英语学科知识与教学能力【中学】

考试试题

[单选题]Polyester (聚酯) is now being used for bottles. ICI, the chemicals and plastics company,believes that it is now beginning to break the grip of glass on the bottle business and thus take advantage of this huge market. All the plastics manufacturers have been experiencing hard times as their traditional products have been doing badly world-wide for the last few years. Between 1982 and 1984 the Plastics Division of ICI had lost a hundred and twenty million dollars, and they felt that the most hopeful new market was in packaging, bottles and cans. Since 1982 it has opened three new factories producing "Melinar", the raw material frown which high quality polyester bottles are made. The polyester bottle was born in the 1970s, when soft drinks companies like Coca Cola started selling their drinks in giant two-liter containers. Because of the build-up of the pressure of gas in these large containers, glass was unsuitable. Nor was PVC, the plastic which had been used for bottles since the 1960s, suitable for drinks with gas in them. A new plastic had to be made. Glass is still cheaper for the smaller bottles and will continue to be so, unless oil and plastic become much cheaper, but plastic does well for the larger sizes. Polyester bottles are virtually unbreakable. The manufacturers claim they are also lighter, less noisy when being handled, and can be reused. Shopkeepers and other business people are unlikely to object to a change from glass to polyester, since these bottles mean few breakages, which are costly and time-consuming. The public, though, have been more difficult to persuade. ICI's commercial department is developing different bottles with interesting shapes, to try and make them visually more attractive to the public. The next step could be to develop a plastic which could replace tins for food. The problem here is the high temperatures necessary for cooking the food in the container. Why aren't all bottles now made of polyester?
[单选题]请阅读Passage 2,完成此题。 Passage 2 Until a decade or two ago, the centers of many Western cities were emptying while their edges were spreading. This was not for the reasons normally cited. Neither the car nor the motorway caused suburban sprawl, although they sped it up: cities were spreading before either came along. Nor was the flight to the suburbs caused by racism. Whites fled inner-city neighborhoods that were becoming black, but they also fled ones that were not. Planning and zoning rules encouraged sprawl, as did tax breaks for home ownership--but cities spread regardless of these. The real cause was mass affluence. As people grew richer, they demanded more privacy and space. Only a few could afford that in city centers; the rest moved out. The same process is now occurring in the developing world, but much more quickly. The pop-ulation density of metropolitan Beijing has collapsed since 1970, falling from 425 people per hectare to 65. Indian cities are following; Brazil's are ahead. And suburbanization has a long way to run. Beijing is now about as crowded as metropolitan Chicago was at its most closely packed, in the 1920s. Since then Chicago's density has fallen by almost three-quarters. This is welcome. Romantic notions of sociable, high-density living--notions pushed, for the most part, by people who themselves occupy rather spacious residences--ignore the squalor and lack of privacy to be found in Kinshasa, Mumbai or the other crowded cities of the poor world. Many of them are far too dense for dignified living, and need to spread out. The Western suburbs to which so many aspire are healthier than their detractors say. The modern Stepfords are no longer white monocultures, but that is progress. For every Ferguson there are many American suburbs that have quietly become black, Hispanic or Asian, or a blend of every-one. Picaresque accounts of decay overlook the fact that America's suburbs are half as criminal and a little more than half as poor as central cities. Even as urban centers revive, more Americans move from city centre to suburb than go the other way. But the West has also made mistakes, from which the rest of the world can learn. The first lesson is that suburban sprawl imposes costs on everyone. Suburbanites tend to use more roads and consume more carbon than urbanites (though perhaps not as much as distant commuters forced out by green belts). But this damage can be alleviated by a carbon tax, by toll roads and by charging for parking. Many cities in the emerging world have followed the foolish American practice of re-quiring property developers to provide a certain number of parking spaces for every building--something that makes commuting by car much more attractive than it would be otherwise. Scrap-ping them would give public transport a chance. The second is that it is foolish to try to stop the spread of suburbs. Green belts, the most ef-fective method for doing this, push up property prices and encourage long-distance commuting. The cost of housing in London, already astronomical, went up by 19% in the past year, reflecting not just the city's strong economy but also the impossibility of building on its edges. The insistence on big minimum lot sizes in some American suburbs and rural areas has much the same effect. Cities that try to prevent growth through green belts often end up weakening themselves, as Seoul has done. A wiser policy would be to plan for huge expansion. Acquire strips of land for roads and rail-ways, and chunks for parks, before the city sprawls into them. New York's 19th-century governors decided where Central Park was going to go long before the city reached it. New York went on to develop in a way that they could not have imagined, but the park is still there. This is not the state control of the new-town planner--that confident soul who believes he knows where people will want to live and work, and how they will get from one to the other. It is the realism needed to manage the inevitable. A model of living that has broadly worked well in the West is spreading, adapting to local conditions as it goes. We should all look forward to the time when Chinese and Indian teenagers write sulky songs about the appalling dullness of suburbia. Which of the following statements CANNOT be inferred from the passage? 查看材料
[单选题]Passage 1 Results showed that at least a tenth of the Harvard first-year undergraduates polled admitted to having cheated on an exam prior to starting at the university, while almost half admitted to cheating on their homework. An anonymous survey by Harvard's newspaper has revealed a surprising pattern of academic dishonesty among students entering the US universities. The survey by The Harvard Crimson was emailed to the incoming first year undergraduates;1,600 students responded. Results showed that at least a tenth of the students polled admitted to having cheated on an exam prior to starting at the university, while almost half admitted to cheating on their homework. Athletes were apparently the most prone to cheating. 20 percent of students who played a university sport admitted to cheating on an exam compared to 9 percent of students who did not. The survey also revealed that men were not only more likely to cheat but were also more likely to admit to it. The results, compared to a previous survey done on the class of 2013, suggested that cheating may be becoming more commonplace. Of the outgoing seniors only 7 percent admitted to cheating in an exam and another 7 percent said they had been dishonest on a take-home test. 32 percent of the seniors said they had cheated on homework during their undergraduate years.. The surveys come in the wake of a cheating scandal at the university which saw 120 students investigated for sharing answers on an exam in 2012. One recent graduate stated: "Cheating was commonplace when I was at Harvard, especially with students in their first year or two. I would say as many as 60 per cent of students took notes into some exams. No one really cared the faculty,well some of them at least, seemed to recognize and yet ignore the problem." In an email to NBC News, Jeff Neal, a Harvard representative, explained that a committee,made up of faculty, staff and students had been established to tackle cheating, which "is a national problem in American education". He added: "While the vast majority of Harvard and other students do their work honestly,beginning this year Harvard College has implemented a new, more robust strategy of communicating with all students, particularly first-year students, about the importance--and the ways to achieve--academic integrity." In a rebuff to critics who say university has become little more than an expensive party, 84 per cent of the responding undergraduates fully expected to prioritize their academics over extracurricular activities, sport, employment and their social lives. Not a single student put academics at the bottom of their list. Not content with confining themselves to their degree subject,59 percent of incoming students expressed a desire to pursue a secondary field of study, and 36 percent hoped to learn a language. What can we learn from the last paragraph?
[单选题]40 years ago the idea of disabled people doing sport was never heard of. But when the annual games for the disabled were started at Stoke Mandeville, England in 1948 by Sir Ludwig Guttmann, the situation began to change. Sir Ludwig Guttmann, who had been driven to England in 1939 from Nazi Germany, had been asked by the British government to set up an injuries center at Stoke Mandeville Hospital near London. His ideas about treating injuries included sport for the disabled. In the first games just two teams of injured soldiers took part. The next year, 1949, five teams took part. From those beginnings, things have developed fast. Teams now come from abroad to Stoke Mandeville every year. In 1960 the first Olympics for the Disabled were held in Rome, in the same place as the normal Olympic Games. Now, every four years the Olympic Games for the Disabled are held, if possible, in the same place as the normal Olympic Games, although they are organized separately. In other years Games for the Disabled are still held at Stoke Mandeville. In the 1984 wheelchair Olympic Games, 1064 wheelchair athletes from about 40 countries took part. Unfortunately, they were held at Stoke Mandeville and not in Los Angeles, along with the other Olympics. TheGameshavebeenagreatsuccessinpromotinginternationalfriendshipandunderstanding, and in proving that being disabled does not mean you can't enjoy sport. One small source of disappointment for those who organize and take part in the games, however, has been the unwillingness of the International Olympic Committee to include disabled events at Olympic Games for the able-bodied. Perhaps a few more years are still needed to convince those fortunate enough not to be disabled that their disabled fellow athletes should not be excluded. Besides Stoke Mandeville, surely the games for the disabled were once held in__________.
[单选题]Social change is more likely to occur in societies where there is a mixture of different kinds of people than in societies where people are similar in many ways. The simple reason for this is that there are more different ways of looking at things present in the first kind of society. There are more ideas, more disagreements in interest, and more groups and organizations with different beliefs. In addition, there is usually a greater worldly interest and greater tolerance in mixed societies. All these factors tend to protnote social change by opening more areas of life to decision. In a society where people are quite similar in many ways, there are fewer occasions for people to see the need or the opportunity for change because everything seems to be the same. And although conditions may not be satisfactory, they are at least customary and undisputed. Within a society, social changes is also likely to occur more frequently and more readily in the material aspects of the culture than in the non-material, for example, in technology rather than in values; in what has been learned later in life rather than what was learned early; in the less basic and less emotional aspects of society than in their opposites; in the simple elements rather than in the complex ones; in form rather than in substance; and in elements that are acceptable to the culture rather than in strange elements. Furthermore, social change is easier if it is gradual. For example, it comes more readily in human relations on a continuous scale rather than one with sharp difference. This is one reason why change has not come more quickly to Black Americans as compared to other American minorities,because of the sharp difference in appearance between them and their white counterparts. The passage is mainly discussing__________.
[问答题]根据提供的信息和语言素材设计教学方案,用英文作答。 设计任务:请阅读下面学生信息和语言素材,设计一个20分钟的阅读训练活动。教案没有固定格式.但须包含下列要点:? teaching objectives teaching contents key and difficult points major steps and time allocation activities and justifications 教学时间:20分钟? 学生概况:某城镇普通中学高中二年级第一学期学生,班级人数40人。多数学生已经达到《普通高中英语课程标准(实验)》六级水平。学生课堂参与积极性一般。 语言素材:? {图} Skiing is my favourite sport, even though I have only skied for four days in my whole life! Last year my father promised to take me on a holiday if I did well in my exams. When I got straight A's, Dad said, "How about a weekend at the Botanical Gardens?" However, my mum said, "No, you promised a special holiday, I think you ought to keep your word."And, despite the expense, he did. My dream was to see some real snow, so in the Christmas vacation we flew to Seoul, South Korea, and then took a shuttle bus which runs back and forth between Seoul and Muju Resort. As the bus climbed through the mountains, we saw the snow on the trees. I was dying to get out and play with it! At last, we reached the resort and quickly scrambled out of the bus. No one in my family had ever touched snow before. We were all like little children--we picked it up, made snowballs, and threw them at each other! Then we checked in at the hotel. Our room overlooked one of the ski slopes. The slope was floodlit, so we watched people skiing until 10 p.m. We could not wait to try it ourselves. The next day we had our first skiing lesson. We rented our ski suits, boots and skis, and went outside onto the snow. Wearing skis for the first time makes you feel very strange. Suddenly you find you cannot even walk. Our instructor took us onto a gentle slope, and showed us some basic skills. In order to go up a hill, you have to stand sideways, and go up step by step. You must point the tips of your skis to-gether so that you can stop. However, the tips must not cross, or you will fall. You should not ski alone in case you fall and get injured. To be honest, that first lesson was not a great success, and I kept on falling down! However, the next day I definitely improved, I only fell over a few times, and I managed to do a few longer runs. I felt pleased with myself, and the instructor congratulated me, so I felt great. Although it was very cold, I spent most of that holiday skiing. It was the most wonderful time of my life. Nevertheless, it was all over too soon. Now I have decided to work part-time this summer, so I can earn enough money for another super skiing holiday.
[单选题]The process of perceiving others is rarely translated(to ourselves or others) into cold,objective terms."She was 5 feet 8 inches tall, had fair hair, and wore a colored skirt." More often, we try to get inside the other person to pinpoint his or her attitudes, emotions, motivations,abilities, ideas, and characters. Furthermore, we sometimes behave as if we can accomplish this difficult job very quickly--perhaps with a two-second glance. We try to obtain information about others in many ways. Berger suggests several methods for reducing uncertainties about others; who are known to you so you can compare the observed person's behavior with the known others' behavior, observing a person in a situation where social behavior is relatively unrestrained or where a wide variety of behavioral responses are called for,deliberately structuring the physical or social environment so as to observe the person's responses to specific stimuli, asking people who have had or have frequent contact with the person about himor her, and using various strategies in face-to-face interaction to uncover information about another person--question, self-disclosures, and so on. Getting to know someone is a never-ending task, largely because people are constantly changing and the methods we use to obtain information are often imprecise. You may have known someone for ten years and still know very little about him. If we accept the idea that we won't ever fully know another person, it enables us to deal more easily with those things that get in the way of accurate knowledge such as secrets and deceptions. It will also keep us from being too surprised or shocked by seemingly inconsistent behavior. Ironically, those things that keep us from knowing another person too well (e. g. secrets and deceptions) may be just as important to the development of a satisfying relationship as those things that enable us to obtain accurate knowledge about a person (e. g. disclosures and truthful statement). According to the passage, if we perceive a person, we are likely to be interested in__________.
[单选题]In the college-admissions wars, we parents are the true fighters. We're pushing our kids to get good grades, take SAT preparatory courses and build resumes so they can get into the college of our first choice. I've twice been to the wars, and as I survey the battlefield, something different is happening. We see our kids' college background as a prize demonstrating how well we've raised them. But we can't acknowledge that our obsession is more about us than them. So we've contrivedvarious justifications that turn out to be half-truths, prejudices or myths. It actually doesn't matter much whether Aaron and Nicole go to Stanford. We have a full-blown prestige panic; we worry that there won't be enough prizes to go around. Fearful parents urge their children to apply to more schools than ever. Underlying the hysteria is the belief that scarce elite degrees must be highly valuable. Their graduates must enjoy more success because they get a better education and develop better contacts. All that is plausible--and mostly wrong. We haven't found any convincing evidence that selectivity or prestige matters. Selective schools don't systematically employ better instructional approaches than less selective schools. On two measures--professor's feedback and the number of essay exams--selective schools do slightly worse. By some studies, selective schools do enhance their graduates' lifetime earnings. The gain is reckoned at 2-4% for every 100-point increase in a school's average SAT scores. But even this advantage is probably a statistical fluke. A well-known study examined students who got into highly selective schools and then went elsewhere. They earned just as such as graduates from higher-status schools. Kids count more than their colleges. Getting into Yale may signify intelligence, talent and ambition. But it's not the only indicator and, paradoxically, its significance is declining. The reason: so many similar people go elsewhere. Getting into college isn't life's only competition. In the next competition--the job market and graduate school--the results may change. Old-boy networks are breaking down. Princeton economist Alan Krueger studied admissions to one top Ph.D. program. High scores on the GRE helped explain who got in; degrees of prestigious universities didn' t. So, parents, lighten up. The stakes have been vastly exaggerated. Up to a point, we can rationalize our pushiness. America is a competitive society; our kids need to adjust to that. But too much pushiness can be destructive. The very ambition we impose on our children may get some into Harvard but may also set them up for disappointment. One study found that, other things being equal, graduates of highly selective schools experienced more job dissatisfaction. They may have been so conditioned to being on top that anything less disappoints. Why do parents urge their children to apply to more schools than ever?
[单选题]It is generally agreed that the first true cities appeared about 5,000 years ago in the food-producing communities of the Middle East. The cities of Sumeria, Egypt and the Indus Valley possessed a number of characteristics that distinguished them as truly urban. The cities were very much larger and more densely populated than any previous settlement, and their function wasclearly differentiated from that of the surrounding villages. In the cities the old patterns of kinship relations were replaced by a complex hierarchy of social classes based on the specialization of labor. Moreover, the need to keep records led to the development of writing and arithmetic, and the increased sophistication of urban society gave a new impetus to artistic expression of every kind. When the basis of city life was established in Europe the urban tradition was drawn from the ancient cities of the Middle East, via the civilization of Greece and Rome. We can trace three main phases in the growth of the West European city. The first of these is the medieval phase which extends from the beginning of the 1 lth century A.D. to about 1,500 to the beginning of the 19th century. The third is the modern phase extending from the early 19th century to the present day. Every medieval city began as a small settlement, which grew up round a geographical or cultural focal point. This would be a permanent structure such as a stronghold, a cathedral or a large church. In districts where travel and trade were well established, it might be a market, a river crossing, or a place where two or more trade routes met, in studies of urban geography the oldest part of town is referred to as the nuclear settlement. There are many small towns in Europe where it is still possible to trace the outline of the original nuclear settlement. It is, of course, much more difficult to do this in the case if a large modern city which has grown to many times its original size. ?Which of the following could be regarded as a geographical focal point?
[单选题]In the college-admissions wars, we parents are the true fighters. We're pushing our kids to get good grades, take SAT preparatory courses and build resumes so they can get into the college of our first choice. I've twice been to the wars, and as I survey the battlefield, something different is happening. We see our kids' college background as a prize demonstrating how well we've raised them. But we can't acknowledge that our obsession is more about us than them. So we've contrivedvarious justifications that turn out to be half-truths, prejudices or myths. It actually doesn't matter much whether Aaron and Nicole go to Stanford. We have a full-blown prestige panic; we worry that there won't be enough prizes to go around. Fearful parents urge their children to apply to more schools than ever. Underlying the hysteria is the belief that scarce elite degrees must be highly valuable. Their graduates must enjoy more success because they get a better education and develop better contacts. All that is plausible--and mostly wrong. We haven't found any convincing evidence that selectivity or prestige matters. Selective schools don't systematically employ better instructional approaches than less selective schools. On two measures--professor's feedback and the number of essay exams--selective schools do slightly worse. By some studies, selective schools do enhance their graduates' lifetime earnings. The gain is reckoned at 2-4% for every 100-point increase in a school's average SAT scores. But even this advantage is probably a statistical fluke. A well-known study examined students who got into highly selective schools and then went elsewhere. They earned just as such as graduates from higher-status schools. Kids count more than their colleges. Getting into Yale may signify intelligence, talent and ambition. But it's not the only indicator and, paradoxically, its significance is declining. The reason: so many similar people go elsewhere. Getting into college isn't life's only competition. In the next competition--the job market and graduate school--the results may change. Old-boy networks are breaking down. Princeton economist Alan Krueger studied admissions to one top Ph.D. program. High scores on the GRE helped explain who got in; degrees of prestigious universities didn' t. So, parents, lighten up. The stakes have been vastly exaggerated. Up to a point, we can rationalize our pushiness. America is a competitive society; our kids need to adjust to that. But too much pushiness can be destructive. The very ambition we impose on our children may get some into Harvard but may also set them up for disappointment. One study found that, other things being equal, graduates of highly selective schools experienced more job dissatisfaction. They may have been so conditioned to being on top that anything less disappoints. ?What does the author mean by "Kids count more than their colleges" (Line 1, Para. 4)?
[单选题]Passage 2 Reality television is a genre of television programming which, it is claimed, presents unscripted dramatic or humorous situations, documents actual events, and features ordinary people rather than professional actors. It could be described as a form of artificial or "heightened"documentary. Although the genre has existed in some form or another since the early years of television, the current explosion of popularity dates from around 2000. Reality television covers a wide range of television programming formats, from game or quiz shows which resemble the frantic, often demeaning programmes produced in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s (a modern example is Gaki No Tsukai), to surveillance-or voyeurism-focused productions such as Big Brother. Critics say that the term "reality television" is somewhat of a misnomer and that such shows frequently portray a modified and highly influenced form of reality, with participants put in exotic locations or abnormal situations, sometimes coached to act in certain ways by off-screen handlers,and with events on screen manipulated through editing and other post-production techniques. Part of reality television's appeal is due to its ability to place ordinary people in extraordinary situations. For example, on the ABC show, The Bachelor, an eligible male dates a dozen women simultaneously, travelling on extraordinary" dates to scenic locales. Reality television also has the potential to turn its participants into national celebrities, outwardly in talent and performance programs such as Pop Idol, though frequently Survivor and Big Brother participants also reach some degree of celebrity. Some commentators have said that the name "reality television" is an inaccurate description for several styles of program included in the genre. In competition-based programs such as Big Brother and Survivor, and other special-living-environment shows like The Real World, the producers design the format of the show and control the day-to-day activities and the environment,creating a completely fabricated world in which the competition plays out. Producers specifically select the participants, and use carefully designed scenarios, challenges, events, and settings to encourage particular behaviours and conflicts. Mark Burnett, creator of Survivor and other reality shows, has agreed with this assessment, and avoids the word "reality" to describe his shows; he has said, "I tell good stories. It really is not reality TV. It really is unscripted drama." The term "reality television" is inaccurate__________.
[单选题]Back in the old days, when I was a child, we sat around the family round table at dinnertime and exchanged our daily experiences. It wasn't very organized, but everyone was recognized and all the news that had to be told was told by each family member. We listened to each other and the interest was not put-on; it was real. Our family was a unit and we supported each other, and nurtured each other, and liked each other, and--we were even willing to admit--we loved each other. Today, the family round table has moved to the local fast-food restaurant and talk is not easy,much less encouraged. Grandma, who used to live upstairs, is now the voice on long distance, and the working parent is far too beaten down each day to spend evening relaxation time listening to the sandbox experience of an eager four-year-old. So family conversation is as extinct as my old toys and parental questions such as "What have you been doing, Bobby? " have been replaced by "I'm busy, go watch television. " And watch TV they do; count them by the millions. But it's usually not children's television that children watch. Saturday morning, the children's hour, amounts to only about 8 percent of their weekly viewing. Where are they to be found? Watching adult television, of course, from the Match Game in the morning, to the afternoon at General Hospital, from the muggings and battles on the evening news right through the family hour and past into Starsky and Hutch. That's where you find our kids, over five million of them, at 10 p.m., not fewer than a million until after midnight! All of this is done with parental permission. Television, used well, can provide enriching experiences for our young people, but we must use it with some sense. When the carpet is clean, we turn off the vacuum cleaner. When the dishes are clean, the dishwasher turns itself off. Not so the television, which is on from the sun in the morning to the moon at night and beyond ! Parents must exercise some control and show some concern about the cultural influence on the child whena program not intended for that child is viewed.Parents need to intervene. Nonintervention may be a wise policy in international affairs,but the results of parental nonintervention will not be wise at all. From the first two paragraphs one may infer that the writer's attitude towards "the old days" is__________.
[单选题]40 years ago the idea of disabled people doing sport was never heard of. But when the annual games for the disabled were started at Stoke Mandeville, England in 1948 by Sir Ludwig Guttmann, the situation began to change. Sir Ludwig Guttmann, who had been driven to England in 1939 from Nazi Germany, had been asked by the British government to set up an injuries center at Stoke Mandeville Hospital near London. His ideas about treating injuries included sport for the disabled. In the first games just two teams of injured soldiers took part. The next year, 1949, five teams took part. From those beginnings, things have developed fast. Teams now come from abroad to Stoke Mandeville every year. In 1960 the first Olympics for the Disabled were held in Rome, in the same place as the normal Olympic Games. Now, every four years the Olympic Games for the Disabled are held, if possible, in the same place as the normal Olympic Games, although they are organized separately. In other years Games for the Disabled are still held at Stoke Mandeville. In the 1984 wheelchair Olympic Games, 1064 wheelchair athletes from about 40 countries took part. Unfortunately, they were held at Stoke Mandeville and not in Los Angeles, along with the other Olympics. TheGameshavebeenagreatsuccessinpromotinginternationalfriendshipandunderstanding, and in proving that being disabled does not mean you can't enjoy sport. One small source of disappointment for those who organize and take part in the games, however, has been the unwillingness of the International Olympic Committee to include disabled events at Olympic Games for the able-bodied. Perhaps a few more years are still needed to convince those fortunate enough not to be disabled that their disabled fellow athletes should not be excluded. ?Which of the following statements is NOT true?

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