英语学科知识与教学能力【中学】

考试试题

[多选题]Passage 1 As regards social conventions,we must say a word about the well-known English class system.This is an embarrassing subject for English people,and one they tend to be ashamed of,though?during the present century class-consciousness has grown less and less,and the class system less?rigid.But it still exists below the surface.Broadly speaking,it means there are two classes,the"middle class"and the"working class".(We shall ignore for a moment the old"upper class",including the hereditary aristocracy,since it is extremely small in numbers;but some of its members?have the right to sit in the House of Lords,and some newspapers take surprising interest in their?private life.)The middle class consists chiefly of well-to-do businessmen and professional people of?all kinds.The working class consists chiefly of manual and unskilled workers. The most obvious difference between them is in their accent.Middle-class people use slightly?varying kinds of"received pronunciation"which is the kind of English spoken by BBC announcers?and taught to overseas pupils.Typical working-class people speak in many different local accents?which are generally felt to be rather ugly and uneducated.One of the biggest barriers of social?equality in England is the two-class education system.To have been to a so-called"public school"immediately marks you out as one of the middle class.The middle classes tend to live a more formal?life than working-class people,and are usually more cultured.Their midday meal is"lunch"and?they have a rather formal evening meal called"dinner",whereas the working man′s dinner,if his?working hours permit,is at midday,and his smaller,late-evening meal is called supper. As we have said,however,the class system is much less rigid than it was,and for a long time it?has been government policy to reduce class distinctions.Working-class students very commonly?receive a university education and enter the professions,and working-class incomes have grown so?much recently that the distinctions between the two classes are becoming less and less clear.However,regardless of one′s social status,certain standards of politeness are expected of?everybody,and a well-bred person is polite to everyone he meets,and treats a laborer with the same?respect he gives an important businessman.Servility inspires both embarrassment and dislike.Even?the word"sir",except in school and in certain occupations(e.g.commerce,the army,etc.)sounds?too servile to be commonly used. The most obvious difference between the working class and the middle class in English is?their__________.查看材料
[单选题]请阅读短文。 Anne Whitney, a sophomore at Colorado State University, first had a problem taking tests when she began college. "I was always well prepared for my tests. Sometimes I studied for weeks before a test. Yet I would go in to take the test, only to find I could not answer the questions correctly. I would blank out because of nervousness and fear. I couldn't think of the answer. My low grades on the tests did not show what I knew to the teacher." Another student in biology had similar experiences. He said, "My first chemistry test was very difficult. Then, on the second test, I sat down to take it, and I was so nervous that I was shaking. My hands were moving up and down so quickly that it was hard to hold my pencil. I knew the material and I knew the answers. Yet I couldn't even write them down! " These two young students were experiencing something called test anxiety. Because a student worries and is uneasy about a test, his or her mind does not work as well as it usually does. The student cannot write or think clearly because of the extreme tension and nervousness. Although poor grades are often a result of poor study habits, sometimes test anxiety causes the low grades. Recently, test anxiety has been recognized as a real problem, not just an excuse or a false explanation of lazy students. Special university advising courses try to help students. In these courses, advisors try to help students by teaching them how to manage test anxiety. At some universities, students take tests to measure their anxiety. If the tests show their anxiety is high, the students can take short courses to help them deal with their tensions. These courses teach students how to relax their bodies. Students are trained to become calm in very tense situations. By controlling their nervousness, they can let their minds work at ease. Learned information then comes out without difficulty on a test. An expert at the University of California explains: "With almost all students, relaxation and less stress are felt after taking our program. Most of them experience better control during their tests. Almost all have some improvement. With some, the improvement is very great." Test anxiety has been recognized as__________. 查看材料
[单选题]Passage 1 Recently,Congressional Democrats introduced legislation to make it easier for older workers to win age?discrimination lawsuits.Age discrimination remains a significant workplace issue. In recent ten years,15.79 percent of cases brought to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission,were described as successful claims.While this number is small given the number of workers covered by the?Age Discrimination in Employment Act,many,if not most,instances of age discrimination are never sued,and?cases hiring discrimination often go undetected. Most of those who do sue are white,male middle-managers who are likely to have lost a sizeable salary?and pension.For the most part,other groups do not sue because the costs of a lawsuit outweigh the potential?benefits.Age discrimination remains a significant workplace issue. There is strong experimental evidence for age discrimination in hiring,at least for entry-level jobs.Recently,I performed a labor market experiment in Boston in which I sent out thousands of resumes for fictitious?entry-level female candidates and measured response rate based on date of high school graduation.Among?this group,younger applicants,whose date of high school graduation indicated that they were less than 50?years old,were 40 percent more likely to be called back for an interview than were older applicants. It is difficult to tell whether employment problems are worse for older workers than for other workers?when times are bad.The number of discrimination lawsuits increases during times of high unemployment,but?this finding by itself does not indicate an increased level of age discrimination.In times of higher unemployment,the opportunity cost to a lawsuit is lower than it is when times are good. From the employer′s perspective,mass layoffs may seem like a good chance to remove a higher proportion of generally more expensive older workers without the worry of being sued.On the other hand,employers?may be less likely to remove protected older workers because they still fear lawsuits.One thing we do know is that once an older worker loses a job,he or she is much less likely to find a new job than a younger worker is. Unfortunately,the effect of legislation prohibiting age discrimination is not easy to see and may actually?be part of the reason it is so difficult for older workers to find employment.If it is more difficult to fire an ol-der worker than a younger worker,a firm will be less likely to want to hire older workers.Indeed,my research?finds that in states where workers have longer time to bring a lawsuit claim,older men work fewer weeks per?year,are less likely to be hired,and less likely to be fired than men in states where they do not have as much. Not many people would suggest that we go back to a world prior to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act,in which advertisements specify the specific ages of people they are willing to hire.However,legislation prohibiting discrimination is no panacea(万灵药).The recent proposed congressional legislation?could have both positive and negative effects on potential older workers. From the last paragraph,we learn that_________.查看材料
[单选题]Anne Whitney, a sophomore at Colorado State University, first had a problem taking tests when she began college."I was always well prepared for my tests. Sometimes I studied for weeks before a test. Yet I would go in to take the test, only to find I could not answer the questions correctly. I would blank out because of nervousness and fear. I couldn't think of the answer. My low grades on the tests did not show what I knew to the teacher." Another student in biology had similar experiences. He said, "My first chemistry test was very difficult. Then, on the second test, I sat down to take it, and I was so nervous that I was shaking. My hands were moving up and down so quickly that it was hard to hold my pencil. I knew the material and I knew the answers. Yet I couldn't even write them down! " These two young students were experiencing something called test anxiety. Because a student worries and is uneasy about a test, his or her mind does not work as well as it usually does. The student cannot write or think clearly because of the extreme tension and nervousness. Although poor grades are often a result of poor study habits, sometimes test anxiety causes the low grades. Recently, test anxiety has been recognized as a real problem, not just an excuse or a false explanation of lazy students. Special university advising courses try to help students. In these courses, advisors try to help students by teaching them how to manage test anxiety. At some universities, students take tests to measure their anxiety. If the tests show their anxiety is high, the students can take short courses to help them deal with their tensions. These courses teach students how to relax their bodies. Students are trained to become calm in very tense situations. By controlling their nervousness, they can let their minds work at ease. Learned information then comes out without difficulty on a test. An expert at the University of California explains: "With almost all students, relaxation and less stress are felt after taking our program. Most of them experience better control during their tests. Almost all have some improvement. With some, the improvement is very great." Test anxiety has been recognized as__________.