英语学科知识与教学能力【中学】

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[单选题]请阅读Passage l,完成第小题。 Passage 1 Move over Methuselah. Future generations could be living well into their second century and still doing Sudoku, if life expectancy predictions are true. Increasing by two years every decade,they show no signs of flattening out. Average lifespan worldwide is already double what it was 200 years ago. Since the 1980s, experts thought the increase in life expectancy would slow down and then stop, but forecasters have repeatedly been proved wrong. The reason behind the steady rise in life expectancy is "the decline in the death rate of the elderly", says Professor Tom Kirkwood from Newcastle University. He maintains that our bodies are evolving to maintain and repair themselves better and our genes are investing in this process to put off the damage which will eventually lead to death. As a result, there is no ceiling imposed by the realities of the ageing process. "There is no use-by-date when we age. Ageing is not a fixed biological process," Tom says. A large study of people aged 85 and over carried out by Professor Kirkwood discovered that there were a remarkable number of people enjoying good health and independence in their late 80s and beyond. With people reaching old age in better shape, it is safe to assume that this is all due to better eating habits, living conditions, education and medicine. There are still many people who suffer from major health problems, but modern medicine means doctors are better at managing long-term health conditions like diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease. "We are reaching old age with less accumulative damage than previous generations. We are less damaged," says Professor Kirkwood. Our softer lives and the improvements in nutrition and healthcare have had a direct impact on longevity. Nearly one-in-five people currently in the UK will live to see their 100th birthday, the Office for National Statistics predicted last year. Life expectancy at birth has continued to increase in the UK--from 73.4 years for the period 1991 to 1993 to 77.85 years for 2007 to 2009. A report in Science from 2002 which looked at life expectancy patterns in different countries since 1840 concluded that there was no sign of a natural limit to life. Researchers Jim Oeppen and Dr. James Vaupel found that people in the country with the highest life expectancy would live to an average age of 100 in about six decades. But they stopped short of predicting anything more. "This is far from eternity: modest annual increments in life expectancy will never lead to immortality," the researchers said. We do not seem to be approaching anything like the limits of life expectancy, says Professor David Leon from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. "There has been no flattening out of the best of the best--the groups which everyone knows have good life expectancy and low mortality," he says. These groups, which tend to be in the higher social and economic groups in society, can live for several years longer than people in lower social groups, prompting calls for an end to inequalities within societies. Within populations, genes also have an important role to play in determining how long we could survive for--but environment is still the most important factor. It is no surprise that healthy-living societies like Japan have the highest life expectancies in the world. But it would still be incredible to think that life expectancy could go on rising forever. "I would bet there will be further increases in life expectancy and then it will probably begin to slow," says Tom, "but we just don't know." The underlined phrase "this process" in Paragraph 2 refers to __________process. 查看材料
[单选题]请阅读Passage l。完成第小题。 Passage 1 Unless you spend much time sitting in a college classroom or browsing through certain areas of the Internet, it's possible that you had not heard of trigger warnings until a few weeks ago, when they made an appearance in the Times. The newspaper explained that the term refers to preemptive alerts, issued by a professor or an institution at the request of students, indicating that material presented in class might be sufficiently graphic to spark symptoms of post-traumatic-stress disorder. The term seems to have originated in online feminist forums, where trigger warnings have for some years been used to flag discussions of rape or other sexual violence. The Times piece, which was skeptically titled "Warning: The Literary Canon Could Make Students Squirm," suggested that trigger warnings are moving from the online fringes to the classroom, and might be more broadly applied to highlight in advance the distress or offense that a work of literature might cause. "Huckleberry Finn" would come with a warning for those who have experienced racism; "The Merchant of Venice" would have an anti-Semitism warning attached. The call from students for trigger warnings was spreading on campuses such as Oberlin, where a proposal was drafted that would advise professors to"be aware of racism, classism, sexism, and other issues of privilege and oppression" in devising their syllabi; and Rutgers, where a student argued in the campus newspaper that trigger warnings would contribute to preserving the classroom as a"safe space" for students. Online discussion of trigger warnings has sometimes been guardedly sympathetic, sometimes critical. Jessica Valenti has noted on The Nation's website that potential triggers for trauma are so manifold as to be beyond the possibility of cataloguing : "There is no trigger warning for living your life." Some have suggested that a professor's ability to teach would be compromised should it become commonplace for"The Great Gatsby" to bear a trigger warning alerting readers to the disgusting characters and incidents within its pages. Others have worried that trigger-warning advocates, in seeking to protect the vulnerable, run the risk of disempowering them instead. "Bending the world to accommodate our personal frailties does not help us overcome them", Jenny Jarvie wrote on The New Republic's online site. Jarvie's piece, like many others on the subject, cited the University of California, Santa Barbara, as a campus where champions of trigger warnings have made significant progress. Earlier this year, students at U.C.S.B. agreed upon a resolution recommending that such warnings be issued in instances where classroom materials might touch upon "rape, sexual assault, abuse, self-injurious behavior, suicide, and graphic violence". The resolution was brought by a literature student who said that, as a past victim of sexual violence, she had been shocked when a teacher showed a movie in class which depicted rape, without giving advance notice of the content. The student hoped to spare others the possibility of experiencing a post-traumatic-stress reaction. The trigger-warning debate may, by comparison, seem hard to understand; but express a larger cultural preoccupation with achieving safety, and a fear of living in its absence. The hope that safety might be found, as in a therapist's office, in a classroom where literature is being taught is in direct contradiction to one purpose of literature, which is to give expression through art to difficultanduncomfortableideas,andtherebytoenlargethereader'sexperienceand comprehension. The classroom can never be an entirely safe space, nor, probably, should it be. But it's difficult to fault those who hope that it might be, when the outside world constantly proves itself pervasively hostile, as well as, on occasion, horrifically violent. Who holds a critical view on economists' role in medical field according to the passage? 查看材料
[单选题]请阅读短文,完成第小题。 BRITISH universities can be depressing. The teachers complain about their pay and students worry they will end up frying burgers or jobless. Perhaps they should try visiting McDonald's University in London's East Finchley. Students are often "rough and ready", with poor qualifications and low self-esteem. But ambition-igniting murals display the ladder of opportunity that leads from the grill to the comer office (McDonald's chief executives have always started at the bottom). A map of the world shows the seven counterpart universities. Cabinets display trophies such as the Sunday Times award for being one of Britain's best 25 employers. McDonald's is one of Britain's biggest trainers. It gets about 1 million applicants a year, accepting only one in 15, and spends ~40m($61m) a year on training. The Finchley campus, opened by Margaret Thatcher, then the local MP, in 1989, is one of the biggest training centres in Europe--many of the classrooms are equipped with booths for interpreters. It is part of a bigger system. An employee's web-portal, Our Lounge, provides training as well as details about that day's shifts, and allows employees to compete against each other in work-related video games. The focus is on practicalities. A retired policeman conducts a fast-paced class on conflict management. He shows a video of a woman driven mad by the fact that you cannot get chicken McNuggets at breakfast time. He asks the class if they have ever had a difficult customer, and every hand goes up. Students are then urged to share their advice. Self-esteem and self-management are on the syllabus, too. Steven Covey's" Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" is a popular test. A year-long apprenticeship program emphasizing English and maths leads to a nationally recognized qualification. Mcdonald's has paid for almost 100iople to get degrees from Manchester Metropolitan university. The company professes to be unfazed by the fact that many alumni will end up working elsewhere. It needs to train people who might be managing a business with a 5 million turnover by Ihtir mid-2Os. It also needs to satisfy the company's appetite for senior managers, one of whom will eventually control the entire global McDonald's empire. For which of the following reasons did the writer suggest that people visit McDonald's university.? 查看材料
[单选题]Anne Whitney, a sophomore at Colorado State University, first had a problem taking tests when she began college."I was always well prepared for my tests. Sometimes I studied for weeks before a test. Yet I would go in to take the test, only to find I could not answer the questions correctly. I would blank out because of nervousness and fear. I couldn't think of the answer. My low grades on the tests did not show what I knew to the teacher." Another student in biology had similar experiences. He said, "My first chemistry test was very difficult. Then, on the second test, I sat down to take it, and I was so nervous that I was shaking. My hands were moving up and down so quickly that it was hard to hold my pencil. I knew the material and I knew the answers. Yet I couldn't even write them down! " These two young students were experiencing something called test anxiety. Because a student worries and is uneasy about a test, his or her mind does not work as well as it usually does. The student cannot write or think clearly because of the extreme tension and nervousness. Although poor grades are often a result of poor study habits, sometimes test anxiety causes the low grades. Recently, test anxiety has been recognized as a real problem, not just an excuse or a false explanation of lazy students. Special university advising courses try to help students. In these courses, advisors try to help students by teaching them how to manage test anxiety. At some universities, students take tests to measure their anxiety. If the tests show their anxiety is high, the students can take short courses to help them deal with their tensions. These courses teach students how to relax their bodies. Students are trained to become calm in very tense situations. By controlling their nervousness, they can let their minds work at ease. Learned information then comes out without difficulty on a test. An expert at the University of California explains: "With almost all students, relaxation and less stress are felt after taking our program. Most of them experience better control during their tests. Almost all have some improvement. With some, the improvement is very great." Poor grades are usually the result of__________.
[单选题]请阅读短文,完成第小题。 Photographer Teresa Berg replaces a Rottweiler's collar with a pink scarf. She picks a string of pearls to complement a dachshund's coat. She is taking glamour shots of shelter dogs, hoping her spiffed-up subjects will be adopted more quickly."Most photos show dogs in cages, looking dirty, and mangy," says Berg. "I consider my work like an antismoking campaign. We have to make adopting cool." Her father wouldn't allow her a dog of her own as a kid. He did, however, show her how to use a camera. Together, they took pictures and developed them at his office. Living in Dallas at 24, Berg found her perfect roommate on the street: a Border collie-Shetland sheepdog mix she named Gpsy. Berg always has a soft spot for the ones that don't have anyone to love. For years, she worked as a real estate agent, but she quit in 2006 to launch a photography business. Searching the Internet for a dog to adopt as a companion for Max, her Pomeranian, she was instantly put off by the photos online:"They had dirty laundry, dirty dishes, and empty pizza boxes in the background," she says. Berg finally found Flash, a 12-year old long-haired dachshund who was a Dallas rescue dog. She went to pick him up and ended up volunteering to take pictures of all the rescued dogs there for free. As more dogs went to the program, she took their pictures too. In the following year, after the photos went up on the website of the Dallas-Fort Worth Dachshund Rescue, the group's director noticed that adoptions had doubled compared with last year. She attributed this to the professional photos. "When dogs are adopted that quickly, it makes room for others off the streets, "Berg says. Over the years, Berg has developed some tricks to snap flattering pictures: position dogs so that light falls on their faces, and shoot at eye level. In 2011, hoping to inspire more photographers, Berg posted video seminars on focusonrescue.com. About 75 people per month now watch her offer tips for taking quality pet photos. She's gratified to see the recent wave of well-shot dog photography on shelter websites and social-media sites. In the past couple of years, Berg has added two dogs to the Dallas home she shares with Flash and her husband: a dachshund named Jasper and a Pomeranian named Maggie:"I want to take all the shelter dogs home; that's the hard part," Berg says."I have a particular affinity for dogs with gray muzzles." Which of the following best describes the effect produced by Berg' s efforts? 查看材料
[单选题]请阅读短文,完成第小题。 Photographer Teresa Berg replaces a Rottweiler's collar with a pink scarf. She picks a string of pearls to complement a dachshund's coat. She is taking glamour shots of shelter dogs, hoping her spiffed-up subjects will be adopted more quickly."Most photos show dogs in cages, looking dirty, and mangy," says Berg. "I consider my work like an antismoking campaign. We have to make adopting cool." Her father wouldn't allow her a dog of her own as a kid. He did, however, show her how to use a camera. Together, they took pictures and developed them at his office. Living in Dallas at 24, Berg found her perfect roommate on the street: a Border collie-Shetland sheepdog mix she named Gpsy. Berg always has a soft spot for the ones that don't have anyone to love. For years, she worked as a real estate agent, but she quit in 2006 to launch a photography business. Searching the Internet for a dog to adopt as a companion for Max, her Pomeranian, she was instantly put off by the photos online:"They had dirty laundry, dirty dishes, and empty pizza boxes in the background," she says. Berg finally found Flash, a 12-year old long-haired dachshund who was a Dallas rescue dog. She went to pick him up and ended up volunteering to take pictures of all the rescued dogs there for free. As more dogs went to the program, she took their pictures too. In the following year, after the photos went up on the website of the Dallas-Fort Worth Dachshund Rescue, the group's director noticed that adoptions had doubled compared with last year. She attributed this to the professional photos. "When dogs are adopted that quickly, it makes room for others off the streets, "Berg says. Over the years, Berg has developed some tricks to snap flattering pictures: position dogs so that light falls on their faces, and shoot at eye level. In 2011, hoping to inspire more photographers, Berg posted video seminars on focusonrescue.com. About 75 people per month now watch her offer tips for taking quality pet photos. She's gratified to see the recent wave of well-shot dog photography on shelter websites and social-media sites. In the past couple of years, Berg has added two dogs to the Dallas home she shares with Flash and her husband: a dachshund named Jasper and a Pomeranian named Maggie:"I want to take all the shelter dogs home; that's the hard part," Berg says."I have a particular affinity for dogs with gray muzzles." What does the underlined word "She" in PARGRAPH 5 refer to? 查看材料

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