英语学科知识与教学能力【中学】

考试试题

[单选题]Drunken driving, sometimes called America's socially accepted form of murder, has become a national epidemic. Every hour of every day about three Americans on average are killed hy drunken drivers, adding up an incredible 350,000 over the past decade. A drunken driver is usually defined as one with a 0.10 blood alcohol content or roughly three beers, glasses of wine or shots of whisky drunk within two hours. Heavy drinking used to be an acceptable part of the American alcohol image and judges were lenient in most courts, but the drunken slaughter has recently caused so many well-publicized tragedies, especially involving young children, that public opinion is no longer so tolerant. Twenty states have raised the legal drinking age to 21, reversing a trend in the 1960s to reduce it to 18. After New Jersey lowered it to 18, the number of people killed by 18 to 20-year-old drivers more than doubled, so the state recently upped it back to 21.Reformers, however, fear raising the drinking age will have little effect unless accompanied by educational programs to help young people to develop"responsible attitudes" about drinking and teach them to resist peer pressure to drink. Tough new laws have led to increased arrests and in many areas already, to a marked decline in fatalities. Some states are also penalizing bars for serving customers too many drinks. As the fatalities continue to occur daily in every state, some Americans are even beginning to speak well of the 13 years' national prohibition of alcohol that began in 1919, which President Hoover called the"noble experiment". They forget that legal prohibition didn't stop drinking, but encouraged political corruption and organized crime. As with the booming drug trade generally, there is no easy solution. ?Which of the following sentences best concludes the main idea of this passage?
[单选题]It is generally agreed that the first true cities appeared about 5,000 years ago in the food-producing communities of the Middle East. The cities of Sumeria, Egypt and the Indus Valley possessed a number of characteristics that distinguished them as truly urban. The cities were very much larger and more densely populated than any previous settlement, and their function wasclearly differentiated from that of the surrounding villages. In the cities the old patterns of kinship relations were replaced by a complex hierarchy of social classes based on the specialization of labor. Moreover, the need to keep records led to the development of writing and arithmetic, and the increased sophistication of urban society gave a new impetus to artistic expression of every kind. When the basis of city life was established in Europe the urban tradition was drawn from the ancient cities of the Middle East, via the civilization of Greece and Rome. We can trace three main phases in the growth of the West European city. The first of these is the medieval phase which extends from the beginning of the 1 lth century A.D. to about 1,500 to the beginning of the 19th century. The third is the modern phase extending from the early 19th century to the present day. Every medieval city began as a small settlement, which grew up round a geographical or cultural focal point. This would be a permanent structure such as a stronghold, a cathedral or a large church. In districts where travel and trade were well established, it might be a market, a river crossing, or a place where two or more trade routes met, in studies of urban geography the oldest part of town is referred to as the nuclear settlement. There are many small towns in Europe where it is still possible to trace the outline of the original nuclear settlement. It is, of course, much more difficult to do this in the case if a large modern city which has grown to many times its original size. ?Which of the following would be the best title of the passage?
[单选题]请阅读Passage 2。完成第小题。 Passage 2 The medical community owes economists a great deal. Amartya Sen won a Nobel Prize for Economic Sciences in 1998. He has spent his entire career promulgating ideas of justice and freedom, with health rarely out of his gaze. Joseph Stiglitz won a Noble in 2001. In 1998, when he was chief economist at the (then) notoriously regressive World Bank, he famously challenged the Washington Consensus. And Jeff Sachs, a controversial figure to some critics, can fairly lay claim to the enormous achievement of putting health at the center of the Millennium Development Goals. His"Commission on Macroeconomics and Health" was a landmark report, providing explicit evidence to explain why attacking disease was absolutely necessary if poverty was to be eradicated. And I must offer my own personal gratitude to a very special group of economists--Larry Summers,Dean Jamison, Kenneth Arrow, David Evans, and Sanjeev Gupta. They were the economic team that drove the work of Global Health 2035. But although we might be kind to economists, perhaps we should be tougher on the disci li- of economics itself. For economics has much to answer for. Pick up any economics textbook, and you will see the priority given to markets and efficiency, price and utility, profit and competition. These words have chilling effects on our quest for better health. They seem to marginalize those qualities of our lives that we value most of all--not our self-interest, but our humanity; not the costs and benefits of monetary exchange, but vision and ideals that guide our decisions. It was these issues that were addressed at last week's Global Health Lab, held at Lndon School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Anne Mills, Vice-Director of the School, fervently argued the case in favor of economists. It was they who contributed to understanding the idea of"best-buys" in global health. It was economists who challenged user fees. And it was economists who made the connection between health and economic growth, providing one of the most compelling political arguments for taking health seriously. Some economists might adore markets, but not health economists, she said. "Health care is different." For her kind of economist, a health system is a"social institution that embodies the values of society". Although competition has a part to play in health, it should be used judiciously as a mechanism to improve the quality of care. Chris Whitty, Chief Scientific Adviser at the UK's DepartmentforInternationalDevelopment,expressedhiscontemptforthosewhoprofess indifference to economics. Economics is about the efficient allocation of scarce resources. Anyone who backed the inefficient allocation of resources is"immoral". He did criticize economists for their arrogance, though. Economists seemed to believe their ideas should be accepted simply because of the authority they held as economists. Economics, he said, is only one science among many that policy makers have to take into account. But Clare Chandler, a medical anthropologist,took a different view. She asked, what has neoliberal economics ever done for global health? Her answer, in one word, was "inequality". Neoliberal economics frames the way we think and act. Her argument suggested that any economic philosophy that put a premium on free trade, privatization,minimal government, and reduced public spending on social and health sectors is a philosophy bereft of human virtue. The discussion that followed, led by Martin McKee, posed difficult questions. Why do economists pay such little attention to inequality? Why do economists treat their theories like religions? Why are economists so silent on their own failures? Can economics ever be apolitical? There were few satisfactory answers to these questions. Which of the following best describes the author's attitude toward economists? 查看材料
[单选题]请阅读Passage l。完成第小题。 Passage 1 Unless you spend much time sitting in a college classroom or browsing through certain areas of the Internet, it's possible that you had not heard of trigger warnings until a few weeks ago, when they made an appearance in the Times. The newspaper explained that the term refers to preemptive alerts, issued by a professor or an institution at the request of students, indicating that material presented in class might be sufficiently graphic to spark symptoms of post-traumatic-stress disorder. The term seems to have originated in online feminist forums, where trigger warnings have for some years been used to flag discussions of rape or other sexual violence. The Times piece, which was skeptically titled "Warning: The Literary Canon Could Make Students Squirm," suggested that trigger warnings are moving from the online fringes to the classroom, and might be more broadly applied to highlight in advance the distress or offense that a work of literature might cause. "Huckleberry Finn" would come with a warning for those who have experienced racism; "The Merchant of Venice" would have an anti-Semitism warning attached. The call from students for trigger warnings was spreading on campuses such as Oberlin, where a proposal was drafted that would advise professors to"be aware of racism, classism, sexism, and other issues of privilege and oppression" in devising their syllabi; and Rutgers, where a student argued in the campus newspaper that trigger warnings would contribute to preserving the classroom as a"safe space" for students. Online discussion of trigger warnings has sometimes been guardedly sympathetic, sometimes critical. Jessica Valenti has noted on The Nation's website that potential triggers for trauma are so manifold as to be beyond the possibility of cataloguing : "There is no trigger warning for living your life." Some have suggested that a professor's ability to teach would be compromised should it become commonplace for"The Great Gatsby" to bear a trigger warning alerting readers to the disgusting characters and incidents within its pages. Others have worried that trigger-warning advocates, in seeking to protect the vulnerable, run the risk of disempowering them instead. "Bending the world to accommodate our personal frailties does not help us overcome them", Jenny Jarvie wrote on The New Republic's online site. Jarvie's piece, like many others on the subject, cited the University of California, Santa Barbara, as a campus where champions of trigger warnings have made significant progress. Earlier this year, students at U.C.S.B. agreed upon a resolution recommending that such warnings be issued in instances where classroom materials might touch upon "rape, sexual assault, abuse, self-injurious behavior, suicide, and graphic violence". The resolution was brought by a literature student who said that, as a past victim of sexual violence, she had been shocked when a teacher showed a movie in class which depicted rape, without giving advance notice of the content. The student hoped to spare others the possibility of experiencing a post-traumatic-stress reaction. The trigger-warning debate may, by comparison, seem hard to understand; but express a larger cultural preoccupation with achieving safety, and a fear of living in its absence. The hope that safety might be found, as in a therapist's office, in a classroom where literature is being taught is in direct contradiction to one purpose of literature, which is to give expression through art to difficultanduncomfortableideas,andtherebytoenlargethereader'sexperienceand comprehension. The classroom can never be an entirely safe space, nor, probably, should it be. But it's difficult to fault those who hope that it might be, when the outside world constantly proves itself pervasively hostile, as well as, on occasion, horrifically violent. Who holds a critical view on economists' role in medical field according to the passage? 查看材料
[单选题]请阅读Passage l。完成第小题。 Passage 1 Unless you spend much time sitting in a college classroom or browsing through certain areas of the Internet, it's possible that you had not heard of trigger warnings until a few weeks ago, when they made an appearance in the Times. The newspaper explained that the term refers to preemptive alerts, issued by a professor or an institution at the request of students, indicating that material presented in class might be sufficiently graphic to spark symptoms of post-traumatic-stress disorder. The term seems to have originated in online feminist forums, where trigger warnings have for some years been used to flag discussions of rape or other sexual violence. The Times piece, which was skeptically titled "Warning: The Literary Canon Could Make Students Squirm," suggested that trigger warnings are moving from the online fringes to the classroom, and might be more broadly applied to highlight in advance the distress or offense that a work of literature might cause. "Huckleberry Finn" would come with a warning for those who have experienced racism; "The Merchant of Venice" would have an anti-Semitism warning attached. The call from students for trigger warnings was spreading on campuses such as Oberlin, where a proposal was drafted that would advise professors to"be aware of racism, classism, sexism, and other issues of privilege and oppression" in devising their syllabi; and Rutgers, where a student argued in the campus newspaper that trigger warnings would contribute to preserving the classroom as a"safe space" for students. Online discussion of trigger warnings has sometimes been guardedly sympathetic, sometimes critical. Jessica Valenti has noted on The Nation's website that potential triggers for trauma are so manifold as to be beyond the possibility of cataloguing : "There is no trigger warning for living your life." Some have suggested that a professor's ability to teach would be compromised should it become commonplace for"The Great Gatsby" to bear a trigger warning alerting readers to the disgusting characters and incidents within its pages. Others have worried that trigger-warning advocates, in seeking to protect the vulnerable, run the risk of disempowering them instead. "Bending the world to accommodate our personal frailties does not help us overcome them", Jenny Jarvie wrote on The New Republic's online site. Jarvie's piece, like many others on the subject, cited the University of California, Santa Barbara, as a campus where champions of trigger warnings have made significant progress. Earlier this year, students at U.C.S.B. agreed upon a resolution recommending that such warnings be issued in instances where classroom materials might touch upon "rape, sexual assault, abuse, self-injurious behavior, suicide, and graphic violence". The resolution was brought by a literature student who said that, as a past victim of sexual violence, she had been shocked when a teacher showed a movie in class which depicted rape, without giving advance notice of the content. The student hoped to spare others the possibility of experiencing a post-traumatic-stress reaction. The trigger-warning debate may, by comparison, seem hard to understand; but express a larger cultural preoccupation with achieving safety, and a fear of living in its absence. The hope that safety might be found, as in a therapist's office, in a classroom where literature is being taught is in direct contradiction to one purpose of literature, which is to give expression through art to difficultanduncomfortableideas,andtherebytoenlargethereader'sexperienceand comprehension. The classroom can never be an entirely safe space, nor, probably, should it be. But it's difficult to fault those who hope that it might be, when the outside world constantly proves itself pervasively hostile, as well as, on occasion, horrifically violent. What does the author intend to tell the reader? 查看材料
[单选题]请阅读Passage 2,完成此题。 Passage 2 Until a decade or two ago, the centers of many Western cities were emptying while their edges were spreading. This was not for the reasons normally cited. Neither the car nor the motorway caused suburban sprawl, although they sped it up: cities were spreading before either came along. Nor was the flight to the suburbs caused by racism. Whites fled inner-city neighborhoods that were becoming black, but they also fled ones that were not. Planning and zoning rules encouraged sprawl, as did tax breaks for home ownership--but cities spread regardless of these. The real cause was mass affluence. As people grew richer, they demanded more privacy and space. Only a few could afford that in city centers; the rest moved out. The same process is now occurring in the developing world, but much more quickly. The pop-ulation density of metropolitan Beijing has collapsed since 1970, falling from 425 people per hectare to 65. Indian cities are following; Brazil's are ahead. And suburbanization has a long way to run. Beijing is now about as crowded as metropolitan Chicago was at its most closely packed, in the 1920s. Since then Chicago's density has fallen by almost three-quarters. This is welcome. Romantic notions of sociable, high-density living--notions pushed, for the most part, by people who themselves occupy rather spacious residences--ignore the squalor and lack of privacy to be found in Kinshasa, Mumbai or the other crowded cities of the poor world. Many of them are far too dense for dignified living, and need to spread out. The Western suburbs to which so many aspire are healthier than their detractors say. The modern Stepfords are no longer white monocultures, but that is progress. For every Ferguson there are many American suburbs that have quietly become black, Hispanic or Asian, or a blend of every-one. Picaresque accounts of decay overlook the fact that America's suburbs are half as criminal and a little more than half as poor as central cities. Even as urban centers revive, more Americans move from city centre to suburb than go the other way. But the West has also made mistakes, from which the rest of the world can learn. The first lesson is that suburban sprawl imposes costs on everyone. Suburbanites tend to use more roads and consume more carbon than urbanites (though perhaps not as much as distant commuters forced out by green belts). But this damage can be alleviated by a carbon tax, by toll roads and by charging for parking. Many cities in the emerging world have followed the foolish American practice of re-quiring property developers to provide a certain number of parking spaces for every building--something that makes commuting by car much more attractive than it would be otherwise. Scrap-ping them would give public transport a chance. The second is that it is foolish to try to stop the spread of suburbs. Green belts, the most ef-fective method for doing this, push up property prices and encourage long-distance commuting. The cost of housing in London, already astronomical, went up by 19% in the past year, reflecting not just the city's strong economy but also the impossibility of building on its edges. The insistence on big minimum lot sizes in some American suburbs and rural areas has much the same effect. Cities that try to prevent growth through green belts often end up weakening themselves, as Seoul has done. A wiser policy would be to plan for huge expansion. Acquire strips of land for roads and rail-ways, and chunks for parks, before the city sprawls into them. New York's 19th-century governors decided where Central Park was going to go long before the city reached it. New York went on to develop in a way that they could not have imagined, but the park is still there. This is not the state control of the new-town planner--that confident soul who believes he knows where people will want to live and work, and how they will get from one to the other. It is the realism needed to manage the inevitable. A model of living that has broadly worked well in the West is spreading, adapting to local conditions as it goes. We should all look forward to the time when Chinese and Indian teenagers write sulky songs about the appalling dullness of suburbia. What does the underlined word "them" in PARAGRAPH FIVE refer to? 查看材料
[单选题]A new scheme for getting children to and from school is being started by the education authorities in part of Eastern England. This could end the worries of many parents fearful for their children's safety on the roads. Until now the Country Council has only been prepared to provide bus services for children living more than three miles from their school, or sometimes less if special reasons existed. Now it has been decided that if a group of parents ask for help in organizing transport they will be prepared to go ahead, provided the arrangement will not lose money and that children taking part will be attending their nearest school. The new scheme is to be tried out this term for children living at Milton who attend Impington school. The children live just within the three-mile limit and the Council has said in the past it will not undertake to provide free transport to the school. But now they have agreed to organize a bus service from Milton to Impington and back, a plan which has the support of the school's headmaster. Between 50 and 60 parents have said they would like their children to take part in. Final calculations have still to be carried out, but a council official has said the cost of parents should be less than $6.50 a tenn. They have been able to arrange the service at a low cost because there is already an agreement with the bus company for a bus to take children who live further away to Impington. The same bus would now just make an extra journey to pick up the Milton children. The official said they would get in touch with other groups of parents who in the past had asked if transport could be provided for their children, to see if they would like to take part in the new scheme. Taking part in the Council's trial schemes are children who__________.
[单选题]请阅读Passage l,完成此题。 Passage 1 When asked by Conan if his daughters had smart phones, comedian Louis CK explained that he had successfully fended them off by simply replying, "No, you can' t have it. It is bad for you." He instantly became my hero as I was mired in difficult negotiations with my ten-year-old daughter over one. And frankly, she was winning. Was it possible to say no to my daughter, as CK suggested? I hadn't even known I was allowed to, if the guinea pigs, the dogs, and things for her doll Molly were any indication. CK rationalized, "I am not raising the children. I'm raising the grown-ups that they are going to be. So just because the other stupid kids have phones doesn't mean that my kid has to be stupid." Now I knew I didn't want my kid to grow up stupid like her friends. I needed to explain this to her. This is what CK told Conan and me. Cell phones are "toxic, especially for kids," he said, because they don't help them learn em-pathy, one of the nicer human emotions. When we text, we don't see or hear a visceral reaction. The response we get is cold and hard text-message. "Why are kids mean?" He asked. "Because they're trying it out. They look at another kid and say, 'You're fat.' Then they see the kid's face scrunch up and think that doesn't feel good." Texting "you're fat" allows you to bypass the pain. CK went on to explain that smart phones rob us of our ability to be alone. Kids use smart phones to occupy their time: Must text! Must play game! Must look up more tiny socks online for Molly!!! CK asked, what happened to zoning out? After all, one of the joys of being human is allowing our minds to wander, with cell phones, kids are always preoccupied. They never daydream, except in class. And here's something else we're missing: our right to be miserable. This was a right I hadn't realized I desired until CK pointed out that it's another essential human emotion. CK gave the example of driving by yourself and suddenly realizing that you're alone. Not "Oh,guess I can't use the lane" alone. Dark, brooding sadness causes so many drivers to grab that smart phone and reach out to another living soul. "Everybody's murdering each other with their cars" as they text because they dread being alone. Too bad--they're missing out on a life-affirming experience. "I was in my car one time, and Bruce Springsteen's 'Jungle land' came on. He sounds so far away, making me really sad. And I think I've got to get the phone and write hi to 50 people. I was reaching for the phone, and I thought, don't! Just be sad." So CK pulled over and allowed himself to sob like a little girl denied a nice thing for her American Girl doll. "It was beautiful. Sadness is poetic. You're lucky to live sad moments," he said. Because he didn't fight it and allowed himself to be miserable, his body released endorphins. "Happiness rushed in to meet the sadness. I was grateful to feel sad, and then I met it with true profound happiness. The thing is, because we don't want that first bit of sad, we push it away with that little phone. So you never feel completely sad or completely happy. You just feel kind of satis-fied. And then you die. That's why I don't want to get phones for my kids". And I suppose I don't either. What does the underlined word "one" in PARAGRAPH TWO refer to? 查看材料
[单选题]What should you think about in trying to find your career? You are probably better at some school subjects than others. These may show strengths that you can use in your work. A boy who is good at mathematics can use that in an engineering career. A girl who spells well and likes English may be good at office work. So it is important to know the subjects you do well in at school. On the other hand, you may not have any specially strong or weak subjects but your records show a general satisfactory standard. Although not all subjects can be used directly in a job, they may have indirect value. A knowledge of history is not required for most jobs but if history is one of your good subjects you will have learned to remember facts and details. This is an ability that can be useful in many jobs. Your school may have taught you skills, such as typing or technical drawing, which you can use in your work. You may be good at metal work or cookery and look for a job where you can improve these skills. If you have had a part-time job on Saturdays or in the summer, think what you gained from it. If nothing else, you may have learned how to get to work on time, to follow instructions and to get on with older workers. You may have learned to give correct change in a shop, for example. Just as important, you may become interested in a particular industry or career you see from the inside in a part-time job. Facing your weak points is also part of knowing yourself. You may be all thumbs when you handle tools; perhaps you are a poor speller or cannot add up a column of figures. It is bitter to face any weaknesses than to pretend they do not exist. Your school record, for instance, may not be too good, yet it is an important part of your background. You should not be apologetic about it but instead recognize that you will have a chance of a fresh start at work. ?According to the passage, if a student's school record is not good, he__________.
[单选题]请阅读Passage l。完成第小题。 Passage 1 Unless you spend much time sitting in a college classroom or browsing through certain areas of the Internet, it's possible that you had not heard of trigger warnings until a few weeks ago, when they made an appearance in the Times. The newspaper explained that the term refers to preemptive alerts, issued by a professor or an institution at the request of students, indicating that material presented in class might be sufficiently graphic to spark symptoms of post-traumatic-stress disorder. The term seems to have originated in online feminist forums, where trigger warnings have for some years been used to flag discussions of rape or other sexual violence. The Times piece, which was skeptically titled "Warning: The Literary Canon Could Make Students Squirm," suggested that trigger warnings are moving from the online fringes to the classroom, and might be more broadly applied to highlight in advance the distress or offense that a work of literature might cause. "Huckleberry Finn" would come with a warning for those who have experienced racism; "The Merchant of Venice" would have an anti-Semitism warning attached. The call from students for trigger warnings was spreading on campuses such as Oberlin, where a proposal was drafted that would advise professors to"be aware of racism, classism, sexism, and other issues of privilege and oppression" in devising their syllabi; and Rutgers, where a student argued in the campus newspaper that trigger warnings would contribute to preserving the classroom as a"safe space" for students. Online discussion of trigger warnings has sometimes been guardedly sympathetic, sometimes critical. Jessica Valenti has noted on The Nation's website that potential triggers for trauma are so manifold as to be beyond the possibility of cataloguing : "There is no trigger warning for living your life." Some have suggested that a professor's ability to teach would be compromised should it become commonplace for"The Great Gatsby" to bear a trigger warning alerting readers to the disgusting characters and incidents within its pages. Others have worried that trigger-warning advocates, in seeking to protect the vulnerable, run the risk of disempowering them instead. "Bending the world to accommodate our personal frailties does not help us overcome them", Jenny Jarvie wrote on The New Republic's online site. Jarvie's piece, like many others on the subject, cited the University of California, Santa Barbara, as a campus where champions of trigger warnings have made significant progress. Earlier this year, students at U.C.S.B. agreed upon a resolution recommending that such warnings be issued in instances where classroom materials might touch upon "rape, sexual assault, abuse, self-injurious behavior, suicide, and graphic violence". The resolution was brought by a literature student who said that, as a past victim of sexual violence, she had been shocked when a teacher showed a movie in class which depicted rape, without giving advance notice of the content. The student hoped to spare others the possibility of experiencing a post-traumatic-stress reaction. The trigger-warning debate may, by comparison, seem hard to understand; but express a larger cultural preoccupation with achieving safety, and a fear of living in its absence. The hope that safety might be found, as in a therapist's office, in a classroom where literature is being taught is in direct contradiction to one purpose of literature, which is to give expression through art to difficultanduncomfortableideas,andtherebytoenlargethereader'sexperienceand comprehension. The classroom can never be an entirely safe space, nor, probably, should it be. But it's difficult to fault those who hope that it might be, when the outside world constantly proves itself pervasively hostile, as well as, on occasion, horrifically violent. Which of the following can be the negative impact that trigger warning exerts on literature teaching according to the writer? 查看材料
[问答题]根据提供的信息和语言素材设计教学方案,用英文作答。 设计任务:请阅读下面学生信息和语言素材,设计一个20分钟的阅读训练活动。教案没有固定格式.但须包含下列要点:? teaching objectives teaching contents key and difficult points major steps and time allocation activities and justifications 教学时间:20分钟? 学生概况:某城镇普通中学高中二年级第一学期学生,班级人数40人。多数学生已经达到《普通高中英语课程标准(实验)》六级水平。学生课堂参与积极性一般。 语言素材:? {图} Skiing is my favourite sport, even though I have only skied for four days in my whole life! Last year my father promised to take me on a holiday if I did well in my exams. When I got straight A's, Dad said, "How about a weekend at the Botanical Gardens?" However, my mum said, "No, you promised a special holiday, I think you ought to keep your word."And, despite the expense, he did. My dream was to see some real snow, so in the Christmas vacation we flew to Seoul, South Korea, and then took a shuttle bus which runs back and forth between Seoul and Muju Resort. As the bus climbed through the mountains, we saw the snow on the trees. I was dying to get out and play with it! At last, we reached the resort and quickly scrambled out of the bus. No one in my family had ever touched snow before. We were all like little children--we picked it up, made snowballs, and threw them at each other! Then we checked in at the hotel. Our room overlooked one of the ski slopes. The slope was floodlit, so we watched people skiing until 10 p.m. We could not wait to try it ourselves. The next day we had our first skiing lesson. We rented our ski suits, boots and skis, and went outside onto the snow. Wearing skis for the first time makes you feel very strange. Suddenly you find you cannot even walk. Our instructor took us onto a gentle slope, and showed us some basic skills. In order to go up a hill, you have to stand sideways, and go up step by step. You must point the tips of your skis to-gether so that you can stop. However, the tips must not cross, or you will fall. You should not ski alone in case you fall and get injured. To be honest, that first lesson was not a great success, and I kept on falling down! However, the next day I definitely improved, I only fell over a few times, and I managed to do a few longer runs. I felt pleased with myself, and the instructor congratulated me, so I felt great. Although it was very cold, I spent most of that holiday skiing. It was the most wonderful time of my life. Nevertheless, it was all over too soon. Now I have decided to work part-time this summer, so I can earn enough money for another super skiing holiday.
[单选题]请阅读Passage l。完成第小题。 Passage 1 Unless you spend much time sitting in a college classroom or browsing through certain areas of the Internet, it's possible that you had not heard of trigger warnings until a few weeks ago, when they made an appearance in the Times. The newspaper explained that the term refers to preemptive alerts, issued by a professor or an institution at the request of students, indicating that material presented in class might be sufficiently graphic to spark symptoms of post-traumatic-stress disorder. The term seems to have originated in online feminist forums, where trigger warnings have for some years been used to flag discussions of rape or other sexual violence. The Times piece, which was skeptically titled "Warning: The Literary Canon Could Make Students Squirm," suggested that trigger warnings are moving from the online fringes to the classroom, and might be more broadly applied to highlight in advance the distress or offense that a work of literature might cause. "Huckleberry Finn" would come with a warning for those who have experienced racism; "The Merchant of Venice" would have an anti-Semitism warning attached. The call from students for trigger warnings was spreading on campuses such as Oberlin, where a proposal was drafted that would advise professors to"be aware of racism, classism, sexism, and other issues of privilege and oppression" in devising their syllabi; and Rutgers, where a student argued in the campus newspaper that trigger warnings would contribute to preserving the classroom as a"safe space" for students. Online discussion of trigger warnings has sometimes been guardedly sympathetic, sometimes critical. Jessica Valenti has noted on The Nation's website that potential triggers for trauma are so manifold as to be beyond the possibility of cataloguing : "There is no trigger warning for living your life." Some have suggested that a professor's ability to teach would be compromised should it become commonplace for"The Great Gatsby" to bear a trigger warning alerting readers to the disgusting characters and incidents within its pages. Others have worried that trigger-warning advocates, in seeking to protect the vulnerable, run the risk of disempowering them instead. "Bending the world to accommodate our personal frailties does not help us overcome them", Jenny Jarvie wrote on The New Republic's online site. Jarvie's piece, like many others on the subject, cited the University of California, Santa Barbara, as a campus where champions of trigger warnings have made significant progress. Earlier this year, students at U.C.S.B. agreed upon a resolution recommending that such warnings be issued in instances where classroom materials might touch upon "rape, sexual assault, abuse, self-injurious behavior, suicide, and graphic violence". The resolution was brought by a literature student who said that, as a past victim of sexual violence, she had been shocked when a teacher showed a movie in class which depicted rape, without giving advance notice of the content. The student hoped to spare others the possibility of experiencing a post-traumatic-stress reaction. The trigger-warning debate may, by comparison, seem hard to understand; but express a larger cultural preoccupation with achieving safety, and a fear of living in its absence. The hope that safety might be found, as in a therapist's office, in a classroom where literature is being taught is in direct contradiction to one purpose of literature, which is to give expression through art to difficultanduncomfortableideas,andtherebytoenlargethereader'sexperienceand comprehension. The classroom can never be an entirely safe space, nor, probably, should it be. But it's difficult to fault those who hope that it might be, when the outside world constantly proves itself pervasively hostile, as well as, on occasion, horrifically violent. Which of the following can be the negative impact that trigger warning exerts on literature teaching according to the writer? 查看材料
[单选题]A new scheme for getting children to and from school is being started by the education authorities in part of Eastern England. This could end the worries of many parents fearful for their children's safety on the roads. Until now the Country Council has only been prepared to provide bus services for children living more than three miles from their school, or sometimes less if special reasons existed. Now it has been decided that if a group of parents ask for help in organizing transport they will be prepared to go ahead, provided the arrangement will not lose money and that children taking part will be attending their nearest school. The new scheme is to be tried out this term for children living at Milton who attend Impington school. The children live just within the three-mile limit and the Council has said in the past it will not undertake to provide free transport to the school. But now they have agreed to organize a bus service from Milton to Impington and back, a plan which has the support of the school's headmaster. Between 50 and 60 parents have said they would like their children to take part in. Final calculations have still to be carried out, but a council official has said the cost of parents should be less than $6.50 a tenn. They have been able to arrange the service at a low cost because there is already an agreement with the bus company for a bus to take children who live further away to Impington. The same bus would now just make an extra journey to pick up the Milton children. The official said they would get in touch with other groups of parents who in the past had asked if transport could be provided for their children, to see if they would like to take part in the new scheme. The new bus service will run__________.
[单选题]There are two factors which determine an individual's intelligence. The first is the sort of brain he is born with. Human brains differ considerably, some being more capable than others. But no matter how good a brain he has to begin with, an individual will have a low order of intelligence unless he has opportunities to learn. So the second factor is what happens to the individual--the sort of environment in which he is brought up. If an individual is handicapped environmentally, it is likely that his brain will fail to develop and he will never attain the level of intelligence of which he is capable. Theimportanceofenvironmentindetermininganindividual'sintelligencecanbe? demonstrated by the case history of the identical twins, Peter and Mark. Being identical, the twins had identical brains at birth, and their growth processes were the same. When the twins were three months old, their parents died, and they were placed in separate foster homes. Peter was raised by parents of low intelligence in an isolated community with poor educational opportunities. Mark was reared in the home of well-to-do parents who had been to college. He was read to as a child, sent to good schools, and given every opportunity to be stimulated intellectually. This environmental difference continued until the twins were in their late teens, when they were given tests to measure their intelligence. Mark's LQ. was 125, twenty-five points higher than the average and fully forty points higher than his identical brother. Given equal opportunities, the twins, having identical brains, would have tested at roughly the same level. According to the passage, the average I.Q. is__________.

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