected wirelessly."The beauty of using gaze to support this is that our eyes naturally focus on content that we want toacquire,"says Jayson Turner,who developed the system with colleagues at Lancaster University,UK.Turner believes EyeDrop would be useful to transfer an interactive map or contact information from a public display to your smartphone or tablet for sharing photos.A button needs to be used to select the object you are looking at otherwise you end up with the"Midas touch"(点石成金)effect, whereby everything you look at gets selected by your gaze, says Turner."Imagine if your mouse clicked on everything it pointed at,"he says.Christian Holz,a researcher in human-computer interaction at Yahoo Labs in Sunnyvale,California, says the system is a nice take on getting round this fundamental problem of using gaze-tracking to interact."EyeDrop solves this in a slick(灵巧的)way by combining it with input on the touch devices we carry with us most of the time anyway and using touch input as a clutching mechanism,"he says."This now allows users to seamlessly(无缝地)interact across devices far and close in a very natural manner."While current eye-trackers are rather bulky,mainstream consumer devices are not too far away.Swedish firm Tobii is developing gaze-tracking technology that can be installed in laptops and tablets and is expected to be available to buy next year.And the Google Glass headset is expected to include eye-tracking in the future.Turner says he has also looked at how content can be cut and pasted or drag-and-dropped using a mix of gaze and taps on a touchscreen.The system was presented at the Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia in Sweden,last week. Which of the following statements is true of eye-trackers for consumer use?
[单选题]An Essential Scientific Process All life on the earth depends upon green plants. Using sunlight, theplants produce their own food. Then animals feed upon the plants. They take inthe nutrients the plants have made sted. But that’s not all.Sunlight also helps a plant produce oxygen. Some of the oxygen is used by theplant, but a plant usually produces me oxygen than it uses. The excess oxygenis necessary f animals other ganisms to live. The process of changing light into food oxygen is calledphotosynthesis. Besides light energy from the sun, plants also use water carbon dioxide. The water gets to the plant through its roots. The carbondioxide enters the leaves through tiny openings called stomata. The carbondioxide travels to chloplasts, special cells in the bodies of green plants.This is photosynthesis takes place. Chloplasts contain the chlophyllsthat give plants their green col. The chlophylls are the molecules thattrap light energy. The trapped light energy changes water carbon dioxide toproduce oxygen a simple sugar called glucose. Carbon dioxide oxygen move into out of the stomata. Watervap also moves out of the stomata. Me than 90 percent of water a planttakes in through its roots escapes through the stomata. During the daytime, thestomata of most plants are open. This allows carbon dioxide to enter the leavesf photosynthesis. As night falls, carbon dioxide is not needed. The stomataof most plants close. Water loss stops. If photosynthesis ceased, there would be little food other ganicmatter on the earth. Most ganisms would disappear. The earth’s atmospherewould no longer contain oxygen. Photosynthesis is essential f life on ourplanet.   词汇: nutrient n.营养物 ganism n.生物体,有机体 carbon dioxide n.二氧化碳 chloplast n.叶绿体 molecule n.分子 vap n.水蒸气 oxygen n.氧气 photosynthesis n.光合作用 chlophyll n.叶绿素 glucose n.葡萄糖 cease v.停止   注释: 1.Then animals feed upon the plants.动物以植物为食。   练习: 2.Which of the following does not move through a plant’s stomata?
[多选题]共用题干 Hurricane1 A hurricane(飓风)is a tropical storm with winds that have reached a constant speed of 74 miles per hour. Hurricane winds blow in a large spiral(螺旋)around a relative calm center know as the“eye”.The“eye” is generally 20 to 30 miles wide,and the storm may ex- tend outward 400 miles. As a hurricane nears land,it can bring heavy rains,high winds,and storms(风暴潮).The storm surges and heavy rains can lead to flooding.2 Hurricanes are given a different label,depending on where they occur. If they begin over the North Atlantic Ocean,the Caribbean Sea,the Gulf of Mexico,or the Northeast Pa-cific Ocean,they are called hurricanes.Similar storms that occur in the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line are called typhoon. Near Australia and in the India Ocean, they are referred to as tropical cyclones(龙卷风).3 When a hurricane hits land,it can do great damage through its fierce winds,heavy rains , inland(内陆的)flooding, and huge waves crashing onto the shore. During a hurri-cane,homes,businesses,and public buildings may be damaged or destroyed;road and bridges can be washed away. A powerful hurricane can kill more people and destroy more property than any other natural disaster. Fishermen are at special risk from hurricanes as they may be at sea when a hurricane arrives and not be able to get to a safe harbour if they do not receive adequate warning.4 If a hurricane is coming in your area,the most important thing is to stay calm and find shelter immediately. Go to your safe room. If you do not have one,stay indoors during the hurricane and go to a safer place near the center of your home. Cover yourself with a blanket and be sure to keep away from windows and glass doors,because if the glass breaks it's real-ly dangerous. Do not be fooled if there is a lull(暂停);it could be the eye of the storm-winds will pick up again. A powerful hurricane may become the most destructive________.
[多选题]共用题干 Natural Gas1 Natural gas is produced from reservoirs deep beneath the earth's surface. It is a fossil fuel(矿物燃 料),meaning that it is derived from orgaiiic material buried in the earth millions of years ago.The main corn- ponent of natural gas is methane(甲烷).2 The popularity and use of clean natural gas have increased dramatically over the past 50 years as pipeline infrastructure(基础设施)has been installed to deliver it conveniently and economically to millions of residential,commercial and industrial customers worldwide.Today,natural gas service is available in all 50 states in the U.S.,and is the leading energy choice for fueling American homes and industries.More than 65 million American homes use natural gas.In fact,natural gas is the most economical source for home energyneeds,costing one-third as much as electricity.In addition to heating homes,much of the gas used in the United States is used as a raw material to manufacture a wide variety of products,from paint,to fibers for clothing,to plastics for healthcare,computing and furnishings.Natural gas is also used in a significant number of new electricity-generating power plants.3 Natural gas is one of the safest and cleanest fuels available. It emits(发出)less pollution than other fossil fuel sources. When natural gas is burned , it produces mostly carbon dioxide(二氧化碳)and water va- por一the same substances emitted when humans breathe.Compared with some other fossil fuels,natural gas emits the least amount of carbon dioxide into the air when combusted(燃烧)一making natural gas the clea-nest burning fossil fuel of all.4 The United States consumes about one一third of the world's natural gas output,making it the largest gas-consuming region in the world.The U.S.Department of Energy Information Administration forecasts that natural gas demand will grow by more than 50 percent by 2025.5 There are huge reserves of natural gas beneath the earth's surface.The largest reserves of natural gas can be found in Russia , West and North Africa and the Middle East. LNG(液化天然气)has been pro- duced domestically and imported in the United States for more than four decades.Today,the leading import- ers of LNG are Japan,Korea,France and Spain. Paragraph 2_________
[多选题]共用题干 ADHD Linked to Air PollutantsChildren have an increased of attention problems,seen as early as grade school,if their no-ses inhaled(吸入)a certain type of air pollution when they were pregnant. That's the finding of a new study.Released when things aren't burned completely,this pollution is known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,or PAHs.The biggest sources of these PAHs:the burning of fossil fuels, wood and trash.Frederica Perera works at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health in New York City.She researches how exposure to things in the environment affects children's health.In a new study,she and her team studied the exposure to air pollution of 233 nonsmoking pregnant women in New York City. Because burning tobacco can spew(排放)PAHs into the air and lungs, Perera's team focused on nonsmokers. The researchers wanted to probe(探查)other sources of PAHs,ones that's would have been hard for an individual to avoid.The team started by testing the blood of each woman during pregnancy.The reason:Any PAHs in a woman's blood would also be available to the baby in her womb.Nine years later,the researchers investigated signs of attention problems in those children,now age 9 .They asked each child's mother a series of questions.These included whatever her child had problems doing things that needed sustained(长期的)mental effort, such as homework or games with friends. The sci-entists also asked if the kids had trouble following instructions or made frequent,careless mis-takes .All of these can be symptoms of a disorder called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.About one in U.S.children has ADHD.Among the women studied,traffic and home heating were the primary sources of air pollution exposure,Perera and her team suspect. Some of these women had low levels of PAHs in their blood .Others had high levels.Those with high levels were five times as likely to have children who showed attention problems by age 9 .The new findings were published November 5 in the journal PLOS ONE. The main purpose of the research was to find out how exposure to PAHs played a role in har-ming the subjects' physical health.
[多选题]共用题干 ADHD Linked to Air PollutantsChildren have an increased of attention problems,seen as early as grade school,if their no-ses inhaled(吸入)a certain type of air pollution when they were pregnant. That's the finding of a new study.Released when things aren't burned completely,this pollution is known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,or PAHs.The biggest sources of these PAHs:the burning of fossil fuels, wood and trash.Frederica Perera works at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health in New York City.She researches how exposure to things in the environment affects children's health.In a new study,she and her team studied the exposure to air pollution of 233 nonsmoking pregnant women in New York City. Because burning tobacco can spew(排放)PAHs into the air and lungs, Perera's team focused on nonsmokers. The researchers wanted to probe(探查)other sources of PAHs,ones that's would have been hard for an individual to avoid.The team started by testing the blood of each woman during pregnancy.The reason:Any PAHs in a woman's blood would also be available to the baby in her womb.Nine years later,the researchers investigated signs of attention problems in those children,now age 9 .They asked each child's mother a series of questions.These included whatever her child had problems doing things that needed sustained(长期的)mental effort, such as homework or games with friends. The sci-entists also asked if the kids had trouble following instructions or made frequent,careless mis-takes .All of these can be symptoms of a disorder called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.About one in U.S.children has ADHD.Among the women studied,traffic and home heating were the primary sources of air pollution exposure,Perera and her team suspect. Some of these women had low levels of PAHs in their blood .Others had high levels.Those with high levels were five times as likely to have children who showed attention problems by age 9 .The new findings were published November 5 in the journal PLOS ONE. The women with high levels of PAHs in their blood were more likely to have kids with ADHD.
[多选题]共用题干 Memory Test1 "I am going to give you five techniques that will enable you to remember anything youneed to know at school,"promised lecturer Ian Robinson to a hundred schoolchildren.He slapped his hand down on the table."When I've finished in two hours' time,your work will be far more effective and productive.Anyone not interested,leave now."The entire room sat still.2 Robinson calls himself the Mind Magician(魔术师).He specializes in doing magic tricks that look totally impossible,and then he reveals that they involve nothing more mysteriousthan good old-fashioned trickery(骗术)."I have always been interested in tricks involving memory-being able to reel off(一口气说出)the order of cards in a pack, that sort of thing," he explains.3 Robinson was already lecturing to schools on his magic techniques when it struck him that students might find memory techniques even more valuable."It wasn't a difficult area to move into,as the stuff's all there in books."So he summarized everything to make a two-hour lecture about five techniques.4 "You want to learn a list of a hundred things?A.thousand?No problem,"says Robinson.The scandal is that every child is not taught the techniques from the beginning oftheir school life.The schoolchildren who were watching him thought it was brilliant."I wish I'd been told this earlier,"commented Mark,after Robinson had shown them how to construct"mental journeys".5 Essentially , you visualize(想象)a walk down a street, or a trip round a room,and pick the points where you will put the things you want to remember一the lamppost,the fruit bowl. Then in each location you put a visual representation of your list一phrasal verbs,historical dates,whatever一making them as strange as possible.It is that simple,and it works.6 The reaction of schools has been uniformly enthusiastic."The pupils benefitedenormously from Ian's presentation,"says Dr. Johnston,head of the school where Robinson was speaking. "Ideally we should run a regular class in memory techniques so pupils can pick it up gradually." Robinson taught children to use"mental journeys"to improve________.
[多选题]共用题干 Lakes,Too,Feel Global WarmingThere's no doubt:In the last few decades,the average temperature on Earth has been higher than it has been in hundreds of years.Around the world,people are starting to measure the effects of global warming一 and trying to figure out what to do about it.Scientists recently used satellites to study the temperatures of lakes around the world,and they found that lakes are heating up.Between 1985 and 2009,satellites recorded the nighttime temperatures of the sur- faces of 167 lakes.During those 24 years,the lakes got warmer by an average of about 0.045 degreeCelsius per year.In some places,lakes have been warming by as much as 0.10 degree Celsius per year. At that rate,a lake may warm by a full degree Celsius in just 10 years.That difference may seem small一you might not even notice it in your bath.But in a lake,slightly warmer temperatures could mean more algae(水藻),and algae can make the lake poisonous to fish.The study shows that in some regions,lakes are warming faster than the air around them.This is impor- tant because scientists often use measurements of air temperature to study how Earth is warming. By using lake temperatures as well,scientists can get a better picture of global warming. The scientists say data on lakes give scientists a new way to measure the impact of climate change around the world.That's going to be useful,since no country is too big or too small to ignore climate change.Scientists aren't the only ones concerned.Everyone who lives on Earth is going to be affected by the rapid warming of the planet. Many world leaders believe we might be able to do something about it,especially by reducing theamount of greenhouse(温室)gases we put into the air.That's why the United Nations started the Framework Convention on Climate Change,or UNFCCC. Every year the convention meets,and representatives from countries around the world gather to talk about climate change and discuss global solutions to the challenges of a warming world. A slight temperature increase in a lake could be harmful to fish.
[多选题]共用题干 Dangers Await Babies with AltitudeWomen who live in the world's highest communities tend to give birth to under-weight ha-bies,a new study suggests.These babies may grow into adults with a high risk of heart disease and strokes.Research has hinted that newborns in mountain communities are lighter than average.But it wasn't clear whether this is due to reduced oxygen levels at high altitude or because their mothers are under-nourished—many people who live at high altitudes are relatively poor compared with those living lower down.To find out more,Dino Giussani and his team at Cambridge University studied the records of400 births in Bolivia during 1976 and 1998.The babies were born in both rich and poor areas of two cities:La Paz and Santa Cruz. La Paz is the highest city in the world,at 3 .65 kilometers a-bove sea level,while Santa Cruz is much lower,at 0.44 kilometers.Sure enough,Giussani found that the average birthweight of babies in La Paz was significant-ly lower than in Santa Cruz.This was true in both high and low-income families.Even babies born to poor families in Santa Cruz were heavier on average than babies born to wealthy families in lofty La Paz.“We were very surprised by this result,”says Giussani.The results suggest that babies born at high altitude are deprived of oxygen before birth. “This may trigger the release or suppression of hormones that regulate growth of the unborn child,”says Giussani.His team also found that high-altitude babies tended to have relatively larger heads compared with their bodies. This is probably because a fetus starved of oxygen will send oxygenated blood to the brain in preference to rest of the body.Giussani wants to find out if such babies have a higher risk of disease in later life.People born in La Paz might be prone to heart trouble in adulthood,for example.Low birth weight is a risk factor for coronary(冠状的)heart disease. And newborns with a high ratio of head size to body weight are often predisposed to high blood pressure and strokes in later life. The results of the study indicate the reason for the underweight babies is______.
[多选题]共用题干 More Than 8 Hours Sleep Too Much of a Good Thing1 Although the dangers of too little sleep are widely known,new research suggests that people who sleep too much may also suffer the consequences.2 Investigators at the University of California in San Diego found that people who clock up 9 or 10 hours each weeknight appear to have more trouble falling and staying asleep,as well as a number of other sleep problems,than people who sleep 8 hours a night. People who slept only 7 hours each night also said they had more trouble falling asleep and feeling re-freshed after a night's sleep than 8-hour sleepers.3 These findings,which DL Daniel Kripke reported in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine,demonstrate that people who want to get a good night's rest may not need to set aside more than 8 hours a night.He added that“it might be a good idea” for people who sleep more than 8 hours each night to consider reducing the amount of time they spend in bed,but cau-tioned that more research is needed to confirm this.4 Previous studies have shown the potential dangers of chronic shortages of sleep一for instance,one report demonstrated that people who habitually sleep less than 7 hours each night have a higher risk of dying within a fixed period than people who sleep more.5 For the current report,Kripke reviewed the responses of 1,004 adults to sleep ques-tionaires,in which participants indicated how much they slept during the week and whether they experienced any sleep problems. Sleep problems included waking in the middle of the night,arising early in the morning and being unable to fall back to sleep,and having fatigue interfere with day-to-day functioning.6 Kripke found that people who slept between 9 and 10 hours each night were more like-ly to report experiencing each sleep problem than people who slept 8 hours. In an interview, Kripke noted that long sleepers may struggle to get rest at night simply because they spend too much time in bed. As evidence,he added that one way to help insomnia is to spend less time in bed.“It stands to reason that if a person spends too long a time in bed,then they'll spend a higher percentage of time awake.”he said. To get a good night's rest,people may not need to______.
[多选题]共用题干 Memory Test1 "I am going to give you five techniques that will enable you to remember anything youneed to know at school,"promised lecturer Ian Robinson to a hundred schoolchildren.He slapped his hand down on the table."When I've finished in two hours' time,your work will be far more effective and productive.Anyone not interested, leave now."The entire room sat still.2 Robinson calls himself the Mind Magician(魔术师).He specializes in doing magic tricks that look totally impossible,and then he reveals that they involve nothing more mysteriousthan good old-fashioned trickery(骗术)."I have always been interested in tricks involving memory-being able to reel off(一口气说出)the order of cards in a pack, that sort of thing," he explains.3 Robinson was already lecturing to schools on his magic techniques when it struck him that students might find memory techniques even more valuable."It wasn't a difficult area to move into,as the stuff's all there in books."So he summarized everything to make a two-hour lecture about five techniques.4 "You want to learn a list of a hundred things?A thousand?No problem,"saysRobinson.The scandal is that every child is not taught the techniques from the beginning oftheir school life.The schoolchildren who were watching him thought it was brilliant."I wish I'd been told this earlier,"commented Mark,after Robinson had shown them how to construct"mental journeys".5 Essentially, you visualize(想象)a walk down a street, or a trip round a room,and pick the points where you will put the things you want to remember一the lamppost,the fruit bowl. Then in each location you put a visual representation of your list一phrasal verbs,historical dates,whatever一making them as strange as possible.It is that simple,and it works.6 The reaction of schools has been uniformly enthusiastic."The pupils benefited enormously from lan's presentation,"says Dr Johnston,head of the school where Robinson was speaking."Ideally we should run a regular class in memory techniques so pupils can pick it up gradually." Paragraph 4_______
[多选题]共用题干 第一篇Approaches to Understanding IntelligencesIt pays to be smart,but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician,but you might not be a good reader.Each of us is different.Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on all tests.Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelligent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believes that all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about.the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathematical,spatial, musical , interpersonal,intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic. Gardner believes that______
[多选题]共用题干 ADHD Linked to Air PollutantsChildren have an increased of attention problems,seen as early as grade school,if their no-ses inhaled(吸入)a certain type of air pollution when they were pregnant. That's the finding of a new study.Released when things aren't burned completely,this pollution is known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,or PAHs.The biggest sources of these PAHs:the burning of fossil fuels, wood and trash.Frederica Perera works at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health in New York City.She researches how exposure to things in the environment affects children's health.In a new study,she and her team studied the exposure to air pollution of 233 nonsmoking pregnant women in New York City. Because burning tobacco can spew(排放)PAHs into the air and lungs, Perera's team focused on nonsmokers. The researchers wanted to probe(探查)other sources of PAHs,ones that's would have been hard for an individual to avoid.The team started by testing the blood of each woman during pregnancy.The reason:Any PAHs in a woman's blood would also be available to the baby in her womb.Nine years later,the researchers investigated signs of attention problems in those children,now age 9 .They asked each child's mother a series of questions.These included whatever her child had problems doing things that needed sustained(长期的)mental effort, such as homework or games with friends. The sci-entists also asked if the kids had trouble following instructions or made frequent,careless mis-takes .All of these can be symptoms of a disorder called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.About one in U.S.children has ADHD.Among the women studied,traffic and home heating were the primary sources of air pollution exposure,Perera and her team suspect. Some of these women had low levels of PAHs in their blood .Others had high levels.Those with high levels were five times as likely to have children who showed attention problems by age 9 .The new findings were published November 5 in the journal PLOS ONE. Nonsmoking mothers were selected because the effect of smoking on PAHs was unclear.
[多选题]共用题干 Underground Coal FiresCoal burning deep underground in China,India and Indonesia is threatening the environment and human life , scientists have warned.These large-scale______(51)blazes(火焰)cause the ground temperature to heat up and kill surrounding vegetation,produce greenhouse gases and can______(52) ignite(点燃)forest fires , a group of scientists told the annual meeting of the American Association for theAdvancement of Science in Denver.The resulting______(53)of poisonous elements like mercury can also pollute local water sources and soils,they warned."Coal fires are a global disaster,"said Associate Professor Glenn Stracher of East Georgia College inSwainsboro,USA.But______(54)few people know about them.Coal can heat up on its own,and eventually catch fire and bum,if there is a continuous oxygen supply.The heat produced is not caused to______(55)and under the right combinations of sunlight and oxygen,can trigger spontaneous(自发的)catching fire and buming.This can occur underground , in coal stockpiles, abandoned mines or even as coal is transported.______(56)fires in China consume up to 200 million tons of coal per year,delegates were told.In______(57),the U.S.economy consumes about one billion tons of coal annually,said Stracher,______(58)analysis of the likely impact of coal fires has been accepted for publication in the International Journal of Coal Ecology.______(59)underway,coal fires can bum for decades,even centuries.In the process,they release large______(60)of greenhouse gases,poisonous fumes and black particles into the atmosphere.The members of the panel discussed the______(61)these fires may be having on global and regional climate change,and agreed that the underground nature of the fires makes them difficult to______(62).Ultimately,the remote sensing and other techniques should allow scientists to______(63)how much carbon dioxide these fires are emitting(释放).One suggested______(64)of containing the fires was presented by Gary Colaizzi,of the engineering firm Goodson,which has developed a heat-resistant grout(灌浆),which is designed to be pumped into the coal fire to______(65)the oxygen supply. _________62
[多选题]共用题干 Hurricane1 A hurricane(飓风)is a tropical storm with winds that have reached a constant speed of 74 miles per hour. Hurricane winds blow in a large spiral(螺旋)around a relative calm center know as the“eye”.The“eye” is generally 20 to 30 miles wide,and the storm may ex- tend outward 400 miles. As a hurricane nears land,it can bring heavy rains,high winds,and storms(风暴潮).The storm surges and heavy rains can lead to flooding.2 Hurricanes are given a different label,depending on where they occur. If they begin over the North Atlantic Ocean,the Caribbean Sea,the Gulf of Mexico,or the Northeast Pa-cific Ocean,they are called hurricanes.Similar storms that occur in the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line are called typhoon. Near Australia and in the India Ocean, they are referred to as tropical cyclones(龙卷风).3 When a hurricane hits land,it can do great damage through its fierce winds,heavy rains , inland(内陆的)flooding, and huge waves crashing onto the shore. During a hurri-cane,homes,businesses,and public buildings may be damaged or destroyed;road and bridges can be washed away. A powerful hurricane can kill more people and destroy more property than any other natural disaster. Fishermen are at special risk from hurricanes as they may be at sea when a hurricane arrives and not be able to get to a safe harbour if they do not receive adequate warning.4 If a hurricane is coming in your area,the most important thing is to stay calm and find shelter immediately. Go to your safe room. If you do not have one,stay indoors during the hurricane and go to a safer place near the center of your home. Cover yourself with a blanket and be sure to keep away from windows and glass doors,because if the glass breaks it's real-ly dangerous. Do not be fooled if there is a lull(暂停);it could be the eye of the storm-winds will pick up again. Depending on where the occur,hurricanes have________.
[多选题]共用题干 Chimpanzees1 Chimpanzees(黑猩猩)will soon be extinct(灭绝).If the present rate of hunting and habitat(栖息地)destruction continues, then within 20 years, there will be no chimpanzees living in the wild. But this is more than an environmental or moral tragedy(悲剧).Chimpan-zee extinction may also have profound implications(含意)for the survival of their distant relatives一human beings.2 In 1975 the biologist Marie-Claire King and Allan Wilson discovered that the human and chimpanzee genomes(基因组)match by over 98%. Compare this to the mouse, used as model for human disease in lab tests,which shares only 60% of its DNA with us.In fact, chimpanzees are far more similar to humans than they are to any other species of monkey. As well as resembling us genetically,chimps are highly intelligent and able to use tools.These facts alone should be enough to make protection of chimps an urgent priority(优先).But there is another,more selfish reason to preserve the chimp.3 The chimpanzees' trump card(王牌)comes in the field of medical research. Chimpan-zees are so similar to humans that veterinarians(兽医)often refer to human medical text-books when treating them. Yet chimpanzees do show differences in several key areas.In parti-cular,chimps are much more resistant to a number of major diseases.It is this ability that is so interesting.4 For example,chimps seem to show a much higher resistance than humans to HIV,the virus that causes AIDS. Indeed,their use as experimental animals in AIDS research has de-clined because they are so resistant.5 By sequencing the chimp genome and pinpointing(找到)the place where the chimpan-zee DNA sequence differs from that of humans,scientists hope to be able to discover which part of the genetic code gives chimps their increased resistance to some diseases. This,they hope,will allow them to develop new and more effective treatments for the human forms of these diseases. Such treatments could include the production of new drugs or even the altera-tion(改变)of the human genetic sequence. The recently completed human genome sequen-cing project has shown that such an effort is now well within our reach. The discovery of the genetic code of chimps will be helpful to_______.
[多选题]共用题干 Underground Coal FiresCoal burning deep underground in China,India and Indonesia is threatening the environment and human life , scientists have warned.These large-scale______(51)blazes(火焰)cause the ground temperature to heat up and kill surrounding vegetation,produce greenhouse gases and can______(52) ignite(点燃)forest fires , a group of scientists told the annual meeting of the American Association for theAdvancement of Science in Denver.The resulting______(53)of poisonous elements like mercury can also pollute local water sources and soils,they warned."Coal fires are a global disaster,"said Associate Professor Glenn Stracher of East Georgia College inSwainsboro,USA.But______(54)few people know about them.Coal can heat up on its own,and eventually catch fire and bum,if there is a continuous oxygen supply.The heat produced is not caused to______(55)and under the right combinations of sunlight and oxygen,can trigger spontaneous(自发的)catching fire and buming.This can occur underground , in coal stockpiles, abandoned mines or even as coal is transported.______(56)fires in China consume up to 200 million tons of coal per year,delegates were told.In______(57),the U.S.economy consumes about one billion tons of coal annually,said Stracher,______(58)analysis of the likely impact of coal fires has been accepted for publication in the International Journal of Coal Ecology.______(59)underway,coal fires can bum for decades,even centuries.In the process,they release large______(60)of greenhouse gases,poisonous fumes and black particles into the atmosphere.The members of the panel discussed the______(61)these fires may be having on global and regional climate change,and agreed that the underground nature of the fires makes them difficult to______(62).Ultimately,the remote sensing and other techniques should allow scientists to______(63)how much carbon dioxide these fires are emitting(释放).One suggested______(64)of containing the fires was presented by Gary Colaizzi,of the engineering firm Goodson,which has developed a heat-resistant grout(灌浆),which is designed to be pumped into the coal fire to______(65)the oxygen supply. _________64
[多选题]共用题干 Earth Angels1 Joying Brescia was 8 years old when she noticed that cigarette butts(烟头)were littering her hometown beach in Isle of Palms,South Carolina.When she learned that it takes five years for the remains of a cigarette to disintegrate,she decided to take action. Joying launched a"No Butts on the Beach"campaign.She raised money and awareness about the need to keep the beaches clean.With the help of others,Joying also bought or received donations of gallon-size plastic ice-cream buckets. The buckets were filled with sand,and placed at all public-access areas of the beach.The buckets allowed people to dispose of their cigarettes before hitting the beach.Two years later,Joying says the buckets are full and the beach is nearly free of cigarette debris(残片).2 People who live in or visit Steamboat Springs,Colorado,have Carter Dunham to thank for a new state wildlife refuge that preserves 20 acres of marshland and many species of wildlife.Carter and other students wrote a management plan for the area around the Yampa River.The plan was part of a class project when Carter was a freshman at Steamboat Springs High School.Working with the Colorado Division of Wildlife,Carter and his classmates mapped the area and species of animals living there.They also made decisions about, among other things,where fences and parking areas should be built.3 Barbara Brown and her friends collect oil.It started as a project for their 4H Club after one of the girls noticed her father using motor oil to kill weeds on their farm in Victoria, Texas.They did some research and discovered that oil can contaminate ground water一a real danger in rural areas,where people live off the water on their land.The girls researched ways to recycle oil and worked with a local oil-recycling company on the issue. Now,the"Don't Be Crude"program runs oil-collection sites一tanks that hold up to 460 gallons一where people in the community can dispose of their oil.4 Five years ago,11 -year-old Ryan Hreljac was a little boy with a big dream:for all the people in Africa to have clean drinking water. His dream began in the first grade when he learned that people were dying because they didn't have clean water,and that as little as $70 could build a well, "We really take water for granted,"says Ryan,of Kemptville, Ontario,in Canada. "In other countries,you have to plan for it."Ryan earned the first $70 by doing extra chores(零工),but with the help of others,he has since raised hundreds of thousands of dollars.His efforts led to the start of the Ryan's Well Foundation, which raises money for clean water and health-related services for people in African countries and developing countries. Paragraph 1_________
[多选题]共用题干 Learn about Light1 .Ancient civilizations were amazed by the existence of light for thousands of years. The Greek philosophers believed that light was made up of countless,tiny particles that enter the human eye and create what we call vision. However,Empedocles and a Dutch scientist named Christian Huygens believed that light was like a wave. According to them,light spread out and travelled like a straight line. This theory was accepted during the 19th century.2 .In 1905,Albert Einstein published a research paper in which he explained what is re-ferred to as the photoelectric effect. This theory explains that particles make up light.The particles Einstein was referring to are weightless bundles(束)of electromagnetic(电磁)energy called photons(光子).Today,scientists agree that light has a dual(二重)nature一it is part particle and part wave. It is a form of energy that allows us to see things around us.3 .Things that give off light are known as sources of light. During the day,the primary source of light is the sun. Other sources of light include stars,flames,flashlights,street lamps and glowing gases in glass tube.4 .When we draw the way light travels we always use straight lines. This is because nor-mally light rays travel in a straight line. However,there are some instances that can change the path and even the nature of light. They are reflection,absorption,interference(干扰), etc.5 .Physicists have attempted to measure the speed of light since the early times. In 1849, Hippolyte Fizeau conducted an experiment by directing a beam of light to a mirror located kilometers away and placed a rotating cogwheel(旋转齿轮)between the beam and the mirror. From the rate of rotation of the wheel,number of wheel's teeth and distance of the mirror,he was able to calculate that the speed of light is 313 million meters per second. In a vacuum(真空),however,the speed of light is 299,792,458 meters per second. This is about a million times faster than the speed of an airplane. Objects are visible to the human eye as light is______.
[多选题]共用题干 Memory Test1 "I am going to give you five techniques that will enable you to remember anything youneed to know at school,"promised lecturer Ian Robinson to a hundred schoolchildren.He slapped his hand down on the table."When I've finished in two hours' time,your work will be far more effective and productive.Anyone not interested,leave now."The entire room sat still.2 Robinson calls himself the Mind Magician(魔术师).He specializes in doing magic tricks that look totally impossible,and then he reveals that they involve nothing more mysteriousthan good old-fashioned trickery(骗术)."I have always been interested in tricks involving memory-being able to reel off(一口气说出)the order of cards in a pack, that sort of thing," he explains.3 Robinson was already lecturing to schools on his magic techniques when it struck him that students might find memory techniques even more valuable."It wasn't a difficult area to move into,as the stuff's all there in books."So he summarized everything to make a two-hour lecture about five techniques.4 "You want to learn a list of a hundred things?A.thousand?No problem,"says Robinson.The scandal is that every child is not taught the techniques from the beginning oftheir school life.The schoolchildren who were watching him thought it was brilliant."I wish I'd been told this earlier,"commented Mark,after Robinson had shown them how to construct"mental journeys".5 Essentially , you visualize(想象)a walk down a street, or a trip round a room,and pick the points where you will put the things you want to remember一the lamppost,the fruit bowl. Then in each location you put a visual representation of your list一phrasal verbs,historical dates,whatever一making them as strange as possible.It is that simple,and it works.6 The reaction of schools has been uniformly enthusiastic."The pupils benefitedenormously from Ian's presentation,"says Dr. Johnston,head of the school where Robinson was speaking. "Ideally we should run a regular class in memory techniques so pupils can pick it up gradually." Robinson told the pupils that all the memory techniques could be found in________.
[多选题]共用题干 Chimpanzees1 Chimpanzees(黑猩猩)will soon be extinct(灭绝).If the present rate of hunting and habitat(栖息地)destruction continues, then within 20 years, there will be no chimpanzees living in the wild. But this is more than an environmental or moral tragedy(悲剧).Chimpan-zee extinction may also have profound implications(含意)for the survival of their distant relatives一human beings.2 In 1975 the biologist Marie-Claire King and Allan Wilson discovered that the human and chimpanzee genomes(基因组)match by over 98%. Compare this to the mouse, used as model for human disease in lab tests,which shares only 60% of its DNA with us.In fact, chimpanzees are far more similar to humans than they are to any other species of monkey. As well as resembling us genetically,chimps are highly intelligent and able to use tools.These facts alone should be enough to make protection of chimps an urgent priority(优先).But there is another,more selfish reason to preserve the chimp.3 The chimpanzees' trump card(王牌)comes in the field of medical research. Chimpan-zees are so similar to humans that veterinarians(兽医)often refer to human medical text-books when treating them. Yet chimpanzees do show differences in several key areas.In parti-cular,chimps are much more resistant to a number of major diseases.It is this ability that is so interesting.4 For example,chimps seem to show a much higher resistance than humans to HIV,the virus that causes AIDS. Indeed,their use as experimental animals in AIDS research has de-clined because they are so resistant.5 By sequencing the chimp genome and pinpointing(找到)the place where the chimpan-zee DNA sequence differs from that of humans,scientists hope to be able to discover which part of the genetic code gives chimps their increased resistance to some diseases. This,they hope,will allow them to develop new and more effective treatments for the human forms of these diseases. Such treatments could include the production of new drugs or even the altera-tion(改变)of the human genetic sequence. The recently completed human genome sequen-cing project has shown that such an effort is now well within our reach. Chimpanzee extinction may affect______.
[多选题]共用题干 Ecosystem1. The word “ecosystem” is short for ecological(生态的)system. An ecosystem is where living creatures expand within a given area. You can say that an ecosystem is the natural environment where biological organisms(生物)such as plants,animals and humans co-exist in this world. So naturally that includes you and me. Yes,we are all members of an ecosystem!2 .There are different kinds of ecosystems depending on the type of surface or environ-ment. Most are naturally made such as the ocean or lake and the desert or rainforest.Some are man-made or artificial to encourage co-habitation(同居)between living and non-living things in a monitored environment,such as a zoo or garden.3 .Plants make up the biggest group of biological creatures within an ecosystem,and that's because they are the natural food producers for everyone. Plants raised in the earth need air and collect sunlight to help them grow. When they grow,the plants and its fruits or flowers eventually become a source of food to animals,microorganisms(微生物)and even hu- mans,of course. Food is then converted to energy for the rest of us to function,and this hap-pens in a never-ending cycle until the living creatures die and break up back in the earth.4 .Ecosystems are the basis of survival for all living things.We depend on plants and ani-mals for food. In order for us to exist,we need to grow and care about other organisms. We also need to care for the non-living things within our environment like our air and water so we can continue living as a population. Since plants,animals and humans are all of various species(物种),we all play a role in maintaining the ecosystem.5 .To preserve our ecosystems,we should stop using too much energy,which happens when we consume more than our share of resources. Humans should not disturb the natural habitat(栖息地)of plants and animals,and allow them to grow healthily for the cycle to con-tinue. Too many people in a habitat can mean displacement(搬迁): imagine being thrown out of your home because there is no more space for everyone. Worse,overpopulation can also ru- in the environment and cause destruction of existing plants and animals. In an ecosystem,plants,animals and humans live together in______.
[多选题]共用题干 The iPad1 The iPad is a tablet computer(平板电脑)designed and developed by Apple. It is particularly mar- keted as a platform for audio and visual media such as books , periodicals(期刊), movies , music , and games, as well as web content. At about 1.5 pounds(680 grams),its size and weight are between those of most con- temporary smartphones and laptop computers.Apple released the iPad in April 2010,and sold 3 million of the devices in 80 days.2 The iPad runs the same operating system as iPod Touch and iPhone.It can run its own applications as well as ones developed for iPhone.Without modification,it will only run programs approved by Apple and distributed via its online store.3 Like iPhone and iPod Touch,the iPad is controlled by a multitouch display一a break from most pre- vious tablet computers , which uses a pressure-triggered stylus(触控笔).The iPad uses a Wi-Fi data connec-tion to browse(浏览)the Internet , load and stream media, and install software. Some models also have a 3 G wireless data connection which can connect to GSM 3 G data networks.The device is managed and synchro- nized(同步)by iTunes on a personal computer via USB cable.4 An iPad has different features and applications one can use to execute different and interesting things.There are lots of iPad applications that the owner can use to enhance the way they communicate.Some of these are how to use social networking sites and other online options.One of the most common uses is for e-mail services.iPad applications like Markdown Mail allow the adoption of specific and particular options. They enable the owner to personalize their email accounts.5 While the iPad is mostly used by consumers it also has been taken up by business users.Some com- panies are adopting iPads in their business offices by distributing or making available iPads to employees. Examples of uses in the workplace include lawyers responding to clients,medical professionals accessing health records during patient exams,and managers approving employee requests.A survey by Frost&Sulli-van shows that iPad usage in workplaces is linked to the goals of increased employee productivity,reduced paperwork,and increased revenue. iPad usage in offices enables employee productivity to be______________.
[多选题]共用题干 So Many"Earths"The Milky Way(银河)contains billions of Earth-sized planets that could support life.That's the finding of a new study.It draws on data that came from NASA's top planet-hunting telescope.A mechanical failure recently put that Kepler space telescope out of service.Kepler had played a big role in creating a census of planets orbiting some 170,000 stars.Its data have been helping astronomers predict how common planets are in our galaxy.The telescope focused on hunting planets that might have conditions similar to those on Earth.The authors of a study,published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,conclude that between 14 and 30 out of every 100 stars,with a mass and temperature similar to the Sun,may host a planet that could support life as we know it.Such a planet would have a diameter at least as large as Earth's,but no more than twice that big.The planet also would have to orbit in a star's habitable zone.That's where the surface temperature would allow any water to exist as a liquid.The new estimate of how many planets might fit these conditions comes from studying more than 42,000 stars and identifying suitable worlds orbiting them.The scientists used those numbers to extrapolate(推算) to the rest of the stars that the telescope could not see.The estimate is rough,the authors admit.If applied to the solar system,it would define as habitable a zone starting as close to the Sun as Venus and running to as far away as Mars.Neither planet is Earthlike (although either might have been in the distant past).Using tighter limits,the researchers estimate that between 4 and 8 out of every 100 sunlike stars could host an Earth-sized world.These are ones that would take 200 to 400 days to complete a yearly orbit.Four out of every 100 sunlike stars doesn't sound like a big number.It would mean,however,that the Milky Way could host more than a billion Earth-sized planets with a chance for life. This is the first research finding about the planets with a chance for life.
[单选题]第二十二篇 RealWld Robots   When you think of a robot, do you envision ashiny, metallic device having the same general shape as a human being,perfming humanlike functions, responding to your questions in a monotonevoice accentuated by high-pitched tones beeps? This is the way many of usimagine a robot, but in the real wld, a robot is not humanoid at all. Insteada robot often is a voiceless, box-shaped machine that efficiently carries outrepetitive dangerous functions usually perfmed by humans. Today’s robot is me than an automatic machine that perfms one taskagain again. A modern robot is programmed with varying degrees ofartificial intelligence—that is, a robot contains acomputer program that tells it how to perfm tasks associated with human intelligence,such as reasoning, drawing conclusions, learning from past experience.   A robot does not possess a human shape fthe simple reason that a two-legged robot has great difficulty remainingbalanced. A robot does, however, move from place to place on wheels axlesthat roll rotate. A robot even has limbs that swivel move incombination with ts mots. To find its way in its surroundings1, arobot utilizes various built-in senss. Antennae attached to the robot’s base detect anything they bump into. If the robot starts to teeteras it moves on an incline, a gyroscope a pendulum inside it senses thevertical differential. To determine its distance from an object how quicklyit will reach the object,the robot bounces beams oflaser light ultrasonic sound waves off obstructions in its path2. These other senss constantly feed infmation to the computer, which then analyzesthe infmation crects adjusts the robot’sactions. As science technology advance, the robot too will progress in itsfunctions use of artificial-intelligence programs.   词汇:   envision v. 想象,预想   device n. 装置   accentuate v. 强调,重读   artificial intelligence n. 人工智能   limb n. 臂   antennae n. 天线   incline v. 倾斜   pendulum n. 钟摆   ultrasonic adj. 超声的   metallic adj. 金属的   monotone n. 单调的   humanoid adj. 像人的   axle n. 轮轴   rotate v. 旋转   swivel n. 旋转   teeter v. 摇晃   gyroscope n. 陀螺仪,回转仪   vertical n. 直立的   注释:   1.To find its way in its surroundings...:为了在周围找到路……   2.the robot bounces beams of laser light ultrasonic sound waves off obstructions in its path:机器人发射激光束和超声波,反射到障碍物上(以此来探知路径)。  练习:  5.The wd humanoid means
[多选题]共用题干 The iPad1 The iPad is a tablet computer(平板电脑)designed and developed by Apple. It is particularly mar- keted as a platform for audio and visual media such as books , periodicals(期刊), movies , music , and games, as well as web content. At about 1.5 pounds(680 grams),its size and weight are between those of most con- temporary smartphones and laptop computers.Apple released the iPad in April 2010,and sold 3 million of the devices in 80 days.2 The iPad runs the same operating system as iPod Touch and iPhone.It can run its own applications as well as ones developed for iPhone.Without modification,it will only run programs approved by Apple and distributed via its online store.3 Like iPhone and iPod Touch,the iPad is controlled by a multitouch display一a break from most pre- vious tablet computers , which uses a pressure-triggered stylus(触控笔).The iPad uses a Wi-Fi data connec-tion to browse(浏览)the Internet , load and stream media, and install software. Some models also have a 3 G wireless data connection which can connect to GSM 3 G data networks.The device is managed and synchro- nized(同步)by iTunes on a personal computer via USB cable.4 An iPad has different features and applications one can use to execute different and interesting things.There are lots of iPad applications that the owner can use to enhance the way they communicate.Some of these are how to use social networking sites and other online options.One of the most common uses is for e-mail services.iPad applications like Markdown Mail allow the adoption of specific and particular options. They enable the owner to personalize their email accounts.5 While the iPad is mostly used by consumers it also has been taken up by business users.Some com- panies are adopting iPads in their business offices by distributing or making available iPads to employees. Examples of uses in the workplace include lawyers responding to clients,medical professionals accessing health records during patient exams,and managers approving employee requests.A survey by Frost&Sulli-van shows that iPad usage in workplaces is linked to the goals of increased employee productivity,reduced paperwork,and increased revenue. In April 2010 the iPad developed by Apple was______________.
[多选题]共用题干 Smoking can Increase Depressive Symptoms in TeensWhile some teenagers may use cigarettes to "self-medicate"(自我治疗)against the blues(忧郁),sci- entists at the University of Toronto and the University of Montreal have found that smoking may actually ______________(51)depressive symptoms in some teens."This observational study is one of the few to examine the perceived ______________(52)benefits of smoking among teens,"says lead researcher Michael Chaiton,a research associate at the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit of the University of Toronto."_______________(53)cigarettes may appear to have self-medicating effects or to improve mood,in the long_______________(54)we found that teens who started to smoke reported higher depressive symptoms."As part of the study,some 662 high school teenagers completed up to 20 questionnaires about their useof cigarettes to ______________(55)mood.Secondary schools were selected to provide a mix of French andEnglish participants,urban and rural schools,and schools ______________(56)in high,moderate and low so-cioeconomic neighbourhoods.Participants were divided into three______________ (57):never smokers;smokers who did not use ciga-rettes to self-medicate,improve mood or physical______________ (58);smokers who used cigarettes to self-medicate.Depressive symptoms were measured using a scale that asked how often participants felt too tiredto do things;had______________ (59)going to sleep or staying asleep;felt unhappy,sad,or depressed;felt hopeless about the future;felt anxious or tense;and worried too much about things." Smokers who used cigarettes as mood______________( 60 ) had higher risks of elevated(提升)depres-sive symptoms______________ (61)teens who had never smoked,"says co-researcher Jennifer O'Loughlin,aprofessor at the University of Montreal Department of Social and Preventive Medicine."Our study found that teen smokers who reported emotional benefits from smoking are_______________(62)higher risk of developing depressive symptoms."The______________ (63)between depression and'smoking exists______________(64)among teens that usecigarettes to feel better."It's ______________(65)to emphasize that depressive symptom scores were higher among teenagers who reported emotional benefits from smoking after they began to smoke,"says Dr. Chaiton. _________(53)
[多选题]共用题干 Smoking can Increase Depressive Symptoms in TeensWhile some teenagers may use cigarettes to "self-medicate"(自我治疗)against the blues(忧郁),sci- entists at the University of Toronto and the University of Montreal have found that smoking may actually ______________(51)depressive symptoms in some teens."This observational study is one of the few to examine the perceived ______________(52)benefits of smoking among teens,"says lead researcher Michael Chaiton,a research associate at the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit of the University of Toronto."_______________(53)cigarettes may appear to have self-medicating effects or to improve mood,in the long_______________(54)we found that teens who started to smoke reported higher depressive symptoms."As part of the study,some 662 high school teenagers completed up to 20 questionnaires about their useof cigarettes to ______________(55)mood.Secondary schools were selected to provide a mix of French andEnglish participants,urban and rural schools,and schools ______________(56)in high,moderate and low so-cioeconomic neighbourhoods.Participants were divided into three______________ (57):never smokers;smokers who did not use ciga-rettes to self-medicate,improve mood or physical______________ (58);smokers who used cigarettes to self-medicate.Depressive symptoms were measured using a scale that asked how often participants felt too tiredto do things;had______________ (59)going to sleep or staying asleep;felt unhappy,sad,or depressed;felt hopeless about the future;felt anxious or tense;and worried too much about things." Smokers who used cigarettes as mood______________( 60 ) had higher risks of elevated(提升)depres-sive symptoms______________ (61)teens who had never smoked,"says co-researcher Jennifer O'Loughlin,aprofessor at the University of Montreal Department of Social and Preventive Medicine."Our study found that teen smokers who reported emotional benefits from smoking are_______________(62)higher risk of developing depressive symptoms."The______________ (63)between depression and'smoking exists______________(64)among teens that usecigarettes to feel better."It's ______________(65)to emphasize that depressive symptom scores were higher among teenagers who reported emotional benefits from smoking after they began to smoke,"says Dr. Chaiton. _________(52)
[多选题]共用题干 Dangers Await Babies with AltitudeWomen who live in the world's highest communities tend to give birth to under-weight ha-bies,a new study suggests.These babies may grow into adults with a high risk of heart disease and strokes.Research has hinted that newborns in mountain communities are lighter than average.But it wasn't clear whether this is due to reduced oxygen levels at high altitude or because their mothers are under-nourished—many people who live at high altitudes are relatively poor compared with those living lower down.To find out more,Dino Giussani and his team at Cambridge University studied the records of400 births in Bolivia during 1976 and 1998.The babies were born in both rich and poor areas of two cities:La Paz and Santa Cruz. La Paz is the highest city in the world,at 3 .65 kilometers a-bove sea level,while Santa Cruz is much lower,at 0.44 kilometers.Sure enough,Giussani found that the average birthweight of babies in La Paz was significant-ly lower than in Santa Cruz.This was true in both high and low-income families.Even babies born to poor families in Santa Cruz were heavier on average than babies born to wealthy families in lofty La Paz.“We were very surprised by this result,”says Giussani.The results suggest that babies born at high altitude are deprived of oxygen before birth. “This may trigger the release or suppression of hormones that regulate growth of the unborn child,”says Giussani.His team also found that high-altitude babies tended to have relatively larger heads compared with their bodies. This is probably because a fetus starved of oxygen will send oxygenated blood to the brain in preference to rest of the body.Giussani wants to find out if such babies have a higher risk of disease in later life.People born in La Paz might be prone to heart trouble in adulthood,for example.Low birth weight is a risk factor for coronary(冠状的)heart disease. And newborns with a high ratio of head size to body weight are often predisposed to high blood pressure and strokes in later life. What does the new study discover?
[多选题]共用题干 The iPad1 The iPad is a tablet computer(平板电脑)designed and developed by Apple. It is particularly mar- keted as a platform for audio and visual media such as books , periodicals(期刊), movies , music , and games, as well as web content. At about 1.5 pounds(680 grams),its size and weight are between those of most con- temporary smartphones and laptop computers.Apple released the iPad in April 2010,and sold 3 million of the devices in 80 days.2 The iPad runs the same operating system as iPod Touch and iPhone.It can run its own applications as well as ones developed for iPhone.Without modification,it will only run programs approved by Apple and distributed via its online store.3 Like iPhone and iPod Touch,the iPad is controlled by a multitouch display一a break from most pre- vious tablet computers , which uses a pressure-triggered stylus(触控笔).The iPad uses a Wi-Fi data connec-tion to browse(浏览)the Internet , load and stream media, and install software. Some models also have a 3 G wireless data connection which can connect to GSM 3 G data networks.The device is managed and synchro- nized(同步)by iTunes on a personal computer via USB cable.4 An iPad has different features and applications one can use to execute different and interesting things.There are lots of iPad applications that the owner can use to enhance the way they communicate.Some of these are how to use social networking sites and other online options.One of the most common uses is for e-mail services.iPad applications like Markdown Mail allow the adoption of specific and particular options. They enable the owner to personalize their email accounts.5 While the iPad is mostly used by consumers it also has been taken up by business users.Some com- panies are adopting iPads in their business offices by distributing or making available iPads to employees. Examples of uses in the workplace include lawyers responding to clients,medical professionals accessing health records during patient exams,and managers approving employee requests.A survey by Frost&Sulli-van shows that iPad usage in workplaces is linked to the goals of increased employee productivity,reduced paperwork,and increased revenue. The iPad will only run programs approved by Apple if not______________.
[多选题]共用题干 DVD for Rent1.A pay-for-play system for video DVD will emerge by summer as an alternative,and possibly a competitor,to the DVD format currently available.2.The new system,called Digital Video Express(Divx),operates like a DVD player, except for the specially coded discs.These will cost $5 for initial viewing over a 48-hour period and can be viewed again for additional fees and even purchased for unlimited viewing.3.Divx combines the service of a video rental(出租的)store with the operation of a pay-per-view TV channel.Unlike a rented videotape,though,the Divx disc needn't be returned.Customers can retain the disc for replay in the future at an additional fee,or simply throw it away.4.Subsequent plays,or the purchase of unlimited-viewing rights,are billed to the customer's Divx account and charged to a credit card.The player's built-in memory keeps track of all Divx plays, and sends this information by toll-free phone modem(调制解调器)to the Divx record-keeping centre.Each Divx disc and player has a unique identification code,so the system knows which discs have been played and where.5 Some Divx discs could be converted for unlimited play at a price likely to be lower than buying a conventional DVD.Others,called Divx Gold,would be sold from the beginning for unlimited play without further charge.Although conventional DVDs will run in a Divx player,conventional DVD players will lack the decoding and communications ability to play Divx discs.Divx players will be offered by Panasonic,RCA,and Zenith.6 About 100 discs will be available initially from Disney, Dreamworks,Paramount,and Universal, growing to 500 titles within a year. Other film makers have yet to adopt the Divx system,which is owned by retailer Circuit City,the 350-store electronics chain that bankrolled(提供资金)its development. Paragraph 5_________
[多选题]共用题干 Flying into HistoryWhen you turn on the television or read a magazine , celebrities(名人)are everywhere. Although fame and the media play such major roles in our lives today,it has not always been that way._______________(46) Many historians agree that Charles Lindbergh was one of the first major celebrities,or superstars.Lindbergh was born in Detroit,Michigan,in 1902,but he grew up in Little Falls,Minnesota. As achild,he was very interested in how things worked,so when he reached college,he pursued a degree in en- gineering. At the age of 20, however, the allure(诱惑)of flying captured Lindbergh' s imagination. _______________(47)Soon after,Lindbergh bought his own plane and traveled across the nation performing aerial stunts(空中特技).In 1924,Lindbergh became more serious about flying. He joined the United States military and graduated first in his pilot class._______________(48)During the same time,a wealthy hotel owner named Raymond Orteig was offering a generous award to the first pilot who could fly nonstop from New York City to Paris,France.The Orteig Prize was worth $25,000一a large amount even by today's standards.Lindbergh knew he had the skills to complete the flight,but not just any plane was capable of flyingthat far for that long.______________ (49)On May 20,1927,Charles Lindbergh took off from Roosevelt Field in New York City and arrived the next day at an airstrip(简易机场)outside Paris. Named in honor of the sponsor , The Spirit of St. Louis car- ried Lindbergh across the Atlantic Ocean and into the record books.He became a national hero and a huge celebrity.When he returned to the United States , Lindbergh rode in a ticker-tape(热烈的)parade held to cele- brate his accomplishment._______________(50)A very popular dance was even named for Charles Lindbergh一 the Lindy Hop.Today,The Spirit of St. Louis is kept at the Smithsonian institute'5 National Air and Space Museum in Washington,D.C. _________(47)
[多选题]共用题干 Understanding Autism1 Autism(孤独症)is a life-long developmental disability that prevents individuals from properly understanding what they see,hear and other senses.This results in severe problems of social relationships,communication and behavior. Individuals with autism have to painstakingly(费力地)learn normal patterns of speech and communication, and appropriate ways to relate to people,objects and events,in a similar manner to those who have had a stroke.2 The cause of autism is still unknown.Some research suggests a physical problem affecting those parts of the brain that process language and information coming in from the senses. There may be some imbalance of certain chemicals in the brain. Genetic(遗传的) factors may sometimes be involved.Autism may indeed result from a combination of several "causes".3 Most people with mental retardation(智力迟钝)show relatively even skill development. Individuals with autism,however,typically show uneven skill development,with deficits(欠缺)in certain areas一most frequently in their ability to communicate and relate to others一and distinct skills in other areas.It is important to distinguish autism from mental retardation or other disorders , since diagnostic(诊断的)confusion may lead to inappropriate and ineffective treatment techniques.4 In general,individuals with autism perlorm best at jobs which are structured and involve a degree of repetition.Some people who have autism are working as artists,piano tuners, painters,farm workers,office workers,computer operators,dishwashers,assembly lineworkers,or employees of sheltered workshops or other sheltered work settings. Paragraph 3_______
[多选题]共用题干 Obtaining Drinking Water from Air HumidityNot a plant to be seen,the desert ground is too dry.But the air contains water,and research scientistshave found a. __________(51)of obtaining drinking water from air humidity."The process we have developed is based exclusively on renewable energy sources_________(52)thermal solar collectors andphotovoltaic(光电的)cells , ________( 53 ) makes this method completely energy-autonomous. It will ____________( 54 ) function in regions where there is no electrical infrastructure(基础设施),"says Siegfried Egner,head of the research team. The principle of the_________(55)is as follows:hygroscopic(吸湿的) brine(盐水)一saline(含盐的)solution which absorbs moisture一runs down a tower-shaped unit and absorbs water from the air. It is then sucked__________(56)a tank a few meters off the ground in which a vacuum prevails.Energy from solar collectors_________(57)up the brine,which is diluted by the water it has__________ (58).Because of the vacuum,the boiling point of the liquid is lower than it would be under__________(59) atmospheric pressure. The evaporated (蒸发的), non-saline water is condensed and runs down through a completely filled tube in a controlled manner. The gravity of this water column_______(60)produces the vacuum and so a vacuum pump is not needed.The reconcentrated brine________(61)down the tower surface again to absorb moisture from the air."The concept is suitable for various water________(62).Single一person units and plantssupplying water to entire hotels are conceivable,"says Egner. Prototypes have been built for_______(63)system components一air moisture absorption and vacuum evaporation一and the research scientistshave already __________(64)their interplay on a laboratory scale.In a further ________(65)the re- searchers intend to develop a demonstration facility. _________(64)
[多选题]共用题干 So Many"Earths"The Milky Way(银河)contains billions of Earth-sized planets that could support life.That's the finding of a new study.It draws on data that came from NASA's top planet-hunting telescope.A mechanical failure recently put that Kepler space telescope out of service.Kepler had played a big role in creating a census of planets orbiting some 170,000 stars.Its data have been helping astronomers predict how common planets are in our galaxy.The telescope focused on hunting planets that might have conditions similar to those on Earth.The authors of a study,published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,conclude that between 14 and 30 out of every 100 stars,with a mass and temperature similar to the Sun,may host a planet that could support life as we know it.Such a planet would have a diameter at least as large as Earth's,but no more than twice that big.The planet also would have to orbit in a star's habitable zone.That's where the surface temperature would allow any water to exist as a liquid.The new estimate of how many planets might fit these conditions comes from studying more than 42,000 stars and identifying suitable worlds orbiting them.The scientists used those numbers to extrapolate(推算) to the rest of the stars that the telescope could not see.The estimate is rough,the authors admit.If applied to the solar system,it would define as habitable a zone starting as close to the Sun as Venus and running to as far away as Mars.Neither planet is Earthlike (although either might have been in the distant past).Using tighter limits,the researchers estimate that between 4 and 8 out of every 100 sunlike stars could host an Earth-sized world.These are ones that would take 200 to 400 days to complete a yearly orbit.Four out of every 100 sunlike stars doesn't sound like a big number.It would mean,however,that the Milky Way could host more than a billion Earth-sized planets with a chance for life. The planet that could support life might be a little bit smaller than the Earth.
[单选题]An Essential Scientific Process All life on the earth depends upon green plants. Using sunlight, theplants produce their own food. Then animals feed upon the plants. They take inthe nutrients the plants have made sted. But that’s not all.Sunlight also helps a plant produce oxygen. Some of the oxygen is used by theplant, but a plant usually produces me oxygen than it uses. The excess oxygenis necessary f animals other ganisms to live. The process of changing light into food oxygen is calledphotosynthesis. Besides light energy from the sun, plants also use water carbon dioxide. The water gets to the plant through its roots. The carbondioxide enters the leaves through tiny openings called stomata. The carbondioxide travels to chloplasts, special cells in the bodies of green plants.This is photosynthesis takes place. Chloplasts contain the chlophyllsthat give plants their green col. The chlophylls are the molecules thattrap light energy. The trapped light energy changes water carbon dioxide toproduce oxygen a simple sugar called glucose. Carbon dioxide oxygen move into out of the stomata. Watervap also moves out of the stomata. Me than 90 percent of water a planttakes in through its roots escapes through the stomata. During the daytime, thestomata of most plants are open. This allows carbon dioxide to enter the leavesf photosynthesis. As night falls, carbon dioxide is not needed. The stomataof most plants close. Water loss stops. If photosynthesis ceased, there would be little food other ganicmatter on the earth. Most ganisms would disappear. The earth’s atmospherewould no longer contain oxygen. Photosynthesis is essential f life on ourplanet.   词汇: nutrient n.营养物 ganism n.生物体,有机体 carbon dioxide n.二氧化碳 chloplast n.叶绿体 molecule n.分子 vap n.水蒸气 oxygen n.氧气 photosynthesis n.光合作用 chlophyll n.叶绿素 glucose n.葡萄糖 cease v.停止   注释: 1.Then animals feed upon the plants.动物以植物为食。   练习: 1.In the first paragraph,the wd “excess” means
[多选题]共用题干 Chimpanzees1 Chimpanzees(黑猩猩)will soon be extinct(灭绝).If the present rate of hunting and habitat(栖息地)destruction continues, then within 20 years, there will be no chimpanzees living in the wild. But this is more than an environmental or moral tragedy(悲剧).Chimpan-zee extinction may also have profound implications(含意)for the survival of their distant relatives一human beings.2 In 1975 the biologist Marie-Claire King and Allan Wilson discovered that the human and chimpanzee genomes(基因组)match by over 98%. Compare this to the mouse, used as model for human disease in lab tests,which shares only 60% of its DNA with us.In fact, chimpanzees are far more similar to humans than they are to any other species of monkey. As well as resembling us genetically,chimps are highly intelligent and able to use tools.These facts alone should be enough to make protection of chimps an urgent priority(优先).But there is another,more selfish reason to preserve the chimp.3 The chimpanzees' trump card(王牌)comes in the field of medical research. Chimpan-zees are so similar to humans that veterinarians(兽医)often refer to human medical text-books when treating them. Yet chimpanzees do show differences in several key areas.In parti-cular,chimps are much more resistant to a number of major diseases.It is this ability that is so interesting.4 For example,chimps seem to show a much higher resistance than humans to HIV,the virus that causes AIDS. Indeed,their use as experimental animals in AIDS research has de-clined because they are so resistant.5 By sequencing the chimp genome and pinpointing(找到)the place where the chimpan-zee DNA sequence differs from that of humans,scientists hope to be able to discover which part of the genetic code gives chimps their increased resistance to some diseases. This,they hope,will allow them to develop new and more effective treatments for the human forms of these diseases. Such treatments could include the production of new drugs or even the altera-tion(改变)of the human genetic sequence. The recently completed human genome sequen-cing project has shown that such an effort is now well within our reach. Scientists suspect that genes play a significant role in protecting chimps from getting______.
[多选题]共用题干 The Day a Language DiedWhen Carlos Westez died at the age of 76,a language died,too.Westez,more commonly known as Red Thunder Cloud,was the last speaker of the Native American language,Catawba.Anyone who wants to hear various songs of the Catawba can contact the Smithsonian Institution in Washington,D.C.,where, back in the 1940s,Red Thunder Cloud recorded a series of songs for future generations.______(46) They are all that is left of the Catawba language.The language that people used to speak is gone forever.We are all aware of the damage that modern industry can do to the world's ecology(生态).However, few people are aware of the impact that widely spoken languages have on other languages and ways of life.English has spread all over the world.Chinese,Spanish,Russian,and Hindi have become powerful languages,as well.______(47)When this happens,hundreds of languages that are spoken by only a few people die out.Scholars believe there are about 6 ,000 languages around the world,but more than half of them could die out within the next 100 years.There are many examples.Araki is a native language of the island of Vanuatu,located in the Pacific Ocean.It is spoken by only a few older adults,so like Catawba,Araki will soon disappear.Many languages of Ethiopia will have the same fate because each one has only a few speakers.______(48)In the Americas,100 languages,each of which has fewer than 300 speakers,also are dying out.Red Thunder Cloud was one of the first to recognize the threat of language death and to try to do something about it.He was not actually born into the Catawba tribe,and the language was not his mother tongue.______(49)The songs he sang for the Smithsonian Institution helped to make Native American music popular.Now he is gone,and the language is dead.What does it mean when a language disappears? When a plant or insect or animal species dies,it is easy to understand what we've lost and to appreciate what this means for the balance of the natural world.However,language is only a product of the mind.To be the last remaining speaker of a language,like RedThunder Cloud,must be a lonely destiny,almost as strange and terrible as being the last surviving member of a dying species.______(50) _______(46)
[多选题]共用题干 Why Buy Shade-Grown Coffee?When people argue about whether coffee is good for health,they're usually thinking of the health of the coffee drinker. Is it good for your heart?Does it increase blood pressure?Does it help you concentrate?However,coffee affects the health of the human population in other ways, too.Traditionally,coffee bushes were planted under the canopy(树冠)of taller indigenous(土生土长的)trees. However, more and more farmers in Latin America are deforesting the land to grow full-sun coffees.At first,this increases production because more coffee bushes can be plan- ted if there aren't any trees.With increased production come increased profits.Unfortunately,deforesting for coffee production immediately decreases local wildlife habitat Native birds nest and hide from predators(捕食者)in the tall trees and migrating birds rest there.Furthermore,in the long term,the full-sun method also damages the ecosystem because more chemical fertilizers and pesticides are needed to grow the coffee.The fertilizers and pesti- cides kill insects that eat coffee plant,but then the birds eat the poisoned insects and also die. The chemicals kill or sicken other animals as well,and can even enter the water that people will eventually drink.Fortunately,farmers in Central and South America are beginning to grow more coffee bushes in the shade.We can support these farmers by buying coffee with such labels as“shade grown” and“bird friendly.”Sure,these varieties might cost a little more.But we're paying for the health of the birds,the land,ourselves,and the planet. I think it's worth it. The function of the word“Traditionally”in Paragraph 2 is to show______.
[多选题]共用题干 Smoking can Increase Depressive Symptoms in TeensWhile some teenagers may use cigarettes to "self-medicate"(自我治疗)against the blues(忧郁),sci- entists at the University of Toronto and the University of Montreal have found that smoking may actually ______________(51)depressive symptoms in some teens."This observational study is one of the few to examine the perceived ______________(52)benefits of smoking among teens,"says lead researcher Michael Chaiton,a research associate at the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit of the University of Toronto."_______________(53)cigarettes may appear to have self-medicating effects or to improve mood,in the long_______________(54)we found that teens who started to smoke reported higher depressive symptoms."As part of the study,some 662 high school teenagers completed up to 20 questionnaires about their useof cigarettes to ______________(55)mood.Secondary schools were selected to provide a mix of French andEnglish participants,urban and rural schools,and schools ______________(56)in high,moderate and low so-cioeconomic neighbourhoods.Participants were divided into three______________ (57):never smokers;smokers who did not use ciga-rettes to self-medicate,improve mood or physical______________ (58);smokers who used cigarettes to self-medicate.Depressive symptoms were measured using a scale that asked how often participants felt too tiredto do things;had______________ (59)going to sleep or staying asleep;felt unhappy,sad,or depressed;felt hopeless about the future;felt anxious or tense;and worried too much about things." Smokers who used cigarettes as mood______________( 60 ) had higher risks of elevated(提升)depres-sive symptoms______________ (61)teens who had never smoked,"says co-researcher Jennifer O'Loughlin,aprofessor at the University of Montreal Department of Social and Preventive Medicine."Our study found that teen smokers who reported emotional benefits from smoking are_______________(62)higher risk of developing depressive symptoms."The______________ (63)between depression and'smoking exists______________(64)among teens that usecigarettes to feel better."It's ______________(65)to emphasize that depressive symptom scores were higher among teenagers who reported emotional benefits from smoking after they began to smoke,"says Dr. Chaiton. _________(64)
[单选题]《第十三篇 Affectionate Androids》 Computers are now powerful enough to allow the age of humanoidrobots to dawn1. And it won’t be long befe we will see realistic cyber companions, completewith skin, dexterity, intelligence.They will be programmed to tend to yourevery need. Will we ever want to marry robots? Artificial intelligenceresearcher David Levy has published a book claiming human-robot relationshipswill become popular in the next few decades. ____1____ Will humans really be able to fm deep emotional attachments tomachines? It will, in fact, be relatively easy to fm these strong attachmentsbecause the human mind loves to anthropomphize: to give human attributes toother creatures—even objects. F example, researchers in San Diego recently put a small humanoidrobot in with a toddler playgroup f several months. ____2____The childrenended up treating it as a fellow toddler. When it lay down because itsbatteries were flat,the kids even covered it with a blanket. In a few decades, when humanoid robots with plastic skin look feel very real, will people want to fm relationships with them? What if thebots could hold a conversation? And be programmed to bethe perfect companions—soul mates,even? ____3____ And like those toddlers inthe experiment, they will be veryaccepting of them. The next question, then, is whether there is anything wrong withhaving an emotional relationship with a machine. Even today there are peoplewho fm deep attachments to their pets use them as substitutes f friends even children. Few consider that unethical. ____4____ F those who always seem to end upmarrying the wrong man woman, a robotic Mr. Ms. Right could be mighty tempting. As the father ofartificial intelligence, Marvin Minsky, put it when asked about the ethics oflonely older people fming close relationships with robots: “If a robot hadall the virtues of a person was smarter me understing, why wouldthe elderly bother talking to other grumpy old people?” A robot could be programmed to be as dumb smart, as independent subservient, as an owner desired. And that’s the bigdisadvantage. Having the perfect robot partner will damage the ability to fmequally deep human-human relationships. People will always seem imperfectincomparison. When you’re behaving badly, a good friend will tell you.____5____ People in relationships have to learn to adapt toeach other: toenjoy their common interests to deal with their differences.It makes usricher, stronger, wiser. A robot companion will be perfect at the start. However,there will be nothing to move the relationship to grow to greater heights.   词汇: affectionate adj. 深情的 dexterityn. 灵巧,敏捷 anthropomphize v. 赋于人性,人格化 grumpy adj. 脾气暴躁的 cyber adj. 计算机的 tendv. 照料 bot n. 机器人 subservient adj. 屈从的,奉承的   注释: 1.Computers are now powerful enough to allow the age of humanoidrobots to dawn:计算机技术已经足够成熟,能够支持人形机器人的诞生和普及,进入人形机器人的时代。   练习:
[多选题]共用题干 Learn about Light1 .Ancient civilizations were amazed by the existence of light for thousands of years. The Greek philosophers believed that light was made up of countless,tiny particles that enter the human eye and create what we call vision. However,Empedocles and a Dutch scientist named Christian Huygens believed that light was like a wave. According to them,light spread out and travelled like a straight line. This theory was accepted during the 19th century.2 .In 1905,Albert Einstein published a research paper in which he explained what is re-ferred to as the photoelectric effect. This theory explains that particles make up light.The particles Einstein was referring to are weightless bundles(束)of electromagnetic(电磁)energy called photons(光子).Today,scientists agree that light has a dual(二重)nature一it is part particle and part wave. It is a form of energy that allows us to see things around us.3 .Things that give off light are known as sources of light. During the day,the primary source of light is the sun. Other sources of light include stars,flames,flashlights,street lamps and glowing gases in glass tube.4 .When we draw the way light travels we always use straight lines. This is because nor-mally light rays travel in a straight line. However,there are some instances that can change the path and even the nature of light. They are reflection,absorption,interference(干扰), etc.5 .Physicists have attempted to measure the speed of light since the early times. In 1849, Hippolyte Fizeau conducted an experiment by directing a beam of light to a mirror located kilometers away and placed a rotating cogwheel(旋转齿轮)between the beam and the mirror. From the rate of rotation of the wheel,number of wheel's teeth and distance of the mirror,he was able to calculate that the speed of light is 313 million meters per second. In a vacuum(真空),however,the speed of light is 299,792,458 meters per second. This is about a million times faster than the speed of an airplane. Paragraph 2______
[多选题]共用题干 Ford1 Ford's great strength was the manufacturing process一not invention.Long before he started a car company,he was a worker,known for picking up pieces of metal and wire and turning them into machines.He started putting cars together in 1891.Although it was by no means the first popular automobile,the Model T showed the world just how creative Ford was at combining technology and market.2 The company's assembly line alone threw America's Industrial Revolution into overdrive (高速运转).Instead of having workers put together the entire car , Ford's friends , who were great toolmakers from Scotland,organized teams that added parts to each Model T as it moved down a line. By the time Ford's Highland Park plant was humming(嗡嗡作响) along in 1914,the world's first automatic conveyor belt could turn out a car every 93 minutes.3 The same year Henry Ford shocked the world with the$5-a-day minimum wage scheme,the greatest contribution he had ever made. The average wage in the auto industry thenwas $2.34 for a 9-hour shift. Ford not only doubled that,he also took an hour off the workday.In those years it was unthinkable that a man could be paid that much for doing something that didn't involve an awful lot of training or education.The Wall Street Journal called the plan"an economic crime",and critics everywhere laughed at Ford.4 But as the wage increased later to daily$10,it proved a critical component of Ford's dream to make the automobile accessible(可及的)to all. The critics were too stupid to understand that because Ford had lowered his costs per car,the higher wages didn't matter一 except for making it possible for more people to buy cars. Paragraph 3_______
[多选题]共用题干 第三篇Eye-tracker Lets You Drag and Drop Files with a GlanceBored of using a mouse?Soon you'11 be able to change stuff on your computer screen-and then move it directly onto your smartphone or tablet(平板电脑)-with nothing more than a glance.A system called EyeDrop uses a head-mounted eye tracker that simultaneously records your field of view so it knows where you are looking on the screen.Gazing at an object-a photo,say-and then pressing a key,selects that object.It can then be moved from the screen to a tablet or smartphone just by glancing at the second device,as long as the two are connected wirelessly."The beauty of using gaze to support this is that our eyes naturally focus on content that we want toacquire,"says Jayson Turner,who developed the system with colleagues at Lancaster University,UK.Turner believes EyeDrop would be useful to transfer an interactive map or contact information from a public display to your smartphone or tablet for sharing photos.A button needs to be used to select the object you are looking at otherwise you end up with the"Midas touch"(点石成金)effect, whereby everything you look at gets selected by your gaze, says Turner."Imagine if your mouse clicked on everything it pointed at,"he says.Christian Holz,a researcher in human-computer interaction at Yahoo Labs in Sunnyvale,California, says the system is a nice take on getting round this fundamental problem of using gaze-tracking to interact."EyeDrop solves this in a slick(灵巧的)way by combining it with input on the touch devices we carry with us most of the time anyway and using touch input as a clutching mechanism,"he says."This now allows users to seamlessly(无缝地)interact across devices far and close in a very natural manner."While current eye-trackers are rather bulky,mainstream consumer devices are not too far away.Swedish firm Tobii is developing gaze-tracking technology that can be installed in laptops and tablets and is expected to be available to buy next year.And the Google Glass headset is expected to include eye-tracking in the future.Turner says he has also looked at how content can be cut and pasted or drag-and-dropped using a mix of gaze and taps on a touchscreen.The system was presented at the Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia in Sweden,last week. Why is a button needed?
[多选题]共用题干 Why Buy Shade-Grown Coffee?When people argue about whether coffee is good for health,they're usually thinking of the health of the coffee drinker. Is it good for your heart?Does it increase blood pressure?Does it help you concentrate?However,coffee affects the health of the human population in other ways, too.Traditionally,coffee bushes were planted under the canopy(树冠)of taller indigenous(土生土长的)trees. However, more and more farmers in Latin America are deforesting the land to grow full-sun coffees.At first,this increases production because more coffee bushes can be plan- ted if there aren't any trees.With increased production come increased profits.Unfortunately,deforesting for coffee production immediately decreases local wildlife habitat Native birds nest and hide from predators(捕食者)in the tall trees and migrating birds rest there.Furthermore,in the long term,the full-sun method also damages the ecosystem because more chemical fertilizers and pesticides are needed to grow the coffee.The fertilizers and pesti- cides kill insects that eat coffee plant,but then the birds eat the poisoned insects and also die. The chemicals kill or sicken other animals as well,and can even enter the water that people will eventually drink.Fortunately,farmers in Central and South America are beginning to grow more coffee bushes in the shade.We can support these farmers by buying coffee with such labels as“shade grown” and“bird friendly.”Sure,these varieties might cost a little more.But we're paying for the health of the birds,the land,ourselves,and the planet. I think it's worth it. How do farmers find more land for growing full-sun coffee?
[多选题]共用题干 Climate Change:The Long Reach1.Earth is warming.Sea levels are rising.There's more carbon in the air,and Arctic ice is melting faster than at any time in recorded history.Scientists who study the environment to better gauge(评估) Earth's future climate now argue that these changes may not reverse for a very long time.2.People burn fossil fuels like coal and oil for energy.That burning releases carbon dioxide,a colorless gas.In the air,this gas traps heat at Earth's surface.And the more carbon dioxide released,the more the planet warms.If current consumption of fossil fuels doesn't slow,the long-term climate impacts could last thousands of years-and be more severe than scientists had been expecting.Climatologist Richard Zeebe of the University of Hawaii at Manoa offers this conclusion in a new paper.3.Most climate-change studies look at what's going to happen in the next century or so.During that time , changes in the planet's environment could nudge(推动)global warming even higher.For example, snow and ice reflect sunlight back into space.But as these melt,sunlight can now reach-and warm-the exposed ground.This extra heat raises the air temperature even more,causing even more snow to melt.This type of rapid exaggeration of impacts is called a"fast feedback".4.Zeebe says it's important to look at fast feedbacks.However,he adds,they're limited.From a climate change perspective,"This century is the most important time for the next few generations,"he told Science News."But the world is not ending in 2100."For this new study,Zeebe now focuses on"slow feedbacks".While fast feedback events unfold over decades or centuries,slow feedbacks can take thousands of years.Melting of continental ice sheets and the migration of plant life-as they relocate to more comfortable areas-are two examples of slow feedbacks.5.Zeebe gathered information from previously published studies investigating how such processes played out over thousands of years during past dramatic changes in climate.Then he came up with a forecast for the future that accounts for both slow and fast feedback processes.Climate forecasts that use only fast feedbacks predict a 4.5 degree Celsius(8.1 degree Fahrenheit)change by the year 3000.But slow feedbacks added another 1.5℃-for a 6℃ total increase,Zeebe reports.He also found that slow feedback events will cause global warming to persist for thousands of years after people run out of fossil fuels to burn. Melting of snow and ice enables sunlight to reach______.
[多选题]共用题干 Saving a City's Public ArtAvoiding traffic jams in Los Angeles may be impossible,but the city's colorful freeway mu- rals(壁画)can brighten even the most miserable commute. Paintings that depict(描述)famous people and historic scenes cover office buildings and freeway walls across the city.With a collec-tion of more than 2,000 murals,Los Angeles is the unofficial mural capital of the world.But the combination of graffiti(涂鸦),pollution,and hot sun has left many L. A. murals in terrible condition. ______(46 ) In the past, experts say, little attention was given to caring forpublic art. Artists were even expected to maintain their own works,not an easy task with cars rac- ing by along the freeway. _____( 47)The work started in 2003 . So far, 16 walls have been selected, and more may be added later.Until about 1960,public murals in Los Angeles were rare.But in the 1960s and 1970s, young L. A.artists began to study early 20th-century Mexican mural painting._____(48)The most famous mural in the city is Judith Baca's“The Great Wall,”a 13-foot-high(4-me-ter-high)painting that runs for haff a mile(0.8 kilometer)in North Hollywood.____(49)It took eight years to complete—400 underprivileged teenagers painted the designs—and is probably the longest mural in the world.One of the murals that will be restored now is Kent Twitchell's“Seventh Street Altarpiece.” which he painted for the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984._____(50)Twitchell said,“It was meant as a kind of gateway through which the traveler to L. A.must drive.The open hands represent peace.”Artists often call murals the people's art. Along a busy freeway or hidden in a quiet neighbor-hood,murals can teach people who would never pay money to see fine art in a museum,“Murals give a voice to the silent majority,”said one artist. ______(47 )
[单选题]《第十三篇 Affectionate Androids》 Computers are now powerful enough to allow the age of humanoidrobots to dawn1. And it won’t be long befe we will see realistic cyber companions, completewith skin, dexterity, intelligence.They will be programmed to tend to yourevery need. Will we ever want to marry robots? Artificial intelligenceresearcher David Levy has published a book claiming human-robot relationshipswill become popular in the next few decades. ____1____ Will humans really be able to fm deep emotional attachments tomachines? It will, in fact, be relatively easy to fm these strong attachmentsbecause the human mind loves to anthropomphize: to give human attributes toother creatures—even objects. F example, researchers in San Diego recently put a small humanoidrobot in with a toddler playgroup f several months. ____2____The childrenended up treating it as a fellow toddler. When it lay down because itsbatteries were flat,the kids even covered it with a blanket. In a few decades, when humanoid robots with plastic skin look feel very real, will people want to fm relationships with them? What if thebots could hold a conversation? And be programmed to bethe perfect companions—soul mates,even? ____3____ And like those toddlers inthe experiment, they will be veryaccepting of them. The next question, then, is whether there is anything wrong withhaving an emotional relationship with a machine. Even today there are peoplewho fm deep attachments to their pets use them as substitutes f friends even children. Few consider that unethical. ____4____ F those who always seem to end upmarrying the wrong man woman, a robotic Mr. Ms. Right could be mighty tempting. As the father ofartificial intelligence, Marvin Minsky, put it when asked about the ethics oflonely older people fming close relationships with robots: “If a robot hadall the virtues of a person was smarter me understing, why wouldthe elderly bother talking to other grumpy old people?” A robot could be programmed to be as dumb smart, as independent subservient, as an owner desired. And that’s the bigdisadvantage. Having the perfect robot partner will damage the ability to fmequally deep human-human relationships. People will always seem imperfectincomparison. When you’re behaving badly, a good friend will tell you.____5____ People in relationships have to learn to adapt toeach other: toenjoy their common interests to deal with their differences.It makes usricher, stronger, wiser. A robot companion will be perfect at the start. However,there will be nothing to move the relationship to grow to greater heights.   词汇: affectionate adj. 深情的 dexterityn. 灵巧,敏捷 anthropomphize v. 赋于人性,人格化 grumpy adj. 脾气暴躁的 cyber adj. 计算机的 tendv. 照料 bot n. 机器人 subservient adj. 屈从的,奉承的   注释: 1.Computers are now powerful enough to allow the age of humanoidrobots to dawn:计算机技术已经足够成熟,能够支持人形机器人的诞生和普及,进入人形机器人的时代。   练习:
[多选题]共用题干 第二篇The IcemanOn a September day in 1991,two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy. High up on a mountain pass,they found the body of a man lying on the ice.At that height(10,499 feet,or 3,200 meters),the ice is usually permanent,but 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice had melted more than usual and so the body had come to the surface.It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架)was in perfect condition , except for a wound in the head.There was still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes.The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots.Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮)and a holder for arrows.Who was the man?How and when had he died?Everybody had a different answer to these questions. Some people thought that it was from this century,perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War Ⅰ, since several soldiers had already been found in the area.A Swiss woman believed it might be her father,who had died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found.The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older,maybe even a thousand years old.With modem dating techniques,the. scientists soon leamed that the iceman was about 5,300 years old. Bom in about 3300 B.C.,he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe.At first scientists thought he was proba- bly a hunter who had died in an accident in the high mountains.More recent evidence,however,tells a differ- ent story.A new kind of X-ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. It left only a tiny hole in his skin,but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He almost certainly died from this wound,and not from the wound on the back of his head.This means that he was probably in some kind of a battle.It might have been part of a larger war,or he might have been fighting bandits. He might even have been a bandit himself.By studying his clothes and tools,scientists have already leamed a great deal from the iceman about the times he lived in.we may never know the full story of how he died,but he has given us important clues to the history of those distant times. All the following are assumptions once made about the iceman EXCEPT__________.
[多选题]共用题干 Smoking can Increase Depressive Symptoms in TeensWhile some teenagers may use cigarettes to "self-medicate"(自我治疗)against the blues(忧郁),sci- entists at the University of Toronto and the University of Montreal have found that smoking may actually ______________(51)depressive symptoms in some teens."This observational study is one of the few to examine the perceived ______________(52)benefits of smoking among teens,"says lead researcher Michael Chaiton,a research associate at the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit of the University of Toronto."_______________(53)cigarettes may appear to have self-medicating effects or to improve mood,in the long_______________(54)we found that teens who started to smoke reported higher depressive symptoms."As part of the study,some 662 high school teenagers completed up to 20 questionnaires about their useof cigarettes to ______________(55)mood.Secondary schools were selected to provide a mix of French andEnglish participants,urban and rural schools,and schools ______________(56)in high,moderate and low so-cioeconomic neighbourhoods.Participants were divided into three______________ (57):never smokers;smokers who did not use ciga-rettes to self-medicate,improve mood or physical______________ (58);smokers who used cigarettes to self-medicate.Depressive symptoms were measured using a scale that asked how often participants felt too tiredto do things;had______________ (59)going to sleep or staying asleep;felt unhappy,sad,or depressed;felt hopeless about the future;felt anxious or tense;and worried too much about things." Smokers who used cigarettes as mood______________( 60 ) had higher risks of elevated(提升)depres-sive symptoms______________ (61)teens who had never smoked,"says co-researcher Jennifer O'Loughlin,aprofessor at the University of Montreal Department of Social and Preventive Medicine."Our study found that teen smokers who reported emotional benefits from smoking are_______________(62)higher risk of developing depressive symptoms."The______________ (63)between depression and'smoking exists______________(64)among teens that usecigarettes to feel better."It's ______________(65)to emphasize that depressive symptom scores were higher among teenagers who reported emotional benefits from smoking after they began to smoke,"says Dr. Chaiton. _________(55)