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[单选题]Section B Directions : In this section., you are required to read jive short paragraphs and decide which of the five titles marked A, B, C, D an,d E is the best suited to each of them. Choose the best answer and mark your answer on the Answer Sheet. Kiwis are flightless birds endemic to New Zealand, and by far the smallest living ratites and lay the largest egg in relation to their body size of any species of bird in the world. 41 The kiwi is synonymous with New Zealand, so much so that Australians endearingly refer to New Zealanders as "kiwi" -people from the Land of the Kiwi. This unique bird, recognizable by its short squat body and elongated beak, is under threat. Its small, clawlike wings render the kiwi flightless; it must of necessity live on the grounD. The kiwi is thus easy prey to marauding enemies such as humans and mammals. . 42 When the great land mass of the south split 75 million years ago, the kiwi and many other grou"dliving bird species became separated from predatory mammals within what was later to become Know as New ZealanD.The birds were able to multiply and flourish because there were very few mammals land-locked within the islands. Kiwis have evolved certain mammalian characteristics over time, living on the ground and free as they were from attack by mammals. 43 However, when the Polynesians amved about l,000 years ago bringing with them dogs and rats, the kiwi population and other vulnerable bird species soon suffered a severe reduction in numbers. The coming of the Europeans in the eighteenth century brought even more determined predators, including the cat and, especially, the stoat-a kind of weasel introduced to control rabbits. The stoat is a very vicious and efficient killer of kiwis. 44 There are six types of kiwis, and all six are threateneD.Two are "critically endangered" because they have populations of less than 250 mature birds. Two are "endangered" meaning that it is estimated that within three generations their numbers will have declined by 50%. The other two are designated "vulnerable" -one because its habitat is shrinking, the other because it is potentially under threat from stoats and other mammals. 45 100 years ago there were more than 5 million North Island Brown Kiwis. Today, there are probably around 30,000 and the population is decreasing at a rate of 6u/o a year. Only the Little Spotted Kiwi is increasing because of successful attempts to transfer the creature to predator-free offshore islands. There are further reasons for hope. Trapping predators and rearing baby chicks for later release into the wild can have a dramatic effect on kiwi numbers; but it will be necessary to do so on a large scale. It would be tragic if New Zealand were to lose its national symbol, the kiwi. Surely the strangest bird in existence, unable to fly, it sniffs out its food with a remarkably strong sense of smell. Its legs are powerful and muscular, for the kiwi is a burrower living in dens-some species even preferring tunnels, yet another similarity it shares with some mammals. But it cannot share its habitat with them without eventually losing the battle for survival.
[单选题]The average number of authors on scientific papers is sky-rocketing. That’s partly because labs are bigger,problems are more complicated,and more different subspecialties are needed. But it’s also because U S government agencies have started to promote“team science”. As physics developed in the post-World War Ⅱ era,federal funds built expensive national facilities,and these served as surfaces on which collaborations could crystallize naturally. Yet multiple authorship—however good it maybe in other ways—presents problems for journals and for the institutions in which these authors work. For the journals,long lists of authors are hard to deal with in themselves. But those long lists give rise to more serious questions when something goes wrong with the paper. If there is research misconduct,how should the liability be allocated among the authors?If there is an honest mistake in one part of the work but not in others,how should an evaluator aim his or her review? Various practical or impractical suggestions have emerged during the long-standing debate on this issue. One is that each author should provide,and the journal should then publish,an account of that author’s particular contribution to the work. But a different view of the problem,and perhaps of the solution,comes as we get to university committee on appointments and promotions,which is where the authorship rubber really meets the road. Half a lifetime of involvement with this process has taught me how much authorship matters. I have watched committees attempting to decode sequences of names,agonize over whether a much-cited paper was really the candidate’s work or a coauthor’s,and send back recommendations asking for more specificity about the division of responsibility. Problems of this kind change the argument,supporting the case for asking authors to define their own roles. After all,if quality judgments about individuals are to be made on the basis of their personal contributions,then the judges better know what they did. But if questions arise about the validity of the work as a whole,whether as challenges to its conduct or as evaluations of its influence in the field,a team is a team,and the members should share the credit or the blame. 54. According to the passage,whether multiple authors of a paper should be taken collectively or individually depends on .
[单选题]The United States has historically had higher rates of marriage than those of other industrialized countries. The current annual marriage 56 in the United States—about 9 new marriages for every 1,000 people—is 57 higher than it is in other industrialized countries. However,marriage is 58 as widespread as it was several decades ago. 59 of American adults who are married 60 from 72 percent in 1970 to 60 percent in 2002. This does not mean that large numbers of people will remain unmarried 61 their lives. Throughout the 20th century,about 90 percent of Americans married at some 62 in their lives. Experts 63 that about the same proportion of today’s young adults will eventually marry. The timing of marriage has varied 64 over the past century. In 1995 the average age of women in the United States at the time of their first marriage was 25. The average age of men was about 27. Men and women in the United States marry for the first time at an average of five years later than people did in the 1950s. 65 ,young adults of the 1950s married younger than did any previous 66 in U.S. history. Today’s later age of marriage is 67 the age of marriage between 1890 and 1940. Moreover,a greater proportion of the population was married (95 percent)during the 1950s than at any time before 68 . Experts do not agree on why the“marriage rush”of the late 1940s and 1950s occurred,but most social scientists believe it represented a 69 to the return of peaceful life and prosperity after 15 years of severe economic 70 and war. 57选
[单选题]Several years ago during the dot-com passion,Manhattan lawyer John Kennedy sometimes wore a dark blue suit to meet potential Internet clients. But he soon realized that his conservative clothes were a strike against him before he even shook hands. So he began to do business in casual,open-shirt clothes. But now the tables have turned. Today Silicon Valley executives are the ones often coming out in suits. No wonder that Fortune 500 executives are dusting off their silk ties and pants.“I would say there is a trend now toward a little more business dress,”said Kennedy.“I find myself wearing suits more.” While there isn’t a rush toward formal office wear,clothiers and executives say the workplace uniform is heading that way. In many offices,men are wearing jackets,ties and pants more frequently than a year ago. Top women executives never went as casual as men,so the shift doesn’t affect them as dramatically. “Business casual”took several years to catch on. It started with casual Fridays,evolved to casual summers,then became casual everyday. A return to the button-down look also will take time,observers say. Lehman Brothers is one of the few major firms that has officially returned to a formal dress policy,at least for offices that clients visit. Men were told to wear suits and ties and women to wear suits or dresses. The shift is due to a rethinking of work environments and more contacts with clients as the firm has grown. Observers mention many factors driving the trend. Internet companies helped lead the dress-down movement and other industries followed suit to attract workers. But with the collapse of many dot-coms,the relaxed look is becoming a style to avoid. Moreover,as the economy stumbles,more people are hunting for jobs or trying to keep the ones they have,and appearance counts. US President Bush wears a coat and tie in the White House office and expects his staff to dress“professionally,”which some say sets a tone for the nation. Chuck Wardell,managing director of a recruiting firm,believes a lot of employees like a stiffer uniform.“They’re going to work. They don’t want to feel like they’re going to a picnic.” 54. At the beginning of the“business casual”trend,business people wore casually .
[单选题]As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice that their memory and mental clarity are not what they used to be. We suddenly can’t remember 46 we put the keys just a moment ago, or the name of an old brand we used to love. As the brain fades, we refer to these occurrences as “senior moments”. 47 seemingly innocent, this loss of mental focus can potentially have a damaging impact on our personal well-being. Neuroscientists, experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there’s actually a lot that can be done. It 48 out that the brain needs exercise in much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental workouts can significantly improve our basic cognitive functions. Thinking is essentially a 49 of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent, our ability to excel in making the connections that drive intelligence is inherited. 50 , because these connections are made through effort and practice, scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate 51 mental effort. Now, a new Web-based company has taken it a step 52 and developed the first “brain training program” designed to actually help people improve and regain their mental sharpness. The Web-based program 53 you to systematically improve your memory and attention skills. The program keeps track of your progress and provides detailed feedback 54 your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it 55 modifies and enhances the games you play to build on the strengths you are developing - much like an effective exercise routine requires you to increase resistance and vary your muscle use.