[单选题]Section A Directions: In this section., there are four passages followed by questions or unjinished statements, each with four suggested answers A, B, C an,d D. Choose the best answer arzd mark your answer on the Answer Sheet. Passage One Telecommuting-substituting the computer for the trip to the job-has been hailed as a solution to all kinds of problems related to office work. For workers it promises freedom from the office, less time wasted in traffic, and help with child-care conflicts. For management, telecommuting helps keep high performers on board, minimizes lateness and absenteeism by eliminating commuters, allows periods of solitude for high-concentration tasks, and provides scheduling flexibility. In some areas, such as Southern California, Seattle, and Washington, local governments are encouraging companies to start telecommuting programs in order to reduce rush-hour traffic and improve air quality. But these benefits do not come easily. Making a telecommuting program work requires careful planning and an understanding of the differences between telecommuting realities and popular images. Many workers are seduced by rosy illusions of life as a telecommuter. A computer programmer from New York City moves to the quiet Adirondack Mountains and stays in contact with her office via computer. A manager comes into his office three days a week and works at home the other two. An accountant stays home to care for her sick child; she hooks up her telephone modern connections and does office work between calls to the doctor. These are powerful images, but they are a limited reflection of reality. Telecommuting workers soon Learn that it is almost impossible to concentrate on work and care for a young child at the same time. Before a certain age, young children cannot recognize, much less respect, the necessary boundaries between work and family. Additional child support is necessary if the parent is to get any work done. Management, too, must separate the myth from the reality. Although the media has paid a great deal of attention to telecommuting, in most cases it is the employee's situation, not the availability of technology, that precipitates a telecommuting arrangement. That is partly why, despite the widespread press coverage, the number of companies with work-at- home programs of policy guidelines remains small. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a problem for employers that is potentially solved by telecommuting?
[单选题]Section B Directions:In this section, you are required to read one quoted blog and the comments on it. The blog and comments are followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer and mark your answer on the Answer Sheet. “Recently Japan’s legislature has approved a bill revising the nation’s Copyright Law to add criminal penalties for downloading copyrighted material making DVD backups and maybe watching YouTube illegal. The penalties will come into effect in October.You know, there's a fairly constant pattern in the world of copyright enforcement. The media companies claim that piracy is "destroying" their industries,although they never offer any independent evidence to back this up. They "demand" that governments "do something" -- by which they mean introduce harsher penalties for unauthorized downloads. After the laws come in to force, online sharing may dip for a while, but soon returns to previous levels, so the media companies start complaining again, and demand yet tougher penalties.” Comment 1: If any of those participants in this never-ending cycle stood back and looked at what was happening, they would see that the very fact the copyright companies keep coming back for more and harsher copyright laws offers clear proof that the current approach just isn't working. Comment 2: What should happen is the entertainment industries on the whole should be totally banned from the internet, from owning or operating any web site and from having any of their material available for download from anywhere. ISPs seem to be ignorant of the fact that the more these industries demand, the more they get but it is never enough and will never be enough. Comment 3: This is just making sure there are only two types of people in Japan. Those that are in prison, and those that will soon be on their way to prison. Comment 4: Given that media industries are able to make exaggerated claims without proof, can we not turn the tables on them? Get a grass roots movement going, get some momentum and take it to congress. Demand more piracy to encourage creativity and increase sales and profits. According to the writer of the blog, what might be the result of the enforcement of the new bill?
[单选题]"Sugar, alcohol and tobacco," economist Adam Smith once wrote, "are commodities which are nowhere necessaries of life, which have become objects of almost universal consumption, and which are, therefore, extremely popular subjects of taxation." Two and a half centuries on, most countries impose some sort of tax on alcohol and tobacco.With surging obesity levels putting increasing strain on public health systems, governments around the world have begun to toy with the idea of taxing sugar as well. Whether such taxes work is a matter of debate.A preliminary review of Mexico's taxation found a fall in purchases of taxed drinks as well as a rise in sales if untaxed and healthier drinks.By contrast, a Danish tax on foods high in fats was abandoned a year after its introduction, amid claims that consumers were avoiding it by crossing the border to Germany to satisfy their desire for cheaper, fattier fare. The food industry has, in general, been firmly opposed to such direct government action.Nonetheless, the renewed focus on waistlines means that industry groups are under pressure to demonstrate their products are healthy as well as tasty. Over the past three decades, the industry has made some efforts to improve the quality of its offerings. For example, some drink manufactures have cut the amount of sugar in their beverages. Many of the reductions over the past 30 years have been achieved either by reducing the amount of sugar, salt or fat in a product, or by finding an alternative ingredient.More recently, however. Some companies have been investing money in a more ambitious undertaking: learning how to adjust the fundamental make-up of the food they sell.For example, having salt on the outside, but none on the inside, reduces the salt content without changing the taste. While reformulating recipes( 配 方 )is one way to improve public health, it should be part of a multi- sided approach.The key is to remember that there is not just one solution.To deal with obesity, a mixture of approaches-including reformulation, taxation and adjusting portion sizes-will be needed.There is no silver bullet. What do we learn about Danish taxation on fat-rich foods?