英语学科知识与教学能力【中学】

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[单选题]Back in the old days, when I was a child, we sat around the family round table at dinnertime and exchanged our daily experiences. It wasn't very organized, but everyone was recognized and all the news that had to be told was told by each family member. We listened to each other and the interest was not put-on; it was real. Our family was a unit and we supported each other, and nurtured each other, and liked each other, and--we were even willing to admit--we loved each other. Today, the family round table has moved to the local fast-food restaurant and talk is not easy,much less encouraged. Grandma, who used to live upstairs, is now the voice on long distance, and the working parent is far too beaten down each day to spend evening relaxation time listening to the sandbox experience of an eager four-year-old. So family conversation is as extinct as my old toys and parental questions such as "What have you been doing, Bobby? " have been replaced by "I'm busy, go watch television. " And watch TV they do; count them by the millions. But it's usually not children's television that children watch. Saturday morning, the children's hour, amounts to only about 8 percent of their weekly viewing. Where are they to be found? Watching adult television, of course, from the Match Game in the morning, to the afternoon at General Hospital, from the muggings and battles on the evening news right through the family hour and past into Starsky and Hutch. That's where you find our kids, over five million of them, at 10 p.m., not fewer than a million until after midnight! All of this is done with parental permission. Television, used well, can provide enriching experiences for our young people, but we must use it with some sense. When the carpet is clean, we turn off the vacuum cleaner. When the dishes are clean, the dishwasher turns itself off. Not so the television, which is on from the sun in the morning to the moon at night and beyond ! Parents must exercise some control and show some concern about the cultural influence on the child whena program not intended for that child is viewed.Parents need to intervene. Nonintervention may be a wise policy in international affairs,but the results of parental nonintervention will not be wise at all. ?What is the main idea of the last paragraph?
[单选题]Passage 2 Of all the components of a good night′ s sleep, dreams seem to be least within our control. Indreams, a window opens into a world where logic is suspended and dead people speak. A centuryago, Freud formulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of ourunconscious desires and fears; by the late 1970s, neurologists had switched to thinking of them asjust "mental noise"--the random byproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep. Now researchers suspect that dreams are part of the mind′ s emotional thermostat, regulating moodswhile the brain is"off-line." And one leading authority says that these intensely powerful mentalevents can be not only harnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep andfeel better, "It′s your dream," says Rosalind Cartwright, chair of psychology at Chicago′s MedicalCenter. "If you don′t like it, change it." Evidence from brain imaging supports this view. The brain is as active during REM (rapid eyemovement) sleep--when most vivid dreams occur--as it is when fully awake, says Dr. EricNofzinger at the University of Pittsburgh. But not all parts of the brain are equally involved; thelimbic system (the "emotional brain") is especially active, while the prefrontal cortex (the center ofintellect and reasoning) is relatively quiet. "We wake up from dreams happy or depressed, and thosefeelings can stay with us all day." says Stanford sleep researcher Dr. William Dement. The link between dreams and emotions shows up among the patients in Cartwright′s clinic. Most people seem to have more bad dreams early in the night, progressing toward happier onesbefore awakening, suggesting that they are working through negative feelings generated during theday. Because our conscious mind is occupied with daily life we don′t always think about theemotional significance of the day′s events--until, it appears, we begin to dream. And this process need not be left to the unconscious. Cartwright believes one can exerciseconscious control over recurring bad dreams. As soon as you awaken, identify what is upsettingabout the dream. Visualize how you would like it to end instead; the next time it occurs, try to wakeup just enough to control its course. With much practice people can learn to, literally, do it in theirsleep. At the end of the day, there′ s probably little reason to pay attention to our dreams at all unlessthey keep us from sleeping or"we wake up in a panic," Cartwright says. Terrorism, economicuncertainties and general feelings of insecurity have increased people′s anxiety. Those sufferingfrom persistent nightmares should seek help from a therapist. For the rest of us, the brain has itsways of working through bad feelings. Sleep--or rather dream--on it and you′ll feel better in themorning. By referring to the limbic system, the author intends to show__________.
[单选题]Passage 1 "THE SERVANT"(1963) is one of those films that it is impossible to forget. The servant ex-ploits his master′s weaknesses until he turns the tables: the story ends with the a cringing masterministering to a lordly servant. It is hard to watch it today without thinking of another awkward rela-tionship-the one between business folk and their smartphones. Smart devices are sometimes empowering. They put a world of information at our fingertips. But for most people the servant has become the master. Not long ago only doctors were on call allthe time. Now everybody is. Bosses think nothing of invading their employees′ free time. Work in-vades the home far more than domestic chores invade the office. Hyperconnectivity exaggerates the decline of certainty and the general cult of flexibility. Smart-phones make it easier for managers to change their minds at the last moment. Employees find it everharder to distinguish between "on-time" and "off-time"--and indeed between real work and make-work. None of this is good for businesspeople′ s marriages or mental health. It may be bad for busi-ness, too. When bosses change their minds at the last minute, it is hard to plan for the future. How can we reap the benefits of connectivity without becoming its slaves One solution is digital dieting. Banning browsing before breakfast can reintroduce a small amount of civilization. Ban-ning texting at weekends or, say, on Thursdays, can really show the iPhone who is boss. The problem with this approach is that it works only if you live on a desert island or at the bot-tom of a lake. Leslie Perlow of Harvard Business School argues that for most people the only way tobreak the 24/7 habit is to act collectively rather than individually. One of the world′s most hard-working organisations, the Boston Consulting Group, introduced rules about when people were ex-pected to be offiine, and encouraged them to work together to make this possible. Eventually itforced people to work more productively while reducing burnout. Ms Perlow′ s advice should be taken seriously. The problem of hyperconnectivity will only getworse, as smartphones become smarter and young digital natives take over the workforce. But ulti-mately it is up to companies to outsmart the smartphones by insisting that everyone turn them offfrom time to time. The example of Boston Consulting Group is used to illustrate that __________.
[单选题]请阅读短文,完成此题。 Many objects in daily use have clearly been influenced by science, but their form and function, their dimensions and appearance, were determined by technologists, artisans, designers, inventors, and engineers-use nonscientific modes of thought. This kind of thinking way is different from science. Many features and qualities of the objects that a technologist thinks about cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions; they are dealt with the mind by a visual, nonverbal process. In the development of Western technology, it has been non-verbal thinking, by and large, that has fixed the outlines and filled in the details of our material surroundings. Pyramids, cathedrals, and rockets exist not because of geometry or thermodynamics, but because they were first a picture in the minds of those who built them. The creative shaping process of a technologist's mind can be seen in nearly every artifact that exists. For example, in designing a diesel engine, a technologist might impress individual ways of nonverbal thinking on the machine by continually using an intuitive sense of rightness and fitness. What would be the shape of the combustion chamber? Where should valves be placed? Should it have a long or short piston? Such questions have a range of answers that are supplied by experience, by physical requirements, by limitations of available space, and not least by a sense of form. Some decisions such as wall thickness and pin diameter, may depend on scientific calculations, but the nonscientific component of design remains primary. Design courses, then, should be an essential element in engineering curriculum. Nonverbal thinking of a central mechanism in engineering design, involves perceptions, the stock-in-trade of the artist, not the scientist. Because perceptive processes are not assumed to entail "hard thinking", nonverbal thought is sometimes seen as a primitive stage in the development of cognitive process and inferior to verbal or mathematical thought. But it is paradoxical that when the staff began the Historic American. Engineering Record wished to have drawing made of machines and isometric views of industrial processes for its historical record of America engineering, the only college students with the requisite abilities were not engineering students, but rather students attending architectural schools. If courses in design, which in a strongly analytical engineering curriculum provide the background required for practical problem-solving, are not provided, we can expect to encounter silly but costly errors occurring in advanced engineering systems. For example, early models of high-speed railroad cars loaded with sophisticated controls were unable to operate in a snowstorm because a fan sucked snow into the electrical system. Absurd random failures that plague automatic control systems are not merely trivial aberrations: they are a reflection of the chaos that results when design is assumed to be primarily a problem in mathematics. What can we conclude from the last paragraph? 查看材料
[单选题]What should you think about in trying to find your career? You are probably better at some school subjects than others. These may show strengths that you can use in your work. A boy who is good at mathematics can use that in an engineering career. A girl who spells well and likes English may be good at office work. So it is important to know the subjects you do well in at school. On the other hand, you may not have any specially strong or weak subjects but your records show a general satisfactory standard. Although not all subjects can be used directly in a job, they may have indirect value. A knowledge of history is not required for most jobs but if history is one of your good subjects you will have learned to remember facts and details. This is an ability that can be useful in many jobs. Your school may have taught you skills, such as typing or technical drawing, which you can use in your work. You may be good at metal work or cookery and look for a job where you can improve these skills. If you have had a part-time job on Saturdays or in the summer, think what you gained from it. If nothing else, you may have learned how to get to work on time, to follow instructions and to get on with older workers. You may have learned to give correct change in a shop, for example. Just as important, you may become interested in a particular industry or career you see from the inside in a part-time job. Facing your weak points is also part of knowing yourself. You may be all thumbs when you handle tools; perhaps you are a poor speller or cannot add up a column of figures. It is bitter to face any weaknesses than to pretend they do not exist. Your school record, for instance, may not be too good, yet it is an important part of your background. You should not be apologetic about it but instead recognize that you will have a chance of a fresh start at work. Which of the following best sums up the first paragraph?

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