英语学科知识与教学能力【中学】

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[单选题]Many people believe the glare from snow causes snow-blindness. Yet, dark glasses or not,they find themselves suffering from headaches and watering eyes, and even snow-blindness, when exposed to several hours of "snow light". The United States Army has now determined that glare from snow does not cause snow- blindness in troops in a snow-covered country. Rather, a man's eyes frequently find nothing to focus on in a broad expanse of barren snow-covered terrain. So his gaze continually shifts and jumps back and forth over the entire landscape in search of something to look at. Finding nothing,hour after hour, the eyes never stop searching and the eyeballs become sore and the eye musclesache. Nature offsets this irritation by producing more and fluid which covers the eyeball. The fluid covers the eyeball in increasing quantity until vision blurs, then is observed, and the result is total, even though temporary, snow-blindness. Experiments led the Army to a simple method of overcoming this problem. Scouts ahead of a main body of troops are trained to shake snow from evergreen bushes, creating a dotted line as they cross completely snow-covered landscape. Even the scouts themselves throw lightweight, dark colored objects ahead on which they too can focus. The men following can then see something.Their gaze is arrested. Their eyes focus on a bush and having found something to see, stop scouring the snow-blanketed landscape. By focusing their attention on one object at a time, the men can cross the snow without becoming hopelessly snow-blind or lost. In this way the problem of crossing a solid white terrain is overcome. Snow-blindness may be avoided by__________
[单选题]Polyester (聚酯) is now being used for bottles. ICI, the chemicals and plastics company,believes that it is now beginning to break the grip of glass on the bottle business and thus take advantage of this huge market. All the plastics manufacturers have been experiencing hard times as their traditional products have been doing badly world-wide for the last few years. Between 1982 and 1984 the Plastics Division of ICI had lost a hundred and twenty million dollars, and they felt that the most hopeful new market was in packaging, bottles and cans. Since 1982 it has opened three new factories producing "Melinar", the raw material frown which high quality polyester bottles are made. The polyester bottle was born in the 1970s, when soft drinks companies like Coca Cola started selling their drinks in giant two-liter containers. Because of the build-up of the pressure of gas in these large containers, glass was unsuitable. Nor was PVC, the plastic which had been used for bottles since the 1960s, suitable for drinks with gas in them. A new plastic had to be made. Glass is still cheaper for the smaller bottles and will continue to be so, unless oil and plastic become much cheaper, but plastic does well for the larger sizes. Polyester bottles are virtually unbreakable. The manufacturers claim they are also lighter, less noisy when being handled, and can be reused. Shopkeepers and other business people are unlikely to object to a change from glass to polyester, since these bottles mean few breakages, which are costly and time-consuming. The public, though, have been more difficult to persuade. ICI's commercial department is developing different bottles with interesting shapes, to try and make them visually more attractive to the public. The next step could be to develop a plastic which could replace tins for food. The problem here is the high temperatures necessary for cooking the food in the container. ?Plastic containers for holding food in the same way as cans__________.
[单选题]40 years ago the idea of disabled people doing sport was never heard of. But when the annual games for the disabled were started at Stoke Mandeville, England in 1948 by Sir Ludwig Guttmann, the situation began to change. Sir Ludwig Guttmann, who had been driven to England in 1939 from Nazi Germany, had been asked by the British government to set up an injuries center at Stoke Mandeville Hospital near London. His ideas about treating injuries included sport for the disabled. In the first games just two teams of injured soldiers took part. The next year, 1949, five teams took part. From those beginnings, things have developed fast. Teams now come from abroad to Stoke Mandeville every year. In 1960 the first Olympics for the Disabled were held in Rome, in the same place as the normal Olympic Games. Now, every four years the Olympic Games for the Disabled are held, if possible, in the same place as the normal Olympic Games, although they are organized separately. In other years Games for the Disabled are still held at Stoke Mandeville. In the 1984 wheelchair Olympic Games, 1064 wheelchair athletes from about 40 countries took part. Unfortunately, they were held at Stoke Mandeville and not in Los Angeles, along with the other Olympics. TheGameshavebeenagreatsuccessinpromotinginternationalfriendshipandunderstanding, and in proving that being disabled does not mean you can't enjoy sport. One small source of disappointment for those who organize and take part in the games, however, has been the unwillingness of the International Olympic Committee to include disabled events at Olympic Games for the able-bodied. Perhaps a few more years are still needed to convince those fortunate enough not to be disabled that their disabled fellow athletes should not be excluded. The first games for the disabled were heldafter Sir Ludwig Guttmann arrived in England.
[单选题]Polyester (聚酯) is now being used for bottles. ICI, the chemicals and plastics company,believes that it is now beginning to break the grip of glass on the bottle business and thus take advantage of this huge market. All the plastics manufacturers have been experiencing hard times as their traditional products have been doing badly world-wide for the last few years. Between 1982 and 1984 the Plastics Division of ICI had lost a hundred and twenty million dollars, and they felt that the most hopeful new market was in packaging, bottles and cans. Since 1982 it has opened three new factories producing "Melinar", the raw material frown which high quality polyester bottles are made. The polyester bottle was born in the 1970s, when soft drinks companies like Coca Cola started selling their drinks in giant two-liter containers. Because of the build-up of the pressure of gas in these large containers, glass was unsuitable. Nor was PVC, the plastic which had been used for bottles since the 1960s, suitable for drinks with gas in them. A new plastic had to be made. Glass is still cheaper for the smaller bottles and will continue to be so, unless oil and plastic become much cheaper, but plastic does well for the larger sizes. Polyester bottles are virtually unbreakable. The manufacturers claim they are also lighter, less noisy when being handled, and can be reused. Shopkeepers and other business people are unlikely to object to a change from glass to polyester, since these bottles mean few breakages, which are costly and time-consuming. The public, though, have been more difficult to persuade. ICI's commercial department is developing different bottles with interesting shapes, to try and make them visually more attractive to the public. The next step could be to develop a plastic which could replace tins for food. The problem here is the high temperatures necessary for cooking the food in the container. Why aren't all bottles now made of polyester?
[单选题]请阅读Passage l。完成第小题。 Passage 1 They came to the United States as children with little idea, if any, of what it meant to overstay a visa. They enrolled in public schools, learned English, earned high school diplomas. Like many of their classmates, they pondered college choices. But as undocumented immigrants in Maryland, they then had to confront the reality that they must pay two to three times what former high school classmates pay to attend the state's public colleges. It is a rule that, for many students of modest means, puts a college education out of reach, with one exception : Montgomery College. That is why Josue Aguiluz, 21, born in Honduras, and Ricardo Campos, 23, born in E1 Salvador--and numerous others like them--landed at the community college. There, they study and wait for a verdict from Maryland voters on a Nov. 6 ballot measure that may determine whether they can afford to advance to a four-year college. "I know people in Maryland believe in education," Campos said the other day at the student center on the Rockville campus. "I know they are going to vote for Question 4. I'm hanging on their vote." Question 4 asks voters to affirm or strike down a law that the legislature passed last year,known as Maryland's version of the "Dream Act," which granted certain undocumented immigrants the ability to obtain in-state tuition at public colleges and universities. The subsidy comes with conditions. Among them: To take advantage, students must first go to a two-year community college. The law was pushed to a referendum after opponents mounted a lightning petition drive that showed the depth of division over illegal immigration across the state and the nation. Critics say discounting tuition for students who lack permission to be in the country is an unjustified giveaway of what they believe will amount to tens of millions of tax dollars a year. "When an undocumented student enters the system, it is a net loss of revenue," said Del. Patrick L. McDonough. "It is a simple mathematical argument. Put your emotion and your passion aside, and get out your calculator." There is no count of the number of students statewide who would be eligible for benefits under the law. Estimates range from several hundred to a few thousand. A Washington Post poll this month found that a solid majority of likely voters favored the law: 59 percent support it, and 35 percent are opposed. If the law is affirmed, Maryland would join about a dozen other states with laws or policies providing in-state tuition benefits to undocumented immigrants. Texas became the first in 2001. Experts say Maryland's version is the only one that requires students to go through community college first. That means the state's 16 community colleges could become a pipeline for undocumented students in public higher education if the measure is approved. Montgomery College is already a magnet for such students. It offers the same low tuition to any student who graduated within the past three years from a Montgomery County high school. Whom does "our two" in PARAGRAPH 7 refer to? 查看材料
[单选题]There are two factors which determine an individual's intelligence. The first is the sort of brain he is born with. Human brains differ considerably, some being more capable than others. But no matter how good a brain he has to begin with, an individual will have a low order of intelligence unless he has opportunities to learn. So the second factor is what happens to the individual--the sort of environment in which he is brought up. If an individual is handicapped environmentally, it is likely that his brain will fail to develop and he will never attain the level of intelligence of which he is capable. Theimportanceofenvironmentindetermininganindividual'sintelligencecanbe? demonstrated by the case history of the identical twins, Peter and Mark. Being identical, the twins had identical brains at birth, and their growth processes were the same. When the twins were three months old, their parents died, and they were placed in separate foster homes. Peter was raised by parents of low intelligence in an isolated community with poor educational opportunities. Mark was reared in the home of well-to-do parents who had been to college. He was read to as a child, sent to good schools, and given every opportunity to be stimulated intellectually. This environmental difference continued until the twins were in their late teens, when they were given tests to measure their intelligence. Mark's LQ. was 125, twenty-five points higher than the average and fully forty points higher than his identical brother. Given equal opportunities, the twins, having identical brains, would have tested at roughly the same level. This selection can best be titled__________.

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