考试试题

[单选题]In the college-admissions wars, we parents are the true fighters. We're pushing our kids to get good grades, take SAT preparatory courses and build resumes so they can get into the college of our first choice. I've twice been to the wars, and as I survey the battlefield, something different is happening. We see our kids' college background as a prize demonstrating how well we've raised them. But we can't acknowledge that our obsession is more about us than them. So we've contrivedvarious justifications that turn out to be half-truths, prejudices or myths. It actually doesn't matter much whether Aaron and Nicole go to Stanford. We have a full-blown prestige panic; we worry that there won't be enough prizes to go around. Fearful parents urge their children to apply to more schools than ever. Underlying the hysteria is the belief that scarce elite degrees must be highly valuable. Their graduates must enjoy more success because they get a better education and develop better contacts. All that is plausible--and mostly wrong. We haven't found any convincing evidence that selectivity or prestige matters. Selective schools don't systematically employ better instructional approaches than less selective schools. On two measures--professor's feedback and the number of essay exams--selective schools do slightly worse. By some studies, selective schools do enhance their graduates' lifetime earnings. The gain is reckoned at 2-4% for every 100-point increase in a school's average SAT scores. But even this advantage is probably a statistical fluke. A well-known study examined students who got into highly selective schools and then went elsewhere. They earned just as such as graduates from higher-status schools. Kids count more than their colleges. Getting into Yale may signify intelligence, talent and ambition. But it's not the only indicator and, paradoxically, its significance is declining. The reason: so many similar people go elsewhere. Getting into college isn't life's only competition. In the next competition--the job market and graduate school--the results may change. Old-boy networks are breaking down. Princeton economist Alan Krueger studied admissions to one top Ph.D. program. High scores on the GRE helped explain who got in; degrees of prestigious universities didn' t. So, parents, lighten up. The stakes have been vastly exaggerated. Up to a point, we can rationalize our pushiness. America is a competitive society; our kids need to adjust to that. But too much pushiness can be destructive. The very ambition we impose on our children may get some into Harvard but may also set them up for disappointment. One study found that, other things being equal, graduates of highly selective schools experienced more job dissatisfaction. They may have been so conditioned to being on top that anything less disappoints. One possible result of pushing children into elite universities is that
[单选题]40 years ago the idea of disabled people doing sport was never heard of. But when the annual games for the disabled were started at Stoke Mandeville, England in 1948 by Sir Ludwig Guttmann, the situation began to change. Sir Ludwig Guttmann, who had been driven to England in 1939 from Nazi Germany, had been asked by the British government to set up an injuries center at Stoke Mandeville Hospital near London. His ideas about treating injuries included sport for the disabled. In the first games just two teams of injured soldiers took part. The next year, 1949, five teams took part. From those beginnings, things have developed fast. Teams now come from abroad to Stoke Mandeville every year. In 1960 the first Olympics for the Disabled were held in Rome, in the same place as the normal Olympic Games. Now, every four years the Olympic Games for the Disabled are held, if possible, in the same place as the normal Olympic Games, although they are organized separately. In other years Games for the Disabled are still held at Stoke Mandeville. In the 1984 wheelchair Olympic Games, 1064 wheelchair athletes from about 40 countries took part. Unfortunately, they were held at Stoke Mandeville and not in Los Angeles, along with the other Olympics. TheGameshavebeenagreatsuccessinpromotinginternationalfriendshipandunderstanding, and in proving that being disabled does not mean you can't enjoy sport. One small source of disappointment for those who organize and take part in the games, however, has been the unwillingness of the International Olympic Committee to include disabled events at Olympic Games for the able-bodied. Perhaps a few more years are still needed to convince those fortunate enough not to be disabled that their disabled fellow athletes should not be excluded. In Paragraph 3, the underlined word "athletes" means__________.
[单选题]It is generally agreed that the first true cities appeared about 5,000 years ago in the food-producing communities of the Middle East. The cities of Sumeria, Egypt and the Indus Valley possessed a number of characteristics that distinguished them as truly urban. The cities were very much larger and more densely populated than any previous settlement, and their function wasclearly differentiated from that of the surrounding villages. In the cities the old patterns of kinship relations were replaced by a complex hierarchy of social classes based on the specialization of labor. Moreover, the need to keep records led to the development of writing and arithmetic, and the increased sophistication of urban society gave a new impetus to artistic expression of every kind. When the basis of city life was established in Europe the urban tradition was drawn from the ancient cities of the Middle East, via the civilization of Greece and Rome. We can trace three main phases in the growth of the West European city. The first of these is the medieval phase which extends from the beginning of the 1 lth century A.D. to about 1,500 to the beginning of the 19th century. The third is the modern phase extending from the early 19th century to the present day. Every medieval city began as a small settlement, which grew up round a geographical or cultural focal point. This would be a permanent structure such as a stronghold, a cathedral or a large church. In districts where travel and trade were well established, it might be a market, a river crossing, or a place where two or more trade routes met, in studies of urban geography the oldest part of town is referred to as the nuclear settlement. There are many small towns in Europe where it is still possible to trace the outline of the original nuclear settlement. It is, of course, much more difficult to do this in the case if a large modern city which has grown to many times its original size. ?Which of the following would be the best title of the passage?
[单选题]A new scheme for getting children to and from school is being started by the education authorities in part of Eastern England. This could end the worries of many parents fearful for their children's safety on the roads. Until now the Country Council has only been prepared to provide bus services for children living more than three miles from their school, or sometimes less if special reasons existed. Now it has been decided that if a group of parents ask for help in organizing transport they will be prepared to go ahead, provided the arrangement will not lose money and that children taking part will be attending their nearest school. The new scheme is to be tried out this term for children living at Milton who attend Impington school. The children live just within the three-mile limit and the Council has said in the past it will not undertake to provide free transport to the school. But now they have agreed to organize a bus service from Milton to Impington and back, a plan which has the support of the school's headmaster. Between 50 and 60 parents have said they would like their children to take part in. Final calculations have still to be carried out, but a council official has said the cost of parents should be less than $6.50 a tenn. They have been able to arrange the service at a low cost because there is already an agreement with the bus company for a bus to take children who live further away to Impington. The same bus would now just make an extra journey to pick up the Milton children. The official said they would get in touch with other groups of parents who in the past had asked if transport could be provided for their children, to see if they would like to take part in the new scheme. The children the Council ran buses for in the past were those__________.
[单选题]In the college-admissions wars, we parents are the true fighters. We're pushing our kids to get good grades, take SAT preparatory courses and build resumes so they can get into the college of our first choice. I've twice been to the wars, and as I survey the battlefield, something different is happening. We see our kids' college background as a prize demonstrating how well we've raised them. But we can't acknowledge that our obsession is more about us than them. So we've contrivedvarious justifications that turn out to be half-truths, prejudices or myths. It actually doesn't matter much whether Aaron and Nicole go to Stanford. We have a full-blown prestige panic; we worry that there won't be enough prizes to go around. Fearful parents urge their children to apply to more schools than ever. Underlying the hysteria is the belief that scarce elite degrees must be highly valuable. Their graduates must enjoy more success because they get a better education and develop better contacts. All that is plausible--and mostly wrong. We haven't found any convincing evidence that selectivity or prestige matters. Selective schools don't systematically employ better instructional approaches than less selective schools. On two measures--professor's feedback and the number of essay exams--selective schools do slightly worse. By some studies, selective schools do enhance their graduates' lifetime earnings. The gain is reckoned at 2-4% for every 100-point increase in a school's average SAT scores. But even this advantage is probably a statistical fluke. A well-known study examined students who got into highly selective schools and then went elsewhere. They earned just as such as graduates from higher-status schools. Kids count more than their colleges. Getting into Yale may signify intelligence, talent and ambition. But it's not the only indicator and, paradoxically, its significance is declining. The reason: so many similar people go elsewhere. Getting into college isn't life's only competition. In the next competition--the job market and graduate school--the results may change. Old-boy networks are breaking down. Princeton economist Alan Krueger studied admissions to one top Ph.D. program. High scores on the GRE helped explain who got in; degrees of prestigious universities didn' t. So, parents, lighten up. The stakes have been vastly exaggerated. Up to a point, we can rationalize our pushiness. America is a competitive society; our kids need to adjust to that. But too much pushiness can be destructive. The very ambition we impose on our children may get some into Harvard but may also set them up for disappointment. One study found that, other things being equal, graduates of highly selective schools experienced more job dissatisfaction. They may have been so conditioned to being on top that anything less disappoints. What does Krueger's study tell us? A. Getting into Ph.D. programs may be more competitive than getting into college. B.Degrees of prestigious universities do not guarantee entry to graduate programs, C.Graduates from prestigious universities do not care much ahout their GRE scores. D.Connections built in prestigious universities may he sustained long after graduation,
[单选题]Passage 2 Reality television is a genre of television programming which, it is claimed, presents unscripted dramatic or humorous situations, documents actual events, and features ordinary people rather than professional actors. It could be described as a form of artificial or "heightened"documentary. Although the genre has existed in some form or another since the early years of television, the current explosion of popularity dates from around 2000. Reality television covers a wide range of television programming formats, from game or quiz shows which resemble the frantic, often demeaning programmes produced in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s (a modern example is Gaki No Tsukai), to surveillance-or voyeurism-focused productions such as Big Brother. Critics say that the term "reality television" is somewhat of a misnomer and that such shows frequently portray a modified and highly influenced form of reality, with participants put in exotic locations or abnormal situations, sometimes coached to act in certain ways by off-screen handlers,and with events on screen manipulated through editing and other post-production techniques. Part of reality television's appeal is due to its ability to place ordinary people in extraordinary situations. For example, on the ABC show, The Bachelor, an eligible male dates a dozen women simultaneously, travelling on extraordinary" dates to scenic locales. Reality television also has the potential to turn its participants into national celebrities, outwardly in talent and performance programs such as Pop Idol, though frequently Survivor and Big Brother participants also reach some degree of celebrity. Some commentators have said that the name "reality television" is an inaccurate description for several styles of program included in the genre. In competition-based programs such as Big Brother and Survivor, and other special-living-environment shows like The Real World, the producers design the format of the show and control the day-to-day activities and the environment,creating a completely fabricated world in which the competition plays out. Producers specifically select the participants, and use carefully designed scenarios, challenges, events, and settings to encourage particular behaviours and conflicts. Mark Burnett, creator of Survivor and other reality shows, has agreed with this assessment, and avoids the word "reality" to describe his shows; he has said, "I tell good stories. It really is not reality TV. It really is unscripted drama." The term "reality television" is inaccurate__________.
[单选题]Advertisers tend to think big and perhaps this is why they're always coming in for criticism. Their critics seem to resent them because they have a flair for self-promotion and because they have so much money to throw around. "It's iniquitous," they say, "that this entirely unproductive industry (if we can call it that) should absorb millions of pounds each year. It only goes to show how much profit the big companies are making. Why don't they stop advertising and reduce the price of their goods? After all, it's the consumer who pays ..." The poor old consumer! He'd have to pay a great deal more if advertising didn't create mass markets for products. It is precisely because of the heavy advertising that consumer goods are so cheap. But we get the wrong idea if we think the only purpose of advertising is to sell goods. Another equally important function is to inform. A great deal of the knowledge we have about household goods derives largely from the advertisements we read. Advertisements introduce us to new products or remind us of the existence of ones we already know about. Supposing you wanted to buy a washing machine, it is more than likely you would obtain details regarding performance, price, etc, from an advertisement. Lots of people pretend that they never read advertisements, but this claim may be seriously doubted. It is hardly possible not to read advertisements these days. And what fun they often are,too!Just think what a railway station or a newspaper would be like without advertisements. Would you enjoy gazing at a blank wall or reading railway by-laws while waiting for a train? Would you like to read only closely printed columns of news in your daily paper?A cheerful, witty advertisement makes such a difference to a drab wall or a newspaper full of the daily ration of calamities. We must not forget, either, that advertising makes a positive contribution to our pockets. Newspapers, commercial radio and television companies could not subsist without this source of revenue. The fact that we pay so little for our daily paper, or can enjoy so many broadcast programmes is due entirely to the money spent by advertisers. Just think what a newspaper would cost if we had to pay its full price ! Another thing we mustn't forget is the"small ads." which are in virtually every newspaper and magazine. What a tremendously useful service they perform for the community!Just about anything can be accomplished through these columns. For instance, you can find a job, buy or sell a house, announce a birth, marriage or death in what used to be called the"hatch, match and dispatch" column but by far the most fascinating section is the personal or"agony" column. No other item in a newspaper provides such entertaining reading or offers such a deep insight into human nature. It's the best advertisement for advertising there is! The attitude of the author towards advertisers is__________.
[单选题]请阅读Passage 2。完成第小题。 Passage 2 We had been wanting to expand our children's horizons by taking them to a place that was unlike anything we'd been exposed to during our travels in Europe and the United States. In thinking about what was possible from Geneva, where we are based, we decided on a trip to Istanbul. We envisioned the trip as a prelude to more exotic ones, perhaps to New Delhi or Bangkok later this year, but thought our ll-and 13-year-olds needed a first step away from manicured boulevards and pristine monuments. What we didn't foresee was the reaction of friends, who warned that we were putting our children "in danger", referring vaguely, and most incorrectly, to disease, terrorism or just the unknown. To help us get acquainted with the peculiarities of Istanbul and to give our children a chance to choose what they were particularly interested in seeing, we bought an excellent guidebook and read it thoroughly before leaving. Friendly warnings didn't change our planning, although we might have more prudently checked with the U.S. State Department's list of trouble spots. We didn't see a lot of children among the foreign visitors during our six-day stay in Istanbul, but we found the tourist areas quite safe, very interesting and varied enough even to suit our son, whose oft-repeated request is that we not see "every single" church and museum in a given city. Vaccinations weren't needed for the city, but we were concerned about adapting to the water for a short stay. So we used bottled water for drinking and brushing our teeth, a precaution that may seem excessive, but we all stayed healthy. Taking the advice of a friend, we booked a hotel a 20-minute walk from most of Istanbul's major tourist sites. This not only got us some morning exercise, strolling over the Karakoy Bridge, but took us past a colorful assortment of fishermen,vendors and shoe shiners. From a teenager and pre-teen's view, Istanbul street life is fascinating since almost everything can be bought outdoors. They were at a good age to spend time wandering the labyrinth of the Spice Bazaar, where shops display mounds of pungent herbs in sacks. Doing this with younger children would be harder simply because the streets are so packed with people; it would be easy to get lost. For our two, whose buying experience consisted of department stores and shopping mall boutiques, it was amazing to discover that you could bargain over price and perhaps end up with two of something for the price of one. They also learned to figure out the relative value of the Turkish lira, not a small matter with its many zeros. Being exposed to Islam was an important part of our trip. Visiting the mosques, especially the enormous Blue Mosque, was our first glimpse into how this major religion is practiced. Our children's curiosity already had been piqued by the five daily calls to prayer over loudspeakers in every corner of the city, and the scarves covering the heads of many women. Navigating meals can be troublesome with children, but a kebab, bought on the street or in restaurants, was unfailing!y popular. Since we had decided this trip was not for gourmets, kebabs spared us the agony of trying to find a restaurant each day that would suit the adults' desire to try something new amid children's insistence that the food be served immediately. Gradually, we branched out to try some other Turkish specialties. Although our sons had studied Islam briefly, it is impossible to be prepared for every awkward question that might come up, such as during our visits to the Topkapi Sarayi, the Ottoman Sultans'palace. No guides were available so it was do-it-yourself, using our guidebook, which cheated us of a lot of interesting history and anecdotes that a professional guide could provide. Next time, we resolved to make such arrangements in advance. On this trip, we wandered through the magnificent complex, with its imperial treasures, its courtyards and its harem. The last required a bit of explanation that we would have happily left to a learned third party.Why did the couple choose Istanbul as their first holiday destination? 查看材料
[单选题]Anne Whitney, a sophomore at Colorado State University, first had a problem taking tests when she began college."I was always well prepared for my tests. Sometimes I studied for weeks before a test. Yet I would go in to take the test, only to find I could not answer the questions correctly. I would blank out because of nervousness and fear. I couldn't think of the answer. My low grades on the tests did not show what I knew to the teacher." Another student in biology had similar experiences. He said, "My first chemistry test was very difficult. Then, on the second test, I sat down to take it, and I was so nervous that I was shaking. My hands were moving up and down so quickly that it was hard to hold my pencil. I knew the material and I knew the answers. Yet I couldn't even write them down! " These two young students were experiencing something called test anxiety. Because a student worries and is uneasy about a test, his or her mind does not work as well as it usually does. The student cannot write or think clearly because of the extreme tension and nervousness. Although poor grades are often a result of poor study habits, sometimes test anxiety causes the low grades. Recently, test anxiety has been recognized as a real problem, not just an excuse or a false explanation of lazy students. Special university advising courses try to help students. In these courses, advisors try to help students by teaching them how to manage test anxiety. At some universities, students take tests to measure their anxiety. If the tests show their anxiety is high, the students can take short courses to help them deal with their tensions. These courses teach students how to relax their bodies. Students are trained to become calm in very tense situations. By controlling their nervousness, they can let their minds work at ease. Learned information then comes out without difficulty on a test. An expert at the University of California explains: "With almost all students, relaxation and less stress are felt after taking our program. Most of them experience better control during their tests. Almost all have some improvement. With some, the improvement is very great." Poor grades are usually the result of__________.
[单选题]There are two factors which determine an individual's intelligence. The first is the sort of brain he is born with. Human brains differ considerably, some being more capable than others. But no matter how good a brain he has to begin with, an individual will have a low order of intelligence unless he has opportunities to learn. So the second factor is what happens to the individual--the sort of environment in which he is brought up. If an individual is handicapped environmentally, it is likely that his brain will fail to develop and he will never attain the level of intelligence of which he is capable. Theimportanceofenvironmentindetermininganindividual'sintelligencecanbe? demonstrated by the case history of the identical twins, Peter and Mark. Being identical, the twins had identical brains at birth, and their growth processes were the same. When the twins were three months old, their parents died, and they were placed in separate foster homes. Peter was raised by parents of low intelligence in an isolated community with poor educational opportunities. Mark was reared in the home of well-to-do parents who had been to college. He was read to as a child, sent to good schools, and given every opportunity to be stimulated intellectually. This environmental difference continued until the twins were in their late teens, when they were given tests to measure their intelligence. Mark's LQ. was 125, twenty-five points higher than the average and fully forty points higher than his identical brother. Given equal opportunities, the twins, having identical brains, would have tested at roughly the same level. According to the passage, the average I.Q. is__________.
[单选题]40 years ago the idea of disabled people doing sport was never heard of. But when the annual games for the disabled were started at Stoke Mandeville, England in 1948 by Sir Ludwig Guttmann, the situation began to change. Sir Ludwig Guttmann, who had been driven to England in 1939 from Nazi Germany, had been asked by the British government to set up an injuries center at Stoke Mandeville Hospital near London. His ideas about treating injuries included sport for the disabled. In the first games just two teams of injured soldiers took part. The next year, 1949, five teams took part. From those beginnings, things have developed fast. Teams now come from abroad to Stoke Mandeville every year. In 1960 the first Olympics for the Disabled were held in Rome, in the same place as the normal Olympic Games. Now, every four years the Olympic Games for the Disabled are held, if possible, in the same place as the normal Olympic Games, although they are organized separately. In other years Games for the Disabled are still held at Stoke Mandeville. In the 1984 wheelchair Olympic Games, 1064 wheelchair athletes from about 40 countries took part. Unfortunately, they were held at Stoke Mandeville and not in Los Angeles, along with the other Olympics. TheGameshavebeenagreatsuccessinpromotinginternationalfriendshipandunderstanding, and in proving that being disabled does not mean you can't enjoy sport. One small source of disappointment for those who organize and take part in the games, however, has been the unwillingness of the International Olympic Committee to include disabled events at Olympic Games for the able-bodied. Perhaps a few more years are still needed to convince those fortunate enough not to be disabled that their disabled fellow athletes should not be excluded. ?Which of the following statements is NOT true?
[单选题]Polyester (聚酯) is now being used for bottles. ICI, the chemicals and plastics company,believes that it is now beginning to break the grip of glass on the bottle business and thus take advantage of this huge market. All the plastics manufacturers have been experiencing hard times as their traditional products have been doing badly world-wide for the last few years. Between 1982 and 1984 the Plastics Division of ICI had lost a hundred and twenty million dollars, and they felt that the most hopeful new market was in packaging, bottles and cans. Since 1982 it has opened three new factories producing "Melinar", the raw material frown which high quality polyester bottles are made. The polyester bottle was born in the 1970s, when soft drinks companies like Coca Cola started selling their drinks in giant two-liter containers. Because of the build-up of the pressure of gas in these large containers, glass was unsuitable. Nor was PVC, the plastic which had been used for bottles since the 1960s, suitable for drinks with gas in them. A new plastic had to be made. Glass is still cheaper for the smaller bottles and will continue to be so, unless oil and plastic become much cheaper, but plastic does well for the larger sizes. Polyester bottles are virtually unbreakable. The manufacturers claim they are also lighter, less noisy when being handled, and can be reused. Shopkeepers and other business people are unlikely to object to a change from glass to polyester, since these bottles mean few breakages, which are costly and time-consuming. The public, though, have been more difficult to persuade. ICI's commercial department is developing different bottles with interesting shapes, to try and make them visually more attractive to the public. The next step could be to develop a plastic which could replace tins for food. The problem here is the high temperatures necessary for cooking the food in the container. ?Plastic containers for holding food in the same way as cans__________.
[单选题]请阅读Passage l,完成此题。 Passage 1 When asked by Conan if his daughters had smart phones, comedian Louis CK explained that he had successfully fended them off by simply replying, "No, you can' t have it. It is bad for you." He instantly became my hero as I was mired in difficult negotiations with my ten-year-old daughter over one. And frankly, she was winning. Was it possible to say no to my daughter, as CK suggested? I hadn't even known I was allowed to, if the guinea pigs, the dogs, and things for her doll Molly were any indication. CK rationalized, "I am not raising the children. I'm raising the grown-ups that they are going to be. So just because the other stupid kids have phones doesn't mean that my kid has to be stupid." Now I knew I didn't want my kid to grow up stupid like her friends. I needed to explain this to her. This is what CK told Conan and me. Cell phones are "toxic, especially for kids," he said, because they don't help them learn em-pathy, one of the nicer human emotions. When we text, we don't see or hear a visceral reaction. The response we get is cold and hard text-message. "Why are kids mean?" He asked. "Because they're trying it out. They look at another kid and say, 'You're fat.' Then they see the kid's face scrunch up and think that doesn't feel good." Texting "you're fat" allows you to bypass the pain. CK went on to explain that smart phones rob us of our ability to be alone. Kids use smart phones to occupy their time: Must text! Must play game! Must look up more tiny socks online for Molly!!! CK asked, what happened to zoning out? After all, one of the joys of being human is allowing our minds to wander, with cell phones, kids are always preoccupied. They never daydream, except in class. And here's something else we're missing: our right to be miserable. This was a right I hadn't realized I desired until CK pointed out that it's another essential human emotion. CK gave the example of driving by yourself and suddenly realizing that you're alone. Not "Oh,guess I can't use the lane" alone. Dark, brooding sadness causes so many drivers to grab that smart phone and reach out to another living soul. "Everybody's murdering each other with their cars" as they text because they dread being alone. Too bad--they're missing out on a life-affirming experience. "I was in my car one time, and Bruce Springsteen's 'Jungle land' came on. He sounds so far away, making me really sad. And I think I've got to get the phone and write hi to 50 people. I was reaching for the phone, and I thought, don't! Just be sad." So CK pulled over and allowed himself to sob like a little girl denied a nice thing for her American Girl doll. "It was beautiful. Sadness is poetic. You're lucky to live sad moments," he said. Because he didn't fight it and allowed himself to be miserable, his body released endorphins. "Happiness rushed in to meet the sadness. I was grateful to feel sad, and then I met it with true profound happiness. The thing is, because we don't want that first bit of sad, we push it away with that little phone. So you never feel completely sad or completely happy. You just feel kind of satis-fied. And then you die. That's why I don't want to get phones for my kids". And I suppose I don't either.Why did the author regard CK as her hero? 查看材料
[单选题]请阅读Passage l,完成此题。 Passage 1 When asked by Conan if his daughters had smart phones, comedian Louis CK explained that he had successfully fended them off by simply replying, "No, you can' t have it. It is bad for you." He instantly became my hero as I was mired in difficult negotiations with my ten-year-old daughter over one. And frankly, she was winning. Was it possible to say no to my daughter, as CK suggested? I hadn't even known I was allowed to, if the guinea pigs, the dogs, and things for her doll Molly were any indication. CK rationalized, "I am not raising the children. I'm raising the grown-ups that they are going to be. So just because the other stupid kids have phones doesn't mean that my kid has to be stupid." Now I knew I didn't want my kid to grow up stupid like her friends. I needed to explain this to her. This is what CK told Conan and me. Cell phones are "toxic, especially for kids," he said, because they don't help them learn em-pathy, one of the nicer human emotions. When we text, we don't see or hear a visceral reaction. The response we get is cold and hard text-message. "Why are kids mean?" He asked. "Because they're trying it out. They look at another kid and say, 'You're fat.' Then they see the kid's face scrunch up and think that doesn't feel good." Texting "you're fat" allows you to bypass the pain. CK went on to explain that smart phones rob us of our ability to be alone. Kids use smart phones to occupy their time: Must text! Must play game! Must look up more tiny socks online for Molly!!! CK asked, what happened to zoning out? After all, one of the joys of being human is allowing our minds to wander, with cell phones, kids are always preoccupied. They never daydream, except in class. And here's something else we're missing: our right to be miserable. This was a right I hadn't realized I desired until CK pointed out that it's another essential human emotion. CK gave the example of driving by yourself and suddenly realizing that you're alone. Not "Oh,guess I can't use the lane" alone. Dark, brooding sadness causes so many drivers to grab that smart phone and reach out to another living soul. "Everybody's murdering each other with their cars" as they text because they dread being alone. Too bad--they're missing out on a life-affirming experience. "I was in my car one time, and Bruce Springsteen's 'Jungle land' came on. He sounds so far away, making me really sad. And I think I've got to get the phone and write hi to 50 people. I was reaching for the phone, and I thought, don't! Just be sad." So CK pulled over and allowed himself to sob like a little girl denied a nice thing for her American Girl doll. "It was beautiful. Sadness is poetic. You're lucky to live sad moments," he said. Because he didn't fight it and allowed himself to be miserable, his body released endorphins. "Happiness rushed in to meet the sadness. I was grateful to feel sad, and then I met it with true profound happiness. The thing is, because we don't want that first bit of sad, we push it away with that little phone. So you never feel completely sad or completely happy. You just feel kind of satis-fied. And then you die. That's why I don't want to get phones for my kids". And I suppose I don't either.Why did CK refuse to buy his kids cell phones? 查看材料
[单选题]Many people believe the glare from snow causes snow-blindness. Yet, dark glasses or not,they find themselves suffering from headaches and watering eyes, and even snow-blindness, when exposed to several hours of "snow light". The United States Army has now determined that glare from snow does not cause snow- blindness in troops in a snow-covered country. Rather, a man's eyes frequently find nothing to focus on in a broad expanse of barren snow-covered terrain. So his gaze continually shifts and jumps back and forth over the entire landscape in search of something to look at. Finding nothing,hour after hour, the eyes never stop searching and the eyeballs become sore and the eye musclesache. Nature offsets this irritation by producing more and fluid which covers the eyeball. The fluid covers the eyeball in increasing quantity until vision blurs, then is observed, and the result is total, even though temporary, snow-blindness. Experiments led the Army to a simple method of overcoming this problem. Scouts ahead of a main body of troops are trained to shake snow from evergreen bushes, creating a dotted line as they cross completely snow-covered landscape. Even the scouts themselves throw lightweight, dark colored objects ahead on which they too can focus. The men following can then see something.Their gaze is arrested. Their eyes focus on a bush and having found something to see, stop scouring the snow-blanketed landscape. By focusing their attention on one object at a time, the men can cross the snow without becoming hopelessly snow-blind or lost. In this way the problem of crossing a solid white terrain is overcome. To prevent headaches, watering eyes and blindness caused by the glare from snow, dark glasses are__________ .
[单选题]请阅读Passage l。完成第小题。 Passage 1 They came to the United States as children with little idea, if any, of what it meant to overstay a visa. They enrolled in public schools, learned English, earned high school diplomas. Like many of their classmates, they pondered college choices. But as undocumented immigrants in Maryland, they then had to confront the reality that they must pay two to three times what former high school classmates pay to attend the state's public colleges. It is a rule that, for many students of modest means, puts a college education out of reach, with one exception : Montgomery College. That is why Josue Aguiluz, 21, born in Honduras, and Ricardo Campos, 23, born in E1 Salvador--and numerous others like them--landed at the community college. There, they study and wait for a verdict from Maryland voters on a Nov. 6 ballot measure that may determine whether they can afford to advance to a four-year college. "I know people in Maryland believe in education," Campos said the other day at the student center on the Rockville campus. "I know they are going to vote for Question 4. I'm hanging on their vote." Question 4 asks voters to affirm or strike down a law that the legislature passed last year,known as Maryland's version of the "Dream Act," which granted certain undocumented immigrants the ability to obtain in-state tuition at public colleges and universities. The subsidy comes with conditions. Among them: To take advantage, students must first go to a two-year community college. The law was pushed to a referendum after opponents mounted a lightning petition drive that showed the depth of division over illegal immigration across the state and the nation. Critics say discounting tuition for students who lack permission to be in the country is an unjustified giveaway of what they believe will amount to tens of millions of tax dollars a year. "When an undocumented student enters the system, it is a net loss of revenue," said Del. Patrick L. McDonough. "It is a simple mathematical argument. Put your emotion and your passion aside, and get out your calculator." There is no count of the number of students statewide who would be eligible for benefits under the law. Estimates range from several hundred to a few thousand. A Washington Post poll this month found that a solid majority of likely voters favored the law: 59 percent support it, and 35 percent are opposed. If the law is affirmed, Maryland would join about a dozen other states with laws or policies providing in-state tuition benefits to undocumented immigrants. Texas became the first in 2001. Experts say Maryland's version is the only one that requires students to go through community college first. That means the state's 16 community colleges could become a pipeline for undocumented students in public higher education if the measure is approved. Montgomery College is already a magnet for such students. It offers the same low tuition to any student who graduated within the past three years from a Montgomery County high school.Why did their friends react so negatively to their plan about their trip? 查看材料
[单选题]请阅读Passage l。完成第小题。 Passage 1 They came to the United States as children with little idea, if any, of what it meant to overstay a visa. They enrolled in public schools, learned English, earned high school diplomas. Like many of their classmates, they pondered college choices. But as undocumented immigrants in Maryland, they then had to confront the reality that they must pay two to three times what former high school classmates pay to attend the state's public colleges. It is a rule that, for many students of modest means, puts a college education out of reach, with one exception : Montgomery College. That is why Josue Aguiluz, 21, born in Honduras, and Ricardo Campos, 23, born in E1 Salvador--and numerous others like them--landed at the community college. There, they study and wait for a verdict from Maryland voters on a Nov. 6 ballot measure that may determine whether they can afford to advance to a four-year college. "I know people in Maryland believe in education," Campos said the other day at the student center on the Rockville campus. "I know they are going to vote for Question 4. I'm hanging on their vote." Question 4 asks voters to affirm or strike down a law that the legislature passed last year,known as Maryland's version of the "Dream Act," which granted certain undocumented immigrants the ability to obtain in-state tuition at public colleges and universities. The subsidy comes with conditions. Among them: To take advantage, students must first go to a two-year community college. The law was pushed to a referendum after opponents mounted a lightning petition drive that showed the depth of division over illegal immigration across the state and the nation. Critics say discounting tuition for students who lack permission to be in the country is an unjustified giveaway of what they believe will amount to tens of millions of tax dollars a year. "When an undocumented student enters the system, it is a net loss of revenue," said Del. Patrick L. McDonough. "It is a simple mathematical argument. Put your emotion and your passion aside, and get out your calculator." There is no count of the number of students statewide who would be eligible for benefits under the law. Estimates range from several hundred to a few thousand. A Washington Post poll this month found that a solid majority of likely voters favored the law: 59 percent support it, and 35 percent are opposed. If the law is affirmed, Maryland would join about a dozen other states with laws or policies providing in-state tuition benefits to undocumented immigrants. Texas became the first in 2001. Experts say Maryland's version is the only one that requires students to go through community college first. That means the state's 16 community colleges could become a pipeline for undocumented students in public higher education if the measure is approved. Montgomery College is already a magnet for such students. It offers the same low tuition to any student who graduated within the past three years from a Montgomery County high school.Which of the following best indicates their impression of the tourist areas? 查看材料
[单选题]What should you think about in trying to find your career? You are probably better at some school subjects than others. These may show strengths that you can use in your work. A boy who is good at mathematics can use that in an engineering career. A girl who spells well and likes English may be good at office work. So it is important to know the subjects you do well in at school. On the other hand, you may not have any specially strong or weak subjects but your records show a general satisfactory standard. Although not all subjects can be used directly in a job, they may have indirect value. A knowledge of history is not required for most jobs but if history is one of your good subjects you will have learned to remember facts and details. This is an ability that can be useful in many jobs. Your school may have taught you skills, such as typing or technical drawing, which you can use in your work. You may be good at metal work or cookery and look for a job where you can improve these skills. If you have had a part-time job on Saturdays or in the summer, think what you gained from it. If nothing else, you may have learned how to get to work on time, to follow instructions and to get on with older workers. You may have learned to give correct change in a shop, for example. Just as important, you may become interested in a particular industry or career you see from the inside in a part-time job. Facing your weak points is also part of knowing yourself. You may be all thumbs when you handle tools; perhaps you are a poor speller or cannot add up a column of figures. It is bitter to face any weaknesses than to pretend they do not exist. Your school record, for instance, may not be too good, yet it is an important part of your background. You should not be apologetic about it but instead recognize that you will have a chance of a fresh start at work. Which subject is supposed to have no direct value for job hunting?
[单选题]Polyester (聚酯) is now being used for bottles. ICI, the chemicals and plastics company,believes that it is now beginning to break the grip of glass on the bottle business and thus take advantage of this huge market. All the plastics manufacturers have been experiencing hard times as their traditional products have been doing badly world-wide for the last few years. Between 1982 and 1984 the Plastics Division of ICI had lost a hundred and twenty million dollars, and they felt that the most hopeful new market was in packaging, bottles and cans. Since 1982 it has opened three new factories producing "Melinar", the raw material frown which high quality polyester bottles are made. The polyester bottle was born in the 1970s, when soft drinks companies like Coca Cola started selling their drinks in giant two-liter containers. Because of the build-up of the pressure of gas in these large containers, glass was unsuitable. Nor was PVC, the plastic which had been used for bottles since the 1960s, suitable for drinks with gas in them. A new plastic had to be made. Glass is still cheaper for the smaller bottles and will continue to be so, unless oil and plastic become much cheaper, but plastic does well for the larger sizes. Polyester bottles are virtually unbreakable. The manufacturers claim they are also lighter, less noisy when being handled, and can be reused. Shopkeepers and other business people are unlikely to object to a change from glass to polyester, since these bottles mean few breakages, which are costly and time-consuming. The public, though, have been more difficult to persuade. ICI's commercial department is developing different bottles with interesting shapes, to try and make them visually more attractive to the public. The next step could be to develop a plastic which could replace tins for food. The problem here is the high temperatures necessary for cooking the food in the container. ?Why is ICI's Plastics Division interested in polyester for bottles?
[单选题]What should you think about in trying to find your career? You are probably better at some school subjects than others. These may show strengths that you can use in your work. A boy who is good at mathematics can use that in an engineering career. A girl who spells well and likes English may be good at office work. So it is important to know the subjects you do well in at school. On the other hand, you may not have any specially strong or weak subjects but your records show a general satisfactory standard. Although not all subjects can be used directly in a job, they may have indirect value. A knowledge of history is not required for most jobs but if history is one of your good subjects you will have learned to remember facts and details. This is an ability that can be useful in many jobs. Your school may have taught you skills, such as typing or technical drawing, which you can use in your work. You may be good at metal work or cookery and look for a job where you can improve these skills. If you have had a part-time job on Saturdays or in the summer, think what you gained from it. If nothing else, you may have learned how to get to work on time, to follow instructions and to get on with older workers. You may have learned to give correct change in a shop, for example. Just as important, you may become interested in a particular industry or career you see from the inside in a part-time job. Facing your weak points is also part of knowing yourself. You may be all thumbs when you handle tools; perhaps you are a poor speller or cannot add up a column of figures. It is bitter to face any weaknesses than to pretend they do not exist. Your school record, for instance, may not be too good, yet it is an important part of your background. You should not be apologetic about it but instead recognize that you will have a chance of a fresh start at work. ?According to the passage, if a student's school record is not good, he__________.
[单选题]Passage 2 Reality television is a genre of television programming which, it is claimed, presents unscripted dramatic or humorous situations, documents actual events, and features ordinary people rather than professional actors. It could be described as a form of artificial or "heightened"documentary. Although the genre has existed in some form or another since the early years of television, the current explosion of popularity dates from around 2000. Reality television covers a wide range of television programming formats, from game or quiz shows which resemble the frantic, often demeaning programmes produced in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s (a modern example is Gaki No Tsukai), to surveillance-or voyeurism-focused productions such as Big Brother. Critics say that the term "reality television" is somewhat of a misnomer and that such shows frequently portray a modified and highly influenced form of reality, with participants put in exotic locations or abnormal situations, sometimes coached to act in certain ways by off-screen handlers,and with events on screen manipulated through editing and other post-production techniques. Part of reality television's appeal is due to its ability to place ordinary people in extraordinary situations. For example, on the ABC show, The Bachelor, an eligible male dates a dozen women simultaneously, travelling on extraordinary" dates to scenic locales. Reality television also has the potential to turn its participants into national celebrities, outwardly in talent and performance programs such as Pop Idol, though frequently Survivor and Big Brother participants also reach some degree of celebrity. Some commentators have said that the name "reality television" is an inaccurate description for several styles of program included in the genre. In competition-based programs such as Big Brother and Survivor, and other special-living-environment shows like The Real World, the producers design the format of the show and control the day-to-day activities and the environment,creating a completely fabricated world in which the competition plays out. Producers specifically select the participants, and use carefully designed scenarios, challenges, events, and settings to encourage particular behaviours and conflicts. Mark Burnett, creator of Survivor and other reality shows, has agreed with this assessment, and avoids the word "reality" to describe his shows; he has said, "I tell good stories. It really is not reality TV. It really is unscripted drama." Pop Idol__________.
[单选题]There are two factors which determine an individual's intelligence. The first is the sort of brain he is born with. Human brains differ considerably, some being more capable than others. But no matter how good a brain he has to begin with, an individual will have a low order of intelligence unless he has opportunities to learn. So the second factor is what happens to the individual--the sort of environment in which he is brought up. If an individual is handicapped environmentally, it is likely that his brain will fail to develop and he will never attain the level of intelligence of which he is capable. Theimportanceofenvironmentindetermininganindividual'sintelligencecanbe? demonstrated by the case history of the identical twins, Peter and Mark. Being identical, the twins had identical brains at birth, and their growth processes were the same. When the twins were three months old, their parents died, and they were placed in separate foster homes. Peter was raised by parents of low intelligence in an isolated community with poor educational opportunities. Mark was reared in the home of well-to-do parents who had been to college. He was read to as a child, sent to good schools, and given every opportunity to be stimulated intellectually. This environmental difference continued until the twins were in their late teens, when they were given tests to measure their intelligence. Mark's LQ. was 125, twenty-five points higher than the average and fully forty points higher than his identical brother. Given equal opportunities, the twins, having identical brains, would have tested at roughly the same level. ?The best statement of the main idea of this passage is that__________.
[单选题]请阅读Passage 2,完成此题。 Passage 2 Until a decade or two ago, the centers of many Western cities were emptying while their edges were spreading. This was not for the reasons normally cited. Neither the car nor the motorway caused suburban sprawl, although they sped it up: cities were spreading before either came along. Nor was the flight to the suburbs caused by racism. Whites fled inner-city neighborhoods that were becoming black, but they also fled ones that were not. Planning and zoning rules encouraged sprawl, as did tax breaks for home ownership--but cities spread regardless of these. The real cause was mass affluence. As people grew richer, they demanded more privacy and space. Only a few could afford that in city centers; the rest moved out. The same process is now occurring in the developing world, but much more quickly. The pop-ulation density of metropolitan Beijing has collapsed since 1970, falling from 425 people per hectare to 65. Indian cities are following; Brazil's are ahead. And suburbanization has a long way to run. Beijing is now about as crowded as metropolitan Chicago was at its most closely packed, in the 1920s. Since then Chicago's density has fallen by almost three-quarters. This is welcome. Romantic notions of sociable, high-density living--notions pushed, for the most part, by people who themselves occupy rather spacious residences--ignore the squalor and lack of privacy to be found in Kinshasa, Mumbai or the other crowded cities of the poor world. Many of them are far too dense for dignified living, and need to spread out. The Western suburbs to which so many aspire are healthier than their detractors say. The modern Stepfords are no longer white monocultures, but that is progress. For every Ferguson there are many American suburbs that have quietly become black, Hispanic or Asian, or a blend of every-one. Picaresque accounts of decay overlook the fact that America's suburbs are half as criminal and a little more than half as poor as central cities. Even as urban centers revive, more Americans move from city centre to suburb than go the other way. But the West has also made mistakes, from which the rest of the world can learn. The first lesson is that suburban sprawl imposes costs on everyone. Suburbanites tend to use more roads and consume more carbon than urbanites (though perhaps not as much as distant commuters forced out by green belts). But this damage can be alleviated by a carbon tax, by toll roads and by charging for parking. Many cities in the emerging world have followed the foolish American practice of re-quiring property developers to provide a certain number of parking spaces for every building--something that makes commuting by car much more attractive than it would be otherwise. Scrap-ping them would give public transport a chance. The second is that it is foolish to try to stop the spread of suburbs. Green belts, the most ef-fective method for doing this, push up property prices and encourage long-distance commuting. The cost of housing in London, already astronomical, went up by 19% in the past year, reflecting not just the city's strong economy but also the impossibility of building on its edges. The insistence on big minimum lot sizes in some American suburbs and rural areas has much the same effect. Cities that try to prevent growth through green belts often end up weakening themselves, as Seoul has done. A wiser policy would be to plan for huge expansion. Acquire strips of land for roads and rail-ways, and chunks for parks, before the city sprawls into them. New York's 19th-century governors decided where Central Park was going to go long before the city reached it. New York went on to develop in a way that they could not have imagined, but the park is still there. This is not the state control of the new-town planner--that confident soul who believes he knows where people will want to live and work, and how they will get from one to the other. It is the realism needed to manage the inevitable. A model of living that has broadly worked well in the West is spreading, adapting to local conditions as it goes. We should all look forward to the time when Chinese and Indian teenagers write sulky songs about the appalling dullness of suburbia.Which of the following best reflects the author' s view of suburbanization? 查看材料
[单选题]In the college-admissions wars, we parents are the true fighters. We're pushing our kids to get good grades, take SAT preparatory courses and build resumes so they can get into the college of our first choice. I've twice been to the wars, and as I survey the battlefield, something different is happening. We see our kids' college background as a prize demonstrating how well we've raised them. But we can't acknowledge that our obsession is more about us than them. So we've contrivedvarious justifications that turn out to be half-truths, prejudices or myths. It actually doesn't matter much whether Aaron and Nicole go to Stanford. We have a full-blown prestige panic; we worry that there won't be enough prizes to go around. Fearful parents urge their children to apply to more schools than ever. Underlying the hysteria is the belief that scarce elite degrees must be highly valuable. Their graduates must enjoy more success because they get a better education and develop better contacts. All that is plausible--and mostly wrong. We haven't found any convincing evidence that selectivity or prestige matters. Selective schools don't systematically employ better instructional approaches than less selective schools. On two measures--professor's feedback and the number of essay exams--selective schools do slightly worse. By some studies, selective schools do enhance their graduates' lifetime earnings. The gain is reckoned at 2-4% for every 100-point increase in a school's average SAT scores. But even this advantage is probably a statistical fluke. A well-known study examined students who got into highly selective schools and then went elsewhere. They earned just as such as graduates from higher-status schools. Kids count more than their colleges. Getting into Yale may signify intelligence, talent and ambition. But it's not the only indicator and, paradoxically, its significance is declining. The reason: so many similar people go elsewhere. Getting into college isn't life's only competition. In the next competition--the job market and graduate school--the results may change. Old-boy networks are breaking down. Princeton economist Alan Krueger studied admissions to one top Ph.D. program. High scores on the GRE helped explain who got in; degrees of prestigious universities didn' t. So, parents, lighten up. The stakes have been vastly exaggerated. Up to a point, we can rationalize our pushiness. America is a competitive society; our kids need to adjust to that. But too much pushiness can be destructive. The very ambition we impose on our children may get some into Harvard but may also set them up for disappointment. One study found that, other things being equal, graduates of highly selective schools experienced more job dissatisfaction. They may have been so conditioned to being on top that anything less disappoints. Why do parents urge their children to apply to more schools than ever?
[单选题]请阅读Passage 2,完成此题。 Passage 2 Until a decade or two ago, the centers of many Western cities were emptying while their edges were spreading. This was not for the reasons normally cited. Neither the car nor the motorway caused suburban sprawl, although they sped it up: cities were spreading before either came along. Nor was the flight to the suburbs caused by racism. Whites fled inner-city neighborhoods that were becoming black, but they also fled ones that were not. Planning and zoning rules encouraged sprawl, as did tax breaks for home ownership--but cities spread regardless of these. The real cause was mass affluence. As people grew richer, they demanded more privacy and space. Only a few could afford that in city centers; the rest moved out. The same process is now occurring in the developing world, but much more quickly. The pop-ulation density of metropolitan Beijing has collapsed since 1970, falling from 425 people per hectare to 65. Indian cities are following; Brazil's are ahead. And suburbanization has a long way to run. Beijing is now about as crowded as metropolitan Chicago was at its most closely packed, in the 1920s. Since then Chicago's density has fallen by almost three-quarters. This is welcome. Romantic notions of sociable, high-density living--notions pushed, for the most part, by people who themselves occupy rather spacious residences--ignore the squalor and lack of privacy to be found in Kinshasa, Mumbai or the other crowded cities of the poor world. Many of them are far too dense for dignified living, and need to spread out. The Western suburbs to which so many aspire are healthier than their detractors say. The modern Stepfords are no longer white monocultures, but that is progress. For every Ferguson there are many American suburbs that have quietly become black, Hispanic or Asian, or a blend of every-one. Picaresque accounts of decay overlook the fact that America's suburbs are half as criminal and a little more than half as poor as central cities. Even as urban centers revive, more Americans move from city centre to suburb than go the other way. But the West has also made mistakes, from which the rest of the world can learn. The first lesson is that suburban sprawl imposes costs on everyone. Suburbanites tend to use more roads and consume more carbon than urbanites (though perhaps not as much as distant commuters forced out by green belts). But this damage can be alleviated by a carbon tax, by toll roads and by charging for parking. Many cities in the emerging world have followed the foolish American practice of re-quiring property developers to provide a certain number of parking spaces for every building--something that makes commuting by car much more attractive than it would be otherwise. Scrap-ping them would give public transport a chance. The second is that it is foolish to try to stop the spread of suburbs. Green belts, the most ef-fective method for doing this, push up property prices and encourage long-distance commuting. The cost of housing in London, already astronomical, went up by 19% in the past year, reflecting not just the city's strong economy but also the impossibility of building on its edges. The insistence on big minimum lot sizes in some American suburbs and rural areas has much the same effect. Cities that try to prevent growth through green belts often end up weakening themselves, as Seoul has done. A wiser policy would be to plan for huge expansion. Acquire strips of land for roads and rail-ways, and chunks for parks, before the city sprawls into them. New York's 19th-century governors decided where Central Park was going to go long before the city reached it. New York went on to develop in a way that they could not have imagined, but the park is still there. This is not the state control of the new-town planner--that confident soul who believes he knows where people will want to live and work, and how they will get from one to the other. It is the realism needed to manage the inevitable. A model of living that has broadly worked well in the West is spreading, adapting to local conditions as it goes. We should all look forward to the time when Chinese and Indian teenagers write sulky songs about the appalling dullness of suburbia.Which of the following statements CANNOT be inferred from the passage? 查看材料
[问答题]根据题目要求完成下列任务,用中文作答。 以下是一位老师在进行词汇教学时的情景: Step1复习(revision) 互致问候后,教师将装有彩色小图片的信封分发给各小组。 T:Open the envelopes.please.You have something nice in them.What are they? S:A green ear,a red ball,a blue plane,a yellow cat… T:What do you like? S:I like… Step 2导人(1eading—in) PPT播放歌曲,师生共同演唱。 T:Let’s sing the song“Who Is Wearing Yellow Today”. 音乐结束后,教师并没有停下来,而是改编歌词继续唱。 T:Who is wearing blue today?blue today?blue today?Who is wearing blue today? blue today? Step 3呈现(presentation) T:Who is wearing blue today? S:You are wearing blue today. T:Yes,I’m wearing blue today.I’m wearing a blue sweater now. 学生跟读:sweater,sweater,blue SWeater T:I like the blue sweater.If you like it.please say it out loud. PPT展示粉红色毛衣图片 T:Do you like the pink sweater? S:Yes,I like the pink sweater. (借助学生穿着的服装,引出jacket等新词,展开活动) T:It is too hot.I’ll take off my sweater.Please take off your iacket. (伴随动作,一次教授词组:take off,put on,hang up和put away) 根据以上所给的教学案例,回答下面问题。 (1)教师在复习、导入及呈现环节创设了不同情境,请分别对其创设方法及作用进行分析。(15分) (2)评析教师在语言学习活动中的角色。(15分)
[单选题]The process of perceiving others is rarely translated(to ourselves or others) into cold,objective terms."She was 5 feet 8 inches tall, had fair hair, and wore a colored skirt." More often, we try to get inside the other person to pinpoint his or her attitudes, emotions, motivations,abilities, ideas, and characters. Furthermore, we sometimes behave as if we can accomplish this difficult job very quickly--perhaps with a two-second glance. We try to obtain information about others in many ways. Berger suggests several methods for reducing uncertainties about others; who are known to you so you can compare the observed person's behavior with the known others' behavior, observing a person in a situation where social behavior is relatively unrestrained or where a wide variety of behavioral responses are called for,deliberately structuring the physical or social environment so as to observe the person's responses to specific stimuli, asking people who have had or have frequent contact with the person about himor her, and using various strategies in face-to-face interaction to uncover information about another person--question, self-disclosures, and so on. Getting to know someone is a never-ending task, largely because people are constantly changing and the methods we use to obtain information are often imprecise. You may have known someone for ten years and still know very little about him. If we accept the idea that we won't ever fully know another person, it enables us to deal more easily with those things that get in the way of accurate knowledge such as secrets and deceptions. It will also keep us from being too surprised or shocked by seemingly inconsistent behavior. Ironically, those things that keep us from knowing another person too well (e. g. secrets and deceptions) may be just as important to the development of a satisfying relationship as those things that enable us to obtain accurate knowledge about a person (e. g. disclosures and truthful statement). According to the passage, if we perceive a person, we are likely to be interested in__________.
[单选题]Many people believe the glare from snow causes snow-blindness. Yet, dark glasses or not,they find themselves suffering from headaches and watering eyes, and even snow-blindness, when exposed to several hours of "snow light". The United States Army has now determined that glare from snow does not cause snow- blindness in troops in a snow-covered country. Rather, a man's eyes frequently find nothing to focus on in a broad expanse of barren snow-covered terrain. So his gaze continually shifts and jumps back and forth over the entire landscape in search of something to look at. Finding nothing,hour after hour, the eyes never stop searching and the eyeballs become sore and the eye musclesache. Nature offsets this irritation by producing more and fluid which covers the eyeball. The fluid covers the eyeball in increasing quantity until vision blurs, then is observed, and the result is total, even though temporary, snow-blindness. Experiments led the Army to a simple method of overcoming this problem. Scouts ahead of a main body of troops are trained to shake snow from evergreen bushes, creating a dotted line as they cross completely snow-covered landscape. Even the scouts themselves throw lightweight, dark colored objects ahead on which they too can focus. The men following can then see something.Their gaze is arrested. Their eyes focus on a bush and having found something to see, stop scouring the snow-blanketed landscape. By focusing their attention on one object at a time, the men can cross the snow without becoming hopelessly snow-blind or lost. In this way the problem of crossing a solid white terrain is overcome. ?When the eyes are sore tears are produced to

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