英语学科知识与教学能力【中学】

考试试题

[单选题]Advertisers tend to think big and perhaps this is why they're always coming in for criticism. Their critics seem to resent them because they have a flair for self-promotion and because they have so much money to throw around. "It's iniquitous," they say, "that this entirely unproductive industry (if we can call it that) should absorb millions of pounds each year. It only goes to show how much profit the big companies are making. Why don't they stop advertising and reduce the price of their goods? After all, it's the consumer who pays ..." The poor old consumer! He'd have to pay a great deal more if advertising didn't create mass markets for products. It is precisely because of the heavy advertising that consumer goods are so cheap. But we get the wrong idea if we think the only purpose of advertising is to sell goods. Another equally important function is to inform. A great deal of the knowledge we have about household goods derives largely from the advertisements we read. Advertisements introduce us to new products or remind us of the existence of ones we already know about. Supposing you wanted to buy a washing machine, it is more than likely you would obtain details regarding performance, price, etc, from an advertisement. Lots of people pretend that they never read advertisements, but this claim may be seriously doubted. It is hardly possible not to read advertisements these days. And what fun they often are,too!Just think what a railway station or a newspaper would be like without advertisements. Would you enjoy gazing at a blank wall or reading railway by-laws while waiting for a train? Would you like to read only closely printed columns of news in your daily paper?A cheerful, witty advertisement makes such a difference to a drab wall or a newspaper full of the daily ration of calamities. We must not forget, either, that advertising makes a positive contribution to our pockets. Newspapers, commercial radio and television companies could not subsist without this source of revenue. The fact that we pay so little for our daily paper, or can enjoy so many broadcast programmes is due entirely to the money spent by advertisers. Just think what a newspaper would cost if we had to pay its full price ! Another thing we mustn't forget is the"small ads." which are in virtually every newspaper and magazine. What a tremendously useful service they perform for the community!Just about anything can be accomplished through these columns. For instance, you can find a job, buy or sell a house, announce a birth, marriage or death in what used to be called the"hatch, match and dispatch" column but by far the most fascinating section is the personal or"agony" column. No other item in a newspaper provides such entertaining reading or offers such a deep insight into human nature. It's the best advertisement for advertising there is! The attitude of the author towards advertisers is__________.
[单选题]40 years ago the idea of disabled people doing sport was never heard of. But when the annual games for the disabled were started at Stoke Mandeville, England in 1948 by Sir Ludwig Guttmann, the situation began to change. Sir Ludwig Guttmann, who had been driven to England in 1939 from Nazi Germany, had been asked by the British government to set up an injuries center at Stoke Mandeville Hospital near London. His ideas about treating injuries included sport for the disabled. In the first games just two teams of injured soldiers took part. The next year, 1949, five teams took part. From those beginnings, things have developed fast. Teams now come from abroad to Stoke Mandeville every year. In 1960 the first Olympics for the Disabled were held in Rome, in the same place as the normal Olympic Games. Now, every four years the Olympic Games for the Disabled are held, if possible, in the same place as the normal Olympic Games, although they are organized separately. In other years Games for the Disabled are still held at Stoke Mandeville. In the 1984 wheelchair Olympic Games, 1064 wheelchair athletes from about 40 countries took part. Unfortunately, they were held at Stoke Mandeville and not in Los Angeles, along with the other Olympics. TheGameshavebeenagreatsuccessinpromotinginternationalfriendshipandunderstanding, and in proving that being disabled does not mean you can't enjoy sport. One small source of disappointment for those who organize and take part in the games, however, has been the unwillingness of the International Olympic Committee to include disabled events at Olympic Games for the able-bodied. Perhaps a few more years are still needed to convince those fortunate enough not to be disabled that their disabled fellow athletes should not be excluded. In Paragraph 3, the underlined word "athletes" means__________.
[单选题]Many people believe the glare from snow causes snow-blindness. Yet, dark glasses or not,they find themselves suffering from headaches and watering eyes, and even snow-blindness, when exposed to several hours of "snow light". The United States Army has now determined that glare from snow does not cause snow- blindness in troops in a snow-covered country. Rather, a man's eyes frequently find nothing to focus on in a broad expanse of barren snow-covered terrain. So his gaze continually shifts and jumps back and forth over the entire landscape in search of something to look at. Finding nothing,hour after hour, the eyes never stop searching and the eyeballs become sore and the eye musclesache. Nature offsets this irritation by producing more and fluid which covers the eyeball. The fluid covers the eyeball in increasing quantity until vision blurs, then is observed, and the result is total, even though temporary, snow-blindness. Experiments led the Army to a simple method of overcoming this problem. Scouts ahead of a main body of troops are trained to shake snow from evergreen bushes, creating a dotted line as they cross completely snow-covered landscape. Even the scouts themselves throw lightweight, dark colored objects ahead on which they too can focus. The men following can then see something.Their gaze is arrested. Their eyes focus on a bush and having found something to see, stop scouring the snow-blanketed landscape. By focusing their attention on one object at a time, the men can cross the snow without becoming hopelessly snow-blind or lost. In this way the problem of crossing a solid white terrain is overcome. Snow-blindness may be avoided by__________
[单选题]A new scheme for getting children to and from school is being started by the education authorities in part of Eastern England. This could end the worries of many parents fearful for their children's safety on the roads. Until now the Country Council has only been prepared to provide bus services for children living more than three miles from their school, or sometimes less if special reasons existed. Now it has been decided that if a group of parents ask for help in organizing transport they will be prepared to go ahead, provided the arrangement will not lose money and that children taking part will be attending their nearest school. The new scheme is to be tried out this term for children living at Milton who attend Impington school. The children live just within the three-mile limit and the Council has said in the past it will not undertake to provide free transport to the school. But now they have agreed to organize a bus service from Milton to Impington and back, a plan which has the support of the school's headmaster. Between 50 and 60 parents have said they would like their children to take part in. Final calculations have still to be carried out, but a council official has said the cost of parents should be less than $6.50 a tenn. They have been able to arrange the service at a low cost because there is already an agreement with the bus company for a bus to take children who live further away to Impington. The same bus would now just make an extra journey to pick up the Milton children. The official said they would get in touch with other groups of parents who in the past had asked if transport could be provided for their children, to see if they would like to take part in the new scheme. Taking part in the Council's trial schemes are children who__________.
[单选题]Advertisers tend to think big and perhaps this is why they're always coming in for criticism. Their critics seem to resent them because they have a flair for self-promotion and because they have so much money to throw around. "It's iniquitous," they say, "that this entirely unproductive industry (if we can call it that) should absorb millions of pounds each year. It only goes to show how much profit the big companies are making. Why don't they stop advertising and reduce the price of their goods? After all, it's the consumer who pays ..." The poor old consumer! He'd have to pay a great deal more if advertising didn't create mass markets for products. It is precisely because of the heavy advertising that consumer goods are so cheap. But we get the wrong idea if we think the only purpose of advertising is to sell goods. Another equally important function is to inform. A great deal of the knowledge we have about household goods derives largely from the advertisements we read. Advertisements introduce us to new products or remind us of the existence of ones we already know about. Supposing you wanted to buy a washing machine, it is more than likely you would obtain details regarding performance, price, etc, from an advertisement. Lots of people pretend that they never read advertisements, but this claim may be seriously doubted. It is hardly possible not to read advertisements these days. And what fun they often are,too!Just think what a railway station or a newspaper would be like without advertisements. Would you enjoy gazing at a blank wall or reading railway by-laws while waiting for a train? Would you like to read only closely printed columns of news in your daily paper?A cheerful, witty advertisement makes such a difference to a drab wall or a newspaper full of the daily ration of calamities. We must not forget, either, that advertising makes a positive contribution to our pockets. Newspapers, commercial radio and television companies could not subsist without this source of revenue. The fact that we pay so little for our daily paper, or can enjoy so many broadcast programmes is due entirely to the money spent by advertisers. Just think what a newspaper would cost if we had to pay its full price ! Another thing we mustn't forget is the"small ads." which are in virtually every newspaper and magazine. What a tremendously useful service they perform for the community!Just about anything can be accomplished through these columns. For instance, you can find a job, buy or sell a house, announce a birth, marriage or death in what used to be called the"hatch, match and dispatch" column but by far the most fascinating section is the personal or"agony" column. No other item in a newspaper provides such entertaining reading or offers such a deep insight into human nature. It's the best advertisement for advertising there is! Why do the critics criticize advertisers?
[单选题]Passage 2 Reality television is a genre of television programming which, it is claimed, presents unscripted dramatic or humorous situations, documents actual events, and features ordinary people rather than professional actors. It could be described as a form of artificial or "heightened"documentary. Although the genre has existed in some form or another since the early years of television, the current explosion of popularity dates from around 2000. Reality television covers a wide range of television programming formats, from game or quiz shows which resemble the frantic, often demeaning programmes produced in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s (a modern example is Gaki No Tsukai), to surveillance-or voyeurism-focused productions such as Big Brother. Critics say that the term "reality television" is somewhat of a misnomer and that such shows frequently portray a modified and highly influenced form of reality, with participants put in exotic locations or abnormal situations, sometimes coached to act in certain ways by off-screen handlers,and with events on screen manipulated through editing and other post-production techniques. Part of reality television's appeal is due to its ability to place ordinary people in extraordinary situations. For example, on the ABC show, The Bachelor, an eligible male dates a dozen women simultaneously, travelling on extraordinary" dates to scenic locales. Reality television also has the potential to turn its participants into national celebrities, outwardly in talent and performance programs such as Pop Idol, though frequently Survivor and Big Brother participants also reach some degree of celebrity. Some commentators have said that the name "reality television" is an inaccurate description for several styles of program included in the genre. In competition-based programs such as Big Brother and Survivor, and other special-living-environment shows like The Real World, the producers design the format of the show and control the day-to-day activities and the environment,creating a completely fabricated world in which the competition plays out. Producers specifically select the participants, and use carefully designed scenarios, challenges, events, and settings to encourage particular behaviours and conflicts. Mark Burnett, creator of Survivor and other reality shows, has agreed with this assessment, and avoids the word "reality" to describe his shows; he has said, "I tell good stories. It really is not reality TV. It really is unscripted drama." Reality TV appeals to some because __________.
[单选题]请阅读Passage l。完成第小题。 Passage 1 They came to the United States as children with little idea, if any, of what it meant to overstay a visa. They enrolled in public schools, learned English, earned high school diplomas. Like many of their classmates, they pondered college choices. But as undocumented immigrants in Maryland, they then had to confront the reality that they must pay two to three times what former high school classmates pay to attend the state's public colleges. It is a rule that, for many students of modest means, puts a college education out of reach, with one exception : Montgomery College. That is why Josue Aguiluz, 21, born in Honduras, and Ricardo Campos, 23, born in E1 Salvador--and numerous others like them--landed at the community college. There, they study and wait for a verdict from Maryland voters on a Nov. 6 ballot measure that may determine whether they can afford to advance to a four-year college. "I know people in Maryland believe in education," Campos said the other day at the student center on the Rockville campus. "I know they are going to vote for Question 4. I'm hanging on their vote." Question 4 asks voters to affirm or strike down a law that the legislature passed last year,known as Maryland's version of the "Dream Act," which granted certain undocumented immigrants the ability to obtain in-state tuition at public colleges and universities. The subsidy comes with conditions. Among them: To take advantage, students must first go to a two-year community college. The law was pushed to a referendum after opponents mounted a lightning petition drive that showed the depth of division over illegal immigration across the state and the nation. Critics say discounting tuition for students who lack permission to be in the country is an unjustified giveaway of what they believe will amount to tens of millions of tax dollars a year. "When an undocumented student enters the system, it is a net loss of revenue," said Del. Patrick L. McDonough. "It is a simple mathematical argument. Put your emotion and your passion aside, and get out your calculator." There is no count of the number of students statewide who would be eligible for benefits under the law. Estimates range from several hundred to a few thousand. A Washington Post poll this month found that a solid majority of likely voters favored the law: 59 percent support it, and 35 percent are opposed. If the law is affirmed, Maryland would join about a dozen other states with laws or policies providing in-state tuition benefits to undocumented immigrants. Texas became the first in 2001. Experts say Maryland's version is the only one that requires students to go through community college first. That means the state's 16 community colleges could become a pipeline for undocumented students in public higher education if the measure is approved. Montgomery College is already a magnet for such students. It offers the same low tuition to any student who graduated within the past three years from a Montgomery County high school. Which of the following best indicates their impression of the tourist areas? 查看材料
[单选题]Back in the old days, when I was a child, we sat around the family round table at dinnertime and exchanged our daily experiences. It wasn't very organized, but everyone was recognized and all the news that had to be told was told by each family member. We listened to each other and the interest was not put-on; it was real. Our family was a unit and we supported each other, and nurtured each other, and liked each other, and--we were even willing to admit--we loved each other. Today, the family round table has moved to the local fast-food restaurant and talk is not easy,much less encouraged. Grandma, who used to live upstairs, is now the voice on long distance, and the working parent is far too beaten down each day to spend evening relaxation time listening to the sandbox experience of an eager four-year-old. So family conversation is as extinct as my old toys and parental questions such as "What have you been doing, Bobby? " have been replaced by "I'm busy, go watch television. " And watch TV they do; count them by the millions. But it's usually not children's television that children watch. Saturday morning, the children's hour, amounts to only about 8 percent of their weekly viewing. Where are they to be found? Watching adult television, of course, from the Match Game in the morning, to the afternoon at General Hospital, from the muggings and battles on the evening news right through the family hour and past into Starsky and Hutch. That's where you find our kids, over five million of them, at 10 p.m., not fewer than a million until after midnight! All of this is done with parental permission. Television, used well, can provide enriching experiences for our young people, but we must use it with some sense. When the carpet is clean, we turn off the vacuum cleaner. When the dishes are clean, the dishwasher turns itself off. Not so the television, which is on from the sun in the morning to the moon at night and beyond ! Parents must exercise some control and show some concern about the cultural influence on the child whena program not intended for that child is viewed.Parents need to intervene. Nonintervention may be a wise policy in international affairs,but the results of parental nonintervention will not be wise at all. According to the writer, the responsibility for the kid's watching adult television and watching it for a long time should be undertaken by__________.
[单选题]Passage 1 Results showed that at least a tenth of the Harvard first-year undergraduates polled admitted to having cheated on an exam prior to starting at the university, while almost half admitted to cheating on their homework. An anonymous survey by Harvard's newspaper has revealed a surprising pattern of academic dishonesty among students entering the US universities. The survey by The Harvard Crimson was emailed to the incoming first year undergraduates;1,600 students responded. Results showed that at least a tenth of the students polled admitted to having cheated on an exam prior to starting at the university, while almost half admitted to cheating on their homework. Athletes were apparently the most prone to cheating. 20 percent of students who played a university sport admitted to cheating on an exam compared to 9 percent of students who did not. The survey also revealed that men were not only more likely to cheat but were also more likely to admit to it. The results, compared to a previous survey done on the class of 2013, suggested that cheating may be becoming more commonplace. Of the outgoing seniors only 7 percent admitted to cheating in an exam and another 7 percent said they had been dishonest on a take-home test. 32 percent of the seniors said they had cheated on homework during their undergraduate years.. The surveys come in the wake of a cheating scandal at the university which saw 120 students investigated for sharing answers on an exam in 2012. One recent graduate stated: "Cheating was commonplace when I was at Harvard, especially with students in their first year or two. I would say as many as 60 per cent of students took notes into some exams. No one really cared the faculty,well some of them at least, seemed to recognize and yet ignore the problem." In an email to NBC News, Jeff Neal, a Harvard representative, explained that a committee,made up of faculty, staff and students had been established to tackle cheating, which "is a national problem in American education". He added: "While the vast majority of Harvard and other students do their work honestly,beginning this year Harvard College has implemented a new, more robust strategy of communicating with all students, particularly first-year students, about the importance--and the ways to achieve--academic integrity." In a rebuff to critics who say university has become little more than an expensive party, 84 per cent of the responding undergraduates fully expected to prioritize their academics over extracurricular activities, sport, employment and their social lives. Not a single student put academics at the bottom of their list. Not content with confining themselves to their degree subject,59 percent of incoming students expressed a desire to pursue a secondary field of study, and 36 percent hoped to learn a language. What can we learn from the last paragraph?
[单选题]The process of perceiving others is rarely translated(to ourselves or others) into cold,objective terms."She was 5 feet 8 inches tall, had fair hair, and wore a colored skirt." More often, we try to get inside the other person to pinpoint his or her attitudes, emotions, motivations,abilities, ideas, and characters. Furthermore, we sometimes behave as if we can accomplish this difficult job very quickly--perhaps with a two-second glance. We try to obtain information about others in many ways. Berger suggests several methods for reducing uncertainties about others; who are known to you so you can compare the observed person's behavior with the known others' behavior, observing a person in a situation where social behavior is relatively unrestrained or where a wide variety of behavioral responses are called for,deliberately structuring the physical or social environment so as to observe the person's responses to specific stimuli, asking people who have had or have frequent contact with the person about himor her, and using various strategies in face-to-face interaction to uncover information about another person--question, self-disclosures, and so on. Getting to know someone is a never-ending task, largely because people are constantly changing and the methods we use to obtain information are often imprecise. You may have known someone for ten years and still know very little about him. If we accept the idea that we won't ever fully know another person, it enables us to deal more easily with those things that get in the way of accurate knowledge such as secrets and deceptions. It will also keep us from being too surprised or shocked by seemingly inconsistent behavior. Ironically, those things that keep us from knowing another person too well (e. g. secrets and deceptions) may be just as important to the development of a satisfying relationship as those things that enable us to obtain accurate knowledge about a person (e. g. disclosures and truthful statement). ?We may have known someone for ten years and still know very little about him because__________.
[单选题]请阅读Passage l,完成此题。 Passage 1 When asked by Conan if his daughters had smart phones, comedian Louis CK explained that he had successfully fended them off by simply replying, "No, you can' t have it. It is bad for you." He instantly became my hero as I was mired in difficult negotiations with my ten-year-old daughter over one. And frankly, she was winning. Was it possible to say no to my daughter, as CK suggested? I hadn't even known I was allowed to, if the guinea pigs, the dogs, and things for her doll Molly were any indication. CK rationalized, "I am not raising the children. I'm raising the grown-ups that they are going to be. So just because the other stupid kids have phones doesn't mean that my kid has to be stupid." Now I knew I didn't want my kid to grow up stupid like her friends. I needed to explain this to her. This is what CK told Conan and me. Cell phones are "toxic, especially for kids," he said, because they don't help them learn em-pathy, one of the nicer human emotions. When we text, we don't see or hear a visceral reaction. The response we get is cold and hard text-message. "Why are kids mean?" He asked. "Because they're trying it out. They look at another kid and say, 'You're fat.' Then they see the kid's face scrunch up and think that doesn't feel good." Texting "you're fat" allows you to bypass the pain. CK went on to explain that smart phones rob us of our ability to be alone. Kids use smart phones to occupy their time: Must text! Must play game! Must look up more tiny socks online for Molly!!! CK asked, what happened to zoning out? After all, one of the joys of being human is allowing our minds to wander, with cell phones, kids are always preoccupied. They never daydream, except in class. And here's something else we're missing: our right to be miserable. This was a right I hadn't realized I desired until CK pointed out that it's another essential human emotion. CK gave the example of driving by yourself and suddenly realizing that you're alone. Not "Oh,guess I can't use the lane" alone. Dark, brooding sadness causes so many drivers to grab that smart phone and reach out to another living soul. "Everybody's murdering each other with their cars" as they text because they dread being alone. Too bad--they're missing out on a life-affirming experience. "I was in my car one time, and Bruce Springsteen's 'Jungle land' came on. He sounds so far away, making me really sad. And I think I've got to get the phone and write hi to 50 people. I was reaching for the phone, and I thought, don't! Just be sad." So CK pulled over and allowed himself to sob like a little girl denied a nice thing for her American Girl doll. "It was beautiful. Sadness is poetic. You're lucky to live sad moments," he said. Because he didn't fight it and allowed himself to be miserable, his body released endorphins. "Happiness rushed in to meet the sadness. I was grateful to feel sad, and then I met it with true profound happiness. The thing is, because we don't want that first bit of sad, we push it away with that little phone. So you never feel completely sad or completely happy. You just feel kind of satis-fied. And then you die. That's why I don't want to get phones for my kids". And I suppose I don't either. Why did the author regard CK as her hero? 查看材料

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