英语学科知识与教学能力【中学】

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[多选题]请阅读Passage 2,完成小题。 Passage 2 For hundreds of millions of years,turtles have struggled out of the sea to lay their eggs on sandy?beaches,long before there were nature documentaries to celebrate them,or GPS satellites and?marine biologists to track them,or volunteers to hand-carry the hatchlings down to the water′s edge?lest they become disoriented by headlights and crawl towards a motel parking lot instead.A?formidable wall of bureaucracy has been erected to protect their prime nesting on the Atlantic?coastlines.With all that attention paid to them,you′d think these creatures would at least have the?gratitude not to go extinct. But Nature is indifferent to human notions of fairness,and a report by the Fish and Wildlife?Service showed a worrisome drop in the populations of several species of North Atlantic turtles,notably loggerheads,which can grow to as much as 400 pounds.The South Florida nesting?population,the largest,has declined by 50%in the last decade,according to Elizabeth Griffin,a?marine biologist with the environmental group Oceana.The figures prompted Oceana to petition the?government to upgrade the level of protection for the North Atlantic loggerheads from"threatened"to"endangered"--meaning they are in danger of disappearing without additional help. Which raises the obvious question:what else do these turtles want from us,anyway?.It turns?out,according to Griffin,that while we have done a good job of protecting the turtles for the weeks?they spend on land(as egg-laying females,as eggs and as hatchlings),we have neglected the years?they spend in the ocean."The threat is from commercial fishing,"says Griffin.Trawlers(which drag?large nets through the water and along the ocean floor)and longline fishers(which can deploy?thousands of hooks on lines that can stretch for miles)take a heavy toll on turtles. Of course,like every other environmental issue today,this is playing out against the?background of global warming and human interference with natural ecosystems.The narrow strips?of beach on which the turtles lay their eggs are being squeezed on one side by development and on?the other by the threat of rising sea levels as the oceans warm.Ultimately we must get a handle on?those issues as well,or a creature that outlived the dinosaurs will meet its end at the hands of?humans,leaving our descendants to wonder how creature so ugly could have won so much affection. The last sentence of the passage is meant to__________.
[单选题]Passage 1 Recently,Congressional Democrats introduced legislation to make it easier for older workers to win age?discrimination lawsuits.Age discrimination remains a significant workplace issue. In recent ten years,15.79 percent of cases brought to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission,were described as successful claims.While this number is small given the number of workers covered by the?Age Discrimination in Employment Act,many,if not most,instances of age discrimination are never sued,and?cases hiring discrimination often go undetected. Most of those who do sue are white,male middle-managers who are likely to have lost a sizeable salary?and pension.For the most part,other groups do not sue because the costs of a lawsuit outweigh the potential?benefits.Age discrimination remains a significant workplace issue. There is strong experimental evidence for age discrimination in hiring,at least for entry-level jobs.Recently,I performed a labor market experiment in Boston in which I sent out thousands of resumes for fictitious?entry-level female candidates and measured response rate based on date of high school graduation.Among?this group,younger applicants,whose date of high school graduation indicated that they were less than 50?years old,were 40 percent more likely to be called back for an interview than were older applicants. It is difficult to tell whether employment problems are worse for older workers than for other workers?when times are bad.The number of discrimination lawsuits increases during times of high unemployment,but?this finding by itself does not indicate an increased level of age discrimination.In times of higher unemployment,the opportunity cost to a lawsuit is lower than it is when times are good. From the employer′s perspective,mass layoffs may seem like a good chance to remove a higher proportion of generally more expensive older workers without the worry of being sued.On the other hand,employers?may be less likely to remove protected older workers because they still fear lawsuits.One thing we do know is that once an older worker loses a job,he or she is much less likely to find a new job than a younger worker is. Unfortunately,the effect of legislation prohibiting age discrimination is not easy to see and may actually?be part of the reason it is so difficult for older workers to find employment.If it is more difficult to fire an ol-der worker than a younger worker,a firm will be less likely to want to hire older workers.Indeed,my research?finds that in states where workers have longer time to bring a lawsuit claim,older men work fewer weeks per?year,are less likely to be hired,and less likely to be fired than men in states where they do not have as much. Not many people would suggest that we go back to a world prior to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act,in which advertisements specify the specific ages of people they are willing to hire.However,legislation prohibiting discrimination is no panacea(万灵药).The recent proposed congressional legislation?could have both positive and negative effects on potential older workers. A lot of cases of age discrimination are not found because_________.查看材料
[单选题]Trees should only be pruned when there is a good and clear reason for doing so and, fortunately, the number of such reasons is small. Pruning involves the cutting away of overgrown and unwanted branches, and the inexperienced gardener can be encouraged by the thought that more damage results from doing it unnecessarily than from leaving the tree to grow in its own way. First, pruning may be done to make sure that trees have a desired shape or size. The object may be to get a tree of the right height, and at the same time to help the growth of small side branches which will thicken its appearance or give it a special shape. Secondly, pruning may be done to make the tree healthier. You may cut diseased or dead wood, or branches that are rubbing against each other and thus cause wounds. The health of a tree may be encouraged by removing branches that are blocking up the centre and so preventing the free movement of air. One result of pruning is that an open wound is left on the tree and this provides an easy entry for disease, but it is a wound that will heal. Often there is a race between the healing and the disease as to whether the tree will live or die, so that there is a period when the tree is at risk. It should be the aim of every gardener to reduce which has been pruned smooth and clean, for healing will be slowed down by roughness. You should allow the cut surface to dry for a few hurts and then paint it with one of the substances available from garden shops produced especially for this purpose. Pruning is usually without interference from the leaves and also it is very unlikely that the cuts you make will bleed. If this does happen, it is, of course, impossible to paint them properly. A good gardener prunes a tree__________.
[多选题]请阅读Passage l。完成小题。 Passage 1 There will eventually come a day when The New York Times ceases to publish stories on?newsprint.Exactly when that day will be is a matter of debate."Sometime in the future,"the paper′s?publisher said back in 2010. Nostalgia for ink on paper and the rustle of pages aside,there′s plenty of incentive to ditch?print.The infrastructure required to make a physical newspaper--printing presses,delivery trucks--isn′t just expensive;it′s excessive at a time when online-only competitors don′t have the same set?of financial constraints.Readers are migrating away from print anyway.And though print and sales?still dwarf their online and mobile counterparts,revenue from print is still declining. Overhead may be high and circulation lower,but rushing to eliminate its print edition would be?a mistake,says BuzzFeed CEO Jonah Peretti. Peretti says the Times shouldn′t waste time getting out of the print business,but only if they go?about doing it the right way."Figuring out a way to accelerate that transition would make sense for?them,"he said,"but if you discontinue it,you′re going to have your most loyal customers really?upset with you." Sometimes that′s worth making a change anyway.Peretti gives the example of Netflix?discontinuing its DVD-mailing service to focus on streaming."It was seen as a blunder,"he said.The more turned out to be foresighted.And ifPeretti were in change at the Times?"I wouldn′t pick?a year to end print,"he said."I would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product." The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor,the idea goes,and they′d feel?like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in."So if you′re overpaying for?print,you could feel like you were helping,"Peretti said."Then increase it at a higher rate each year?and essentially try to generate additional revenue."In other words,if you′re going to make a print?product,make it for the people who are already obsessed with it.Which may be what the Times is?doing already.Getting the print edition seven days a week costs nearly$500 a year--more than?twice as much as a digital-only subscription. "It′s a really hard thing to do and it′s a tremendous luxury that BuzzFeed doesn′t have a?legacy business,"Peretti remarked."But we′re going to have questions like that where we have?things we′re doing that don′t make sense when the market changes and the world changes.In those?situations,it′s better to be more aggressive than less aggressive." Peretti suggests that,in face of the present situation,the Times should__________.
[单选题]The process of perceiving others is rarely translated(to ourselves or others) into cold,objective terms."She was 5 feet 8 inches tall, had fair hair, and wore a colored skirt." More often, we try to get inside the other person to pinpoint his or her attitudes, emotions, motivations,abilities, ideas, and characters. Furthermore, we sometimes behave as if we can accomplish this difficult job very quickly--perhaps with a two-second glance. We try to obtain information about others in many ways. Berger suggests several methods for reducing uncertainties about others; who are known to you so you can compare the observed person's behavior with the known others' behavior, observing a person in a situation where social behavior is relatively unrestrained or where a wide variety of behavioral responses are called for,deliberately structuring the physical or social environment so as to observe the person's responses to specific stimuli, asking people who have had or have frequent contact with the person about himor her, and using various strategies in face-to-face interaction to uncover information about another person--question, self-disclosures, and so on. Getting to know someone is a never-ending task, largely because people are constantly changing and the methods we use to obtain information are often imprecise. You may have known someone for ten years and still know very little about him. If we accept the idea that we won't ever fully know another person, it enables us to deal more easily with those things that get in the way of accurate knowledge such as secrets and deceptions. It will also keep us from being too surprised or shocked by seemingly inconsistent behavior. Ironically, those things that keep us from knowing another person too well (e. g. secrets and deceptions) may be just as important to the development of a satisfying relationship as those things that enable us to obtain accurate knowledge about a person (e. g. disclosures and truthful statement). There are things that we find preventing us from knowing others. These things are__________.