[单选题]"Sugar, alcohol and tobacco," economist Adam Smith once wrote, "are commodities which are nowhere necessaries of life, which have become objects of almost universal consumption, and which are, therefore, extremely popular subjects of taxation." Two and a half centuries on, most countries impose some sort of tax on alcohol and tobacco.With surging obesity levels putting increasing strain on public health systems, governments around the world have begun to toy with the idea of taxing sugar as well. Whether such taxes work is a matter of debate.A preliminary review of Mexico's taxation found a fall in purchases of taxed drinks as well as a rise in sales if untaxed and healthier drinks.By contrast, a Danish tax on foods high in fats was abandoned a year after its introduction, amid claims that consumers were avoiding it by crossing the border to Germany to satisfy their desire for cheaper, fattier fare. The food industry has, in general, been firmly opposed to such direct government action.Nonetheless, the renewed focus on waistlines means that industry groups are under pressure to demonstrate their products are healthy as well as tasty. Over the past three decades, the industry has made some efforts to improve the quality of its offerings. For example, some drink manufactures have cut the amount of sugar in their beverages. Many of the reductions over the past 30 years have been achieved either by reducing the amount of sugar, salt or fat in a product, or by finding an alternative ingredient.More recently, however. Some companies have been investing money in a more ambitious undertaking: learning how to adjust the fundamental make-up of the food they sell.For example, having salt on the outside, but none on the inside, reduces the salt content without changing the taste. While reformulating recipes( 配 方 )is one way to improve public health, it should be part of a multi- sided approach.The key is to remember that there is not just one solution.To deal with obesity, a mixture of approaches-including reformulation, taxation and adjusting portion sizes-will be needed.There is no silver bullet. What do we learn about Danish taxation on fat-rich foods?
[单选题]Pictures in the British papers this week of Prince William,Prince Charles’s 18-year-old son,cleaning toilets overseas,have led to a surge of altruism(利他主义). Raleigh Internation-al,the charity that organized his trip,has seen inquiries about voluntary work abroad rise by 30%. But the image of idealistic youth that William presents no longer reflects the reality of the volunteer force. It’s getting older and older. Voluntary Service Overseas(VSO)has about 2000 volunteers in the field around the world. After a dip in interest in the mid-1990s,applications to work abroad are at record levels. Last year 7645 people submitted applications,and 920 successfully negotiated the VSO selection process and were sent abroad. When the organization was founded in 1959,the average volunteer was in his early 20s. Now,the average age is 35,and set to rise further. Partly,that is because there are more older people who want to do VSO. More people take early retirement;more,says the chief executive of VSO,“still feel that they have more to give and are in good health”. And the demands of the African and Asian countries where most of the volunteers go are changing,too. Their educational standards have risen over the past couple of decades,so they want people with more qualifications,skills and experience. BESO(British Executive Service Overseas)recruits executives and businessmen with at least 15 years’ experience for short-term contract work overseas. It organizes 500 placements (工作安置)a year,and at the moment supply is surpassing demand. A BESO spokesman said that the organization is“limited by funding rather than a lack of volunteers”. Enthusiastic but unqualified students do not impress as much as they once did alongside accountants,managers and doctors. The typical volunteer,these days,has been in full-time employment for at least five years and is highly qualified. And the profession which provides the biggest portion of volunteers is education—headmasters and school inspectors as well as classroom teachers. 57. All the statements are true about Prince William EXCEPT that .
[单选题]Section B Directions : In this section, there is one incomplete in,terview which has four blanks and four choices A, B, C and D, taken from the interview. Fill in, each of the blanks with one of the choices to complete the interview and mark your answer on, the Answer Sheet. Fay: Hi, Jerry. I'm thinking of applying for a job with an international company, but I'm worried about having an interview. Can you give me any good tips? Jerry: Hmmm. That's a tough one. I guess the first thing is to try to make a good impression. We often say, "You never get a second chance to make a first impression. " 7 Fay: That sounds like a good advice. How do I make a good first impression? Jerry : To begin with, you should firmly shake the interviewer's hand while greeting him or her with a smile. Be sure to keep eye contact, especially when listening to the interviewer. Fay:8 Jerry: Yes, it is. The second thing is to have confidence. You get confidence from being prepareD. You should learn something about the company before the interview. Find out what they do, how long they've been in business, what their business motto is, that kind of things. You should also anticipate possible questions, and think about how you will answer. Fay: Should I memorize my answers beforehand? Jerry: No! Definitely not! 9You should be natural when you speak. Just think about how you want to answer, and choose the right words at the time of the interview. That way, you can use the interviewer's own words in your answer, which shows you \re been listening. Then you're sure to make a good impression. Fay: That's very helpful. 10 . Thanks so much, Jerry.
[单选题]There is virtually no limit to how one can serve community interests,from spending a few hours a week with some charitable organization to practically fulltime work for a social agency. Just as there are opportunities for voluntary service 71 (VSO) for young people before they take up full-time employment, 72 there are opportunities for overseas service for 73 technicians in developing countries. Some people, 74 those who retire early, 75 their technical and business skills in countries 76 there is a special need. So in considering voluntary or 77 community service there are more opportunities than there 78 were when one first began work. Most voluntary organizations have only a small fulltime 79 ,and depend very much on volunteers and part-timers. This means that working relationships are different from those in commercial organizations,and values may be different. 80 some ways they may seem more casual and less efficient,but one should not 81 them by commercial criteria. The people who work with them do so for different reasons and with different 82 ,both personal and 83 . One should not join them 84 to arm them with professional expertise;they must be joined with commitment to the 85 ,not business efficiency. Because salaries are 86 or non-existent many voluntary bodies offer modest expenses. But many retired people take part in community service for 87 ,simply because they enjoy the work. Many community activities possible 88 retirement were also possible during one’s working life but they are to be undertaken 89 seriously for that. Retired people who are just looking for something different or unusual to do should not consider 90 community service. 74选 74.
[单选题]I was addressing a small gathering in a suburban Virginia living room -- a women's group that had invited men to join them.Throughout the evening one man had been particularly talkative frequently offering ideas and anecdotes while his wife sat silently beside him on the couch.Toward the end of the evening I commented that women frequently complain that their husbands don't talk to them.This man quickly concurred.He gestured toward his wife and said "She's the talker in our family." The room burst into laughter; the man looked puzzled and hurt."It's true" he explained."When I come home from work I have nothing to say.If she didn't keep the conversation going we'd spend the whole evening in silence." This episode crystallizes the irony that although American men tend to talk more than women in public situations they often talk less at home.And this pattern is wreaking havoc with marriage. The pattern was observed by political scientist Andrew Hacker in the late '70s.Sociologist Catherine Kohler Riessman reports in her new book "Divorce Talk" that most of the women she interviewed -- but only a few of the men -- gave lack of communication as the reason for their divorces.Given the current divorce rate of nearly 50 percent that amounts to millions of cases in the United States every year -- a virtual epidemic of failed conversation. In my own research complaints from women about their husbands most often focused not on tangible inequities such as having given up the chance for a career to accompany a husband to his or doing far more than their share of daily life-support work like cleaning cooking social arrangements and errands.Instead they focused on communication: "He doesn't listen to me" "He doesn't talk to me." I found as Hacker observed years before that most wives want their husbands to be first and foremost conversational partners but few husbands share this expectation of their wives. In short the image that best represents the current crisis is the stereotypical cartoon scene of a man sitting at the breakfast table with a newspaper held up in front of his face while a woman glares at the back of it wanting to talk. All of the following are true EXCEPT_______.
[单选题]The phrase almost completes itself: midlife crisis.It's the stage in the middle of the journey when people feel youth vanishing, their prospects narrowing and death approaching. There's only one problem with the cliche(套话).It isn't true. "In fact, there is almost no hard evidence for midlife crisis other than a few small pilot studies conducted decades ago," Barbara Hagerty writes in her new book, Life Reimagined.The bulk of the research shows that there may be a pause, or a shifting of gears in the 40s or 50s, but this shift "can be exciting, rather than terrifying." Barbara Hagerty looks at some of the features of people who turn midlife into a rebirth.They break routines, because "autopilot is death." They choose purpose over happiness—having a clear sense of purpose even reduces the risk of Alzheimer's disease.They give priority to relationships, as careers often recede. Life Reimagined paints a picture of middle age that is far from gloomy.Midlife seems like the second big phase of decision-making.Your identity has been formed; you've built up your resources; and now you have the chance to take the big risks precisely because your foundation is already secure. Karl Barth described midlife precisely this way.At middle age, he wrote, "the sowing is behind; now is the time to reap.The run has been taken; now is the time to leap.Preparation has been made; now is the time for the venture of the work itself." The middle-aged person, Barth continued, can see death in the distance, but moves with a "measured haste" to get big new things done while there is still time. What Barth wrote decades ago is even truer today.People are healthy and energetic longer.We have presidential candidates running for their first term in office at age 68, 69 and 74.A longer lifespan is changing the narrative structure of life itself.What could have been considered the beginning of a descent is now a potential turning point—the turning point you are most equipped to take full advantage of. According to Karl Barth, midlife is the time ______.
[单选题]In recent years, Israeli consumers have grown more demanding as they’ve become wealthier and more worldly-wise.Foreign travel is a national passion; this summer alone, one in 10 citizens will go abroad.Exposed to higher standards of service everywhere, Israelis are returning home expecting the same.American firms have also begun arriving in large numbers.KFC, McDonald’s and Pizza Hut are setting a new standard of customer service, using strict employ training and constant monitoring to ensure the friendliness of frontline staff.Even the American habit of telling departing customers to “have a nice day” has caught on all over Israel.“Nobody wakes up in the morning and says, “Let’s be nicer,” says Itsik Cohen, director of a consulting firm.“Nothing happens without competition.” Privatization, or the threat of it, is a motivation as well.Monopolies(垄断者) that until recently have been free to take their customers for granted now fear what Michael Perry, a marketing professor, calls “ the revengeful (报复的) consumer.” When the government opened up competition with Bezaq, the phone company, its international branch lost 40% of its market share, even while offering competitive rates.Perry Says,“People wanted revenge for all the years of bad service.” The electric company, whose monopoly may be short-lived, has suddenly stopped requiring users to wait half a day for a repairman.Now, appointments are scheduled to the half- hour.The graceless E1A1 Airlines, which is already at auction (拍卖),has retrained its employees to emphasize service and is boasting about the results in an ad campaign with the slogan, “You can feel the change in the air.” For the first time, praise outnumbers complaints on customer survey sheets. If someone in Israel today needs a repairman in case of a power failure, _____.
[单选题]My new home was a long way from the centre of London but it was becoming essential to find a job,so finally I spent a whole morning getting to town and putting my name down to be considered by London Transport for a job on the tube. They were looking for guards,not drivers. This suited me. I couldn’t drive a car but thought that I could probably guard a train,and perhaps continue to write my poems between stations. The writers Keats and Chekhov had been doctors. T. S. Eliot had worked in a bank and Wallace Stevens for an insurance company. I would be a tube guard. I could see myself being cheerful,useful,a good man in a crisis. Obviously I would be overqualified but I was willing to forget about that in return for a steady income and travel privileges—those being particularly welcome to someone living a long way from the city centre. The next day I sat down,with almost a hundred other candidates,for the intelligence test,I must have done all right because after half an hour’s wait I was sent into another room for a psychological test. This time there were only about fifty candidates. The examiner sat at a desk. You were signaled forward to occupy the seat opposite him when the previous occupant had been dismissed after a greater or shorter time. Obviously the long interviews were the more successful ones. Some of the interviews were as short as five minutes. Mine was the only one that lasted a minute and a half. I can remember the questions now:“Why did you leave your last job?”“Why did you leave your job before that?”“And the one before that?”I can’t recall my answers,except that they were short at first and grew progressively shorter. His closing statement,I thought,revealed a lack of sensitivity which helped to explain why as a psychologist,he had risen no higher than the underground railway.“You have failed the psychological test and we are unable to offer you a position.” Failing to get that job was my low point. Or so I thought,believing that the work was easy. Actually,such jobs—being a postman is another one I still desire—demand exactly the sort of elementary yet responsible awareness that the habitual dreamer is least qualified to give. But I was still far short of full self-understanding. I was also short of cash. 58. The length of his interview meant that .